Science.gov

Sample records for 13th night landing

  1. STS-103 perfect night-time landing for Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The orbiter Discovery looks like a blue ghost as it drops from the darkness onto lighted runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. After traveling more than 3,267,000 miles on a successful eight-day mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, the orbiter touches down at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. Aboard are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who spent the Christmas holiday in space in order to accomplish their mission before the end of 1999. During the mission, Discovery's four space-walking astronauts, Smith, Foale, Grunsfeld and Nicollier, spent 24 hours and 33 minutes upgrading and refurbishing Hubble, making it more capable than ever to renew its observations of the universe. Mission objectives included replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Hubble was released from the end of Discovery's robot arm on Christmas Day. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery. The landing was the 20th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 13th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  2. 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Silflow, Carolyn D.

    2014-03-11

    The 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas (EMBO Workshop on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas) was held May 27 to June 1, 2008 in Hyeres, France. The conference was the biennial meeting for all researchers studying the green algal systems Chlamydomonas and Volvox. The conference brought together approximately 200 investigators from around the world (North America, Asia, Europe and Australia) representing different fields and disciplines (cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, plant physiology, genomics). It provided an opportunity for investigators from different countries to share methodologies and to discuss recent results with a focus on the Chlamydomonas experimental system.

  3. Is Friday the 13th bad for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, T J; Luben, R N; Scanlon, F L; Singleton, N

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between health, behaviour, and superstition surrounding Friday 13th in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Retrospective study of paired data comparing driving and shopping patterns and accidents. SUBJECTS--Drivers, shoppers, and residents. SETTING--South West Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Numbers of vehicles on motorways; numbers of shoppers in supermarkets; and hospital admissions due to accidents. RESULTS--There were consistently and significantly fewer vehicles on the southern section of the M25 on Friday the 13th compared with Friday the 6th. The numbers of shoppers were not significantly different on the two days. Admissions due to transport accidents were significantly increased on Friday 13th (total 65 v 45; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Friday 13th is unlucky for some. The risk of hospital admission as a result of a transport accident may be increased by as much as 52%. Staying at home is recommended. PMID:8292946

  4. Newton's Apple 13th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This educational materials packet was designed to help teachers use the Public Broadcasting Service's (PBS) program called "Newton's Apple" in the classroom. This book contains information on how these materials support the latest science standards; an index to the 13th season lesson pages and an index to the past three seasons; a…

  5. Flight evaluation of the STOL flare and landing during night operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Simulated instrument approaches were made to Category 1 minimums followed by a visual landing on a 100 x 1700 ft STOL runway. Data were obtained for variations in the aircraft's flare response characteristics and control techniques and for different combinations of aircraft and runway lighting and a visual approach slope indication. With the complete aircraft and runway lighting and visual guidance no degradation in flying qualities or landing performance was observed compared to daylight operations. elimination of the touchdown zone floodlights or the aircraft landing lights led to somewhat greater pilot workload; however, the landing could still be accomplished successfully. Loss of both touchdown zone and aircraft landing lights led to a high workload situation and only a marginally adequate to inadequate landing capability.

  6. Modeling the Evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Coupled to the Land Surface for Three Contrasting Nights in CASES-99.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeneveld, G. J.; van de Wiel, B. J. H.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2006-03-01

    The modeling and prediction of the stable boundary layer over land is a persistent, problematic feature in weather, climate, and air quality topics. Here, the performance of a state-of-the-art single-column boundary layer model is evaluated with observations from the 1999 Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) field experiment. Very high model resolution in the atmosphere and the soil is utilized to represent three different stable boundary layer archetypes, namely, a fully turbulent night, an intermittently turbulent night, and a radiative night with hardly any turbulence (all at clear skies). Each archetype represents a different class of atmospheric stability. In the current model, the atmosphere is fully coupled to a vegetation layer and the underlying soil. In addition, stability functions (local scaling) are utilized based on in situ observations.Overall it is found that the vertical structure, the surface fluxes (apart from the intermittent character) and the surface temperature in the stable boundary layer can be satisfactorily modeled for a broad stability range (at a local scale) with the current understanding of the physics of the stable boundary layer. This can also be achieved by the use of a rather detailed coupling between the atmosphere and the underlying soil and vegetation, together with high resolution in both the atmosphere and the soil. This is especially true for the very stable nights, when longwave radiative cooling is dominant. Both model outcome and observations show that in the latter case the soil heat flux is a dominant term of the surface energy budget.


  7. Presentations from the 13th International Magnetic Measurement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary R

    2003-07-30

    The 13th International Magnetic Measurement Workshop was held at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center from Monday, May 19 through Thursday, May 22, 2003. All professionals in the field of magnetic measurements were encouraged to attend. The workshop was primarily concerned with equipment and techniques for measuring and fiducializing accelerator magnets and insertion devices, although other relevant topics were also welcome. The program consisted of presentations by the workshop participants followed by discussions. During the workshop, there was an industrial exhibit and a tour of the SLAC magnetic measurement facilities.

  8. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    be directed toward much more pressing problems, such as general habitat restoration, erosion control, and the removal of feral cats. The island night lizard (Xantusia riversiana) is endemic to three of the California Channel Islands: Nicolas, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara Islands. Due to its restricted range and apparently small population levels, both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game have listed the island night lizard as a threatened species. Our study was conducted on San Nicolas Island, which lies offshore 120 km southwest of Los Angeles, California. The island is managed by the U.S. Navy who refers to the island as Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island. The Navy maintains radar, telemetry, and communications equipment on San Nicolas Island to support its mission of testing and evaluating weapons systems. The Navy has dual requirements for ensuring military readiness and sustainability while complying with the Federal Endangered Species Act. A comprehensive understanding of the status and stability of the species on San Nicolas Island is essential for effective island management and may aid in the eventual delisting of the species. Previous work on the San Nicolas Island (Fellers and others, 1998) demonstrated that island night lizards were distributed over the eastern half of San Nicolas Island where there is suitable shrubby habitat. On the eastern half of the island, they occur primarily in or near cactus/sage scrub habitats on the north beach terrace, in scattered patches of scrub on the central mesa, and in boulder and cactus habitats on the southern escarpment of the island. Fellers and others (1998) evaluated data from 1984-85 and 1992-95 and estimated that there were 15,300 island night lizards present on San Nicolas Island. There are two non-native lizards on San Nicolas Island, the side-blotch lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata). Both of the

  9. Effect of cessation of late-night landing noise on sleep electrophysiology in the home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Fidell, S.; Bennett, R. L.; Friedman, J.; Globus, G.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of noise exposure and sleep electrophysiology were made in homes before and after cessation of nighttime aircraft landing noise. Six people were tested, all of whom had been exposed to intense aircraft noise for at least two years. Noise measurements indicated a large reduction in the hourly noise level during nighttime hours, but no charge during the daytime hours. Sleep measures indicated no dramatic changes in sleep patterns either immediately after a marked change in nocturnal noise exposure or approximately a month thereafter. No strong relationship was observed between noise level and sleep disturbances over the range from 60 to 90 db(A).

  10. The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP13)

    PubMed Central

    CALDERON, ENRIQUE J.; CUSHION, MELANIE T.; XIAO, LIHUA; LORENZO-MORALES, JACOB; MATOS, OLGA; KANESHIRO, EDNA S.; WEISS, LOUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-13) was held November 13 to 15, 2014 in Seville, Spain. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) Serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS; and (2) to foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists; e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference which brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Progress has been achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune deficient and immune competent hosts and is providing important insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. A continuing concern of the participants is the ongoing loss of scientific expertise and diversity in this research community. This decline is due to the small size of these research communities and an ongoing lack of understanding by the broader scientific community of the challenges and limitations faced by researchers working on these organisms, which makes these research communities very sensitive to declines in research funding. PMID:25923469

  11. Night Sweats

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  12. Clinical Characteristics, Mutation Spectrum, and Prevalence of Åland Eye Disease/Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Marianne N.; Kilic-Biyik, Kevser Z.; Trotter, Alana; Grønskov, Karen; Sander, Birgit; Larsen, Michael; Carroll, Joseph; Bech-Hansen, Torben; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from 1980 to 2014. A subset of affected males underwent ophthalmologic examinations including psychophysical tests, full-field electroretinography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Over the 34-year period, 74 individuals from 35 families were diagnosed with AED. Sixty individuals from 29 families participated in a follow-up study of whom 59 harbored a CACNA1F mutation and 1 harbored a CABP4 mutation. Among the subjects with a CACNA1F mutation, subnormal visual acuity was present in all, nystagmus was present in 63%, and foveal hypoplasia was observed in 25/43 subjects. Foveal pit volume was significantly reduced as compared to normal (P < 0.0001). Additionally, outer segment length at the fovea was measured in 46 subjects and found to be significantly reduced as compared to normal (P < 0.001). Twenty-nine CACNA1F variations were detected among 34 families in the total cohort, and a novel CABP4 variation was identified in one family. The estimated mean birth prevalence rate was 1 per 22,000 live-born males. Conclusions Our data support the viewpoint that AED, iCSNB, and X-linked cone–rod dystrophy 3 are designations that refer to a broad, continuous spectrum of clinical appearances caused in the majority by a variety of mutations in CACNA1F. We argue that the original designation AED should be used for this entity. PMID:28002560

  13. PREFACE: 13th IMEKO TC17-TC7 Joint Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sanowar

    2010-04-01

    'Without Measurement No Science, Without Science No Measurement' The 13th IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7 Joint Symposium was held at City University London, UK from 1-3 September 2010. For the first time this Symposium also included the involvement of IMEKO Technical Committee 13 (TC13) - Measurements in Biology and Medicine. This brings an added dimension to the Symposium in London since the area of measurement science and technology in biology and medicine is an important and a fast growing one. The Symposium was organized by the City University London (www.city.ac.uk) in collaboration with the Institute of Physics (IOP), UK (www.iop.org). The work of this Symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the Symposium included the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees - education and training in measurement and instrumentation (TC1), measurement science (TC7) and measurements in biology and medicine. These themes underpinned the strap line of the Symposium, 'Without Measurement No Science, Without Science No Measurement' with the highest number of contributions from the measurement science area. The thematic areas were led by invited presentations from each of the areas by eminent speakers. The Symposium provided a useful forum for experts working in these areas for sharing and exchanging their work and ideas. The Symposium attracted participants from many countries of the world including the United States, Japan, Russia and Ukraine. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume and they are presented under the above three key thematic areas. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The organizers of the Symposium, City University London have pioneered the establishment of measurement and instrumentation as an academic discipline in the UK through the work of Professor Ludwik Finkelstein who was for many years Chairman of TC1 and a founding member of TC

  14. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy; Son, Leonid; Sabirzjanov, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    The state of the art in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys is regularly updated through two series of complementary international conferences, the LAM (Liquid and Amorphous Metals) and the RQ (Rapidly Quenched Materials). The first series of the conferences started as LM-1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semi conductors, quasicrystals etc, were accepted as well. The conference tradition strongly encourages the participation of junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU) and held on 8-13 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). There were 242 active and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries who attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale (25 min) and brief (15 min) oral reports. The program included 10 sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A) Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B) Phase transitions; C) Structure; D) Atomic dynamics and transport; E) Thermodynamics; F) Modelling, simulation; G) Surface and interface; H) Mechanical properties

  15. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this flight test was to measure any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of the current generation AVS-9 Night Vision Goggle and one variant of the prototype Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (the PNV.GII). The PNVGII has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. The flight path of the AH-1S helicopter was used as a measure of pilot-vehicle performance. Also recorded were subjective measures of flying qualities, physical reserves of the pilot, situational awareness, and display usability. Pilot comment and data indicate that the benefits of additional FOV with the PNVGIIs are to some extent negated by the reduced image quality of the PNVGIIs.

  16. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol

    2000-01-01

    A flight test was conducted to assess any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of a current generation night vision goggle (the AVS-9) and one variant of the prototype panoramic night vision goggle (the PNVGII). The panoramic goggle has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. Overall the panoramic goggles compared well to the AVS-9 goggles. However, pilot comment and data are consistent with the assertion that some of the benefits of additional field-of-view with the panoramic goggles were negated by the reduced image quality of the particular variant of the panoramic goggles tested.

  17. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  18. A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Hannah E; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Gasper, Giles E M; Huxtable, Mike; McLeish, Tom C B; Panti, Cecilia

    2012-02-01

    We present a new commentary on Robert Grosseteste's De colore, a short treatise that dates from the early 13th century, in which Grosseteste constructs a linguistic combinatorial account of color. In contrast to other commentaries (e.g., Kuehni & Schwarz, Color Ordered: A Survey of Color Order Systems from Antiquity to the Present, 2007, p. 36), we argue that the color space described by Grosseteste is explicitly three-dimensional. We seek the appropriate translation of Grosseteste's key terms, making reference both to Grosseteste's other works and the broader intellectual context of the 13th century, and to modern color spaces.

  19. A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Gasper, Giles E. M.; Huxtable, Mike; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Panti, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    We present a new commentary on Robert Grosseteste’s De colore, a short treatise that dates from the early 13th century, in which Grosseteste constructs a linguistic combinatorial account of color. In contrast to other commentaries (e.g., Kuehni & Schwarz, Color Ordered: A Survey of Color Order Systems from Antiquity to the Present, 2007, p. 36), we argue that the color space described by Grosseteste is explicitly three-dimensional. We seek the appropriate translation of Grosseteste’s key terms, making reference both to Grosseteste’s other works and the broader intellectual context of the 13th century, and to modern color spaces. PMID:22330399

  20. Reading, Writing, Thinking: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandis, Meeli, Ed.; Ward, Angela, Ed.; Mathews, Samuel R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This collection of papers presented at the 13th European Conference on Reading brings together a vast range of knowledge, research, and perspectives about literacy and its complex processes. The book explores topics including: (1) Literacy and critical thinking; (2) Working with learners at all levels, from young children to adolescents to…

  1. Report of the 13th Annual International Pachyonychia Congenita Consortium Symposium.

    PubMed

    Rittié, L; Kaspar, R L; Sprecher, E; Smith, F J D

    2017-03-27

    The International Pachyonychia Congenita Consortium (IPCC) is a group of physicians and scientists from around the world dedicated to developing therapies for pachyonychia congenita, a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder. The research presented at the 13th Annual Research Symposium of the IPCC, held on 10-11 May 2016, in Scottsdale, AZ, U.S.A., is reported here.

  2. Report of the 13th Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolate from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kallen, Alexander J.; Zhu, Wenming; Eggers, Paula; McDougal, Linda K.; Albrecht, Valerie S.

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), an important multidrug-resistant organism of public health concern, has been infrequently identified in the United States since 2002. All previous VRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex 5, a lineage associated primarily with health care. This report describes the most recent (13th) U.S. VRSA isolate, the first to be community associated. PMID:24371243

  3. The 13th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrus, John P.

    2004-12-01

    The 13th Annual James L. Waters Symposium focused on a review of the origin, development, implementation, and commercialization of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis by four of the pioneers in the field. The subsequent articles summarize the presentations made in that symposium.

  4. The 13th Annual Legislative Summit (Washington, DC, 2010). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains briefing papers presented at the 13th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit held in Washington, DC. The following papers are included: (1) NIEA Appropriations Priorities for FY11; (2) The President's Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2011 for Native Education; (3) BIE Race to the Top; (4)…

  5. CONFERENCE REPORT: 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, J. W.; Fasoli, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Kirk, A.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A. G.; Tala, T.

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape-off-layer transport and MHD and fast particle interaction with transport.

  6. Implementing the Remotely Sensed Evaporative Stress Index Globally Using MODIS Day/Night Land-surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.

    2014-12-01

    The utility and reliability of standard meteorological drought indices based on measurements of precipitation is limited by the spatial distribution and quality of currently available rainfall data. Furthermore, precipitation-based indices only reflect one component of the surface hydrologic cycle, and cannot readily capture non-precipitation based moisture inputs to the land-surface system (e.g., irrigation, shallow groundwater tables) that may temper drought impacts or variable rates of water consumption across a landscape. As global drought monitoring exercises, such as the Global Drought Information System, continue to expand, a need for tools that complement precipitation-based indicators will also grow. Here we describe a global implementation of the remotely sensed Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) based on anomalies in actual-to-reference evapotranspiration (ET) ratio. For ESI implementations to date, actual ET has been derived via energy balance using the morning land-surface temperature (LST) rise observed with geostationary satellites. In comparison with vegetation indices, LST is a fast-response variable, with the potential for providing early warning of crop stress reflected in increasing canopy temperatures. Our initial work has mainly focused on regional implementations of ESI (e.g., North America, Brazil, Africa) and a global ESI product has not been yet been evaluated. As the global constellation of geostationary sensors continue to mature, some limitations still exist which hamper an implementation of ESI using only geostationary LST. Therefore, a new regression-based methodology which uses twice-daily observations of LST from polar orbiting sensors (such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - MODIS and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite - VIIRS) has been developed to estimate mid-morning LST needed for ESI from a single sensor. This new global ESI dataset will be evaluated over the 2000-2014 time period against currently used

  7. Night terror

    MedlinePlus

    ... not be disoriented after the episode. Exams and Tests In many cases, no further examination or testing is needed. If the night terror is severe or prolonged, the child may need a psychological evaluation. Treatment In many cases, a child who ...

  8. Constraints on water vapor vertical distribution at the Phoenix landing site during summer from MGS TES day and night observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Tamppari, Leslie K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a new method to retrieve column abundances and vertical extent of the water vapor from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. The new method enables retrievals from the nighttime TES spectra. The retrieval algorithm employs a new model of the vertical distribution of water vapor in the martian atmosphere. In this model water vapor is confined to a layer of finite height in the lower atmosphere. The atmosphere is dry above this 'wet' layer. Within the 'wet' layer the water vapor has a constant mixing ratio below the water ice cloud condensation height and is saturated above that height. The new retrieval method simultaneously fits the daytime and nighttime TES spectra for a given location using a single mixing ratio profile. We apply this new method to the TES spectra collected over the site of the Phoenix spacecraft landing during late northern spring and summer. Retrieved daytime column abundances are ∼1-5 pr-μm higher than in the previous TES retrieval. Nighttime column abundances are lower than the daytime abundances by ∼5-10 pr-μm due to assumed exchange with soil and predicted water ice cloud formation. The height of the 'wet' layer varies with season, reaching ∼18 km around Ls = 80-100° and decreasing to 7-10 km by Ls = 140°. Changes in the vertical extent of vapor are consistent with seasonal changes in the intensity of the turbulent mixing in the lower atmosphere and in the water ice cloud condensation height. Water vapor extends by several kilometers above the top of the boundary layer at ∼4 km, suggesting that vertical transport of vapor is not limited to the boundary layer.

  9. A color coordinate system from a 13th century account of rainbows

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Anderson, Philip S.; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Fosbury, Robert A. E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; Laven, Philip; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Panti, Cecilia; Tanner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Robert Grosseteste’s account of color in his treatise De iride, On the Rainbow, dating from the early 13th century. The work explores color within the three-dimensional framework set out in Grosseteste’s De colore (see Smithson et al, 2012, A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century.” Journal of the Optical Society of America (A), 29 (2), A346-A352), but now links the axes of variation to observable properties of rainbows. We combine a modern understanding of the physics of rainbows and of human color perception to resolve the linguistic ambiguities of the medieval text and to interpret Grosseteste’s key terms. PMID:24695192

  10. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  11. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  12. [Replica of a 13th century piece in the Museum of Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Zarranz M del, C

    1995-06-01

    Since the Museum of Pharmacy of the University of Buenos Aires has a big historical pieces collection, its Director and founddress Dr. Rosa D. de Carnevale Bonino signed an article about this subject (Revista del Museo. 1: 12/16-dic, 1986). One of such pieces, dating from the 13th century, is here depicted, as well as Alberto Magno's biography, who is intensely related with the so called "magical glass".

  13. The 13th Annual Aurora Biomed Ion Channel Retreat: Three Days of Research, Technology, and Networking.

    PubMed

    Magee, Kaylee E A; Stanwood, Shawna R

    2016-03-01

    The 13th Annual Ion Channel Retreat was held by Aurora Biomed in Vancouver, Canada from July 7 to 9, 2015. The meeting showcased prominent current research including cardiac safety and pharmacology; ion channel structure, function and engineering; transporters and ion pumps; screening technologies; ion channels as disease targets; alcohol, tobacco, and ion channels; and ion channels as pain targets. This report summarizes the work presented at the retreat.

  14. Archaeological implications of a widespread 13th Century tephra marker across the central Indonesian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloway, Brent V.; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Setiawan, Ruly; Miksic, John; Hua, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the occurrence of exceptionally large eruptions in the Indonesian Archipelago in recent historic times (i.e. Krakatoa 1883, Tambora 1815), no historic tephra beds have been widely identified in the terrestrial realm that could facilitate the correlation of equivalent aged sequences and/or archaeological remains. This study has identified one such tephra bed of 13th Century age that can be correlated throughout central-east Java and now can be unequivocally correlated with the Samalas 1257 A.D. tephra recently described from Lombok. The occurrence of this historic tephra marker extending ≥650 km west from its eruptive source provides the first opportunity to effect inter-regional correlation over large swathes of central Indonesia. It remains entirely conceivable that in the aftermath of this exceptionally large eruptive event there was considerable westward disruption to subsistence agriculture and trade, food shortages and famine, dislocation of affected populations and socio-political unrest on a scale that equalled or exceeded the catastrophic effects documented from the more recent Tambora 1815 A.D. eruption. Indeed the effects of this mid-13th Century eruption can be registered globally in a variety of records from Antarctica, Europe, Middle East and the Americas. Unfortunately, archaeological evidence indicating such disruption in mid-13th Century Indonesia is yet to be deciphered from the so-far sparse accounts and inscriptions of that time. However, this paucity of evidence does not diminish the utility of this widespread tephra bed as a unique chronostratigraphic marker for archaeological studies across large areas of central Indonesia.

  15. Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies--SMi's 13th Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    SMi's 13th Annual Meeting on Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies, held in London, included topics covering new trends in the generics field, the difficulties faced by companies in entering the generics market and recent developments in IP. This conference report highlights selected presentations on generics in India, protecting pharmaceutical products in China, changes in generics law and litigation in the US and Europe, challenges for market selection and entry for generics companies, the influence of changes in the healthcare market on the generics industry, supergenerics, and biosimilars.

  16. The 13th order resonance from Navy tracking on a diademe 2 fragment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    A strong constraint on 13th order (odd degree) terms in the geopotential has been derived from Navy tracking on a DIADEME 2 fragment (1967-14F). This object (perigee height: 580 km, orbit inclination: 38.9 deg) is presently decaying slowly through perfect commensurability with these terms. The resonance forces will increase its inclination by 0.02 deg when the passage is complete by late 1974. The constraint (lumped harmonics), derived by adjustment of a pair of harmonic coefficients to the Navy inclination data (principally) is: 10 to the 9th power (14.8 + or - 0.8, 48.3 + or - 0.7) = 0.023(C,S)13,13 -0.172(C,S)15,13 0.505(C,S)17,13 - 0.884(C,S)19,13 + (C,S)21,13 0.673(C,S)23,13 0.099(C,S)25,13 0.295(C,S)27,13 -0.279(C,S)29,13 0.018(C,S)31,13 + There should be a significant contribution to this result from terms as high as 29th degree. But current geopotential solutions (for 13th order terms) to this degree are about 20% in error when judged by this independent data.

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Conference photograph The 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012) was held in Ankara, Turkey at Gazi University in the Architect Kemaleddin historical hall on 2-6 July 2012. The first International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions took place nearly 25 years ago and this conference continued the same tradition by providing an arena for researchers around the world to present their new research findings in these fields, and gave them the opportunity to learn about the latest research and technology and to renew their acquaintances. The meeting brought together scientists and engineers in multidisciplinary areas such as chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, chemistry and polymer science and technology, to explore the state-of-art technology, identify key areas to be focused on and discuss their problems/issues. All oral presentations were held in a single session to enhance the interactions between the scientists and engineers. The ERMR2012 Conference included plenary lectures given by prominent leaders in their respective fields. About 130 participants from more than 50 organizations attended the conference and 15 plenary speeches, 64 oral presentations and 57 poster presentations took place in the following areas: (i) synthesis, characterization and processing of novel ER/MR materials, (ii) dynamics, chain and structure formation of ER/MR materials, (iii) ER/MR elastomers, ferrogels and their characterizations, (iv) rheological techniques and measurements of ER/MR materials, (v) modeling and simulations of ER/MR materials, (vi) device development and control techniques and (vii) applications of ER/MR materials. The ERMR2012 International Conference began with Turkish classical music performed by the musicians of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Rector Professor Dr R Ayhan welcomed the participants and the

  18. [Great damage event of the Dutch Enschede on May 13th, 2000].

    PubMed

    Woltering, H P; Schneider, B M

    2002-11-01

    The mass casualty of injured confronts the rescue service with a special challenge again and again. An immediate need arises besides the emergency medical help for the coordination of use strengths moving up differently than at the individual emergency. Executives of the rescue service in Germany are leading emergency doctor and organizational leader. If the damage event takes place, however, outside the country borders or country general, then one feels compared with a situation which offers next to sizes in addition unknown to a great damage situation of the country by different use of tactics. It is interesting from this aspect to look at the great damage event of the Dutch Enschede on May 13th, 2000 and to examine the accident expiry by different points of view.

  19. Report of the 13(th) Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Shenzhen, China, March 4-7, 2012.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jack A; Bao, Yiming; Wang, Hui; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Edmunds, Scott C; Morrison, Norman; Meyer, Folker; Schriml, Lynn M; Davies, Neil; Sterk, Peter; Wilkening, Jared; Garrity, George M; Field, Dawn; Robbins, Robert; Smith, Daniel P; Mizrachi, Ilene; Moreau, Corrie

    2012-05-25

    This report details the outcome of the 13(th) Meeting of the Genomic Standards Consortium. The three-day conference was held at the Kingkey Palace Hotel, Shenzhen, China, on March 5-7, 2012, and was hosted by the Beijing Genomics Institute. The meeting, titled From Genomes to Interactions to Communities to Models, highlighted the role of data standards associated with genomic, metagenomic, and amplicon sequence data and the contextual information associated with the sample. To this end the meeting focused on genomic projects for animals, plants, fungi, and viruses; metagenomic studies in host-microbe interactions; and the dynamics of microbial communities. In addition, the meeting hosted a Genomic Observatories Network session, a Genomic Standards Consortium biodiversity working group session, and a Microbiology of the Built Environment session sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  20. PREFACE: 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held in scenic Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, during the week of 10-14 March 2014. The meeting drew nearly 80 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the interplanetary medium, the solar wind, observations, and theory. The theme of the meeting was Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium. This decade may one day be viewed as the golden age in the exploration of the large-scale heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). Voyager 1 and 2 and IBEX are yielding remarkable new discoveries about the boundaries of the solar wind - LISM region and the interstellar medium. Hitherto, our basic understanding of the interstellar medium has been provided by telescope observations across multiple wavelengths that are typically integrated over many parsecs. For the first time, with these three spacecraft, we are making detailed measurements of the interstellar plasma, energetic particles (charged and neutral), magnetic field, and plasma waves in situ or with very short integration distances. IBEX provides insight into the global characteristics of the very local interstellar medium and Voyager 1 has just crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. Remarkable results can be anticipated as discoveries over the next decade are made and the physics of the interstellar medium unfolds. As described in the papers in this volume, the new observations are already challenging theoretical models. The 13th Annual International Conference focused on the physics of the solar wind - LISM boundaries and the emerging physics of the local interstellar medium. To address this, astrophysicists and space physicists assembled to share their combined expertise to address in a highly interdisciplinary fashion the physics of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. We thank Adele Corona and ICNS for her continued excellent

  1. 13th IUPAC- international congress of pesticide chemistry: crop, environment, and public health protection, technologies for a changing world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA in August, 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of...

  2. Residues in food and feed topic area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of pesticide chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organizers of two symposia in the “Residues in Food and Feed” topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled “Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tool...

  3. Tomorrow's Imperatives Today. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Forum, Vancouver, British Columbia, The Association for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G., Ed.

    Prepared from addresses and papers selected from those presented at the 13th Annual Association for Institutional Research Forum in May 1973, this collection deals both with the broad national issues facing postsecondary education, and with matters that are directly related to campus functions, such as computer simulation models. The tone of these…

  4. Report from the 13th annual Western canadian gastrointestinal cancer consensus conference; calgary, alberta; september 8-10, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vickers, M M; Pasieka, J; Dixon, E; McEwan, S; McKay, A; Renouf, D; Schellenberg, D; Ruether, D

    2012-12-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8-10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  5. 75 FR 29559 - The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No. FDA-2010-N-0001] The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs... Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group (OCRA). The conference is intended to provide the drug...; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group [[Page 29560

  6. Animal origin of 13th-century uterine vellum revealed using noninvasive peptide fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Holsinger, Bruce; Ruzzier, Chiara; Devine, Alexander; Binois, Annelise; Albarella, Umberto; Fischer, Roman; Nichols, Emma; Curtis, Antoinette; Cheese, Edward; Teasdale, Matthew D.; Checkley-Scott, Caroline; Milner, Stephen J.; Rudy, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Eric J.; Vnouček, Jiří; Garrison, Mary; McGrory, Simon; Bradley, Daniel G.; Collins, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-thin parchment made it possible to produce the first pocket Bibles: Thousands were made in the 13th century. The source of this parchment, often called “uterine vellum,” has been a long-standing controversy in codicology. Use of the Latin term abortivum in many sources has led some scholars to suggest that the skin of fetal calves or sheep was used. Others have argued that it would not be possible to sustain herds if so many pocket Bibles were produced from fetal skins, arguing instead for unexpected alternatives, such as rabbit. Here, we report a simple and objective technique using standard conservation treatments to identify the animal origin of parchment. The noninvasive method is a variant on zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) peptide mass fingerprinting but extracts protein from the parchment surface by using an electrostatic charge generated by gentle rubbing of a PVC eraser on the membrane surface. Using this method, we analyzed 72 pocket Bibles originating in France, England, and Italy and 293 additional parchment samples that bracket this period. We found no evidence for the use of unexpected animals; however, we did identify the use of more than one mammal species in a single manuscript, consistent with the local availability of hides. These results suggest that ultrafine vellum does not necessarily derive from the use of abortive or newborn animals with ultrathin hides, but could equally well reflect a production process that allowed the skins of maturing animals of several species to be rendered into vellum of equal quality and fineness. PMID:26598667

  7. Vision - night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  8. Ancient writings reveal presence of aurora in 13th-century Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    Modern Norway, Iceland, and Greenland are subject to frequent displays of the aurora borealis. The aurora can be viewed on almost every clear night in the northern part of Iceland and southern Greenland, which lie in or near the auroral oval. Thus, it is surprising to find almost no mention of the aurora in medieval Norse chronicles or in the extensive Icelandic saga literature. Only one paragraph, in the "King's Mirror," a Norwegian writing dating to about 1250 C.E., notes the occurrence of the aurora in Greenland. The author reports this as hearsay and not from personal knowledge. For a fuller discussion of the Norse literature, see Brekke and Egeland [1983].

  9. PREFACE: 13th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 13th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-2014) was held in Toulouse (France) on 22-27 June 2014. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and has gradually expanded to include other related topics. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is an international conference organised in Europe every two years with topics encompassing the whole field of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry and to provide a platform for the exploration of both the fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have acheived a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 142 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 155, consisting of 8 plenary and 8 invited talks plus 51 oral and 88 poster contributions. We have received numerous papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed (60 referees with at least two reviewing each paper) and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 52 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We have grouped the papers into the following 5 topics: - Arc-Materials Interaction and Metallurgy - Plasma Torches and Spraying - Synthesis of Powders and Nanomaterials - Deposition and Surface Treatment - Non-Equilibrium Plasmas We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high

  10. PREFACE: 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, Pierre; Pinfield, Valerie; Cegla, Frederic; Saffari, Nader; Lhémery, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) was held at Selsdon Park Hotel, Croydon near London, United Kingdom, on 15-17 January 2014. The venue was an excellent location to exchange ideas, regardless whether this happened in the conference room, over lunch at the drinks reception in the conservatory, in the oak panelled bar after the conference dinner or in the local pub next door. Over 45 papers were presented at the conference. There were over 60 delegates from institutions covering four countries. The invited speakers from the French side shared their knowledge about the generation of sound from supersonic jets (Prof Christophe Bailly, École Centrale de Lyon) and the application of ultrasonic microscropy in the nuclear industry (Prof Gilles Despaux, Université de Montpellier). The UK invited speakers included Prof Malcolm Povey (University of Leeds), who talked about characterisation of the nucleation of crystals using ultrasound, and Prof Bruce Drinkwater (University of Bristol), who captured the audience by speaking about "ultrasonic lassos" and ultrasonic particle manipulation. There was a strong representation of laser ultrasonics at the meeting with scientific considerations of problems and applications that range from the macro to the nanoscale. There were also numerous papers on the interaction of elastic and acoustic waves with complex materials and scattering of these waves by materials such as foams or cavitating liquids. Presentations on biomedical applications are increasingly being featured at AFPAC meetings. Talks this year covered topics such as imaging and high-intensity focused ultrasound for therapeutic applications. Finally, there were also several contributions from the field of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) with talks ranging from the determination of the properties of in vivo wood to ultrasonic scattering techniques and tomographic reconstructions to recover the size and shape of

  11. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  12. CCSM3 simulation of climatic impact by volcanism during mid-late 13th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Y.; Miller, G. H.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Schneider, D. P.; Ammann, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Consecutive volcanic eruptions during the second half of 13th century were hypothesized to have initiated the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. To test this hypothesis, we study the climatic impact on the Northern Hemisphere high-latitudes by the historical volcanism with a focus on its potential dependency on the state of Arctic sea ice cover, using the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). Our results suggest the instantaneous volcanic climatic impact is a fairly robust phenomenon with a spatial pattern that is insensitive to the Arctic sea ice state; whereas the long-term integrated impact is susceptible to the Arctic state and contingent on a responsive overturning circulation in the Northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, which could get weaker transporting less heat poleward and thus help sustain the Arctic surface cooling. Further experiments employing the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) stand-alone version show the volcanic impact via atmospheric physical and dynamic processes is short-lived up to a couple of years, in consistent with previous studies, while the longer-term persistence can be achieved through coupling with the underlying Ocean and Cryosphere. When the Atmosphere-Ocean-Cryosphere is interactive, nonlinearity occurs with the short-term climate response to volcanism in the sense that a winter warming pattern across northern Eurasia is found in the case of weaker volcanism, but a general cooling pattern as the volcanic forcing gets stronger. Previous studies argued for dominancy by atmosphere dynamic warming effect in the former case and direct radiative cooling effect in the latter. However, our CAM stand-alone experiments with fixed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover yield warming across northern Eurasia regardless of the strength of volcanism, hinting at an ocean/sea ice control of continental climate. Further attribution efforts suggest the expanding Arctic sea ice resultant from

  13. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  14. NDIA13th Annual Small Business Conference. Held in McLean, Virginia on 2-3 December 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    330 HOTEL INFORMATION A block of rooms has been reserved at the Hilton McLean Tysons Corner. To make your reservation, please call the hotel ...Military 13th ANNUAL SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE EVENT #0430 DECEMBER 2-3, 2009 WWW.NDIA.ORG/MEETINGS/0430 HILTON McLEAN TYSONS CORNER u McLEAN, VIRGINIA...from non-core activities so the firm can concentrate on the activities that it does best. Therefore, when exploring opportunities for forming an

  15. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  16. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  17. PREFACE The 13th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Battezzati, Livio; Stoica, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    The 13th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials (RQ13) took place in Dresden, Germany, 24-29 August 2008. It belongs to the triennial series of RQ meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1970 - Brela, 1975 - Boston, 1978 - Brighton, 1981 - Sendai, 1984 - Würzburg, 1987 - Montreal, 1990 - Stockholm, 1993 - Sendai, 1996 - Bratislava, 1999 - Bangalore, 2002 - Oxford, 2005 - Jeju Island. RQ13 was hosted by the Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, IFW Dresden. Research on rapidly quenched and metastable materials is stimulated by the high demand for new materials with unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Topics of RQ13 conference have fallen into three parts: synthesis and processing, materials and properties, and applications of rapidly quenched and metastable materials. These topics cover exiting developments from the traditional field of rapidly quenched metals to newly emerging areas such as bulk metallic glasses and nanostructured materials. As such, the presentations reported on recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the fields of metastable materials, quasicrystals, nanometer-scale materials, magnetic materials, metallic glasses, solid state reaction, undercooling and modeling. As in the previous proceedings (RQ12), the largest number of papers is dedicated to bulk metallic glasses and magnetic materials. With respect to property characterization and applications, there are great attempts for use and application of these materials, particularly for bulk metallic glasses, as well as for further design and optimization of properties. The RQ13 conference attracted a total of 381 abstracts submitted by scientists from 38 different countries. The conference included 8 plenary talks and 25 invited keynote talks. In addition, 163 regular oral contributions were presented and more than 180 posters were presented. It was a particular highlight of the conference that Dr Ho Sou Chen was

  18. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  19. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  20. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  1. Residues in Food and Feed Topic Area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Riter, Leah S; Saha, Manasi

    2015-05-13

    The organizers of two symposia in the "Residues in Food and Feed" topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled "Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tools" and "Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods". The oral and poster sessions generated much interest and discussion among the attendees, and some highlights are described in this introductory paper.

  2. Night Pass over Malaysia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

  3. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  4. One Night in January.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Describes student demonstrations on the night that U.S. planes bombed Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. Compares attitudes and feelings to the Vietnam War era. Concludes that the students incorrectly supported the Gulf War action. (CFR)

  5. Aplastic articular facets in a dog with intervertebral disk rupture of the 12th to 13th thoracic vertebral space.

    PubMed

    Werner, Thorsten; McNicholas, W Thomas; Kim, Jongmin; Baird, Debra K; Breur, Gert J

    2004-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female spayed Pomeranian was presented with acute hind-limb paraplegia with the presence of deep pain perception and urinary incontinence. Myelography showed a Hansen type I herniation of the12th to 13th thoracic intervertebral space (T(12-13)). Articular facets of the T(12-13) and T(13) to first lumbar vertebra (L(1)) were absent. The spinal cord was decompressed using a bilateral T(12-13) modified lateral hemilaminectomy (pediculectomy). The aplastic sites were associated with minimal instability of the vertebral column, and stabilization of the vertebral column was not required. Familiarity with this condition is important, because articular facet aplasia may cause vertebral instability and may require an adjusted surgical approach or vertebral reduction and fusion following decompression.

  6. STS-103 MS Clervoy and Commander Brown look over Discovery after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France (left), with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (right) look over the orbiter Discovery. They and other crew members Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland (also with ESA), completed a successful eight-day mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, spending the Christmas holiday in space in order to accomplish their mission before the end of 1999. During the mission, Discovery's four space-walking astronauts, Smith, Foale, Grunsfeld and Nicollier, spent 24 hours and 33 minutes upgrading and refurbishing Hubble, making it more capable than ever to renew its observations of the universe. Mission objectives included replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Hubble was released from the end of Discovery's robot arm on Christmas Day. Main gear touchdown was at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. Nose gear touchdown occurred at 7:00:58 EST and wheel stop at 7:01:34 EST. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery. The landing was the 20th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 13th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  7. STS-103 Pilot Kelly and Commander Brown look over Discovery after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly (left) and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. (right) look at the tiles on orbiter Discovery. They and other crew members Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Francois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, completed a successful eight-day mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, spending the Christmas holiday in space in order to accomplish their mission before the end of 1999. During the mission, Discovery's four space-walking astronauts, Smith, Foale, Grunsfeld and Nicollier, spent 24 hours and 33 minutes upgrading and refurbishing Hubble, making it more capable than ever to renew its observations of the universe. Mission objectives included replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Hubble was released from the end of Discovery's robot arm on Christmas Day. Main gear touchdown was at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. Nose gear touchdown occurred at 7:00:58 EST and wheel stop at 7:01:34 EST. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery. The landing was the 20th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 13th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  8. STS-103 MS Clervoy and Nicollier and Commander Brown look over Discovery after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility, STS-103 Mission Specialists Jean-Francois Clervoy of France and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who are with the European Space Agency, listen to a comment by Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. while looking over the orbiter Discovery. Other members of the crew are Pilot Scott J. Kelly and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). The crew of seven completed a successful eight-day mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, spending the Christmas holiday in space in order to accomplish their mission before the end of 1999. During the mission, Discovery's four space-walking astronauts, Smith, Foale, Grunsfeld and Nicollier, spent 24 hours and 33 minutes upgrading and refurbishing Hubble, making it more capable than ever to renew its observations of the universe. Mission objectives included replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. Hubble was released from the end of Discovery's robot arm on Christmas Day. Main gear touchdown was at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. Nose gear touchdown occurred at 7:00:58 EST and wheel stop at 7:01:34 EST. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery. The landing was the 20th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 13th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  9. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with…

  10. Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holly; Alderman, Helen Christine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Family Science Night (FSN) described in this article was to involve culturally and linguistically diverse families in school life so that students would be more vocal, successful, and interactive in science class. The project would also demonstrate to the students that their teacher valued their input in the classroom. The setting…

  11. A night sky model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  12. [Capabilities from the very beginning. Analysis of early interventions for child protection within the 13th Children and Youth Report].

    PubMed

    Keupp, H

    2010-10-01

    The 13th Children and Youth Report of the Federal Government was tasked with assessing the achievements attained in health-related prevention and health promotion by the Child and Youth Services and evaluating the goals still to be accomplished. Health-relevant development issues in the first phase of life are attachment and autonomy. The concept of early intervention is defined by the threefold responsibility entrusted to the Child and Youth Services: encouraging opportunities for development, providing assistance where resources are inadequate, and protecting children who are endangered or neglected. The greatest need for support is seen to involve children of impoverished or migrant families. The three specified goals require regional networks, which connect the existing support systems, in addition to the Child and Youth Services including pediatrics and child psychiatry, midwives, and early childhood intervention, to form integrated activity systems. Based on this foundation, the aim is then to strengthen parent competence through measures for family enrichment, to offer support related to the social sphere and family structure (e.g., early excellence programs, multigenerational homes, family centers, or family midwives) and to ensure effective child protective services.

  13. 13th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Summary Discussion, 10-13 August 2003, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Sinton, R.; Tan, T.; Swanson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The 13th Workshop discussion sessions addressed recent progress, critical issues in implementing new technologies, and the role of fundamental R&D in the growing PV industry. For the first time, we included a rump session, which was held on Sunday evening, August 10. This session included a panel of representatives, from various photovoltaic companies, who led a discussion of''R&D Challenges in Si PV.'' A special poster/presentation session was held on Monday evening, August 11, in which NREL/DOE subcontractors highlighted their results of research performed during the current subcontract period. This session served as a subcontract review. The workshop offered special sessions to discuss: (1) High-Efficiency Si Solar Cells, which reviewed progress made in implementing high-efficiency Si solar cell fabrication processes in the manufacturing environment; (2) Advanced Processing, as future potential approaches for making Si solar cells; (3) Commercial Issues, which addressed basic understanding behind recent processes that have been used by the PV industry; and (4) Automation and Equipment, to address capabilities and requirements of new manufacturing equipment.

  14. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from 8,000 a year to 300 per year.

  15. Jupiter Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  16. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

  17. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  18. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Mexican-American Educators, Inc., State of California (13th, San Francisco, California, October 26-28, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Mexican-American Educators, Inc., Redwood City, CA.

    Officially incorporated in 1965 to advocate for equal opportunity for all, especially students of Hispanic ancestry, and greater opportunities for Hispanic professionals at all levels of the teaching field, the Association of Mexican American Educators, Inc., held its 13th annual conference October 26-28, 1978. The five position papers included in…

  20. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  1. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  2. The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011) The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibene, G.

    2012-11-01

    The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, held in Lady Margaret Hall College in Oxford in October 2011 continues the tradition of bi-annual international meetings dedicated to the study of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. The first meeting of this series took place in S Diego (CA, US) in 1987, and since then scientists in the fusion community studying the formation and effects of transport barriers in plasmas have been meeting at this small workshop to discuss progress, new experimental evidence and related theoretical studies. The first workshops were strongly focussed on the characterization and understanding of the H-mode plasma, discovered in ASDEX in 1982. Tokamaks throughout the entire world were able to reproduce the H-mode transition in the following few years and since then the H-mode has been recognised as a pervasive physics feature of toroidally confined plasmas. Increased physics understanding of the H-mode transition and of the properties of H-mode plasmas, together with extensive development of diagnostic capabilities for the plasma edge, led to the development of edge transport barrier studies and theory. The H-mode Workshop reflected this extension in interest, with more and more contributions discussing the phenomenology of edge transport barriers and instabilities (ELMs), L-H transition and edge transport barrier formation theory. In the last 15 years, in response to the development of fusion plasma studies, the scientific scope of the workshop has been broadened to include experimental and theoretical studies of both edge and internal transport barriers, including formation and sustainment of transport barriers for different transport channels (energy, particle and momentum). The 13th H-mode Workshop was organized around six leading topics, and, as customary for this workshop, a lead speaker was selected for each topic to present to the audience the state-of-the-art, new understanding and open issues, as well

  3. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  4. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  5. Strangers in the Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Gene D.

    Strangers in the Night was written by a father and son team, the elder of whom is a cosmochemist. Probably because of this view-point, the book makes a few novel points about the evolution of thinking on the origin of life and extraterrestrial life. A notable example is the mention of the first synthesis of a biological molecule (urea) by Freidrich Wohler in 1828, as one of the turning points in the gradual acceptance of the possibility of extraterrestrial life. Another high point in the book is the discussion of the other “life in meteorites” controversy the debate in the early 1960s concerning “organized elements” in carbonaceous chondrites. This chapter in the history of meteoritics is not very widely known and is highlighted with good cause by the authors as a stern warning about interpretation of possible biological structures in meteorites.

  6. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  7. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  8. The night before your surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery - child; Preoperative - night before ... food after 11 p.m. the night before surgery. Your child should not eat or drink any ... child the night before or the day of surgery, call the doctor. Stop giving your child any ...

  9. Risk factors for maternal night blindness in rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Coles, Christian; Sheeladevi, S.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Rahmathullah, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with maternal night blindness in rural South India. Methods At delivery, women enrolled in a population-based trial of newborn vitamin A supplementation were asked whether they were night blind at any time during the pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal night blindness. Results Women reported night blindness in 687 (5.2%) of 13,171 pregnancies. In a multivariate model, having a concrete roof (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47, 0.78), religion other than Hindu (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76), maternal literacy (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.69), and maternal age from 25 to 29 years (OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.50, 0.93) were associated with a lower risk of night blindness in pregnancy. The odds of night blindness were higher for those leasing rather than owning land (OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.93), parity 6 or more compared to 0 (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.08), and with twin pregnancies (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.93, 5.41). Factors not associated with night blindness in the multivariate model were other markers of socioeconomic status such as electricity in the house, radio and television ownership, type of cooking fuel, and household transportation, and number of children under 5 years of age in the household. Conclusions Maternal night blindness was prevalent in this population. Being pregnant with twins and of higher parity put women at higher risk. Maternal literacy and higher socioeconomic status lowered the risk. PMID:19437315

  10. Night airglow in RGB mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Podlesny, Stepan; Stoeva, Penka

    2016-09-01

    To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010-2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E) by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate the average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg*cm-2*s-1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings), we demonstrate the possibility of the quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum.

  11. Development of Temperature Patterns during Clear Nights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Karlsson, Maria; Bogren, Jörgen; Lindqvist, Sven

    1998-06-01

    This paper examines nocturnal air temperature structure development in complex terrain. Clear nights were studied in order to compare the cooling rate in different topographical areas with a variety of land cover. It was found that large variations in temperature developed over a very short time period after sunset and that in situ cooling was the dominant factor causing this in valleys and other wind-sheltered locations. Shelter can be provided both from valley sides and from nearby trees with the main effect being to reduce the vertical mixing.The nighttime increase in temperature difference between valley bottoms and nearby reference areas was interpreted to be due to cold airflows. This was also shown by the increasing lateral extension of cold air accumulating in valleys. This development was found only in open valley locations. Sheltered areas cooled at a much faster rate than exposed sites during early evening. Further cooling did not increase the lateral extension of cold air or result in larger temperature differences. This is attributed to lack of cold airflow. The rapid cooling was supported due to reduced mixing of warmer air from above. This hypothesis was further confirmed in this study by analysis of clear nights with low regional wind speed when it was found that sheltered locations differed significantly in temperature compared to wind-exposed areas.

  12. TWAN: The World at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

  13. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  14. Highlights from the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Glasgow, Scotland, May 10-13, 2003. The complex world of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Jack, David

    2003-01-01

    At the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, held in Glasgow, Scotland, May 10-13, 2003, the latest developments in clinical microbiology and the treatment of infectious diseases were presented alongside recent progress on molecular aspects of diagnosis and emerging patterns of infection. Around 5,000 delegates from more than 80 countries attended the congress, which saw the presentation of more than 400 oral communications and 1,700 posters. In addition to a historical session looking at Scotland's own contribution to the control of infectious diseases, the meeting involved up to six parallel sessions a day, looking at all the major aspects of infectious diseases, treatment, surveillance, epidemiology and drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The organizers also organized a Late Breaker symposium on severe acute respiratory syndrome. The topics likely to be of most interest to Drug News and Perspectives readers are described here.

  15. Mesoscale convective system surface pressure anomalies responsible for meteotsunamis along the U.S. East Coast on June 13th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wertman, Christina A.; Yablonsky, Richard M.; Shen, Yang; Merrill, John; Kincaid, Christopher R.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Two destructive high-frequency sea level oscillation events occurred on June 13th, 2013 along the U.S. East Coast. Seafloor processes can be dismissed as the sources, as no concurrent offshore earthquakes or landslides were detected. Here, we present evidence that these tsunami-like events were generated by atmospheric mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) propagating from inland to offshore. The USArray Transportable Array inland and NOAA tide gauges along the coast recorded the pressure anomalies associated with the MCSs. Once offshore, the pressure anomalies generated shallow water waves, which were amplified by the resonance between the water column and atmospheric forcing. Analysis of the tidal data reveals that these waves reflected off the continental shelf break and reached the coast, where bathymetry and coastal geometry contributed to their hazard potential. This study demonstrates that monitoring MCS pressure anomalies in the interior of the U.S. provides important observations for early warnings of MCS-generated tsunamis. PMID:25420958

  16. Night Operations - The Soviet Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    Battle of Berlin reveal the purpose for the night tactic of il- * ilumination : surprise and psychological impact, both on the enemy and friendly forces. An...attack Ilumination by shell Tn in k* Illumination by flare a Tank In firing position Observation post Antitank missle in firing position APC C3 APC

  17. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  18. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  19. Tips for Getting a Good Night's Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Tips for Getting A Good Night's Sleep Past ... in bed at night, you may have a sleep disorder. Your family healthcare provider or a sleep specialist ...

  20. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  1. Psychotherapy with night-terror patients.

    PubMed

    Kales, J C; Cadieux, R J; Soldatos, C R; Kales, A

    1982-07-01

    This is the first report of the effectiveness of psychotherapy in treating adult night-terror patients. Night terrors were eliminated or drastically reduced in two patients who completed psychotherapy. A third patient discontinued therapy and showed no improvement. Thus, the primary role of psychopathology in the production of night terrors in adulthood was illustrated.

  2. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  3. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  4. A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Lancelot, Eloïse; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gaël-François; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

  5. Improved night vision demonstrator program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    Although existing night vision equipment provides a significant improvement in target detection in low light conditions, there are several limitations that limit their effectiveness. Focus is a significant problem for night vision equipment due to the low f-number optics required to obtain sufficient sensitivity as well as the dynamic nature of night vision applications, which requires frequent focus adjustments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a prototype next-generation night vision device called the Improved Night Vision Demonstrator (INVD) in order to address these shortfalls. This paper will describe the design of the INVD system as well as an analysis of its performance.

  6. Night terrors: strategies for family coping.

    PubMed

    Gates, D; Morwessel, N

    1989-02-01

    This article discusses the occurrence of night terrors (parvor nocturnus) in children. The characteristics of a typical night terror incident are described, as are the common parental reactions to such frightening events. Nurses who work with children and families need to know about the etiology and clinical course of night terrors. They need to be able to differentiate night terrors from other sleep disturbances and determine possible ways to alleviate the occurrences. This article emphasizes assessment, anticipatory guidance, education, and counseling. A practical guide for parents is included to provide families with information on ways to cope with night terrors.

  7. Night nursing – staff's working experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Campbell, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence. PMID:18976475

  8. Tactical Night Terrain Flight Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    an reverse aide It necesarmy and identify by block unmber) Terrain flight Night flight Surface nav’igation 20,. AW4~ACT ( C ~venoUa sov ero " eom a maa...were used on each test flight. The helicopter used for the low-level flights were equipped initially with a commercial radar altimeter with a single...indicator, which was later changed to a military AN/APN-209 radar altimeter with dual indicators. The second helicopter was used for command and

  9. Night terrors. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    PubMed

    Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D

    1980-12-01

    The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors.

  10. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand

  11. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (13th, Mannheim, Germany, October 28-30, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 13th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2016), October 28-30, 2016, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by the University of Mannheim, Germany, and endorsed by the…

  12. Report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, Organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010. The objective of the seminar was to deliberate upon the reforms being undertaken by the Government of India in Higher Education. Reputed scholars from within and outside the…

  13. International Perspectives on Environmental Education: Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st International and 13th Annual Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed.

    The proceedings of the first International Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers and reports are…

  14. NCSE's 13th National Conference on Disasters and Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, Post Conference Follow-up Activities and Dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Saundry, Peter; Kossak, Shelley

    2014-04-29

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) received $15,000 from the US Department of Energy to support post-conference activities of the 13th National Conference on the theme of Disasters and the Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, held on January 15-17, 2013 at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC. Over 1,000 participants from the scientific, emergency response, policy, conservation, and business communities, as well as federal and local government officials, and international entities attended the event. The conference developed actionable outcomes that constructively advance the science behind decision-making on environmental disasters, with an intended result of more prepared and resilient communities in light of a changing climate. Disasters and Environment topic was addressed through six organizing themes: Cascading Disasters; Intersection of the Built and Natural Environments; Disasters as Mechanisms of Ecosystem Change; Rethinking Recovery and Expanding the Vision of Mitigation; Human Behavior and its Consequences; and "No Regrets" Resilience. The program featured eight plenary sessions, 24 symposia and 23 breakout workshops and addressed pivotal issues surrounding disasters and environment including lifeline services, the energy, climate, hazard nexus, grid collapse, community vulnerability, and natural resource management. Sessions, symposia and workshops were conducted by over 200 distinguished thought leaders, scientists, government officials, policy experts and international speakers throughout the three day event. Following the conference, NCSE prepared a set of recommendations and results from the workshops and disseminated the results to universities, organizations and agencies, the business community. NCSE’s national dissemination involved organized several targeted trips and meetings to disseminate significant findings to key stakeholder groups.

  15. Night driving assistance system based on spatial perspective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Chung-Kiak; Poh, Chung-How

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we put forward and evaluate a near real-time night driving assistance system intended for use in land vehicles (cars in particular) to help with T-junctions crossing at night. The onboard system of the host vehicle computes the remaining distance between itself and the nearest approaching vehicle using spatial perspective method. The algorithm evaluates the interspacing of the incoming vehicle's headlights. This allows the distance-to-contact to be determined or estimated. This work emphasises techniques to obtain the required image quality for distance sensing. The image quality was achieved when work was focused primarily at the hardware levels. With polaroids in place, the acquired images show that the headlight signals are clearly distinguishable from other ambient lights. This significantly simplifies image processing. Road-testing shows rather promising results. The system can be generalised to intersection settings, prevent rear-front collisions and may be extended for daytime applications with the introduction of virtual references.

  16. Ares Valles: Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 15 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Ares Valles region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.6, Longitude 339.9 East (20.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  17. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  18. Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  19. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National

  20. Measuring and mapping the night sky brightness of Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, James D.; Fouché, Tiffany; Bilki, Frank; Zadnik, Marjan G.

    2012-04-01

    In order to study the light pollution produced in the city of Perth, Western Australia, we have used a hand-held sky brightness meter to measure the night sky brightness across the city. The data acquired facilitated the creation of a contour map of night sky brightness across the 2400 km2 area of the city - the first such map to be produced for a city. Importantly, this map was created using a methodology borrowed from the field of geophysics - the well proven and rigorous techniques of geostatistical analysis and modelling. A major finding of this study is the effect of land use on night sky brightness. By overlaying the night sky brightness map on to a suitably processed Landsat satellite image of Perth we found that locations near commercial and/or light industrial areas have a brighter night sky, whereas locations used for agriculture or having high vegetation coverage have a fainter night sky than surrounding areas. Urban areas have intermediate amounts of vegetation and are intermediate in brightness compared with the above-mentioned land uses. Regions with a higher density of major highways also appear to contribute to increased night sky brightness. When corrected for the effects of direct illumination from high buildings, we found that the night sky brightness in the central business district (CBD) is very close to that expected for a city of Perth's population from modelling work and observations obtained in earlier studies. Given that our night sky brightness measurements in Perth over 2009 and 2010 are commensurate with that measured in Canadian cities over 30 years earlier implies that the various lighting systems employed in Perth (and probably most other cities) have not been optimised to minimize light pollution over that time. We also found that night sky brightness diminished with distance with an exponent of approximately -0.25 ± 0.02 from 3.5 to 10 km from the Perth CBD, a region characterized by urban and commercial land use. For distances

  1. Hereditary factors in sleepwalking and night terrors.

    PubMed

    Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Bixler, E O; Ladda, R L; Charney, D S; Weber, G; Schweitzer, P K

    1980-08-01

    The families of 25 probands with sleepwalking and 27 probands with night terrors were studied. Eighty per cent of the sleepwalking pedigrees and 96 per cent of the night terror pedigrees included one or more individuals, other than the proband, who were affected by sleepwalking, night terrors, or both. Our data appear to fit a 'two threshold' multifactorial mode of inheritance. This finding supports the hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors share a common genetic predisposition, with sleepwalking being a more prevalent and less severe manifestation of the same substrate that underlies night terrors. Heritable factors predispose an individual to develop sleepwalking and/or night terrors, but expression of the trait may be influenced by environmental factors.

  2. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  3. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test by Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett, and Elizabeth S. Redden ARL-TR-3839 August...Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-3839 August 2006 Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test Christian B. Carstens, Charles C. Bonnett...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Night Vision Goggle Customer Test 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716AH70 5e

  4. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  5. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light...) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night...

  10. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  11. Civilian use of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Guillermo; Temme, Leonard; Antonio, J Charles

    2003-01-01

    Civil aviation operators have expressed an increased interest in conducting night operations with night vision imaging systems. The development of special operational concepts, hardware requirements, training requirements, and regulatory change and oversight is necessary to control for the known performance constraints associated with these devices. In 2001, the Aerospace Medical Association initiated an internal request to review the human factors issues concerning the use of night vision goggles (NVGs) in civilian flight operations. This paper provides some basic information on night vision imaging systems to highlight the Association's position for supporting the appropriate use of NVGs in civilian aviation while concurrently expressing the need for a judicious and studied approach to their deployment.

  12. 'Criteria' aPL tests: report of a task force and preconference workshop at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Galveston, Texas, April 2010.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, S S; de Groot, P G; Dlott, J; Favaloro, E; Harris, E N; Lakos, G; Ortel, T; Meroni, P L; Otomo, K; Pengo, V; Tincani, A; Wong, R; Roubey, R

    2011-02-01

    Current classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) mandate the use of one or more of three positive 'standardized' laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) (viz: anticardiolipin [aCL] IgG and IgM; anti-β(2)glycoprotein I [anti-β(2)GPI] antibodies IgG and IgM; and/or a lupus anticoagulant [LAC]), when at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (thrombosis or pregnancy losses) are present. Although, efforts of standardization for these 'criteria' aPL tests have been conducted over the last 27 years, reports of inconsistencies, inter-assay and inter-laboratory variation in the results of aCL, LAC, and anti-β(2)GPI, and problems with the interpretation and the clinical value of the tests still exist, which affect the consistency of the diagnosis of APS. A Task Force of scientists and pioneers in the field from different countries, subdivided in three working groups, discussed and analyzed critical questions related to 'criteria' aPL tests in an evidence-based manner, during the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2010, April 13-16, 2010, Galveston, TX). These included: review of the standardization and the need for international consensus protocol for aCL and anti-β(2)GPI tests; the use of monoclonal and/or polyclonal standards in the calibration curve of those tests; and the need for establishment of international units of measurement for anti-β(2)GPI tests. The group also reviewed the recently updated guidelines for LAC testing, and analyzed and discussed the possibility of stratification of 'criteria' aPL tests as risk factors for APS, as well as the clinical value of single positive vs. multiple aPL positivity. The group members presented, discussed, analyzed data, updated and re-defined those critical questions at a preconference workshop that was open to congress attendees. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of this Task Force.

  13. [Night-to-night variability of the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Ouahchi, Y; Toujani, S; Snen, H; Ben Salah, N; Ben Hmida, A; Louzir, B; Mhiri, N; Cherif, J; Beji, M

    2016-11-01

    The apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) is the primary measurement used to characterize the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Despite its popularity, there are limiting factors to its application such as night-to-night variability.

  14. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  15. Evaluation of Two Night-Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)

  16. 77 FR 62147 - Night Definition; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-1043; Amdt. Nos. 1-1] Night Definition; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., the United States, and Canada. In 14 CFR 1.1 the definition of night refers to twilight times as... Administration amends chapter I of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 1--DEFINITIONS...

  17. Report on the 13th symposium on invertebrate neurobiology held 26-30 August 2015 at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for ecological research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tihany, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Crisford, Anna; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the lectures and posters presented at the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology's 13th symposium held 26-30 August 2015, at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary. The symposium provided an opportunity for scientists working on a range of topics in invertebrate neurobiology to meet and present their research and discuss ways to advance the discipline.

  18. The Night Sky on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. This time-lapse composite, acquired the evening of Spirit's martian sol 590 (Aug. 30, 2005) from a perch atop 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater, shows Phobos, the brighter moon, on the left, and Deimos, the dimmer moon, on the right. In this sequence of images obtained every 170 seconds, both moons move from top to bottom. The bright star Aldebaran forms a trail on the right, along with some other stars in the constellation Taurus. Most of the other streaks in the image mark the collision of cosmic rays with pixels in the camera.

    Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the six images that make up this composite using Spirit's panoramic camera with the camera's broadband filter, which was designed specifically for acquiring images under low-light conditions.

  19. Computer Generated Image: Relative Training Effectiveness of Day Versus Night Visual Scenes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth L.; Cataneo, Daniel F.

    A study was conducted by the Air Force to determine the extent to which takeoff/landing skills learned in a simulator equipped with a night visual system would transfer to daytime performance in the aircraft. A transfer-of-training design was used to assess the differential effectiveness of simulator training with a day versus a night…

  20. Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

    2008-08-01

    Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health

  1. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  2. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness

    PubMed Central

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A.; Rybnikova, Nataliya A.; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights. PMID:27386582

  3. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.

  4. Vernier acuity through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) are being used increasingly in military and civilian environments. Despite the use of these devices, relatively few tests exist to assess visual performance through NVG's. Hyperacuity tasks may provide a sensitive index of performance through night vision devices. In this study, grating vernier acuity was measured through NVG's. As reported previously, a power law relation was observed between vernier acuity and stimulus contrast. Comparison of vernier acuity with and without NVG's indicated that performance is limited by the contrast transfer of the device. Vernier acuity measurements can be used to assess the quality of vision and quantity of contrast transferred through night vision devices.

  5. Bedtime problems and night wakings in children.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melisa; Meltzer, Lisa J; Mindell, Jodi A

    2008-09-01

    Bedtime problems and night wakings in children are extremely common, and the treatment literature demonstrates strong empirical support for behavioral interventions. Empirically validated interventions for bedtime problems and night wakings include extinction, graduated extinction, positive routines, and parental education. Most children respond to behavioral interventions, resulting not only in better sleep for the child, but also better sleep and improved daytime functioning for the entire family. This article reviews the presentation of bedtime problems and night wakings, empirically validated interventions, and challenges to treatment in both typically developing and special populations of children.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  7. MSFC Catches Geminids In The Night Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows meteors captured by a wide-field camera at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the night of December 12. There are 141 events; at least 77 of these are Geminids, based on thei...

  8. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  9. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  10. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    may cause night blindness are glaucoma, progressive cone/rod dystrophies (e.g., retinitis pigmentosa , Stargardt’s disease), drug toxicity (e.g...Alabama, July 1989. 38. Berson EL, Rabin AR, Mehaffey L. Advances in night vision twchnology: A pocketscope for patients with retinitis pigmentosa ... retinal sensitivity to dim light. Regeneration of the photopigments occurs during dark adaptation. The fully dark-adapted eye, in which photopigment

  11. Interim-Night Integrated Goggle Head Tracking System (I-Nights). Volume 1. Ground Test Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    3 Figure 2. Honeywell I-NIGHTS System Drawing . . . . . . . . 4 Figure 3. Kaiser I-NIGHTS System Drawing . . . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 4. Spinal ...thoracolumbar spinal fracture during ejection seat use. The USAF use of the DRI to evaluate ejection seats is embodied in Military Specification: Seat Systems...probability of spinal injury. But, what WT/CG/force combinations are reasonably acceptable during ejection? The I-NIGHTS program helped establish an interim

  12. Export of carbon from chloroplasts at night

    SciTech Connect

    Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1998-12-01

    Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.

  13. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds' eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day.

  14. NightSkyLive.net: Bringing the Night Sky into Your Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Night Sky Live

    2004-12-01

    Show your class a full live night sky with a single click. The Night Sky Live project now has 10 fisheye CONtinuous CAMeras (CONCAMs) deployed around the world that send live images of the night sky back to http://NightSkyLive.net every few minutes. Any classroom that has access to a web browser can see the current night sky, live, horizon to horizon, similar in depth to what the human eye can see, and annotated, above a major observatory somewhere in the world. Additionally, archived images and automatically generated movies show how the night sky appeared over the past night and the past year, and how it will likely appear above your student's heads tonight, all through the night. Stars, planets, and constellations are automatically labelled. In addition to live products, canned on-line tutorials for beginning students use archived NSL images to explain concepts such as diurnal motion and and demonstrate the transience of variable stars. Projects for more advanced undergraduates include using the automatically generated photometry files to follow the light curves of well known stars such as Polaris, Betelgeuse, and Alpha Centauri.

  15. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

  16. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  17. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  18. Night sweats: it may be hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Murday, H K M; Rusli, F D; Blandy, C; Vollenhoven, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this case report is to show that hemochromatosis can present, unusually, with night sweats. At presentation, hemochromatosis often tends to have non-specific symptoms, making it easy to misdiagnose, especially if it presents with rare symptoms. Misdiagnosis of hemochromatosis can lead to lethal outcomes, given it can cause multiple organ dysfunctions if left untreated and hence the need to identify it early on. The case we present is a 41-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hemochromatosis complaining of night sweats. She thought she was menopausal. The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made solely on investigations given that she did not have any other symptoms other than night sweats. Her serum iron concentrations were within the normal range due to menstruation. It is uncommon for women to present with symptoms of hemochromatosis during their reproductive life since their iron concentration is kept within normal range through monthly menstrual bleeding.

  19. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  20. Night sky brightness measurement at PERMATApintar observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. D.; Gopir, G.; Kamil, W. M. A. Wan Mohd; Mohamad, N. S.; Azmi, N. Che

    2016-11-01

    One of the quality parameter of an astronomical site testing is sky brightness. We measure the night sky brightness over PERMATApintar Observatory to obtain the first preliminary sky brightness reading. The measurement is done by using an Unihedron Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) with a position pointing zenith. Six measurements have been done during the period of January to March 2016. The measurement is taken between approximately 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. on each of the night. The best (darken) night sky brightness reading is 19.54 mag/arcsec2 obtained on March 11th, 2016. The preliminary average reading of sky brightness is 17.20 mag/arcsec2. Comparison with previous similar measurement for the same type of area (suburban area) shows that our data is within the range of the sky brightness for suburban area, which is 19.5 to 20.7 mag/arcsec2.

  1. Social foraging and feeding environment of the black-crowned night heron in an industrialized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Link, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    A nesting colony of more than 300 pairs of Black-crowned Night-Herons in the Patapsco River estuary, Baltimore Harber, Maryland was monitored from May to July 1988. The departure direction and departure time of each Heron was recorded during mornjng and evening observations at the colony. In addition, individual Herons were followed to landing sites in the estuary with small boats and aircraft. Herons appear to be quite social in foraging and may concentrate their feeding in some of the most industrialized parts of the estuary. Night-Herons may prosper in urban environments because some of their prey are attracted to intense shoreline illumination at night. New quantitative methods were developed to cope with the lack of statistical independence when dealing with social species.

  2. [Blood transfusion practices: about transfusions at night].

    PubMed

    Roche, C; Théfenne, H; Hance, P; Garnotel, E

    2013-12-01

    Blood transfusion safety covers all stages from prescription of immuno-haematological examinations until the completion of the transfusion. According to the 05/11/2006 Afssaps' decision on good transfusion practices, transfusions should not be given at night unless the patient is actively bleeding or has some other urgent clinical need. A retrospective study was used to assess the proportion of transfusions at night. Through this professional practice evaluation, we analyze the reasons leading to perform transfusions at late hours, in order to reduce errors and improve safety for patients.

  3. Cockpit Readiness For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-09-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cockpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  4. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  5. Night-to-Night Sleep Variability in Older Adults with and Without Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Cheng, Yu; Germain, Anne; Moul, Douglas E.; Franzen, Peter L.; Fletcher, Mary; Monk, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify night-to-night variability in sleep behaviors and sleep measures among older chronic insomnia (CI) subjects and non-insomnia (NI) controls; 2) to investigate systematic temporal patterns of sleep behaviors and sleep measures across nights; and 3) to examine clinical correlates of sleep variability. Methods Sixty-one older adults with CI (71.4 years old, 67%F) and 31 older adults with NI (70.7 years old, 65%F) completed questionnaires and kept sleep diaries and wore wrist actigraphs for two weeks. Mixed models were used to estimate within-subject mean and standard deviation values; these were then compared across groups. Mixed models were also used to determine associations across nights of sleep measures. Results CI and NI differed on mean values for clinical ratings and sleep diary measures, but not for actigraphy measures. CI also showed significantly greater variability than NI on most sleep diary measures and on actigraphically-measured wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency. Among CI, neither diary nor actigraphy measures from one night correlated with values from the previous night. Diary WASO and sleep time and actigraphy sleep latency and sleep time, however, positively correlated with values from the previous two nights. Variability measures were not correlated with other global clinical measures among CI. Conclusions Compared to NI, older adults with CI report worse sleep and greater night-tonight variability, which was confirmed with actigraphy. There was little evidence for positive or negative correlation of sleep measures across nights. Variability of sleep may be an important target for insomnia treatments. PMID:19962939

  6. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  7. Analysis of Thursday Night NFL Winning Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a dataset and associated analysis of the scores of National Football League (NFL) games over the 2012, 2013, and first five weeks of the 2014 season. In the face of current media attention to "lopsided" scores in Thursday night games in the early part of the 2014 season, t-test results indicate no statistically…

  8. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    a different methodology . The second study was prompted by the inconclusiveness of the first study. METHOD - STUDY ONE Observers The trained observers......3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. HH-60D night hawk helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental development issues, system requirements and improvements are reported for the HH-60D night hawk helicopter. The HH-60D mission requirements are for combat search and rescue (aerospace rescue and recovery service user based at Scott AFB) and special operations (special operations forces based at Hurlburt AFB). Cockpit design, computer architecture and software are described in detail.

  10. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  11. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  12. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  13. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  14. Helicopter Night Vision System Simulation Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    mision safety. The enroute evaluation indicates a con- sistent preference for the 4HMD-PMD configuration. The copilot felt that the virtual HUD...pilot but never allowed Cho copilot to slow in a hover. In edsencer the night cranpore mision appears wo be a two pilot task with a t consant verbal

  15. Things That Go "Peent" in the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidich, Carole Louise

    1981-01-01

    Describes early spring night field trips by two naturalists and ten adults, armed with cameras and flashlights, in search of Spotted Salamanders performing ritual mating dances. Although dancing salamanders proved elusive, their habits and those of other pond life were examined and Spring American Woodcock nuptial flights were observed. (NEC)

  16. Education in the Night: A Serious Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Tangiwai Mere Appleton

    Education is one of the social institutions manipulated by New Zealand's European people to establish and perpetuate a painfully fragmented society. Po Ako is a community-based educational project where immigrant teachers, parents, and children from Tonga educate themselves at night about their own culture to better understand themselves and their…

  17. Urban planning and traffic safety at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, N.; Trusca, D.

    2016-08-01

    Urban planning including traffic signs serve vital functions, providing road users with regulatory, warning and guidance information about the roadway and surrounding environment. There are a large number of signs and even more guidelines on how these signs should be designed, installed, and maintained in concordance with on road surface traffic signs. More requirements for signs are made for night urban traffic, including appearance (size, shape, colour), placement (height, lateral, and longitudinal), maintenance (visibility, position, damage) and signs light and retroreflective. In the night, traffic signs visibility can interact by on pedestrian visibility and diminish urban traffic safety. The main aim of this paper are the scientific determination of an urban specific zone visibility for evaluate at night real conditions in case of a traffic accident in the Braşov city area. The night visibility study was made using PC-Rect version 4.2. Other goal of the paper was to modify some urban planning solution in order to increase the urban safety in Brașov.

  18. PAVE LOW III: interior lighting reconfiguration for night lighting and night vision goggle compatibility.

    PubMed

    Task, H L; Griffin, L L

    1982-12-01

    The PAVE LOW III aircraft is a modified HH-53H helicopter that has a low altitude--below 30.48 m (100 ft)--night/day rescue mission. The desired night flying configuration is for the pilot to wear night vision goggles (NVGs) to fly the aircraft while the copilot, without NVGs, observes the video display and monitors the aircraft instruments. The problems of NVG incompatibility in the cockpit were successfully countered using several light control techniques. The light control modifications were evaluated on the ground in the PAVE LOW III helicopter at Kirtland AFB in April, 1980, by PAVE LOW instructor pilots. The evaluation results were extremely positive.

  19. Mixing processes within the polar night jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Grose, William L.; Swinbank, Richard; O'Neill, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Lagrangian material line simulations are performed using U.K. Meteorological Office simulated winds and temperatures to examine mixing processes in the middle- and lower-stratospheric polar night jet during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring and Northern Hemisphere winter. The Lagrangian simulations are undertaken to provide insight into the effects of mixing within the polar night jet on observations of the polar vortex made by instruments onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during these periods. A moderate to strong kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic exchange, similar to the barrier identified in General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations, is identified during both of these periods. Characteristic timescales for mixing by large-scale isentropic motions within the polar night jet range from 20 days in the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere to years in the Northern Hemisphere middle stratosphere. The long mixing timescales found in the Northern Hemisphere polar night jet do not persist. Instead, the Northern Hemisphere kinematic barriers are broken down as part of the large-scale stratospheric response to a strong tropospheric blocking event. A series of Lagrangian experiments are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the kinematic barrier to diabatic effects and to small-scale inertial gravity wave motions. Differential diabatic descent is found to have a significant impact on mixing processes within the Southern Hemisphere middle-stratospheric jet core. The interaction between small-scale displacements by idealized, inertial gravity waves and the large-scale flow is found to have a significant impact on mixing within the polar night jet in both hemispheres. These sensitivity experiments suggest that scales of motion that are unresolved in global assimilated datasets may contribute to mass exchange across the kinematic barrier to large-scale isentropic motion.

  20. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undrus, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  1. Simulator Evaluation of Lineup Visual Landing Aids for Night Carrier Landing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-10

    sources behind five vertically stacked Fresnel lenses that are situated beteween two horizontal light arrays known as the datum bars. The array of lenses...moves more above or below the glideslope, the meatball is seen through higher or lower Fresnel lenses to give the appearance of moving vertically

  2. Development of Two Courses-of-Fire: Night Fire with Aiming Lights and Combat Field Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    TEA ) (Dyer, Reeves & Wampler, 1998; Dyer, 1999b), were that all Soldiers qualified with the CCO (day) and the TWS (night) on the M4 carbine, but...A559 371) 37 Dyer, J. L., Reeves, J., & Wampler, R. L. (1998). Training effectiveness analysis ( TEA ) of the Land Warrior (LW) System...Operation Iraqi Freedom OSUT One Station Unit Training ph Probability of hit POI Program of instruction RF Record fire TEA Training

  3. Sport Transition of JPSS VIIRS Imagery for Night-time Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita; Smith, Matt; Miller, Steve; Kann, Diedre; Bernhardt, David; Reydell, Nezette; Cox, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program and NOAA/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) work within the NOAA/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Ground to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the VIIRS instrument. Very similar to MODIS, the VIIRS instrument provides many high-resolution visible and infrared channels in a broad spectrum. In addition, VIIRS is equipped with a low-light sensor that is able to detect light emissions from the land and atmosphere as well as reflected sunlight by the lunar surface. This band is referred to as the Day-Night Band due to the sunlight being used at night to see cloud and topographic features just as one would typically see in day-time visible imagery. NWS forecast offices that collaborate with SPoRT and CIRA have utilized MODIS imagery in operations, but have longed for more frequent passes of polar-orbiting data. The VIIRS instrument enhances SPoRT collaborations with WFOs by providing another day and night-time pass, and at times two additional passes due to its large swath width. This means that multi-spectral, RGB imagery composites are more readily available to prepare users for their use in GOES-R era and high-resolution imagery for use in high-latitudes is more frequently able to supplement standard GOES imagery within the SPoRT Hybrid GEO-LEO product. The transition of VIIRS also introduces the new Day-Night Band capability to forecast operations. An Intensive Evaluation Period (IEP) was conducted in Summer 2013 with a group of "Front Range" NWS offices related to VIIRS night-time imagery. VIIRS single-channel imagery is able to better analyze the specific location of fire hotspots and other land features, as well as provide a more true measurement of various cloud and aerosol properties than geostationary measurements, especially at night. Viewed within the SPoRT Hybrid imagery, the VIIRS data allows forecasters to better interpret the more frequent, but

  4. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths.

    PubMed

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Fijen, Thijs P M

    2017-03-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand these declines, the question remains whether artificial light causes only increased mortality or also sublethal effects. We show that moths subjected to artificial night lighting spend less time feeding than moths in darkness, with the shortest time under light conditions rich in short wavelength radiation. These findings provide evidence for sublethal effects contributing to moth population declines. Because effects are strong under various types of light compared with dark conditions, the potential of spectral alterations as a conservation tool may be overestimated. Therefore, restoration and maintenance of darkness in illuminated areas is essential for reversing declines of moth populations.

  5. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  6. Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2006-05-01

    New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

  7. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  8. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  9. Low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Bruno; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Dambre, Pieter; Lootens, Peter; Steppe, Kathy

    2011-06-01

    The capability of Phalaenopsis to acclimate its photosynthetic capacity and metabolic activity to cool night temperature conditions is crucial for improving orchid production in terms of efficient greenhouse heating. The extent to which Phalaenopsis possesses acclimation potential and the mechanistic background of the metabolic processes involved, have, however, not been studied before. Plants were subjected to a direct and gradual shift from a day to night temperature regime of 28/28-28/16°C, the cold stress and cold acclimation treatment, respectively. In comparison with the cold stress treatment, the cold acclimation treatment led to a higher malate accumulation and a reduction in leaf net CO(2) uptake. Consistently, the contribution of respiratory CO(2) recycling to nocturnal malate synthesis was calculated to be 23.5 and 47.0% for the cold stress and cold acclimation treatment, respectively. Moreover, the lower levels of starch measured in the cold acclimated leaves confirmed the suggested enhanced respiratory CO(2) recycling, implying that Phalaenopsis CAM operation evolved towards CAM idling. It is, however, plausible that this adjustment was not an effect of the low night temperature per se but a consequence of cool-root induced drought stress. Apart from that, at the start of the photoperiod, membrane stability showed a depression which was directly counteracted by an increased generation of glucose, fructose and sucrose. From these observations, it can be concluded that the observed plasticity in CAM operation and metabolic flexibility may be recognized as important steps in the low night temperature acclimation of Phalaenopsis.

  10. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  11. Effects of Extended Hypoxia on Night Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    and Krill (5) have reported a study of fundamental sig- nificance on the effects of stimulus paraneter; and retinal placement of the stimulus on night...by Ernest and Krill (5), that the early segment of the dark adaptation function was unaffected by hypoxia. This disagreement probably can be explained...in recovery capability, even after extended hypoxia. The clear implication of this relationship for practical operetions is that supplemental oxygen

  12. Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    by optic nerve and pathways to Brodmann’s occipital areas 17 and 18). Perception occurs - vision Sensitive material ( retinal pigment) must be...clearly may be defined as glare. Glare becomes a problem in patients with opacities of the ocular media or with retinal diseases. 3 FME tN [I.I Sl IN FM...reduction of pupillary area caused by the drug. 3. Retinal causes of abnormal dark adaptation. a. Congenital stationary night blindness. b. etinitis

  13. The conformal transformation of the night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-12-01

    We give a simple differential geometric proof of the conformal transformation of the night sky under change of observer. The proof does not use the four dimensionality of spacetime or spinor methods. Furthermore, it really shows that the result does not depend on Lorentz transformations. This approach, by giving a transparent covariant expression to the conformal factor, shows that in most situations it is possible to define a thermal sky metric independent of the observer.

  14. Moonbase night power by laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

  15. Agomelatine Efficacy in the Night Eating Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (−5.5 kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment. PMID:23762076

  16. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

    2013-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400

  17. Calculation of day and night emittance values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1983, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown over Death Valley, California on both a midday and predawn flight within a two-day period. The availability of calibrated digital data permitted the calculation of day and night surface temperature and surface spectral emittance. Image processing of the data included panorama correction and calibration to radiance using the on-board black bodies and the measured spectral response of each channel. Scene-dependent isolated-point noise due to bit drops, was located by its relatively discontinuous values and replaced by the average of the surrounding data values. A method was developed in order to separate the spectral and temperature information contained in the TIMS data. Night and day data sets were processed. The TIMS is unique in allowing collection of both spectral emittance and thermal information in digital format with the same airborne scanner. For the first time it was possible to produce day and night emittance images of the same area, coregistered. These data add to an understanding of the physical basis for the discrimination of difference in surface materials afforded by TIMS.

  18. "Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2008-05-01

    Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

  19. The Social Implications of Light at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: It has been shown that Light at Night (LAN) has serious implications for both the environment and human health. What is considered here are the social implications that arise from these problems, and what needs to be done to redress these issues.Introduction: Light at Night is a serious environmental problem whose environmental and medical implications have been seriously underestimated. If no action is taken the problem will become progressively worse and may reach a point where nothing can be done about it. The issues arising from it need to be identified andappropriate action taken to mitigate these issues as far as possible. Hopefully this can be done amicably by self regulation within communities, but if this fails then stringent anti-light pollution legislation will have to be enacted. Some countries and local authorities have already begun to make faltering steps in this direction1, but so far the measures taken have been minimal and largely ineffective. Light at Night (and the light pollution resulting from it) therefore remains a problem and continues to get worse despite the measures already taken to reduce it. Domes of scattered light continue to hang above our cities, killing off our wildlife and endangering public health. Attitudes need to change and urgent measures need to be taken in order to reduce or eliminate its impact.

  20. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use the sharing ... JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when ...

  1. MONIM: the new Met Office Night Illumination Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revell, S. J.; Hignett, P.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a new model developed by the Met Office to predict night-time light levels. The Met Office Night Illumination Model (MONIM) predicts light levels both in the visible (photopic) range and in the waveband to which night vision goggles (NVGs) are sensitive. The model will be used operationally for support of night-time flying operations. The model is described in detail and its light-level forecasts are compared with observations.

  2. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  3. Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

  4. Martian Highlands at Night in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime temperature image from the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the ancient, heavily cratered surface of the highlands between Isidis and Elysium Planitia. The image is entered near 9 degrees north latitude, 109 degrees east longitude, and covers an area approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide by 120 kilometers (75 miles) long. The bright 'splashes' extending outward from the three large craters are the remnants of the rocky material thrown out when the impact occurred. The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm. Fine grained dust and sand cool off more rapidly at night. The circular rims of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters. The 'splash' ejecta patterns are also warmer than their surroundings, and are covered by material that was blasted out when the craters formed. The temperatures in this scene vary from approximately -105 degrees Celsius (-157 degrees Fahrenheit)(darkest) to -75 degrees Celsius (-103 degrees Fahrenheit) (lightest). This image was acquired using the instrument's infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers. North is toward the left in this image.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin

  5. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  6. Design Considerations For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasheen, W. M.; Reiss, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Baird Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts, has designed and developed two similar night vision goggles. These goggles are binocular viewing to the wearer's eyes, but use a single objective lens and a single image intensifier tube. Binocular viewing is achieved by dividing a single image and sharing it between the'viewer's eyes. The goggles are self-sufficient, independent instruments which can be simply and easily interfaced with a face mask that the viewer wears. This paper covers the main design considerations that are associated with achieving the goals of these goggle configurations and their performance. Baird's first goggle design is designated the GP/NVG; the second is designated the AN/PVS-7. The GP/NVG night vision goggle is a high-performance, single intensifier tube, passive night vision device that provides the user with a 40-degree field of view at unity magnification. The fixed aperture, f/1.0 objective lens collects the available light and images it on the fiber optic faceplate of the second generation image intensifier tube. The image intensifier tube converts the real image at the fiber optic faceplate into electrons across the image, amplifies them, and then reconverts the electrons into a real, visible image at the fiber optic output of the tube. This image is then collimated to appear as if it is coming from infinity, split in two, and reimaged by the relay lenses. The eyelenses provide a magnified image to the user. The user can adjust each eyelens to clearly view the output faceplate of the image intensifier tube. This adjustment is made only once for each user. The objective focus can be manually set for distances from 25 centimeters to infinity. The general configuration of this night vision goggle is similar to that of a pair of single objective binocular field glasses. It is extremely lightweight (with most of the main construction molded from plastic) and compact for easy handling. All adjustments and on/off switching have been "human

  7. The Pan 13th Annual Forum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Poulakidas, CAMR, Sean Tipton, CAMR, Larry Soler , CAMR Plenary Session: Emerging Therapies: Parkinson’s Treatments in the Pipeline...October 2005. J. Alexander ’’Andy’’ Salisbury -- North Carolina Mr. Salisbury is a lawyer, working extensively with the energy and public utility

  8. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2011-06-01

    Electrostatics 2011 was held in the city of Bangor which is located in North West Wales in an area of outstanding natural beauty close to the Snowdonia mountain range and bordering the Irish Sea. The history of the area goes back into the mists of times, but a continuous technological thread can be traced from the stone- and bronze-age craftsmen, who inhabited the area several thousand years ago, via the civil engineering and fortifications of the Romans and Edward I of England, through Marconi's long-wave trans-Atlantic transmitter near Caernarfon to the conference host. The School of Electronic Engineering at Bangor University has contributed much to the discipline of Electrostatics not only in teaching and research but also in supporting industry. It was a great pleasure for me, therefore, to have the pleasure of welcoming the world's experts in Electrostatics to Bangor in April 2011. In my preface to the Proceedings of Electrostatics 1999, I reported that almost 90 papers were presented. Interestingly, a similar number were presented in 2011 testifying to the importance and endurance of the subject. The all-embracing nature of electrostatics is captured in the pictorial depiction used for the conference logo: a hand-held plasma ball with its close link to gaseous discharges and the superimposed Antarctic aurora highlighting the featured conference themes of atmospheric, planetary and environmental electrostatics. Leading these themes were three invited contributions, the first by Giles Harrison who delivered the Bill Bright Memorial Lecture 'Fair weather atmospheric electricity', Carlos Calle on 'The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon' and Istvan Berta on 'Lightning protection - challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century'. Leading other key sessions were invited papers by Atsushi Ohsawa on 'Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry' and Antonio Ramos on 'Electrohydrodynamic pumping in microsystems'. Of the papers submitted for publication 69 passed through the thorough review process and I take this opportunity to warmly thank the reviewers for their constructive criticism and rapid turnaround which has allowed the Proceedings to be delivered to the publisher on time. It is a pleasure also to thank members of the International Advisory Panel, and the Organizing and Programme Committees for their guidance and suggestions and especially Claire Garland and her team at the Institute of Physics for their support, all of which ensured a successful and enjoyable conference. Special thanks are due to Jeremy Smallwood for organising the pre-conference workshop, to Tom Jones, Martin Glor and Dave Swenson for their highly informative and educational contributions at the workshop, to CST for organising the simulation workshop, and to CST and JCI Chilworth for their much appreciated sponsorship of the conference. I am sure you will enjoy reading this record of Electrostatics 2011, covering as it does the wide range of subjects upon which static electricity impinges. Especially important is the development of electrostatic-based methods for reducing atmospheric pollution. In this context it is interesting to see how Masuda's work on the surface-discharge-based Boxer charger, first reported over 30 years ago, has now developed into dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) systems for the removal of noxious molecules from industrial and vehicle exhaust gases. Thanks to our hard working conference chairman, Paul Holdstock, the conference retained its now well-established reputation for providing a friendly, sociable atmosphere for discussing the newest developments in this important scientific area. Finally, my sincere thanks go to all the presenters and to all those who attended and contributed to another successful conference. Professor D. Martin TaylorProceedings EditorBangor, May 2011

  9. The 13th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technological areas covered include propulsion, motion compensation, instrument pointing and adjustment, centrifuge testing, bearing design, vehicle braking, and cargo handling. Devices for satellite, missile, and hypersonic-wind-tunnel applications; space shuttle mechanical and thermal protection systems; and techniques for building large space structures are described. In addition, a fluid drop injector device for a Spacelab experiment, a helical grip for cable cars, and applications of rare earth permanent magnets are discussed.

  10. Insect photoreceptor adaptations to night vision.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Anna; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Salmela, Iikka; Heimonen, Kyösti; Weckström, Matti

    2017-04-05

    Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision. Retinal photoreceptors form the first bottleneck for the transfer of visual information. In this review, we cover the basics of what is known about physiological adaptations of insect photoreceptors for low-light vision. We will also discuss major enigmas of some of the functional properties of nocturnal photoreceptors, and describe recent advances in methodologies that may help to solve them and broaden the field of insect vision research to new model animals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  11. 2010 National Observe the Moon Night!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

    2010-05-01

    We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

  12. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    2000-06-01

    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  13. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  14. The passing of the night watch: night nursing reform in the London teaching hospitals, 1856-90.

    PubMed

    Helmstadter, C

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the nineteenth century a separate team of women called the "night watch" was responsible for the night nursing in the London teaching hospitals. Rough, uneducated, and frequently the "scrubbers," or charwomen, who cleaned the halls and stairways in the hospitals in the daytime, the night watchers came to be closely identified with Dickens's Sarah Gamp. As the century progressed, the expanding capabilities of the new academic medicine forced an improvement in the standard of nursing. The difficulty in finding clinically experienced nurses who were willing to work nights at an affordable price, however, made it possible for the night watchers to remain in the new professionally organized hospital long after such unskilled and undisciplined workers had been phased out of other areas of the late Victorian workforce. By the end of the century when hospitals began rotating partially trained probationer, or student, nurses onto nights, the night watchers finally disappeared from the teaching hospitals.

  15. Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

  16. Rosetta lander Philae: Flight Dynamics analyses for landing site selection and post-landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Eric; Martin, Thierry; Canalias, Elisabet; Blazquez, Alejandro; Garmier, Romain; Ceolin, Thierry; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cedric; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Remetean, Emile; Torres, Alex; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Dolives, Benoit; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Kofman, Wlodek; Jorda, Laurent; Zakharov, Vladimir; Crifo, Jean-François; Rodionov, Alexander; Heinish, P.; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-08-01

    On the 12th of November 2014, The Rosetta Lander Philae became the first spacecraft to softly land on a comet nucleus. Due to the double failure of the cold gas hold-down thruster and the anchoring harpoons that should have fixed Philae to the surface, it spent approximately two hours bouncing over the comet surface to finally come at rest one km away from its target site. Nevertheless it was operated during the 57 h of its First Science Sequence. The FSS, performed with the two batteries, should have been followed by the Long Term Science Sequence but Philae was in a place not well illuminated and fell into hibernation. Yet, thanks to reducing distance to the Sun and to seasonal effect, it woke up at end of April and on 13th of June it contacted Rosetta again. To achieve this successful landing, an intense preparation work had been carried out mainly between August and November 2014 to select the targeted landing site and define the final landing trajectory. After the landing, the data collected during on-comet operations have been used to assess the final position and orientation of Philae, and to prepare the wake-up. This paper addresses the Flight Dynamics studies done in the scope of this landing preparation from Lander side, in close cooperation with the team at ESA, responsible for Rosetta, as well as for the reconstruction of the bouncing trajectory and orientation of the Lander after touchdown.

  17. 'Non-criteria' aPL tests: report of a task force and preconference workshop at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Galveston, TX, USA, April 2010.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, M L; Amengual, O; Atsumi, T; Binder, W L; de Laat, B; Forastiero, R; Kutteh, W H; Lambert, M; Matsubayashi, H; Murthy, V; Petri, M; Rand, J H; Sanmarco, M; Tebo, A E; Pierangeli, S S

    2011-02-01

    Abstract: Current classification criteria for definite APS recommend the use of one or more of three positive standardized laboratory assays, including anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), lupus anticoagulant (LA), and antibodies directed to β(2)glycoprotein I (anti-β(2)GPI) to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e., thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. Several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to phospholipids and/or their complexes with phospholipids and/or to proteins of the coagulation cascade, as well as a mechanistic test for resistance to annexin A5 anticoagulant activity, have been proposed to be relevant to APS. A task force of worldwide scientists in the field discussed and analyzed critical questions related to 'non-criteria' aPL tests in an evidence-based manner during the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2010, 13-16 April 2010, Galveston, Texas, USA). This report summarizes the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of this task force.

  18. Meeting report: The 13th Annual Meeting of the Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3); Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment, Columbus, Ohio; March 1-2, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Carson, William E; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Wei, Wei-zen; Kalinski, Pawel; Lotze, Michael T; June, Carl H; Petros, William; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Olencki, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    The Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3) is a cancer immunotherapy network, established to promote biologic therapeutics in the Midwestern and Northeastern regions of The United States. The 13th Annual Meeting of the TrC3 was hosted by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and took place at The Blackwell Hotel and Conference Center in Columbus, OH on March 1-2, 2010 (http://www.osuccc.osu.edu/TrC3/index.htm). This year's theme was "Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment." The meeting consisted of 21 oral presentations, a roundtable discussion focused on enhancing collaborative relationships within the consortium, and a poster session with 54 abstracts from predoctoral or postdoctoral researchers. This annual meeting brought together more than 170 investigators from 9 regional cancer centers including: Abramson Cancer Center at The University of Pennsylvania, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center at West Virginia University, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Penn State Cancer Institute, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute. The proceedings of this year's meeting are summarized in this report.

  19. Implementing a night-shift clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dawn Marie

    2013-01-01

    Night-shift nurses receive fewer educational opportunities and less administrative support than do day-shift staff, tend to be newer, with less experience and fewer resources, and experience greater turnover rates, stress, and procedural errors. In an attempt to bridge the gap between day- and night-shift nursing, a night-shift clinical nurse specialist (CNS) position was created in a midsized, community teaching hospital. The goal was to provide an advanced practice presence to improve patient outcomes, communication, education, and cost-effectiveness. The night-shift CNS participated in nursing education and skill certifications, communicated new procedures and information, and created a communication committee specifically for night-shift nurses. Through regular rounding and on-call notification, the CNS was available to every area of the hospital for consultation and clinical assistance and assisted with rapid responses, codes, and traumas. Providing education during night shift reduced overtime costs and increased morale, positively affecting turnover rates. The night-shift CNS position has improved morale and equalized support for night-shift nurses. More research, most notably in specific night-shift metrics, is necessary, and with the implementation of the role in additional facilities, more can be understood about improving patient care and nursing staff satisfaction during night shift.

  20. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  1. Preliminary assessment of night vision goggles in airborne forest fire suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion; Craig, Greg; Erdos, Rob; Filiter, Don; Crowell, Bob; Macuda, Todd

    2007-04-01

    Helicopters are widely used in daytime forest fire suppression, conducting diverse tasks such as spotting, re-supply, medical evacuation and airborne delivery. However, they are not used at night for forest fire suppression operations. There would be many challenges when operating in the vicinity of forest fires at night, including scene obscuration from smoke and dynamic changes in lighting conditions. There is little data on the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) for airborne forest fire suppression. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), performed a preliminary flight test to examine the use of NVGs while operating near forest fires. The study also simulated limited aspects of night time water bucketing. The preliminary observations from this study suggest that NVGs have potential to improve the safety and efficiency of airborne forest fire suppression, including forest fire perimeter mapping and take-off and landing in the vicinity of open fires. NVG operations at some distance from the fire pose minimal risk to flight, and provide an enhanced capability to identify areas of combustion at greater distances and accuracy. Closer to the fire, NVG flight becomes more risk intensive as a consequence of a reduction in visibility attributable to the adverse effects on NVG performance of the excess radiation and smoke emitted by the fire. The preliminary results of this study suggest that water bucketing at night is a difficult operation with elevated risk. Further research is necessary to clarify the operational limitations and implementation of these devices in forest fire suppression.

  2. Arsia Mons by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  3. Crater Ejecta by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  4. Noctus Labyrinthus by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 25 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Noctus Labyrinthus.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 264.5 East (95.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  5. Meridiani Crater in Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will

  6. Ius Chasma by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  7. Gusev Crater by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  8. Albor Tholus by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 21 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Albor Tholus.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 150.3 East (209.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  9. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  10. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Night Eating Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kelly C.; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; O’Reardon, John P.; Geliebter, Allan; Gluck, Marci E.; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Mitchell, James E.; Schenck, Carlos H.; Howell, Michael J.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott; Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Mahowald, Mark W.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose criteria for diagnosis of the night eating syndrome (NES). Method An international research meeting was held in April 2008, and consensus criteria for NES diagnosis were determined. Results The core criterion is an abnormally increased food intake in the evening and nighttime, manifested by (1) consumption of at least 25% of intake after the evening meal, and/or (2) nocturnal awakenings with ingestions at least twice per week. Awareness of the eating episodes is required, as is distress or impairment in functioning. Three of five modifiers must also be endorsed. These criteria must be met for a minimum duration of 3 months. Discussion These criteria help standardize the definition of NES. Additional aspects of the nosology of NES yet to be fully elaborated include its relationship to other eating and sleep disorders. Assessment and analytic tools are needed to assess these new criteria more accurately. PMID:19378289

  11. Visual evoked potentials through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1994-04-01

    Night vision goggles (NVG's) have widespread use in military and civilian environments. NVG's amplify ambient illumination making performance possible when there is insufficient illumination for normal vision. While visual performance through NVG's is commonly assessed by measuring threshold functions such as visual acuity, few attempts have been made to assess vision through NVG's at suprathreshold levels of stimulation. Such information would be useful to better understand vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus conditions. In this study visual evoked potentials (VEP's) were used to evaluate vision through NVG's across a range of stimulus contrasts. The amplitude and latency of the VEP varied linearly with log contrast. A comparison of VEP's recorded with and without NVG's was used to estimate contrast attenuation through the device. VEP's offer an objective, electrophysiological tool to assess visual performance through NVG's at both threshold and suprathreshold levels of visual stimulation.

  12. Flicker detection through night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1994-02-01

    Visual performance through night vision goggles (NVG's) is commonly assessed with letter charts or other static displays. Few attempts have been made to evaluate dynamic aspects of vision through NVG's. Such information may be used to better predict human performance and guide the development of improved devices. In this study, contrast thresholds for detection of flickering targets were measured through NVG's across a range of ambient conditions. A comparison of measurements with and without NVG's indicated that flicker detection is limited by the contrast and luminance of the NVG display. The contrast limitation is largely independent of stimulus flicker frequency. Increasing the transfer of static contrast and/or luminance through NVG's will also improve dynamic visual performance.

  13. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  14. Voyaging from the Past, to the Present, and into the Future: Knowing Your Heritage. Selected Papers from PIALA 2003, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (13th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 13th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2003 Planning &…

  15. PIALA 2000: Libraries and Archives--Where Information and Language Literacy Begin [and] Engaged Readers and Writers in Multicultural Island Communities. Selected Papers from the 10th Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference Joint with the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference (Tumon, Guam, November 9-11, 2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.; Quan, Clarisa G., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This proceedings combines presentations from the jointly held 10th Annual PIALA 2000 Conference and the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference. The volume begins with the welcoming remarks of Mary L. Silk, Christine Ku Scott-Smith, Antonio R. Umpingco, Delia Munoz Rosal, Lawrence Kasperbauer, Rosie Tainatongo, Richard S. Tom, Mary L.…

  16. Melatonin production and light exposure of rotating night workers.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Lanctôt, Valérie; Cadieux-Viau, Raphaëlle; Paquet, Jean

    2012-03-01

    Decreased melatonin production, due to acute suppression of pineal melatonin secretion by light exposure during night work, has been suggested to underlie higher cancer risks associated with prolonged experience of night work. However, the association between light exposure and melatonin production has never been measured in the field. In this study, 24-h melatonin production and ambulatory light exposure were assessed during both night-shift and day/evening-shift periods in 13 full-time rotating shiftworkers. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and light exposure was measured with an ambulatory photometer. There was no difference in total 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods. The night-shift period was characterized by a desynchrony between melatonin and sleep-wake rhythms, as shown by higher melatonin production during work and lower melatonin production during sleep when working night shifts than when working day/evening shifts. Light exposure during night work showed no correlation with aMT6s excreted during the night of work (p > .5), or with the difference in 24-h aMT6s excretion between the two work periods (p > .1). However, light exposure during night work was negatively correlated with total 24-h aMT6s excretion over the entire night-shift period (p < .01). In conclusion, there was no evidence of direct melatonin suppression during night work in this population. However, higher levels of light exposure during night work may have decreased total melatonin production, possibly by initiating re-entrainment and causing internal desynchrony. This interpretation is consistent with the proposition that circadian disruption, of which decreased melatonin production is only one of the adverse consequences, could be the mediator between night shiftwork and cancer risks.

  17. [Optimizing visual work of pilot wearing night vision glasses].

    PubMed

    Davydov, V V; Golosov, S Iu; Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Riabinin, V A

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with results of experimental studies on optimizing visual work conditions of pilot in night vision glasses. Prevention of visual fatigue during work in night vision glasses was proved to be contributed mostly by the image brightness (in range of 0.7-1.8 candle/m2) adjustable by the pilot, precise individual settings of optic system in night vision glasses (by viewer's eye base) and regulation of the work duration.

  18. Night and Day in the VA: Associations between Night Shift Staffing, Nurse Workforce Characteristics, and Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    de Cordova, Pamela B.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Schmitt, Susan; Stone, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    In hospitals, nurses provide patient care around the clock, but the impact of night staff characteristics on patient outcomes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between night nurse staffing and workforce characteristics and the length of stay (LOS) in 138 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals using panel data from 2002 through 2006. Staffing in hours per patient day was higher during the day than at night. The day nurse workforce had more educational preparation than the night workforce. Nurses’ years of experience at the unit, facility, and VA level were greater at night. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables, higher night staffing and a higher skill mix were associated with reduced LOS. PMID:24403000

  19. Light at Night Markup Language (LANML): XML Technology for Light at Night Monitoring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.

  20. The impact of changing night vision goggle spectral response on night vision imaging system lighting compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, Harry L.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2004-09-01

    The defining document outlining night-vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting, MIL-L-85762A, was written in the mid 1980's, based on what was then the state of the art in night vision and image intensification. Since that time there have been changes in the photocathode sensitivity and the minus-blue coatings applied to the objective lenses. Specifically, many aviation night-vision goggles (NVGs) in the Air Force are equipped with so-called "leaky green" or Class C type objective lens coatings that provide a small amount of transmission around 545 nanometers so that the displays that use a P-43 phosphor can be seen through the NVGs. However, current NVIS compatibility requirements documents have not been updated to include these changes. Documents that followed and replaced MIL-L-85762A (ASC/ENFC-96-01 and MIL-STD-3009) addressed aspects of then current NVIS technology, but did little to change the actual content or NVIS radiance requirements set forth in the original MIL-L-85762A. This paper examines the impact of spectral response changes, introduced by changes in image tube parameters and objective lens minus-blue filters, on NVIS compatibility and NVIS radiance calculations. Possible impact on NVIS lighting requirements is also discussed. In addition, arguments are presented for revisiting NVIS radiometric unit conventions.

  1. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  2. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  3. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  4. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  5. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  6. Drax's Reading in Neverwinter Nights: With a Tutor as Henchman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This is an account of what a teacher educator learned from using the video game Neverwinter Nights with Drax, a high school student whose reading is like that of an elementary school student. Neverwinter Nights is a role-playing adventure game that requires reading print along with other meaningful signs such as sounds, artefacts, color, maps,…

  7. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  8. Disability Awareness Night[TM]: 2006 Honorees, Sponsors, Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the 2006 honorees, sponsors, and teams for the Disability Awareness Night[TM]. Disability Awareness Night[TM] is a unique and powerful community outreach program. Its vision is to continue to raise awareness outside of the community of individuals with disabilities to continue the goal that this program will open doors to…

  9. Psyche and Society in Sendak's "In the Night Kitchen"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca V. L.; Rabkin, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    While "Where the Wild Things Are" may be Maurice Sendak's most popular book, "In the Night Kitchen" is arguably the greater work. Though his journey in "Wild Things" shares many of the elements of Mickey's adventure in "Night Kitchen"--swinging between the protagonist's initiatory verbal assertions and silent, completely pictorial spreads that…

  10. Deliverance from the "Dark Night of the Soul"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnier, Richard T.; Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; Lindberg, Brent

    2009-01-01

    For many individuals, spiritual inspiration, clarity, or epiphany is often preceded by a "dark night of the soul". St. John of the Cross, a Spanish mystic of the 16th century, first described the concept. Today, the phrase "dark night of the soul" is usually associated with the crisis part of the journey to enlightenment. This article defines and…

  11. Night Vision Goggles in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    corrected with certain types of bifocal spectacles that compensate for the inadequate accommodative power of the eye lenses . Niqht Myopia. Myopic...5 1.1. 6 Dark Adaptation ..................... ............. 7 1.1.7 Night Vision Protection ...night flight. Special corrective lenses can be prescribed to correct for myopia. Astiqmatism. Astigmatism is an irregularity of the shape of the cornea

  12. HMD digital night vision system for fixed wing fighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bobby D.

    2013-05-01

    Digital night sensor technology offers both advantages and disadvantages over standard analog systems. As the digital night sensor technology matures and disadvantages are overcome, the transition away from analog type sensors will increase with new programs. In response to this growing need RCEVS is actively investing in digital night vision systems that will provide the performance needed for the future. Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America continue to invest in digital night technology and have completed laboratory, ground and preliminary flight testing to evaluate the important key factors for night vision. These evaluations have led to a summary of the maturity of the digital night capability and status of the key performance gap between analog and digital systems. Introduction of Digital Night Vision Systems can be found in the roadmap of future fixed wing and rotorcraft programs beginning in 2015. This will bring a new set of capabilities to the pilot that will enhance his abilities to perform night operations with no loss of performance.

  13. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  14. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew; Johnston, Chris; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2006-07-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  15. Day/night ANVIS/HUD-24 (day HUD) flight test and pilot evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yona, Zvi; Weiser, Ben; Hamburger, Oded

    2004-09-01

    The Day/Night ANVIS/HUD-24 gives pilots the ultimate head-out flight solution: 24-hour operational capability from a single integrated system. The basic integrated system combines the standard Night Vision Goggle (NVG) image with vital aircraft flight and navigation information, currently operational on over 4500 helicopters worldwide. Introducing the new Day HUD add-on module the same flight information is displayed for day use. The Day Head Up Display (HUD) is an add-on, complimentary to the basic night ANVIS/HUD system (AN/AVS-7). A lightweight optical module enhancing the day flight operation is designed to allow utility and reconnaissance helicopter day-mission operation by providing complete daytime head-out flight information. This add-on unit enhances flight safety, maximizes tactical survivability, and increases situational awareness during critical landing and takeoff phases. The Day HUD offers a unique 25° field-of-view, monocular, see-through flight information display. It mounts directly to the standard NVG mounting, incorporating a state of the art AMLCD flat panel display, high brightness solid-state backlight and compact optics resulting in a high contrast, high visibility display. The Day HUD test and evaluation program included extensive man-machine interface tests and numerous flight test aircraft in more than six separate countries. This paper will also address flight training, customer acceptance and expand on these findings and observations.

  16. Objectively measured night-to-night sleep variations are associated with body composition in very elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between objectively measured sleep patterns and body composition in very elderly community-dwelling women. Participants included 191 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 years (mean age: 83.4 ± 2.6 years; age range: 80-92 years). Sleep and physical activity were monitored via accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) during at least five consecutive 24-h periods. Night-to-night sleep pattern variability across all nights of recording was assessed using standard deviations (SDs). Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. The mean number of nights with usable actigraphy data was 7.3 ± 1.3. On average, participants went to bed at 22:57 hours (SD: 1.11 h) and rose from bed at 6:27 hours (SD: 1.01 h). Night-to-night bedtime, sleep duration and sleep timing mid-point variations correlated slightly with the percentage body fat and percentage lean mass (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of night-to-night bedtime variations and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns with all body composition indices after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including mean nightly sleep duration, self-reported nap duration and daily physical activity. After further adjusting for night-to-night wake time, sleep timing mid-point and sleep duration variations, greater bedtime variability remained associated significantly with all body composition indices except lean/fat mass ratio. Inconsistent sleep-wake patterns were associated independently with an increased fat mass and decreased lean mass among very elderly women. These findings suggest that in most elderly individuals, sleep patterns might be an important modifiable factor associated with obesity and sarcopenia development.

  17. {GUVI} Observations of Night Time Ionospheric Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C. M.; Christensen, A. B.; Walterscheid, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Meng, C. I.; Craven, J. D.; Meier, R. R.; Strickland, D. J.; Crowley, G.

    2002-05-01

    The TIMED spacecraft is currently mapping the nighttime Earth disk and limb with the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI). Images are made in the OI 135.6 nm line which is excited by the recombination of O+ ions. The intensity in these disk images is related to the total electron content of the ionosphere and density profiles can be recovered from the limb scans. Prominent in these images are UV signatures of the Equatorial Anomaly that was first imaged by the DE-1 satellite. Data is currently available from essentially the same local time and is suitable for the study of the longitudinal dependence of the Anomalies. It is known that the Earth's ionosphere shows the occurrence large longitudinal and latitudinal variations in the F-region plasma density that change with season and solar cycle. These plasma density fluctuations occur over a very large range of scale sizes and have been observed by for about three decades by satellites [e.g., ISIS 2, ESRO-4, Atmosphere Explorers, Dynamics Explorer-2, San Marco II, DMSP, etc.]. Their morphology, origin, day-to-day variability, and predictability are still not well understood. The GUVI night data that gives insight into these largest scale structures will be discussed.

  18. What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to daylight imagery. However, in actuality its characteristics differ significantly from those of daylight imagery. As a result, NVG imagery frequently induces visual illusions. To achieve realistic training, simulated NVG imagery should at least reproduce the essential visual limitations of real NVG imagery caused by reduced resolution, reduced contrast, limited field-of-view, the absence of color, and the systems sensitivity to nearby infrared radiation. It is particularly important that simulated NVG imagery represents essential NVG visual characteristics, such as the high reflection of chlorophyll and halos. Current real-time simulation software falls short for training purposes because of an incorrect representation of shadow effects. We argue that the development of shading and shadowing merits priority to close the gap between real and simulated NVG flight conditions. Visual conspicuity can be deployed as an efficient metric to measure the 'perceptual distance' between the real NVG and the simulated NVG image.

  19. Night eating syndrome : diagnosis, epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    O'Reardon, John P; Peshek, Andrew; Allison, Kelly C

    2005-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. The core clinical feature appears to be a delay in the circadian timing of food intake. Energy intake is reduced in the first half of the day and greatly increased in the second half, such that sleep is disrupted in the service of food intake. The syndrome can be distinguished from bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder by the lack of associated compensatory behaviours, the timing of food intake and the fact that the food ingestions are small, amounting to repeated snacks rather than true binges. NES also differs from sleep-related eating disorder by the presence of full awareness, as opposed to parasomnic nocturnal ingestions. NES is of importance clinically because of its association with obesity. Its prevalence rises with increasing weight, and about half of those diagnosed with it report a normal weight status before the onset of the syndrome. The recognition and effective treatment of NES may be an increasingly important way to treat a subset of the obese population. Treatment of the syndrome, however, is still in its infancy. One clinical trial has reported efficacy with the SSRI sertraline. Other treatments, such as the anticonvulsant topiramate, phototherapy and other SSRIs, may also offer future promise.

  20. Spatial navigation using night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Michelle; Parush, Avi; Macuda, Todd; Tang, Denis; Craig, Greg; Jennings, Sion

    2006-05-01

    While anecdotal reports suggest that Night Vision Goggles influence spatial navigation and wayfinding (Braithwaite, Douglass, Durnford, and Lucas, 1998), few studies have systematically characterized the nature of these effects. To address this issue, the current study examined the impact of NVGs on navigation and wayfinding performance. One group of participants were required to navigate a walking maze and retrieve target objects while wearing NVGs (experimental condition), while a second control group navigated the maze without NVGs. We measured several performance metrics of navigation and wayfinding. Our results show that navigation and wayfinding with NVGs (experimental group) appeared to be harder, with longer navigation durations and more navigational errors compared to not using NVGs (control group). However, a significant decrease in navigation duration over the course of the wayfinding trials occurred earlier with NVGs, in addition to significant decreases in navigational steps compared to the control group. These results support the notion that NVGs directly affect spatial navigation and wayfinding performance. These degradations in performance should be considered in operational planning and NVG training programs. Further research is necessary to expand our understanding of the impact of NVGs on spatial cognition.

  1. Night vision imaging system lighting evaluation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.; Barbato, Maryann H.; Hausmann, Martha A.

    2005-05-01

    In order for night vision goggles (NVGs) to be effective in aircraft operations, it is necessary for the cockpit lighting and displays to be NVG compatible. It has been assumed that the cockpit lighting is compatible with NVGs if the radiance values are compliant with the limits listed in Mil-L-85762A and Mil-Std-3009. However, these documents also describe a NVG-lighting compatibility field test procedure that is based on visual acuity. The objective of the study described in this paper was to determine how reliable and precise the visual acuity-based (VAB) field evaluation method is and compare it to a VAB method that employs less expensive equipment. In addition, an alternative, objective method of evaluating compatibility of the cockpit lighting was investigated. An inexpensive cockpit lighting simulator was devised to investigate two different interference conditions and six different radiance levels per condition. This paper describes the results, which indicate the objective method, based on light output of the NVGs, is more precise and reliable than the visual acuity-based method. Precision and reliability were assessed based on a probability of rejection (of the lighting system) function approach that was developed specifically for this study.

  2. Visualization on the Day Night Year Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Vušković, Leposava; Popović, Svetozar; Popović, Jelena; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    The story about a properly oriented outdoor globe in the hands and minds of Eratosthenes, Jefferson, Milanković and science educators is presented. Having the same orientation in space as the Earth, the Day Night Year Globe (DING) shows in real time the pattern of illumination of the Earth’s surface and its diurnal and seasonal variations. It is an ideal object for the visualization of knowledge and increase in knowledge about: the form of the Earth, Earth’s rotation, Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the length of seasons, solstices, equinoxes, the longitude problem, the distribution of the Sun’s radiation over the Earth, the impact of this radiation on Earth’s climate, and how to use it efficiently. By attaching a movable vane to the poles, or adding pins around the equator to read time, DING becomes a spherical/globe-shaped sundial. So, the DING is simultaneously useful for teaching physics, geophysics, astronomy, use of solar energy and promoting an inquiry-based learning environment for students and the public.

  3. Psychophysical measurement of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Rachael L.; Marasco, Peter L.; Havig, Paul R.; Martinsen, Gary L.; Reis, George A.; Heft, Eric L.

    2003-09-01

    Pilots, developers, and other users of night-vision goggles (NVGs) have pointed out that different NVG image intensifier tubes have different subjective noise characteristics. Currently, no good model of the visual impact of NVG noise exists. Because it is very difficult to objectively measure the noise of a NVG, a method for assessing noise subjectively using simple psychophysical procedures was developed. This paper discusses the use of a computer program to generate noise images similar to what an observer sees through an NVG, based on filtered white noise. The images generated were based on 1/f (where f is frequency) filtered white noise with several adjustable parameters. Adjusting each of these parameters varied different characteristics of the noise. This paper discusses a study where observers compared the computer-generated noise images to true NVG noise and were asked to determine which computer-generated image was the best representation of the true noise. This method was repeated with different types of NVGs and at different luminance levels to study what NVG parameters cause variations in NVG noise.

  4. Visual anomalies and display night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.

  5. The Ecological Implications of Light at Night (LAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: Light at night (LAN) is now an established environmental problem, not only for astronomers but for the population at large. It has serious ecological effects that are wide ranging, and its environmental effects may be more serious than ever imagined. The ecological and environmental consequences are examined and emphasis is stressed on resolving the problem before it is too late.Introduction: A casual glance at NASA images of the Earth at night1 reveals the lights of thousands of cities. The larger cities will contain millions of street lights, along with commercial, sports and decorative lighting. Most of these lights are on all night, every night, three hundred and sixty-five nights a year, (fig 1), so they must be having a measurable ecological and environmental effect. The most obvious effect of all this excessive lighting is the light pollution suffered by astronomers.

  6. Channel at Night in Thermal Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime thermal infrared image, taken by the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, shows differences in temperature that are due to differences in the abundance of rocks, sand and dust on the surface. Rocks remain warm at night, as seen in the warm (bright) rim of the five kilometer (three mile) diameter crater located on the right of this image.

    The sinuous channel floor is cold, suggesting that it is covered by material that is more finely grained than the surrounding plains. The interior of the crater shows a great deal of thermal structure, indicating that the distribution of rocks, sand and dust varies across the floor.

    The presence of rocks on the rim and inner wall indicates that this crater maintains some of its original character, despite erosion and deposition by Martian winds. Nighttime infrared images such as this one will greatly aid in mapping the physical properties of Mars' surface.

    This image is centered at 2 degrees north, 0.4 degrees west, and was acquired at about 3:15 a.m. local Martian time. North is to the right of the image.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Astrometric reduction of the Mars Exploration Rover night-time observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, J.; Lainey, V.; Bell, J.; Dehant, V.

    2006-06-01

    In 2003 NASA launched toward Mars two robots, Spirit and Opportunity, in search of answers about the history of water on Mars. They landed on Mars on January 4 and January 24, 2004. Since this date, they have traversed around their landing site to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. Among the science instruments carried by the rovers, the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) is used to determine the mineralogy, the texture, and the structure of the local terrain. The Pancam has also been used to take images of the Martian sky during the night. In particular, the Spirit rover has taken more than 500 night-time images showing Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos. We are performing the astrometric reduction of those images, with the goal of refining further the ephemerides of both satellites. Ephemeris improvements may help future targeting of high resolution images of the satellites from orbiters or other future missions. In addition, we hope to provide new constraints on the orbital evolution of the satellites through these observations and through other recent observations.

  8. Astrometric Reduction of the Mars Exploration Rover Night-Time Observations of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique; Berthier, J.; Bell, J., III; Lainey, V.; Million, C.

    2006-09-01

    In 2003 NASA launched toward Mars two robots, Spirit and Opportunity, in search of answers about the history of water on Mars. They landed on Mars on January 4 and January 24, 2004. Since this date, they have traversed around their landing site to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. Among the science instruments carried by the rovers, the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) is used to determine the mineralogy, the texture, and the structure of the local terrain. The Pancam has also been used to take images of the martian sky during the night. In particular, the Spirit rover has taken more than 500 night-time images showing Mars's moons Phobos and Deimos. We are performing the astrometric reduction of those images, with the goal of refining further the ephemerides of both satellites. Ephemeris improvements may help future targeting of high resolution images of the satellites from orbiters or other future missions. In addition, we hope to provide new constraints on the orbital evolution of the satellites through these and other recent observations. In this presentation, we discuss in more detail the objectives of this campaign and our first preliminary results.

  9. Lymphoedema management at night: views from patients across five countries.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Justine C

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a comprehensive insight into the use of night-time compression in the management of lymphoedema in patients who had been suffering from chronic lymphoedema for over 12 months. Data were collected and analysed from 94 patients, across five countries. Understanding user characteristics provided insight and understanding into how night-time compression regimens were initiated, products were used and benefits to the patient were reported. In addition to gaining an insight into user habits and night-time compression benefits, unmet needs were also identified. Positive outcomes from the use of night-time compression were reported, with all patients identifying benefits of using night-time compression. An increase in swelling was documented in 89% of all patients in this study group when night-time compression was not used. The study provided an opportunity to explore how lymphoedema affects patients, and how night-time compression can form part of a beneficial regime.

  10. Rotating night shift work and the risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brown, Devin L; Feskanich, Diane; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Schernhammer, Eva S; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2009-06-01

    Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and is associated with coronary heart disease. The relation between rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke is unclear. The Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing cohort study of registered female nurses, assessed in 1988 the total number of years the nurses had worked rotating night shifts. The majority (69%) of stroke outcomes from 1988 to 2004 were confirmed by physician chart review. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation between years of rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke, adjusting for multiple vascular risk factors. Of 80,108 subjects available for analysis, 60% reported at least 1 year of rotating night shift work. There were 1,660 ischemic strokes. Rotating night shift work was associated with a 4% increased risk of ischemic stroke for every 5 years (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.01). This increase in risk was similar when limited to the 1,152 confirmed ischemic strokes (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.10) and may be confined to women with a history of 15 or more years of rotating shift work. Women appear to have a modestly increased risk of stroke after extended periods of rotating night shift work.

  11. Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

  12. Hands-free focus night vision technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute is currently developing a device to demonstrate a hands-free focus technology for head-mounted night vision sensors. The demonstrator device will integrate a computational imaging technique that increases depth of field with a digital night vision sensor. The goal of the demonstrator is to serve as a test bed for evaluating the critical performance/operational parameters necessary for the hands-free focus technology to support future tactical night vision concepts of operation. This paper will provide an overview of the technology studies and design analyses that have been performed to date as well as the current state of the demonstrator design.

  13. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be

  14. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

    2005-02-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

  15. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  16. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  17. Liquid crystal modulated optical amplifier for night vision imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenov, Alexander; Xia, X. Winston; Tengara, Indra; Win, Tin; Holmstedt, Jason; Rakuljic, Neven; Aye, Tin M.; Swinney, Mathew W.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2008-08-01

    Image intensifier tubes, as part of night vision devices, have been the primary devices for the detection and amplification of near infrared light for night vision operations. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel all-optical night vision amplifier device with a potential to replace the image intensifier tube in night vision goggles. This image amplifier is based on a novel structure of semiconductor and spectrally tunable liquid crystal (LC) materials within a thin cell. The LC reacts to near-infrared (NIR) radiation but is unaffected by visible light, allowing see-through capability including visible-wavelength cockpit light. The technology is made very attractive by its high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and contrast without expensive, bulky, and heavy optics or high-voltage components.

  18. Effects of street traffic noise in the night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.; Hoffman, R.; Wanner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between automobile traffic noise and the degree of disturbance experience experienced at night was explored through a random sample survey of 1600 individuals in rural and urban areas. The data obtained were used to establish threshold values.

  19. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  20. 5. Aurora Borealis Pass over the United States at Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video of the United States at night and the Aurora Borealis was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken September 29, 2011...

  1. Sleepless Nights Linked to Asthma Later in Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163394.html Sleepless Nights Linked to Asthma Later in Life Adults with chronic insomnia 3 ... HealthDay News) -- Insomnia may increase adults' risk of asthma, a new study suggests. People with chronic sleep ...

  2. Simultaneous prepubertal onset of panic disorder, night terrors, and somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Garland, E J; Smith, D H

    1991-07-01

    Concurrent acute onset of night terrors, somnambulism, and spontaneous daytime panic attacks meeting the criteria for panic disorder is reported in a 10-year-old boy with a family history of panic disorder. Both the parasomnias and the panic disorder were fully responsive to therapeutic doses of imipramine. A second case of night terrors and infrequent full symptom panic attacks is noted in another 10-year-old boy whose mother has panic disorder with agoraphobia. The clinical resemblance and reported differences between night terrors and panic attacks are described. The absence of previous reports of this comorbidity is notable. It is hypothesized that night terror disorder and panic disorder involve a similar constitutional vulnerability to dysregulation of brainstem altering systems.

  3. Night vision goggles resolution performance at low contrast levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernstrom, Lars

    1993-01-01

    NVG (Night Vision Goggle) resolution performance data is usually given as measured against high contrast, black and white, targets. When NVGs are used as night vision aids for visual night flight, the scene viewed by the pilot is in most cases dominated by low contrast. Therefore, NVG performance at low contrast levels is more relevant to the piloting task than NVG resolution at high contrast levels. A set of resolution targets with different contrast levels was designed and ground tests performed at various light levels outdoors at night. The results showed a marked loss of resolution at lower contrast levels. The presentation will describe the test method, give the results and discuss how the results may be explained. A method for using the test results as the basis for correlating piloting performance to light levels will be presented.

  4. Dim Light at Night Increases Body Mass of Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism. PMID:25431079

  5. Plant Physiological, Morphological and Yield-Related Responses to Night Temperature Changes across Different Species and Plant Functional Types.

    PubMed

    Jing, Panpan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Chunwu; Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT) and low night temperature (LNT) on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs) have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4, and CAM), growth forms (herbaceous, woody), and economic purposes (crop, non-crop). We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are critical for

  6. Plant Physiological, Morphological and Yield-Related Responses to Night Temperature Changes across Different Species and Plant Functional Types

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Panpan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Chunwu; Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT) and low night temperature (LNT) on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs) have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4, and CAM), growth forms (herbaceous, woody), and economic purposes (crop, non-crop). We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are critical for

  7. Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Visser, Marcel E; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major) with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.

  8. More Dreams in Longer Night: United States China Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT MORE DREAMS IN LONGER NIGHT: UNITED STATES CHINA POLICY by Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon United States Air Force...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Dreams in Longer Night United States China... UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Carlisle Barracks,Carlisle,PA,17013-5050 8. PERFORMING

  9. Range gated active night vision system for automobiles.

    PubMed

    David, Ofer; Kopeika, Norman S; Weizer, Boaz

    2006-10-01

    Night vision for automobiles is an emerging safety feature that is being introduced for automotive safety. We develop what we believe is an innovative new night vision system using gated imaging principles. The concept of gated imaging is described and its basic advantages, including the backscatter reduction mechanism for improved vision through fog, rain, and snow. Evaluation of performance is presented by analyzing bar pattern modulation and comparing Johnson chart predictions.

  10. Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night?

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major) with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night. PMID:27355354

  11. Human factors issues in the use of night vision devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Foyle, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the critical human factors that arise in field data on the differences between night vision displays and unaided day vision. Attention is given to the findings of empirical studies of performance on rotorcraft-flight-relevant perceptual tasks in which depth and distance perception are critical factors. Suggestions are made for man-machine-critical component design modifications in current night vision systems.

  12. Icelandic herring-eating killer whales feed at night.

    PubMed

    Richard, Gaëtan; Filatova, Olga A; Samarra, Filipa I P; Fedutin, Ivan D; Lammers, Marc; Miller, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Herring-eating killer whales debilitate herring with underwater tail slaps and likely herd herring into tighter schools using a feeding-specific low-frequency pulsed call ('herding' call). Feeding on herring may be dependent upon daylight, as the whales use their white underside to help herd herring; however, feeding at night has not been investigated. The production of feeding-specific sounds provides an opportunity to use passive acoustic monitoring to investigate feeding behaviour at different times of day. We compared the acoustic behaviour of killer whales between day and night, using an autonomous recorder deployed in Iceland during winter. Based upon acoustic detection of underwater tail slaps used to feed upon herring we found that killer whales fed both at night and day: they spent 50% of their time at night and 73% of daytime feeding. Interestingly, there was a significant diel variation in acoustic behaviour. Herding calls were significantly associated with underwater tail slap rate and were recorded significantly more often at night, suggesting that in low-light conditions killer whales rely more on acoustics to herd herring. Communicative sounds were also related to underwater tail slap rate and produced at different rates during day and night. The capability to adapt feeding behaviour to different light conditions may be particularly relevant for predator species occurring in high latitudes during winter, when light availability is limited.

  13. Night Sky Brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Richer, M. G.; Colorado, E.; Herrera, J.; Córdova, A.; Ceseña, U.; Ávila, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on 18 nights during 2013 to 2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over 20 months during 2014 to 2016 at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) in México. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84 m and 2.12 m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend implies that the sky has become darker by Δ U = 0.7, Δ B = 0.5, Δ V = 0.3, Δ R=0.5 mag arcsec‑2 since early 2014 due to the present solar cycle.

  14. Night-time symptoms: a forgotten dimension of COPD.

    PubMed

    Agusti, A; Hedner, J; Marin, J M; Barbé, F; Cazzola, M; Rennard, S

    2011-09-01

    Sleep quality is often poor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these night-time symptoms are frequently unnoticed by physicians and/or not reported by patients themselves. Therefore, the prevalence and clinical impact of sleep disturbances and night-time symptoms in COPD is not well understood and has not been a clinical focus to date. To address this gap, an expert panel meeting was convened in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2011 to discuss the aetiology, evolution, burden, long-term clinical consequences and optimal management of night-time symptoms in COPD. The term "night-time symptoms" in COPD has not been distinctly defined in an objective sense but epidemiological data suggests that the prevalence of nocturnal symptoms and symptomatic sleep disturbance may exceed 75% in patients with COPD. The panel concluded that night-time symptoms in COPD are prevalent and bothersome; that their cause(s) are multiple and include demographic factors, such as age and obesity, pharmacotherapy, disease-specific symptoms and the presence of comorbid sleep disorders, and other medical conditions; and that potential long-term consequences can include lung function changes, increased exacerbation frequency, emergence or worsening of cardiovascular disease, cognitive effects, depression, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. To date, few interventional studies have investigated them, but emerging data suggest that bronchodilator therapy can improve them if deployed appropriately. In summary, night-time symptoms in COPD warrant further clinical investigation with validated tools.

  15. Effect of carbohydrates and night temperature on night respiration in rice.

    PubMed

    Peraudeau, Sébastien; Lafarge, Tanguy; Roques, Sandrine; Quiñones, Cherryl O; Clement-Vidal, Anne; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Van Rie, Jeroen; Fabre, Denis; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Global warming causes night temperature (NT) to increase faster than day temperature in the tropics. According to crop growth models, respiration incurs a loss of 40-60% of photosynthate. The thermal sensitivity of night respiration (R(n)) will thus reduce biomass. Instantaneous and acclimated effects of NT on R(n) of leaves and seedlings of two rice cultivars having a variable level of carbohydrates, induced by exposure to different light intensity on the previous day, were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and growth chambers, with R(n) measured on the youngest fully expanded leaves or whole seedlings. Dry weight-based R(n) was 2.6-fold greater for seedlings than for leaves. Leaf R(n) was linearly related to starch (positive intercept) and soluble sugar concentration (zero intercept). Increased NT caused higher R(n) at a given carbohydrate concentration. The change of R(n) at NT increasing from 21 °C to 31 °C was 2.4-fold for the instantaneous response but 1.2- to 1.7-fold after acclimation. The maintenance component of R(n) (R(m)'), estimated by assimilate starvation, averaged 28% in seedlings and 34% in leaves, with no significant thermal effect on this ratio. The acclimated effect of increased NT on R(m)' across experiments was 1.5-fold for a 10 °C increase in NT. No cultivar differences were observed in R(n) or R(m)' responses. The results suggest that the commonly used Q10=2 rule overestimates thermal response of respiration, and R(n) largely depends on assimilate resources.

  16. Circadian rhythms in plasma concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in men working on night shift and in permanent night workers

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R. T. W. L.; Elliott, Ann L.; Mills, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Conroy, R. T. W. L., Elliott, Ann L., and Mills, J. N. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 170-174. Circadian rhythms in plasma concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in men working on night shift and in permanent night workers. Blood samples have been collected for estimation of plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroids from three groups of workers - day and night shift workers in a light engineering factory, and night workers in a newspaper printing works. Up to five samples were collected over 24 hr, or two samples per 24 hr were collected for three days. In conformity with the observations of others, day workers showed maximal concentrations in the morning around the time when they started work. In the newspaper workers maximal concentrations were found when they awoke around 14·00 hr. Night shift workers in the engineering works showed a greater variety of pattern, some showing the pattern usual in a day worker, some showing a maximum concentration about midnight and a minimum around 06·00 hr and a large proportion showing no clear circadian rhythm. In the newspaper workers the rhythm was thus well adapted to their pattern of nocturnal work, whereas relatively few of the night shift workers in the engineering works showed such adaptation. It appears that the adrenal cortical rhythm can be adapted to night work in a community in which this is universal, accepted and lifelong, but that such adjustment is unusual in men on night shift work for limited periods, and whose associates are mainly following a usual nycthemeral existence. PMID:5428635

  17. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  18. Night side lunar surface potential in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Motohisa; Nishino, Masaki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth's magnetotail, Kaguya repeatedly encountered the plasmoid or plasma sheet. The low energy ion signatures including lobe cold ions, cold ion acceleration in the plasma sheet-lobe boundaries, and hot plasma sheet ions or fast flowing ions associated with plasmoids characterized the encounters. On the dayside of the Moon, tailward flowing cold ions and their acceleration were observed. However, on the night side, tailward flowing cold ions could not be observed since the Moon blocked them. In stead, ion acceleration by the spacecraft potential and the electron beam accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were simultaneously observed. Similar night side ion/electron signatures were often observed at low altitude <~50km when Kaguya was in the magnetotail lobe. When Kaguya stayed in the hemisphere where lobe plasma convection direction was from lobe toward the night side of the Moon, MAP-PACE ion sensors found that the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon. The ExB drift motion by the dawn-to-dusk electric field facilitated the intrusion of the lobe cold ions. In addition, very cold ions flowing towards the Earth (towards the Moon) were observed in the opposite hemisphere. It was also found that the flow direction of the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon gradually changed from tailward to Earthward (Moonward) while slightly increasing their energy. Acceleration of the intruded cold ions by the electrostatic potential distributed on the night side of the Moon could explain the characteristics of the ions. The electron beams accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were also simultaneously observed. These electron and ion data enabled us to determine both the night side lunar surface potential and spacecraft potential only from the observed data.

  19. The research on projective visual system of night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shun-long

    2009-07-01

    Driven by the need for lightweight night vision goggles with good performance, we apply the projective lens into night vision goggles to act as visual system. A 40-deg FOV projection lens is provided. The useful diameter of the image intensifier is 16mm, and the Resolutions at Center and edge are both 60-lp/mm. The projection lens has a 28mm diameter and 20g weight. The maximum distortion of the system is less than 0.15%. The MTF maintained more than 0.6 at a 60-lp/mm resolution across the FOV. So the lens meets the requirements of the visual system. Besides, two types of projective visual system of night vision goggles are presented: the Direct-view projective visual system and the Seethrough projective visual system. And the See-through projective visual system enables us to observe the object with our eyes directly, without other action, when the environment becomes bright in a sudden. Finally we have reached a conclusion: The projective system has advantages over traditional eyepiece in night vision goggles. It is very useful to minish the volume, lighten the neck supports, and improve the imaging quality. It provides a new idea and concept for visual system design in night vision goggles.

  20. New device for monitoring the colors of the night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, Henk

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical - especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.

  1. Sleepwalking and night terrors in adulthood clinical EEG findings.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, C R; Vela-Bueno, A; Bixler, E O; Schweitzer, P K; Kales, A

    1980-07-01

    This is the first controlled study to show a lack of relation between a positive history of sleepwalking or night terrors in adults and daytime EEG abnormalities. We recorded a standard clinical EEG on 35 adult sleepwalkers (SW), 35 adult night terror patients (NT), and 35 control subjects (CS). Three subjects in the SW group showed abnormalities: one during both the resting record (RR) and hyperventilation (HV), and two only during HV. None in the NT group showed any EEG abnormality. Two control subjects showed abnormalities of both RR and HV, and a third only during HV. The number of abnormal EEGs within each group was limited, and the three groups did not significantly differ from one another. Our results suggest that the daytime clinical EEG is of limited value in evaluating adults with the primary complaint of sleepwalking or night terrors. However, further all-night sleep EEG studies utilizing clinical montage are needed to investigate the temporal relationship of sleepwalking and night terror events to possible EEG abnormalities.

  2. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  3. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  4. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  5. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  6. 14 CFR 61.131 - Exceptions to the night flying requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to the night flying requirements... Pilots § 61.131 Exceptions to the night flying requirements. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph... “night flying prohibited.” (2) Must comply with the appropriate night flight training requirements...

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Night Eating Syndrome and Depression among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino

    2010-01-01

    Night eating syndrome criteria include skipping breakfast, night eating, and sleep difficulties. It is associated with mood disturbances, particularly depression, and may contribute to later obesity development. Most research on night eating syndrome has focused on obese persons seeking weight loss treatment, and little is known about night eating…

  8. Land Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  9. Day, night, and all-weather security surveillance automation: synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnston, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2005-05-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, nighttime and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics.

  10. Night Sky preservation and restoration in U.S. National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.; Ament, Nate

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. National Park Service (NPS) Night Skies Program contributes to the recognition of certain outstanding NPS lands as dark sky places. A combination of efforts including measuring resource condition, within-park outdoor lighting control, education outreach for visitors, and engagement with surrounding communities helps establish and maintain such places. In certain circumstances, communities and protected areas join forces in a cooperative effort to preserve the natural nocturnal environment of a region. One recent example, the Colorado Plateau Dark Sky Cooperative, is taking lighting, conservation, and educational steps to fulfill the mission of the NPS Call To Action- Starry Starry Night. This voluntary initiative forms America’s first Dark Sky Cooperative, and links communities, tribes, businesses, state/federal agencies, and citizens in a collaborative effort to celebrate the view of the cosmos, minimize the impact of outdoor lighting, and ultimately restore natural darkness to the area. We[AN1] present progress and accomplishments of established dark sky parks and reserves in the western U.S., with particular emphasis on public response to the actions taken and the results achieved.

  11. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  12. Speed of mental processing in the middle of the night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Carrier, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether human mental processing actually slows down during the night hours, separately from the previously documented microsleeps, lapses in attention, and general slowing of motor responses. Eighteen healthy young adults were studied during 36 hours of constant wakeful bedrest. Every 2 hours, they performed a logical reasoning task. Items phrased in the negative voice took reliably longer to respond to than items phrased in the positive voice, indicating the need for more mental processing in those items. By subtracting "negative" from "positive" reaction times at each time of day, we were able to plot a circadian rhythm in the time taken for this extra mental processing to be done separately from microsleeps, psychomotor slowing, and inattention. The extra mental processing took longer at night and on the day following sleep loss than it did during the day before the sleep loss, suggesting that human mental processing slows down during the night under sleep deprivation.

  13. Flight Tests of the KO-1 Aircraft at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Kwang; Kim, Whan-Woo

    The KO-1 aircraft which has the functionality of tactical observation, was successfully developed in August of 2004 in South Korea. It is important for the KO-1 aircraft to achieve successful missions at nighttime as well as during daytime. The aircraft, equipped with interior and exterior lighting systems and lighting control panel modified from those of the KT-1 basic trainer, provides improved safety, operational effectiveness, and situational awareness during operation at night when used with night-vision goggles (NVGs). KO-1 is the first domestic aircraft that utilizes the night-vision imaging system (NVIS) technology in Korea. KO-1 NVIS was developed with the goal of defining the components of NVIS and establishing test and evaluation procedures for both the subsystems and main system. In this paper, we present the establishment of a KO-1 NVIS lighting system, NVIS component development, and representative ground and flight test results.

  14. Spatial contrast sensitivity through aviator's night vision imaging system.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J

    1993-08-01

    Visual acuity is often used to assess vision through image intensifying devices such as night vision goggles (NVG's). Fewer attempts have been made to measure contrast sensitivity through NVG's. Such information would be useful to better understand contrast processing through NVG's under various stimulus conditions. In this study, computer-generated letter charts were used to measure contrast sensitivity through third generation NVG's for a range of letter sizes. The red phosphor of a standard color monitor proved to be an effective stimulus for third generation devices. Different night sky conditions were simulated over a 3 log unit range. The results illustrate the profile of contrast sensitivity through third generation NVG's over a range of night sky conditions. Comparison of measurements through NVG's to measurements obtained without the device but at the same luminance and color distinguish between effects of luminance and noise on contrast sensitivity.

  15. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  16. Medical resident driving simulator performance following a night on call.

    PubMed

    Ware, J Catesby; Risser, Mathew R; Manser, Thomas; Karlson, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    This study compared driving simulation performance after night call and after being off call in 22 medical residents and 1 medical student in a prospective within-subjects counterbalanced design. The results demonstrated an unexpected interaction between call and sex wherein men performed more poorly after night call than women as measured by lane variance and crash frequency. Secondary measures, including caffeine, actigraphy, and subjective total sleep time, did not differ between men and women. Collectively, results of this study and others suggest that medical residents are at risk when driving after a night on call and support the need for resident education to address sleep needs, consequences of sleep disruption, postcall recovery sleep, and countermeasures that may reduce residents' driving risks.

  17. Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps.

    PubMed

    Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2014-04-20

    All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid.

  18. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  19. Fallow land effects on land-atmosphere interactions in California drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Melton, F. S.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The recent drought in California increased the area of fallow land, which is cropland not planted or irrigated per normal agricultural practice. The effects of fallow land on land-atmosphere interactions in drought years are not well studied, but theoretically should alter local energy balance and surface climate relative to normal years, which in turn could affect neighboring cropland. We examined these effects using a regional climate model (Weather Research and Forecasting model) coupled with a dynamic crop growth model (Community Land Model) that has an irrigation scheme to study the effects of fallow land in 2014, an extreme drought year in California. In our study, we used satellite-derived maps of cultivated and fallowed acreage, and defined summer fallow land in 2014 as the reduced percentage of cultivated land for each grid cell relative to the 2011 cultivated area (2011 was the most recent year following a winter with average or above average precipitation). Using a sensitivity experiment that kept large-scale climate boundary conditions constant, we found that fallow land resulted in even dryer and warmer weather that worsened the drought impact. Fallow land increased 2-meter air temperature by 0.1- 4 °C with 0-80% fallow land, mainly due to an increase in nighttime temperature. Fallow land warmed the atmosphere up to 850hpa during the day, and after sunset, the warmed atmosphere emitted downward longwave radiation that prevented the surface from rapidly cooling, and therefore resulted in warmer nights. Fallow land reduced near surface relative humidity by 5-30% and increased vapor pressure deficit by 0.5-2 kPa. These drier conditions increased the irrigation water demand in the nearby cropland: crops required 1-25% more irrigation with 10-80% fallow land within the same 10km grid cell. Our study suggests that fallow land has large impacts on land-atmosphere interactions and increases irrigation requirements in nearby cropland.

  20. Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed。Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

  1. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

  2. Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Pilling, M. J.; Bloss, W. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Monks, P. S.; Plane, J. M. C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Ball, S. M.; Bitter, M.; Jones, R. L.; Brough, N.; Penkett, S. A.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.; Read, K. A.

    2006-08-01

    Night-time chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer has been modelled using a number of observationally constrained zero-dimensional box-models. The models were based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the measurements were taken during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX) campaign at Mace Head, Ireland in July-September 2002. The model could reproduce, within the combined uncertainties, the measured concentration of HO2 (within 30-40%) during the night 31 August-1 September and of HO2+RO2 (within 15-30%) during several nights of the campaign. The model always overestimated the NO3 measurements made by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) by up to an order of magnitude or more, but agreed with the NO3 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements to within 30-50%. The most likely explanation of the discrepancy between the two instruments and the model is reaction of the nitrate radical with inhomogeneously distributed NO, which was measured at concentrations of up to 10 ppt, even though this is not enough to fully explain the difference between the DOAS measurements and the model. A rate of production and destruction analysis showed that radicals were generated during the night mainly by the reaction of ozone with light alkenes. The cycling between HO2/RO2 and OH was maintained during the night by the low concentrations of NO and the overall radical concentration was limited by slow loss of peroxy radicals to form peroxides. A strong peak in [NO2] during the night 31 August-1 September allowed an insight into the radical fluxes and the connections between the HOx and the NO3 cycles.

  3. Night-time radical chemistry during the NAMBLEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Pilling, M. J.; Bloss, W. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Monks, P. S.; Plane, J. M. C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Ball, S. M.; Bitter, M.; Jones, R. L.; Brough, N.; Penkett, S. A.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.; Read, K. A.

    2007-02-01

    Night-time chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer has been modelled using a number of observationally constrained zero-dimensional box-models. The models were based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the measurements were taken during the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (NAMBLEX) campaign at Mace Head, Ireland in July-September 2002. The model could reproduce, within the combined uncertainties, the measured concentration of HO2 (within 30-40%) during the night 31 August-1 September and of HO2+RO2 (within 15-30%) during several nights of the campaign. The model always overestimated the NO3 measurements made by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) by up to an order of magnitude or more, but agreed with the NO3 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements to within 30-50%. The most likely explanation of the discrepancy between the two instruments and the model is the reaction of the nitrate radical with inhomogeneously distributed NO, which was measured at concentrations of up to 10 ppt, even though this is not enough to fully explain the difference between the DOAS measurements and the model. A rate of production and destruction analysis showed that radicals were generated during the night mainly by the reaction of ozone with light alkenes. The cycling between HO2/RO2 and OH was maintained during the night by the low concentrations of NO and the overall radical concentration was limited by slow loss of peroxy radicals to form peroxides. A strong peak in [NO2] during the night 31 August-1 September allowed an insight into the radical fluxes and the connections between the HOx and the NO3 cycles.

  4. Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  5. Night Myopia Studied with an Adaptive Optics Visual Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10−6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of −0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors. PMID:22768343

  6. Arabian sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) prefer the hottest nights?

    PubMed

    Roberts, D M

    1994-04-01

    A vehicle-mounted net was used to collect hourly samples of sandflies on 15 nights during June in northern Oman. Every half hour, the temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and light intensity were measured (there was no cloud or rainfall during this period). The sandflies caught were mainly Phlebotomus alexandri and Sergentomyia clydei. Their circadian activity increased rapidly after sunset (18.50 hours). The high level of activity was fairly constant during 9h of darkness until dawn, when it decreased rapidly. A few flies were still active at 07.00 hours, 1.5h after sunrise. A multiple regression showed that the main factor affecting sandfly activity was light intensity. When this factor was removed, by considering only the 135 catches collected during the 9h of darkness, the second most important factor was low relative humidity, followed by low wind velocity. Temperature was not a significant factor in the analysis, because of its strong negative correlation with humidity. However, when the effect of humidity was removed from the regression, high temperature became significant, but less important than wind. The regressions showed that, for flight activity, the optimum humidity was around 10%; the probable maximum wind velocity was 3.5 m s-1 and 11 degrees C was the probable minimum temperature. Thus, when the 4 nights with highest catches (200-260 flies/night) were compared with the 4 nights with lowest catches (50-120 flies/night), the best nights had a low humidity (10-25%) and low wind speed (< 0.3 m s-1) in combination with highest temperatures (31-43 degrees C).

  7. Wide-field-of-view (WFOV) night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, Wayne; Estrera, Joseph P.

    2003-09-01

    The United States' armed forces continue to be presented with increased challenges in adverse operational environments with increasing risk and complexity - especially at night. To ensure continued operational success and battlefield superiority during darkness, our armed forces must be equipped with night vision (NV) systems providing increased situational awareness. Doing so will significantly enhance threat detection and engagement, as well as survivability, thus ensuring greater mission success. Northrop Grumman Electro-Optical Systems (EOS) continues to develop its Wide Field of View (WFOV) image intensification (I2) night vision system for ground forces. This system will provide a significant increase in visual coverage enabling US forces to continue "to own the night". Until now, NV systems have typically been limited to a 40-degree field of view (FOV), vertically and horizontally. This limited FOV reduces off-axis detection, restricts an individual soldier's recognition and engagement capabilities and hinders added peripheral vision. To counter this operational deficiency, EOS proposes the Wide Field of View (WFOV) night vision binocular. The WFOV system will have a 70-degree horizontal FOV, with a 55-degree vertical FOV. The increased FOV will result in increased situational awareness of soldiers' surrounding environment (including terrain, hazards, threat, etc) during normal night operations. It will also allow for rapid and safer movement, especially in MOUT operations. Additionally, the increased visual coverage of large areas will enable soldiers to detect and engage targets faster and with greater reliability. The WFOV binocular will significantly enhance survivability, threat detection and engagement, and hence, greater mission success rate.

  8. [Night sleep structural alteration as a function of individual strategy of adapting to 520-isolation].

    PubMed

    Zavalko, I M; Boritko, Ya S; Kovrov, G V; Vinokhodova, A G; Chekalina, A I; Smoleevsky, A E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to establish a relationship between trends in sleep alteration and individual adaptation to the stress-factors in the 520-day isolation study. Psychological evaluations using a battery of motivation tests and L. Sobchik's modification of the Luscher personality test, and Mirror coordinograph enabled to differentiate groups reacting to the stress on the pattern of "control" (G-1) or "search" (G-2) manifested in individual styles of behavior and operator's activity. The 2 groups showed different dynamics of the night sleep structure. Difficulties with falling asleep in G-1 arose on the eve of "landing onto Mars" and end of the experiment, whereas in G-2 they were evident prior to the end only. Besides, the micro- and segmental sleep structures were more stable in G-1 suggesting the integrity of somnogenic mechanisms despite difficult sleep initiation.

  9. Congenital stationary night blindness presenting as Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Weleber, R G; Tongue, A C

    1987-03-01

    Two siblings with autosomal-recessive congenital stationary night blindness were clinically blind in infancy. Both had markedly abnormal electroretinograms that, in the first child, led consultants at two university centers to make the diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis. The patients had intermittent nystagmus and esotropia, but good photopic vision developed eventually. Scotopic vision was clearly defective in each child. Refractive error in both patients was close to emetropic in early infancy but became myopic by 1 year of age. Congenital stationary night blindness must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the blind infant.

  10. Registration of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission day and night images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.; Hummer-Miller, S.; Sawatzky, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Neither iterative registration, using drainage intersection maps for control, nor cross correlation techniques were satisfactory in registering day and night HCMM imagery. A procedure was developed which registers the image pairs by selecting control points and mapping the night thermal image to the daytime thermal and reflectance images using an affine transformation on a 1300 by 1100 pixel image. The resulting image registration is accurate to better than two pixels (RMS) and does not exhibit the significant misregistration that was noted in the temperature-difference and thermal-inertia products supplied by NASA. The affine transformation was determined using simple matrix arithmetic, a step that can be performed rapidly on a minicomputer.

  11. Improving night sky star image processing algorithm for star sensors.

    PubMed

    Arbabmir, Mohammad Vali; Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohammad; Salahshour, Sadegh; Somayehee, Farshad

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the night sky star image processing algorithm, consisting of image preprocessing, star pattern recognition, and centroiding steps, is improved. It is shown that the proposed noise reduction approach can preserve more necessary information than other frequently used approaches. It is also shown that the proposed thresholding method unlike commonly used techniques can properly perform image binarization, especially in images with uneven illumination. Moreover, the higher performance rate and lower average centroiding estimation error of near 0.045 for 400 simulated images compared to other algorithms show the high capability of the proposed night sky star image processing algorithm.

  12. Low light comparison of target visibility with night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Brulotte, Michel; Carignan, Stephan; Macuda, Todd; Jennings, Sion

    2008-04-01

    Different night vision goggle image intensification technologies were tested to compare goggle performance in low light conditions. A total of four different night vision goggles were tested in a laboratory dark room. The laboratory tests consisted of viewing Landolt acuity stimuli of different contrast levels with each set of goggles and without the goggles in full light conditions (baseline performance). The results from the laboratory testing indicated that there were significant differences in acuity between the NVGs, particularly for low contrast targets. These data suggest that NVG standards developed using high contrast targets, even in low light conditions may not provide the full story of how the NVG will perform in flight.

  13. The design of CY-1R night vision helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chang, Benkang

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, the research intention and design principle of CY-1R night vision helmet are explained which fills the gaps in active-passive combined night vision field in our country. The structure, composition, mechanism and overall performance of the goggle are analyzed. It is a new type device consisting of laser illuminator system, special optical system and high performance low-level-light intensifier. Based on these characteristics, the sensitivity of the system is high and the image observed is very clear. Taking advantage of it, we can complete the military operation under any atrocious weather conditions.

  14. Night of the living color: horror scenarios in color management land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammens, Johan M.

    1998-12-01

    An ICC-based color management is becoming increasingly feasible and its picking up support from all the major high end design and pre-press applications as well as hardware manufacturers. In addition, the new sRGB standard is emerging as a way to effectively do 'color management for the masses', and is being supported by many leading manufacturers as well. While there certainly remain serious technical issues to address for both ICC and sRGB color management, it seems that the main problem users are facing today is how to integrate all components of their workflow into a seamless system, and how to configured each component to work well with all the others. This paper takes a brief look at the history of color management for a workflow perspective, and attempts to analyze how to compose and configured a quadruple color conversions can become a terrific nightmare. Some of the many ways to get the wrong results are briefly illustrated, as well as a few ways to get the right results. Finally, some technical recommendations are offered for how to improve the situation from a user point of view.

  15. Development, Testing and Evaluation of a Night Vision Goggle Compatible BO-105 for Night Low Level Operation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Stability Augmentation System ), a Doppler Navigation System with Mapreader, a TACAN and recording equipment were installed in the test helicopter. In a pre-evaluation program, two types of helmet mounted Night Vision Goggles (NVG’s) were selected for further evaluation. After the 2 axis SAS had been replaced by a 3 axis CSAS and NVG compatible cockpit lighting had been installed in the test helicopter, night low level operational flight trials were carried out. This paper describes the selection of the NVG’s the NVG compatible lighting and presents the

  16. 10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 78 FR 19742 - Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night Rover Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Night Rover Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new energy storage... environments. Competitors will need to demonstrate high energy density storage systems (>330w-hr/kg) that would... Challenge will be conducted in an ambient Earth environment in a NASA test chamber. The Phase I...

  18. Naked-eye astronomy: optics of the starry night skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salva

    2014-07-01

    The world at night offers a wealth of stimuli and opportunities as a resource for Optics education, at all age levels and from any (formal, non formal or informal) perspective. The starry sky and the urban nightscape provide a unique combination of pointlike sources with extremely different emission spectra and brightness levels on a generally darker, locally homogeneous background. This fact, combined with the particular characteristics of the human visual system under mesopic and scotopic conditions, provides a perfect setting for experiencing first-hand different optical phenomena of increasing levels of complexity: from the eye's point spread function to the luminance contrast threshold for source detection, from basic diffraction patterns to the intricate irradiance fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. Looking at the nightscape is also a perfect occasion to raise awareness on the increasing levels of light pollution associated to the misuse of public and private artificial light at night, to promote a sustainable use of lighting, and to take part in worldwide citizen science campaigns. Last but not least, night sky observing activities can be planned and developed following a very flexible schedule, allowing individual students to carry them out from home and sharing the results in the classroom as well as organizing social events and night star parties with the active engagement of families and groups of the local community. This contribution describes these possibilities and introduces some of the free resources available to put them in practice.

  19. Using Process Drama to Deconstruct a Midsummer Night's Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltsek, Gustave

    2005-01-01

    Gustave Weltsek, a high school English teacher, has turned to process "A Midsummer Night's Dream" to avoid passing on traditional views and interpretations of the play. He has helped the students to see relevance in William Shakespeare's text by using improvisations to get them talking about issues that are important to them.

  20. Physiological and Psychological Aspects of Night and Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, Jadwiga

    Results of physiological and psychological studies related to night and shift work are reviewed from the standpoint of their possible use by industry in understanding the problems of shift work and finding solutions. (New research data that has appeared since original preparation of the manuscript is presented in a three-part addendum with…

  1. Family Math Night: Middle School Math Standards in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…

  2. SKYMONITOR: A Global Network for Night Sky Brightness Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Dan; Davis, Donald; Boley, Paul

    2015-03-01

    We have deployed a network of autonomous photometers that continuously measures the night sky brightness in the visual region at two sky positions simultaneously, typically near the zenith and the second at an elevation angle of 20 degrees. The Photometers are calibrated as a network to better than 5.

  3. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  4. Night vision devices. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography contains 323 citations in which various types of night vision devices are investigated. Most were developed for military applications but they can readily be adapted for civil usage, as for example, law enforcement. Abstracts on display screens, equipment design and effectiveness, electronic components, spurious noise reduction, and test methods are cited.

  5. Conference Adopts Conventions on Night Work and Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    At the International Labor Conference held in Geneva in June 1990, the following topics were discussed: the Director-General's report on the environment and the world of work; night work; safety in the use of chemicals; working conditions in hotels, restaurants, and similar establishments; and the promotion of self-employment. (JOW)

  6. The analysis of an adult with night terror.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D V

    1991-10-01

    The author discusses the analysis of a woman with night terror, a condition rarely seen in adults. The analysis revealed the pathogenicity of splitting mechanisms which had developed under the influence of an overstimulating environment and exposure to the primal scene, followed by the separation and divorce of the patient's parents.

  7. The 1997 Reference of Diffuse Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinert, C.; Bowyer, S.; Haikala, L. K.; Hanner, M. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Mann, I.; Mattila, K.; Reach, W. T.; Schlosser, W.; Staude, J. J.; Toller, G. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Weinberg, J. L.; Witt, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    In the following we present material in tabular and graphical form, with the aim to allow the non specialist to obtain a realistic estimate of the diffuse night sky brightness over a wide range of wavelengths from the far UV longward of Ly to the far-infrared.

  8. Session 21.5 - Light at Night and Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongheng

    2016-10-01

    Light at night (LAN) is now an established environmental problem, not only for astronomers but for the population at large. It has serious ecological effects that are wide ranging, and its environmental effects may be more serious than ever imagined. The ecological and environmental consequences are examined and emphasis is stressed on resolving the problem before it is too late.

  9. Nightly biting cycles of malaria vectors in a heterogeneous transmission area of eastern Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biting cycle of anopheline mosquitoes is an important component in the transmission of malaria. Inter- and intraspecific biting patterns of anophelines have been investigated using the number of mosquitoes caught over time to compare general tendencies in host-seeking activity and cumulative catch. In this study, all-night biting catch data from 32 consecutive months of collections in three riverine villages were used to compare biting cycles of the five most abundant vector species using common statistics to quantify variability and deviations of nightly catches from a normal distribution. Methods Three communities were selected for study. All-night human landing catches of mosquitoes were made each month in the peridomestic environment of four houses (sites) for nine consecutive days from April 2003 to November 2005. Host-seeking activities of the five most abundant species that were previously captured infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium vivax, were analysed and compared by measuring the amount of variation in numbers biting per unit time (co-efficient of variation, V), the degree to which the numbers of individuals per unit time were asymmetrical (skewness = g1) and the relative peakedness or flatness of the distribution (kurtosis = g2). To analyse variation in V, g1, and g2 within species and villages, we used mixed model nested ANOVAs (PROC GLM in SAS) with independent variables (sources of variation): year, month (year), night (year X month) and collection site (year X month). Results The biting cycles of the most abundant species, Anopheles darlingi, had the least pronounced biting peaks, the lowest mean V values, and typically non-significant departures from normality in g1 and g2. By contrast, the species with the most sharply defined crepuscular biting peaks, Anopheles marajoara, Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles triannulatus, showed high to moderate mean V values and, most commonly, significantly

  10. Lunar BRDF Correction of Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Time Series Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Kalb, V.; Stokes, E.; Miller, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first-light images from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS low-light visible Day/Night Band (DNB) sensor were received in November 2011, the NASA Suomi-NPP Land Science Investigator Processing System (SIPS) has focused on evaluating this new capability for quantitative science applications, as well as developing and testing refined algorithms to meet operational and Land science research needs. While many promising DNB applications have been developed since the Suomi-NPP launch, most studies to-date have been limited by the traditional qualitative image display and spatial-temporal aggregated statistical analysis methods inherent in current heritage algorithms. This has resulted in strong interest for a new generation of science-quality products that can be used to monitor both the magnitude and signature of nighttime phenomena and anthropogenic sources of light emissions. In one particular case study, Román and Stokes (2015) demonstrated that tracking daily dynamic DNB radiances can provide valuable information about the character of the human activities and behaviors that influence energy, consumption, and vulnerability. Here we develop and evaluate a new suite of DNB science-quality algorithms that can exclude a primary source of background noise: i.e., the Lunar BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) effect. Every day, the operational NASA Land SIPS DNB algorithm makes use of 16 days worth of DNB-derived surface reflectances (SR) (based on the heritage MODIS SR algorithm) and a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to determine a global set of parameters describing the BRDF of the land surface. The nighttime period of interest is heavily weighted as a function of observation coverage. These gridded parameters, combined with Miller and Turner's [2009] top-of-atmosphere spectral irradiance model, are then used to determine the DNB's lunar radiance contribution at any point in time and under specific illumination conditions.

  11. Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2011-09-01

    The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.

  12. [Night shift work and cancer risk: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Brudnowska, Joanna; Pepłońska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    About 15-20% of the employees in Europe and in the USA are engaged in shift work that involves night work. Some experimental and observational data indicate that this type of work might lead to circadian disruption, including disruption in the melatonin synthesis - a hormone of anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. A hypothesis that there is a potential link between exposure to light at night and the risk of breast cancer was formulated for the first time by Stevens in 1987. Since then, relatively few epidemiological studies have been carried out in this area (15 studies including 8 cohort and 7 case-control studies). All of them are reviewed in this article. The majority of the epidemiological studies performed to date have focused on the association between shift work and breast cancer risk, few studies have reported an increased risk of other cancers, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In six out of ten studies, a statistically significant association between night shift work and risk of breast cancer has been shown (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5 in nurses in Norway with > 30 years of night shift work). The increased cancer risk has been reported in nurses, radio-telephone operators, flight attendants, and women employed in the enterprises, in which 60% of employees work at night. Most of the analyses have been based on the data from the registries, with limited potential for the exposure assessment and confounders adjustment. Although some epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among nurses, we are still far from drawing final conclusions. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are warranted.

  13. [NIGHT SHIFT WORK AND HEALTH DISORDER RISK IN FEMALE WORKERS].

    PubMed

    Kukhtina, E G; Solionova, L G; Fedichkina, T P; Zykova, I E

    2015-01-01

    There was evaluated the risk to health in females employed in shift work, including night shifts. According to the data of periodical medical examinations health indices of 403 females employed in shift work, including night shifts, were compared with indices of 205 females--workers of administrative units of the same enterprise. Overall relative risk (RR) for the health disorder associated with the night shift was 1.2 (95%; confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.28). A statistically significant increase in risk was observed in relation to uterine fibroids (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.06-1.54), mastopathy (OR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), inorganic sleep disorders (OR 8.8; 95% CI 2.6-29.8). At the boundary of the statistical significance there was the increase in the risk for obesity (OR 1.2; 95% C: 0.97-1.39), hypertension (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5) and endometriosis (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.98-2.16). There was revealed an adverse effect of night shifts on the gestation course: ectopic pregnancy in the experimental group occurred 6.6 times more frequently than in the control group (95% CI: 0.87-50.2), and spontaneous abortion--1.7 times (95% CI: 0.95-3.22). The performed study has once again confirmed the negative impact of smoking on women's reproductive health: smoking women in the experimental group compared with the control group smokers had 2.7 times increased risk of uterine fibroids (within 1.06-7.0), the risk in non-smokers was significantly lower--1.2 (0.98-1.4). The findings suggest about a wide range of health problems related to employment on shift work, including night shifts, which indicates to the need for adoption of regulatory and preventive measures aimed to this professional group.

  14. An Approach to Objectively Defining and Ranking Dark Night Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Roger B.; Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.; 5203254505

    2016-06-01

    There has long been an interest in protecting dark skies around astronomical observatory sites, a task that has become more urgent with the rapid growth of communities surrounding many of these locations. “Dark sky communities” have been discussed in the context of stimulating interest in mediating effects of artificial light at night, and efforts have been made in some areas to attempt to legislate less intrusive lights. Arguably, the latter has been largely unsuccessful, and the former represents a very small percentage of the extant dark night areas. In nearly all instances, the trend is for community contributions to the overall light at night output to increase with time. A complementary, if not alternative, approach is to recognize that all communities are “dark night communities” until they are not. This implies, of course, an understanding of quantitative levels of light output and distributions, and some agreement on thresholds beyond which a community ceases to satisfy definition as a Dark Night Community. Three parameters of primary interest in this regard are 1) integrated community brightness as seen from the zenith, 2) zenith angle brightness distribution, and 3) spectral energy distribution. The first we have addressed using Suomi VIIRS satellite data, which we discuss in this presentation. These data can be further parsed by comparing with demographic databases of interest, such as population and area. In this presentation we discuss the metrics involved, a formula for weighting the metrics to generate a comparative score, and the implications of each for the evaluation of energy waste in hundreds of communities that have now been ranked.

  15. Some thoughts on the implementation of pilot night vision devices for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Night vision enhancement devices greatly expand the range and quality of services by extending night operational capabilities. Evolving military tactical concepts for helicopters survivability and battlefield effectiveness necessitate nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flying under both day and night conditions. From a pilot workload standpoint, flying a helicopter NOE in day VFR conditions with minimum clearance between rotors and obstacles is quite demanding. Doing the same job at night is several times more difficult. There are two general categories of night vision devices in operation in helicopter aviation: the Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) system. The capabilities and limitations of those two devices are discussed.

  16. Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.

    2006-05-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is

  17. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    PubMed

    Hartman, D; Crisp, A H; Sedgwick, P; Borrow, S

    2001-04-01

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content of

  18. Making Space Cool - Successful Outreach at Yuri's Night Stuttgart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Christine; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Grossmann, Agnes

    Yuri’s Night - also known as the “World Space Party” - is the annual celebration commemorating Gagarin’s historic flight on April 12, 1961, and the maiden voyage of the American space shuttle on April 12, 1981. It was created by young space enthusiasts in 2000 at the annual Space Generation Congress and was first celebrated in 2001, registering more than 60 events around the world from the start. Since then the interest in celebrating human spaceflight grew constantly to over 350 events across all seven continents in 2013. The honoring of Yuri Gagarin’s first spaceflight in Stuttgart started in 2007 and resulted in one of the largest events outside the US, with five parties following in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013. The Stuttgart event was originally organized as space party for an audience at the age of 20 and beyond including informative aspects at the afternoon and a following party far into the night. Since 2010 the focus of the Yuri’s Night Stuttgart is to bring awareness of space exploration to people of all ages, including particularly many participatory hands-on space activities for kids and families that attract hundreds of visitors every year. As much as Yuri’s Night is a worldwide party, the events in Stuttgart successfully concentrate on educational aspects that help to inspire new generations of space enthusiasts who will ultimately shape the future of space exploration. It is therefore not only a look back to one of the greatest achievements of the 20th Century, but it is also a look into the future: from multinational cooperation on the International Space Station to benefit of space flight to the introduction of the next generation of space technology. This paper will introduce the celebrations of Yuri’s Night in Stuttgart of the past four years and compare them to the early events. It provides a summary of the development of the Yuri’s Night including educational aspects, public relations and media attraction and gives

  19. Seasonally different response of photosynthetic activity to daytime and night-time warming in the Northern Hemisphere

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Jianguang; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Anping; ...

    2014-08-27

    Over the last century the Northern Hemisphere has experienced rapid climate warming, but this warming has not been evenly distributed seasonally, as well as diurnally. The implications of such seasonal and diurnal heterogeneous warming on regional and global vegetation photosynthetic activity, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated for different seasons how photosynthetic activity of vegetation correlates with changes in seasonal daytime and night-time temperature across the Northern Hemisphere (>30°N), using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2011 obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Our analysis revealed some striking seasonal differences in themore » response of NDVI to changes in day- versus night-time temperatures. For instance, while higher daytime temperature (Tmax) is generally associated with higher NDVI values across the boreal zone, the area exhibiting a statistically significant positive correlation between Tmax and NDVI is much larger in spring (41% of area in boreal zone – total area 12.6 × 106 km2) than in summer and autumn (14% and 9%, respectively). In contrast to the predominantly positive response of boreal ecosystems to changes in Tmax, increases in Tmax tended to negatively influence vegetation growth in temperate dry regions, particularly during summer. Changes in night-time temperature (Tmin) correlated negatively with autumnal NDVI in most of the Northern Hemisphere, but had a positive effect on spring and summer NDVI in most temperate regions (e.g., Central North America and Central Asia). Such divergent covariance between the photosynthetic activity of Northern Hemispheric vegetation and day- and night-time temperature changes among different seasons and climate zones suggests a changing dominance of ecophysiological processes across time and space. Lastly, understanding the seasonally different responses of vegetation photosynthetic activity to diurnal

  20. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue.

  1. Night Sky Quality Measurements at the ATA50 Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Hüseyin; Nasiroglu, Ilham; Guney, Yavuz

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important factor affecting the quality of the sky in astronomy is the light pollution (luminance of the night sky). Light pollution, also affects humans and wildlife in many ways. This effect occurs by using the light source of outdoor lighting in the wrong way. Light pollution can be reduced by lighting only what is actually needed, when and where it is needed. In generally, SQM (Sky Quality Meter- Clear Sky Detector) is used to measure this light effect. In this work we present night sky brightness measurements performed at the Atatürk University Astrophysics Research Telescope (ATA50) and the surrounding area, Erzurum, TURKEY. We also discussed the physical impacts of light pollution on science, humans and wildlife.

  2. Bioluminescence as an ecological factor during high Arctic polar night

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Heather A.; Cohen, Jonathan H.; Berge, Jørgen; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence commonly influences pelagic trophic interactions at mesopelagic depths. Here we characterize a vertical gradient in structure of a generally low species diversity bioluminescent community at shallower epipelagic depths during the polar night period in a high Arctic fjord with in situ bathyphotometric sampling. Bioluminescence potential of the community increased with depth to a peak at 80 m. Community composition changed over this range, with an ecotone at 20–40 m where a dinoflagellate-dominated community transitioned to dominance by the copepod Metridia longa. Coincident at this depth was bioluminescence exceeding atmospheric light in the ambient pelagic photon budget, which we term the bioluminescence compensation depth. Collectively, we show a winter bioluminescent community in the high Arctic with vertical structure linked to attenuation of atmospheric light, which has the potential to influence pelagic ecology during the light-limited polar night. PMID:27805028

  3. Mild hypoxia and visual performance with night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Leber, L L; Roscoe, S N; Southward, G M

    1986-04-01

    Military night vision goggles (NVGs) are image intensifiers normally used when the human operator's visual capabilities are unimpaired by oxygen deprivation. However, mountain search team members and aviators sometimes operate with NVG augmentation at altitudes where hypoxic visual decrement is documented. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of mild hypoxia on monocular visual performance with NVGs. It was found that mild oxygen deprivation significantly affects unaided square-wave grating visual acuity but does not significantly affect NVG-augmented performance. Large differences between visual sensitivities at different spatial frequencies were not differentially affected by mild hypoxia. Supplemental oxygen did significantly improve naked-eye but not NVG-augmented night resolution acuity up to a simulated altitude of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) above sea level (ASL).

  4. Preventing victimization among young women: The SafeNights intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Johnson, Mark B.; Romano, Eduardo; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of a brief intervention, titled SafeNights, to reduce victimization among young college-aged females. Participants A total of 1,048 women participated; 496 participants in the control and 552 in the experimental condition. Method Young Americans crossing the U.S. border to patronize Tijuana bars were randomly assigned to an intervention as they traveled into Tijuana. Upon returning to the United States, participants provided a breath sample and were interviewed. Results SafeNights was significantly associated with reductions in reported victimization independent of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The intervention will be refined for a broader spectrum of collegiate settings at high risk for heavy drinking and potential victimization. PMID:24634576

  5. Bioluminescence as an ecological factor during high Arctic polar night.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Heather A; Cohen, Jonathan H; Berge, Jørgen; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A

    2016-11-02

    Bioluminescence commonly influences pelagic trophic interactions at mesopelagic depths. Here we characterize a vertical gradient in structure of a generally low species diversity bioluminescent community at shallower epipelagic depths during the polar night period in a high Arctic fjord with in situ bathyphotometric sampling. Bioluminescence potential of the community increased with depth to a peak at 80 m. Community composition changed over this range, with an ecotone at 20-40 m where a dinoflagellate-dominated community transitioned to dominance by the copepod Metridia longa. Coincident at this depth was bioluminescence exceeding atmospheric light in the ambient pelagic photon budget, which we term the bioluminescence compensation depth. Collectively, we show a winter bioluminescent community in the high Arctic with vertical structure linked to attenuation of atmospheric light, which has the potential to influence pelagic ecology during the light-limited polar night.

  6. Bioluminescence as an ecological factor during high Arctic polar night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Heather A.; Cohen, Jonathan H.; Berge, Jørgen; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A.

    2016-11-01

    Bioluminescence commonly influences pelagic trophic interactions at mesopelagic depths. Here we characterize a vertical gradient in structure of a generally low species diversity bioluminescent community at shallower epipelagic depths during the polar night period in a high Arctic fjord with in situ bathyphotometric sampling. Bioluminescence potential of the community increased with depth to a peak at 80 m. Community composition changed over this range, with an ecotone at 20–40 m where a dinoflagellate-dominated community transitioned to dominance by the copepod Metridia longa. Coincident at this depth was bioluminescence exceeding atmospheric light in the ambient pelagic photon budget, which we term the bioluminescence compensation depth. Collectively, we show a winter bioluminescent community in the high Arctic with vertical structure linked to attenuation of atmospheric light, which has the potential to influence pelagic ecology during the light-limited polar night.

  7. Why to stay away from your telescope at night?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian

    2011-03-01

    New telescopes, small and not that small, are nowadays often designed to be handled without anybody close to them at night. Why would you try to do the same with a big old observatory, definitely not designed with remote operation in mind? This talk will present the many advantages of moving toward remote operations, from the obvious reduction in staff needed at night or the more comfortable setting of the observers when the site is in a harsh environment (like Mauna Kea), to the more subtle collateral benefits like a constant monitoring of the health of the facility, the telescope, and its instrumentation, an automatic alert system, the ability to remotely diagnose problems, which all make the life of the staff much easier and failures a much rarer occurrence. At the end, less downtime, cheaper operation, and better observations for better science.

  8. Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  9. Chromatic aftereffects associated with a night vision goggle simulation.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, K; Rogers, S P; Cicinelli, J

    1988-02-01

    A visual perception experiment was conducted to determine the chromatic aftereffects of viewing a yellow-green field that simulated the display of current night vision goggles. Six females and two males served as subjects in a color-naming procedure. Subjects sequentially viewed an adaptation field, which was either yellow-green or white, and small colored targets presented on a CRT display. The time required to name the color of the targets was found to be dependent on the color of the adaptation field, the color of the target, and the interaction of these two variables. It was recommended that the effects of attenuation of the luminance of the night vision goggles be studied, and that color cockpit displays be redundantly coded whenever possible.

  10. Response of the night aurora to a negative sudden impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Vorobjev, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    Data from the meridian scanning photometers of the NORSTAR network and all-sky cameras of the THEMIS network were used for a detailed study of the response of night auroras to the sharp decrease of the solar wind dynamic pressure on September 28, 2009. The decrease in dynamic pressure was accompanied by a corresponding depression of the magnetic field in the SYM-H index and the origin of a negative sudden impulse ( SI) with a duration of 5-8 min and amplitude of 150-200 nT in the horizontal component of the magnetic field at stations of the night sector of the auroral zone. The magnetic impulse was preceded by a long calm magnetic period, although the IMF Bz-component was negative for 1.5 hour before the SI -. The commencement of the SI -, which was determined by variations in the magnetic field at 0650 UT, was accompanied by a sharp increase in the intensity of discrete forms of polar auroras in the midnight sector of the auroral zone and their fast propagation to the pole. Approximately 6-8 min after the SI -, the auroral intensity in the emissions, which were excited by the fluxes of precipitated electrons and protons, quickly began to decrease in the night sector. Analysis of the optical observations showed the two-stage character of the response of the night auroras to the SI - in the considered event: first, fast movement of the discrete aurora forms to the pole with a significant increase in their intensity, and a further fast decrease in auroral intensity with a delay of 6-8 min relative to the SI -. The possible reasons for such aurora behavior are discussed.

  11. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE <90%), as well as projected low noise (<2h+) readout. Power consumption is minimized in the camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  12. [Visual efficiency of pilot using of the night vision glasses].

    PubMed

    Davydov, V V; Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Romasiuk, S I; Riabinin, V A; Chuntul, A V; Prokof'ev, A B

    2007-01-01

    Questionnaires filled out by 24 helicopter pilots using the night vision glasses (NVG) showed that minimization of the risk of visual discomfort was, first of all achieved through proper adjustment of image brightness and setting NVG time limits. The experiments enabled determination of the most favorable range of brightness (0.67-1.79 cd/m2) and rationalization of the necessity of individual adjustment depending on the light conditions and flight objectives, and NVG usage regulations to preclude visual fatigue.

  13. A psychodynamic hypothesis on the night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cavaggioni, G

    1999-03-01

    The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is usually interpreted in organicistic and physiological terms. This paper looks at it dynamically in terms of the psychic dimension of the patient through an examination of the contrasting tensions (emptiness and fullness; saving and destroying the object, etc.) that are the unconscious cause of his NES. A relationship is suggested between nocturnal reawakenings as a form of eating behaviour and the undreamt or avoided dreams used by the patient as a defence against "perception" of the unconscious.

  14. Measuring Observers’ Visual Acuity Through Night Vision Goggles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    a two-alternative, forced-choice ( 2AFC ) method to determine visual acuity through NVGs as a function of night-time ambient illumination levels. A...computer executed the 2AFC (gap seen up or down), Step Program adapted from Simpson (1989). Based on the observerÕs last response, the program selected...threshold levels, NVG drift, good guessing in the 2AFC method, fatigue, eye strain, sinus headaches and so on. METHOD Psychometric Function of Acuity

  15. Digital Enhancement of Night Vision and Thermal Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Figure 3: A Night Vision Device with the light amplifying microchannel plate [From Korry, 2003]. 4 A typical II system consists of three main...the device and is focused onto the photocathode by an optical lens system . Photons striking the photocathode surface release photo-electrons. The... generation of NVDs, the energy of the photo-electron is increased by acceleration with an externally applied electric field. Second- generation devices make

  16. Development Of An Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efkernan, Albert; Jenkins, Donald

    1981-04-01

    Historical background is presented of the U. S. Army's requirement for a high performance, lightweight, night vision goggle for use by helicopter pilots. System requirements are outlined and a current program for development of a third generation image intensification device is described. Primary emphasis is on the use of lightweight, precision molded, aspheric plastic optical elements and molded plastic mechanical components. System concept, design, and manufacturing considerations are presented.

  17. Development Of An Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Donald; Efkeman, Albert

    1980-10-01

    Historical background is presented of the U.S. Army's requirement for a high performance, lightweight, night vision goggle for use by helicopter pilots. System requirements are outlined and a current program for development of a third generation image intensification device is described. Primary emphasis is on the use of light precision molded, aspheric plastic optical elements and molded plastic mechanical components. System concept, design, and manufacturing considerations are presented.

  18. Visual range of LLL night vision goggle for drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chang, Benkang; Li, Wei; Qian, Yunsheng; Fu, Rongguo; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, the fundamental theory about visual range of LLL imaging system is described. Based on the revised apparent distance detecting equation and combined with the research intention and design principle of night vision goggle, the relation of parameters which have an influence on performances of system are analyzed. The visual range of the goggle under the specific circumstances is estimated, which proves the revised apparent distance detecting equation is effective and the design of the system is feasible.

  19. Flight test of monocular day/night HMD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Craig; Longman, Peter J.; Makepeace, Nat R.

    2002-08-01

    The Crew Systems Group at QinetiQ Farnborough, formerly part of the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), have recently conducted development and flight evaluations of two monocular display systems that provided dynamic symbology for the pilot. The systems were the Pilkington Optronics (now Thales) Guardian monocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) used for daytime operations and the QinetiQ Display Night Vision Goggles (DNVGs) used at night. Test flights of the two systems were performed in a modified Jaguar T2B combat aircraft, that was based at the QinetiQ Boscombe Down research facility. Good performance was obtained from each system with both producing clear, legible symbology. During day and night Air to Ground (A-G) sorties both the Guardian and the DNVGs were used for simulated attacks and reconnaissance tasks on a variety of operationally realistic targets. In addition the Guardian HMD was used with an ASRAAM in the day Air to Air (A-A) environment to provide high off-boresight capability. The results from the test program have validated a range of significant capability enhancements offered by either a HMD or a DNVG, and have provided a significant increase in the technical and operational understanding of fast-jet helmet display systems.

  20. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt Shatdzhatmaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V.; Kornilov, M.; Voziakova, O.; Shatsky, N.; Safonov, B.; Gorbunov, I.; Potanin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Senik, V.

    2016-11-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt Shatdzhatmaz, the site of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5-m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007-2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3 and 19.0 mag arcsec-2 for the B, V, R and I spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13 and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  1. Day-To-Night Ionosphere Transport by Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Benna, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nightside low altitude nightside ionosphere production sources for the terrestrial planets are either transport from the dayside and production due to energetic particle impacts. The transport can be driven by ion coupling to the neutral atmosphere motions as part of the general atmospheric global circulation patterns and/or by ionosphere density gradients near the terminators produced as a result of a dayside source of ionization (photoionization) and a nightside sink (chemical losses). The day to night transport of ionization at high altitudes on Venus (during solar max and at Earth maintains the ionosphere throughout the night. This is not the case for Mars, where the dense ionosphere carried from the day does not extend much further than ~120 degrees solar zenith angle. Although predicted neutral wind speeds in the lower thermosphere of Mars are comparable to those on Earth and Venus, the winds at Mars can have larger impacts on horizontal transport since the planet's circumference is much smaller. One prominent effect of the winds is indicated by the observed rapid global dispersal of long-lived metal ions associated following the short, localized impact of the meteor storm associated with Comet Siding Spring . This paper will explore wind control of the low altitude Mars ionosphere ion composition measurements across the terminator from day into night, using the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument on MAVEN with the wind patterns predicted by the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM).

  2. The first World Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C. D.

    2001-12-01

    We present the first World Atlas of the zenith artificial night sky brightness at sea level. Based on radiance-calibrated high-resolution DMSP satellite data and on accurate modelling of light propagation in the atmosphere, it provides a nearly global picture of how mankind is proceeding to envelop itself in a luminous fog. Comparing the Atlas with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) population density data base, we determined the fraction of population who are living under a sky of given brightness. About two-thirds of the World population and 99 per cent of the population in the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) and European Union live in areas where the night sky is above the threshold set for polluted status. Assuming average eye functionality, about one-fifth of the World population, more than two-thirds of the United States population and more than one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. Finally, about one-tenth of the World population, more than 40 per cent of the United States population and one sixth of the European Union population no longer view the heavens with the eye adapted to night vision, because of the sky brightness.

  3. Shortened night sleep impairs facial responsiveness to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Johanna F A; Popp, Roland; Haas, Jessica; Zulley, Jürgen; Geisler, Peter; Alpers, Georg W; Osterheider, Michael; Eisenbarth, Hedwig

    2013-04-01

    Sleep deprivation deteriorates mood, impairs the recognition of facial expressions, and affects the ability to regulate emotions. The present study investigated the effect of partial sleep deprivation on facial responses to emotional stimuli. Thirty-three healthy undergraduates were tested twice: after a night with (i) 8h and (ii) 4h sleep. Self-reported sleepiness and sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed. Emotional reactivity was measured with facial Electromyogram (EMG) while participants were asked to respond with either compatible or incompatible facial muscles to emotional stimuli in order to study whether partial sleep deprivation caused slower reactions mainly in response to incompatible stimuli (due to an additional effort to suppress the compatible reaction caused by decreased inhibitory control) or in response to both compatible and incompatible stimuli. Self-reported sleepiness and reaction times in a sustained attention task significantly increased after one night of partial sleep deprivation. Facial reactions to emotional stimuli were decelerated. No significant interaction between sleep restriction and compatibility of the muscle to the picture valence could be observed. Hence, volitional facial reactions in response to emotional stimuli were slower after one night of reduced sleep, but affective inhibitory control was not significantly impaired. However, slowed facial responding to emotional stimuli may affect social interaction after sleep restriction.

  4. [Diabetic night clinic. Advantages for insured patients and insurance carriers].

    PubMed

    Förster, H; Filz, H P; Dirks, E

    1995-06-01

    The night clinic for diabetics is a new, partially inpatient supplement of the present medical treatment. It represents a modern cooperative model which provides treatment in the time period that is not taken care of by either out-patient or normal in-patient service. The effectivity in the education and metabolic adjustment of the patients is as good as in a normal clinic. The night clinic permits the insured patient to have equal opportunities at work and a better quality of life. It thus fulfills the social and medical demands in the St.-Vincent declaration. The diabetic can no longer be discriminated against due to missing work in order to be instructed. By remaining employed the patients can be more realistically adapted through cooperation with the company doctor. The social and medical subsequent costs can thus be clearly reduced for the payer. By this cost reduction and by lower operating costs while simultaneously being a more efficient way of treatment, the night clinic conception fulfills modern medical, economic and legal standards.

  5. Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2007-10-01

    There are orders of magnitude differences between the ~0.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of night vision (NV) goggle measurements. NIST developed a night vision radiometer calibration facility including NV radiometer transfer standards. The transfer standards, that propagate the radiance responsivity scale to the military primary standards laboratories, are calibrated against a NIST reference radiometer. The reference radiometer has been calibrated on the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) for spectral power and irradiance responsivities. Spectral considerations are discussed to lower the uncertainties of the radiance responsivity scale transfer to the test sets and then to the goggles. Since direct determination of the final uncertainties in goggle calibrations and measurements is difficult, models have been made to estimate the most important uncertainty components based on individual spectral measurements of the applied source distributions and radiometer spectral responsivities. It is also shown, that because of source spectral mismatch problems, the goggle measurement uncertainty at applications can be much higher than at calibration. A suggestion is being made to mimic the no-moon (stars only) night sky radiation distribution using several LEDs in the test-sets to decrease the large spectral mismatch errors. A broad-band correction factor has been developed to further decrease calibration uncertainty when the goggles to be used have different spectral responsivities than the standard. Geometrical considerations to optimize the radiance measurement angle and the out-of-target blocking are also discussed to decrease the uncertainty in the radiance responsivity transfer.

  6. Modern night vision goggles for advanced infantry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.; Ostromek, Timothy E.; Isbell, Wayne; Bacarella, Antonio V.

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Electro-Optical Systems (NGEOS) has concentrated in recent years on the development of advanced night vision goggle (NVG) systems. These NVGs developments concentrate on past operational deficiencies such as high light/bright source conditions during military operations in urban terrain (MOUT), poor individual movement technique (IMT) infantry operations, and obscured battlefield and reduced weather conditions. The first area of NVG advancement involves direct image intensifier (I2) replacement involving automatic gated power supply technology for wide dynamic NVG operation and advanced Generation III halo free I2 technology for reduction of NVG image halo and "blooming" artifacts. The second significant development area is NVG individual movement technique (IMT) deficiencies such as reduced field of view, reduced depth perception, center of gravity problems, and limited operation flexibility. These issues of NVG IMT have resulted in the development of an IMT enhanced night vision goggle for the U.S. Army's enhanced night vision goggle (ENVG). Finally, Northrop Grumman EOS is developing a NVG with the capability of producing optimized real-time image fusion from an image intensified sensor and uncooled long wavelength infrared (LWIR) sensor. This new technology allows for optimum imaging in battlefield obscured and laser polluted environment. These image fusion NVG development efforts have concentrated on both optical overlay image fusion and digital image fusion. This paper will compare and contrast these two types of image fusion technologies.

  7. 78 FR 55230 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... With a Light at Night AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of correction. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... craft with a light at night if the Commandant determines it would be ``impracticable and granting such...

  8. Rapid adaptation to night work at an oil platform, but slow readaptation after returning home.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, B; Kecklund, G; Akerstedt, T

    1998-07-01

    Previous research indicates that night workers' circadian rhythms do not adapt to night work and that disturbed sleep and wakefulness persist, even after weeks of working on night shift. We studied adjustment to 14 days of consecutive night work at an oil platform and the readjustment to day life at home, using the Karolinska sleep/wake diary. The platform workers adapted to night work within a few days, as indicated by the rapid reduction of night-work sleepiness, and by the gradual delay of bedtime to an hour commensurate with the behavior of day workers. Readaptation to day life was slower and more difficult, adding evidence of a complete adaptation to night work. We conclude that the lack of conflicting exposure to daylight in the morning may have facilitated the rapid adjustment to night work.

  9. Air assault soldiers demonstrate more dangerous landing biomechanics when visual input is removed.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yungchien; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer; McGrail, Mark; Rowe, Rusty; Smalley, Brian; Lephart, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers are subjected to increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries in night operations because of limited visual input. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vision removal on lower extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces during two-legged drop landings. The researchers tested 139 Air Assault Soldiers performing a landing task with and without vision. Removing visual input resulted in increased hip abduction at initial contact, decreased maximum knee flexion, and increased maximum vertical ground reaction force. Without vision, the timing of maximum ankle dorsiflexion for the left leg was earlier than the right leg. The observed biomechanical changes may be related to the increased risk of injury in night operations. Proper night landing techniques and supplemental training should be integrated into Soldiers' training to induce musculoskeletal and biomechanical adaptations to compensate for limited vision.

  10. Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Hygge, Staffan; Clark, Charlotte; Alfred, Tamuno

    2010-01-01

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these

  11. GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements

  12. Exercise effects on night-to-night fluctuations in self-rated sleep among older adults with sleep complaints.

    PubMed

    Buman, Matthew P; Hekler, Eric B; Bliwise, Donald L; King, Abby C

    2011-03-01

    Sleep interventions have rarely explored reductions in night-to-night fluctuations [i.e. intra-individual variability (IIV)] in sleep, despite the negative impacts of such fluctuations on affective states and cognitive and physical symptoms. In a community-based randomized controlled trial we evaluated whether physical exercise reduced IIV in self-rated sleep outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with sleep complaints. Under-active adults 55 years and older (n = 66, 67% women) with mild to moderate sleep complaints were randomized to 12 months of a moderate-intensity endurance exercise (n = 36) or a health education control group (n = 30). Daily sleep logs, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic sleep recordings (PSG) were collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Sleep log-derived means and IIV were computed for sleep-onset latency (SOL), time in bed, feeling rested in the morning, number of nighttime awakenings, and wake after final awakening (WAFA). Using intent-to-treat methods, at 6 months no differences in IIV were observed by group. At 12 months, SOL-based IIV was reduced in the exercise group compared with the control (difference = 23.11, 95% CI: 3.04-47.18, P = 0.025, Cohen's d = 0.57). This change occurred without mean-level or IIV changes in sleep-wake schedules. For all sleep variables, except SOL and WAFA, IIV changes and mean-level changes in each variable were negatively correlated (r = -0.312 to -0.691, P < 0.05). Sleep log-derived IIV changes were modestly correlated with mean-level PSQI and PSG-based changes at 12 months. Twelve months of moderate-intensity exercise reduced night-to-night fluctuations in self-rated time to fall asleep, and this relationship was independent of mean-level time to fall asleep.

  13. Interim-Night Integrated Goggle Head Tracking System (I-Nights). Volume 2. Flight Test, Pilot Survey Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-018 ). Washington. DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2.RPR AE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES...responses generalized by aircraft type and I-NIGHTS helmet vendor. vii This Page Intentionally Left Blank viii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ANVIS-6...pilot responses between aircraft type . The HC-130 crews flew at altitudes from 1500 ft to 25,000 ft whereas the helicopter crews (MH-53, MH-60) flew at

  14. 78 FR 31872 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 64 RIN 1625-AA97 Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night... vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and... to immediately mark it with a buoy or a beacon during the day and a light at night, and maintain...

  15. 75 FR 19248 - Subject: Safety Zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Subject: Safety Zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks... Summer Nights Fireworks. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants... is sponsoring the Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks, which ] will include a fireworks...

  16. Continuous White Noise to Reduce Resistance Going to Sleep and Night Wakings in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forquer, LeAnne M.; Johnson, C. Merle

    2005-01-01

    White noise generators were turned on at 75 dB at bedtime and kept on all night to treat resistance going to sleep and night wakings in one-year-old toddlers. In a multiple baseline design four sets of parents recorded duration of resistance going to sleep, number of night wakings, completed surveys of their child's feeding and sleeping patterns…

  17. Adults' Perceptions of Children's Science Abilities and Interest after Participating in a Family Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanowitz, Karen L.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine adults' and children's perceptions of participating in a family science night event, especially in the context of parental belief about children's science abilities. Family science nights are becoming increasingly popular and are used in a wide range of settings. During family science nights, adults and…

  18. Losing Sleep to Watch the Night-Sky: The Relationship between Sleep-Length and Noctcaelador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Rose, Callie

    2005-01-01

    For most of history, humans have been watching the night-sky (Hawkins, 1983). Historically, individuals have watched the night-sky for aesthetic appreciation and to gain insights and knowledge (Brecher & Feirtag, 1979). Despite the long history of night-sky watching among humans and the apparent importance of the behavior to large groups of…

  19. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z

  20. Effects of submental stimulation for several consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hida, W.; Okabe, S.; Miki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Taguchi, O.; Takishima, T.; Shirato, K.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--It has previously been reported that short term submental stimulation can reduce the frequency of apnoea and improve sleep architecture in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. The effects of submental stimulation during consecutive nights on apnoea or on daytime sleepiness have not, however, been studied. METHODS--Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were studied by polysomnography on a control night, for five consecutive nights of submental stimulation, and on three following nights (n = 8). A multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) (n = 8) and measurement of the upper airway resistance (n = 5) were performed during the day after the polysomnographic study, on the control night, and on the fifth stimulation night. In an additional five patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, matched for age, sex, and weight, the effects of two nights of stimulation were examined for comparison. Submental stimulation began when an apnoea lasted for five seconds and stopped with the resumption of breathing as detected by oronasal flow. RESULTS--The apnoea index, the number of times per hour that SaO2 dropped below 85% (SaO2 < 85%/hour), and the total apnoea duration expressed as a percentage of total sleep time during stimulation nights decreased to approximately 50% of the corresponding values on the control night. This improvement persisted for at least two nights after the five consecutive stimulation nights, but not after the two consecutive stimulation nights. Sleep architecture and MSLT following the stimulation nights improved but upper airway resistance did not change. CONCLUSIONS--Submental stimulation for five consecutive nights in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea improved the breathing disturbance, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. The effect lasted for the following two nights, but did not completely abolish the sleep disordered breathing. PMID:8016764

  1. 30th Apollo Lunar Landing Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The evening skies over the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL burst into life as members of the Huntsville community gathered to celebrate the 30th arniversary of the Lunar Landing. Commerating this historical achievement for NASA and the US Space Program, a replica of the original Saturn V rocket was built on the grounds of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. On the evening of the anniversary thousands of onlookers cheered as fireworks lit up the night sky behind the massive Saturn V rocket.

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  3. Determinants of day-night difference in blood pressure, a comparison with determinants of daytime and night-time blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Musameh, M D; Nelson, C P; Gracey, J; Tobin, M; Tomaszewski, M; Samani, N J

    2017-01-01

    Blunted day-night difference in blood pressure (BP) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, although there is limited information on determinants of diurnal variation in BP. We investigated determinants of day-night difference in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and how these compared with determinants of daytime and night-time SBP and DBP. We analysed the association of mean daytime, mean night-time and mean day-night difference (defined as (mean daytime-mean night-time)/mean daytime) in SBP and DBP with clinical, lifestyle and biochemical parameters from 1562 adult individuals (mean age 38.6) from 509 nuclear families recruited in the GRAPHIC Study. We estimated the heritability of the various BP phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, there were significant associations of age, sex, markers of adiposity (body mass index and waist-hip ratio), plasma lipids (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), serum uric acid, alcohol intake and current smoking status on daytime or night-time SBP and/or DBP. Of these, only age (P=4.7 × 10(-5)), total cholesterol (P=0.002), plasma triglycerides (P=0.006) and current smoking (P=3.8 × 10(-9)) associated with day-night difference in SBP, and age (P=0.001), plasma triglyceride (P=2.2 × 10(-5)) and current smoking (3.8 × 10(-4)) associated with day-night difference in DBP. 24-h, daytime and night-time SBP and DBP showed substantial heritability (ranging from 18-43%). In contrast day-night difference in SBP showed a lower heritability (13%) while heritability of day-night difference in DBP was not significant. These data suggest that specific clinical, lifestyle and biochemical factors contribute to inter-individual variation in daytime, night-time and day-night differences in SBP and DBP. Variation in day-night differences in BP is largely non-genetic.

  4. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theleman, Scott; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Scott, Courtney; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.; Napier, S.

    2006-08-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. This paper describes work that is being performed for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG-WDT (Weather Dipiction Technology) system. NVG-WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5); and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) is being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs.

  5. Prevention of facial fractures from night vision goggle impact.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; Kennedy, Eric; Wilson, Kaitlin; Duma, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Facial bone fractures in the military can result from direct loading of night vision goggles on the orbital region. Facial fracture research has shown that increasing the area over which the load is applied increases the load tolerance. The purpose of this study is to apply this concept to reducing the risk of facial bone fracture from night vision goggle impacts. The effectiveness of countermeasures in prevention of orbital fracture was evaluated using a vertical drop tower with two impact velocities of 2.6 m/s and 3.6 m/s. The countermeasure used was a rigid plastic custom face shield made from a plaster impression of each head. In addition to two human cadaver subjects, one male and one female, tests were completed on a Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy head. Three impacts to the dummy headform included no countermeasure, safety glasses, and a custom face shield. These tests yielded peak loads of 8700 N, 7500 N, and 5640 N respectively. Using the female subject, impacts were preformed successively until injury occurred. These two impacts to the subject wearing a custom face shield resulted in peak loads of 4025 N and 5158 N. The highest load corresponds to an impact velocity of 3.6 m/s and a nasal bone fracture. Two impacts to the male subject with a custom face shield resulted in peak loads of 4554 N and 5101 N with no injury. The final impact to the male subject had a peak load of 2010 N with complete orbital fracture due to the absence of a countermeasure. From these tests it is shown that facial fracture risk from night vision goggle impact can be reduced using a contoured rigid face shield.

  6. [Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor].

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Pepłońska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC), can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin). 'The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies.

  7. The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This pair of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform viewed during both the day and night. The nighttime THEMIS IR image was acquired on Oct. 24, 2002; the daytime image was originally released on July 24, 2002. Both images are of THEMIS's 9th IR band (12.57 microns), and they have been geometrically projected for image registration. The 'face on Mars' is located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). This knob can be seen in the daytime image because of the temperature differences between the sunlit (warm and bright) and shadowed (cold and dark) slopes. The temperature in the daytime scene ranges from -50 oC (darkest) to -15 oC (brightest). At night many of the hills and knobs in this region are difficult to detect because the effects of heating and shadowing on the slopes are no longer present. The temperatures at night vary from approximately -90 oC (darkest) to -75 oC (warmest). The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay warm. Fine grained dust and sand cools of more rapidly at night. The circular rims and eject of many of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters and in the ejecta material that was blasted out when the craters formed. Some craters have cold (dark) material on their floors in the night IR image, indicating that fine-grained material is accumulating within the craters. Many knobs and hills, including the 'face' have rocky (warm at night) material on their slopes and ridges.

    The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - these images cover an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). The scenes are tilted differently because the Odyssey orbit is

  8. The So-called 'Face on Mars' at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This pair of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform viewed during both the day and night. The nighttime THEMIS IR image was acquired on Oct. 24, 2002; the daytime image was originally released on July 24, 2002. Both images are of THEMIS's 9th IR band (12.57 microns), and they have been geometrically projected for image registration. The 'face on Mars' is located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). This knob can be seen in the daytime image because of the temperature differences between the sunlit (warm and bright) and shadowed (cold and dark) slopes. The temperature in the daytime scene ranges from -50 oC (darkest) to -15 oC (brightest). At night many of the hills and knobs in this region are difficult to detect because the effects of heating and shadowing on the slopes are no longer present. The temperatures at night vary from approximately -90 oC (darkest) to -75 oC (warmest). The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay warm. Fine grained dust and sand cools of more rapidly at night. The circular rims and eject of many of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters and in the ejecta material that was blasted out when the craters formed. Some craters have cold (dark) material on their floors in the night IR image, indicating that fine-grained material is accumulating within the craters. Many knobs and hills, including the 'face' have rocky (warm at night) material on their slopes and ridges.

    The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - these images cover an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 50 kilometers (30 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). The scenes are tilted differently because the Odyssey orbit is

  9. Night terrors in an adult precipitated by sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Pressman, M R; Meyer, T J; Kendrick-Mohamed, J; Figueroa, W G; Greenspon, L W; Peterson, D D

    1995-11-01

    Parasomnias are generally described as disorders of arousal that arise out of stage 3 and 4 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep without identifiable cause. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment for severe obstructive sleep apnea experienced an intense night terror triggered by a residual obstructive apnea during rebound deep sleep. The role of rebound deep sleep was thought to be essential in creating a state of sleep with a high arousal threshold hypothesized to be important for the occurrence of parasomnias. This case supports the clinical wisdom that identifiable sources of arousal can trigger parasomnias.

  10. Design of three-element night-vision goggle objectives.

    PubMed

    Rouke, J L; Crawford, M K; Fischer, D J; Harkrider, C J; Moore, D T; Tomkinson, T H

    1998-02-01

    Night-vision goggle objectives are often composed of six or more conventional lens elements with spherical surfaces and homogeneous refractive indices. Special elements such as aspheres, diffractive optics, and gradient-index materials can be used to reduce the total number of lenses required to meet military design specifications. A study was performed to examine the use of various combinations of these special surfaces to determine the minimum number of elements that can be used to construct the objective system. We present and compare the best resulting designs.

  11. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps.

  12. Night Watch in One Brain Hemisphere during Sleep Associated with the First-Night Effect in Humans.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Masako; Bang, Ji Won; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-05-09

    We often experience troubled sleep in a novel environment [1]. This is called the first-night effect (FNE) in human sleep research and has been regarded as a typical sleep disturbance [2-4]. Here, we show that the FNE is a manifestation of one hemisphere being more vigilant than the other as a night watch to monitor unfamiliar surroundings during sleep [5, 6]. Using advanced neuroimaging techniques [7, 8] as well as polysomnography, we found that the temporary sleep disturbance in the first sleep experimental session involves regional interhemispheric asymmetry of sleep depth [9]. The interhemispheric asymmetry of sleep depth associated with the FNE was found in the default-mode network (DMN) involved with spontaneous internal thoughts during wakeful rest [10, 11]. The degree of asymmetry was significantly correlated with the sleep-onset latency, which reflects the degree of difficulty of falling asleep and is a critical measure for the FNE. Furthermore, the hemisphere with reduced sleep depth showed enhanced evoked brain response to deviant external stimuli. Deviant external stimuli detected by the less-sleeping hemisphere caused more arousals and faster behavioral responses than those detected by the other hemisphere. None of these asymmetries were evident during subsequent sleep sessions. These lines of evidence are in accord with the hypothesis that troubled sleep in an unfamiliar environment is an act for survival over an unfamiliar and potentially dangerous environment by keeping one hemisphere partially more vigilant than the other hemisphere as a night watch, which wakes the sleeper up when unfamiliar external signals are detected.

  13. A portable observatory for persistent monitoring of the night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, James; Vestrand, W. Thomas; Wozniak, Przemek; Davis, Heath

    2010-07-01

    We describe the design and operation of a small, transportable, robotic observatory that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This small observatory, called RQD2 (Raptor-Q Design 2), is the prototype for nodes in a global network capable of continuous persistent monitoring of the night sky. The observatory employs five wide-field imagers that altogether view about 90% of the sky above 12 degrees elevation with a sensitivity of R=10 magnitude in 10 seconds. Operating robotically, the RQD2 system acquires a nearly full-sky image every 20 seconds, taking more than 10,000 individual images per night. It also runs real-time astrometric and photometric pipelines that provide both a capability to autonomously search for bright astronomical transients and monitor the variability of optical extinction across the full sky. The first RQD2 observatory began operation in March 2009 and is currently operating at the Fenton Hill site located near Los Alamos, NM.We present a detailed description of the RQD2 system and the data taken during the first several months of operation.

  14. Optimal management of night eating syndrome: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed. PMID:25834450

  15. Optimal management of night eating syndrome: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Kucukgoncu, Suat; Midura, Margaretta; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed.

  16. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  17. Night Eating Syndrome in Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    KÜÇÜKGÖNCÜ, Suat; BEŞTEPE, Emrem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and the clinical features of night eating syndrome (NES) in patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Method The study was conducted at Bakırköy State Hospital for Mental Health and Neurological Disorders. Three-hundred out-patients who had major depression (MD), panic disorders (PD), general anxiety disorders (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) participated in the study. The semi-structured socio-demographic form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Night Eating Questionnaire, and NES Evaluation Questionnaire were implemented. Results In our sample, the prevalence of the NES was 15.7% (n=47). NES frequency was significantly higher in the patients diagnosed with major depression (MD 22%, GAD 7.8%, OCD 12.5%, PD 14%). Smoking, presence of past suicide attempts, rates of antipsychotic drugs use, and average scores of body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in the patients who had NES. In this sample, depression, BMI, and smoking were found to be determinants of NES. Conclusion This study shows that NES may be frequently observed in patients admitted to psychiatric clinics, especially in those with major depression. Evaluation of NES in psychiatric patients may help the treatment of the primary psychopathology and prevent the adverse effects, like weight gain, which may reduce the quality of life.

  18. Arabidopsis plants perform arithmetic division to prevent starvation at night

    PubMed Central

    Scialdone, Antonio; Mugford, Sam T; Feike, Doreen; Skeffington, Alastair; Borrill, Philippa; Graf, Alexander; Smith, Alison M; Howard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic starch reserves that accumulate in Arabidopsis leaves during the day decrease approximately linearly with time at night to support metabolism and growth. We find that the rate of decrease is adjusted to accommodate variation in the time of onset of darkness and starch content, such that reserves last almost precisely until dawn. Generation of these dynamics therefore requires an arithmetic division computation between the starch content and expected time to dawn. We introduce two novel chemical kinetic models capable of implementing analog arithmetic division. Predictions from the models are successfully tested in plants perturbed by a night-time light period or by mutations in starch degradation pathways. Our experiments indicate which components of the starch degradation apparatus may be important for appropriate arithmetic division. Our results are potentially relevant for any biological system dependent on a food reserve for survival over a predictable time period. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00669.001 PMID:23805380

  19. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D; Parsons, D; Geerts, B

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  20. Sleepwalking and night terrors: psychopathological and psychophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Szelenberger, Waldemar; Niemcewicz, Szymon; Dabrowska, Anna Justyna

    2005-08-01

    Sleepwalking and night terrors are considered to be manifestations of the same nosologic continuum. It has been proposed that a sudden arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is the cause of these disorders. Benign forms of NREM arousal parasomnias occur frequently in childhood and attenuate in teen years; however, they can persist into or begin in adulthood. The available literature documents high levels of psychopathology in adult patients. Sleepwalking and night terrors are most likely to manifest during the first episode of slow wave sleep, but may also appear any time during NREM sleep. The hypersynchronous delta activity, previously considered to be a hallmark of somnambulism, has proven to be unspecific. Post-arousal EEG activity reveals altered consciousness during sleepwalking and sleep terror episodes. Pathophysiology of NREM arousal parasomnias consists of predisposing factors, which may be a genetically determined tendency for deep sleep, facilitating factors which deepen sleep and increase slow wave sleep, and triggering factors which increase sleep fragmentation, such as stress, environmental or endogenous stimuli, and stimulants. Recently published data on low delta power in the first sleep cycle and slow decline of delta power in successive sleep cycles suggest a chronic inability to sustain slow wave sleep.

  1. Depth perception after prolonged usage of night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, J B; Wilkinson, M

    1989-06-01

    The present study was initiated following a report that a few helicopter pilots had failed a test of stereoscopic depth perception after a prolonged training flight employing night vision goggles (NVGs). In order to determine the cause of the loss, 12 helicopter pilots/copilots were assessed for depth perception, lateral and vertical phoria, and contrast sensitivity before and after training flights requiring the pilots to wear night vision goggles for the duration of the flight. Pilots flew one to three missions while wearing either PVS-5A or AN/AVS-6 goggles. Mission duration ranged from 1 to 4 h. The results indicate that contrast sensitivity and depth perception when monocular cues are present did not degrade over the course of the mission. Lateral phoria, however, did demonstrate an average exophoric shift of 1.5 prism diopters for 12 out of the 24 missions. The results indicate that the original report of a loss of depth perception based on a test of depth requiring stereopsis might have been caused by a shift in lateral phoria. It would be expected that as additional fusional effort is required, the minimum resolvable disparity degrades due to the increase in accommodation brought about through vergence accommodation. Possible causes for the phoria shift and future testing are discussed.

  2. Assessment of panoramic and conventional night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents results obtained during a flight evaluation of Night Vision Devices (NVDs) equipped with a symbology injection capability. The NVDs used represented both conventional and wide (Panoramic) Field of View Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) systems. The evaluation was conducted at the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Flying Simulator under the auspices of the Technical Co-operation Programme. 6 Pilots from 4 nations participated in the trial and some 36 hours of flight data and pilot performance were recorded. The metrics used to evaluate Pilot performance included conventional Visual Cue Ratings, estimates of workload, and objective measures obtained through advanced data-analysis techniques. The trial used both conventional ADS-33D manoeuvres and a novel 'Racetrack" course. The paper concludes that although PNVG compare favourably with NVGs the clarity of image currently available in standard NVGs surpasses that of the PNVG and negates some of the advantages gained by the wider Field of View. The manoeuvres favoured by the NVG include those where a high degree of foveal attention demanding processing is being performed, for example navigation tasks. The manoeuvres favoured by the PNVG include those where a more automatic peripheral processing is being performed, for example in reducing drift in the hover.

  3. Asymmetric effects of daytime and night-time warming on Northern Hemisphere vegetation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Chen, Anping; Chevallier, Frédéric; Dolman, Albertus J; Janssens, Ivan A; Peñuelas, Josep; Zhang, Gengxin; Vicca, Sara; Wan, Shiqiang; Wang, Shiping; Zeng, Hui

    2013-09-05

    Temperature data over the past five decades show faster warming of the global land surface during the night than during the day. This asymmetric warming is expected to affect carbon assimilation and consumption in plants, because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during daytime and is more sensitive to the maximum daily temperature, Tmax, whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day and is therefore influenced by both Tmax and the minimum daily temperature, Tmin. Most studies of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming, however, ignore this asymmetric forcing effect on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Here we analyse the interannual covariations of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, an indicator of vegetation greenness) with Tmax and Tmin over the Northern Hemisphere. After removing the correlation between Tmax and Tmin, we find that the partial correlation between Tmax and NDVI is positive in most wet and cool ecosystems over boreal regions, but negative in dry temperate regions. In contrast, the partial correlation between Tmin and NDVI is negative in boreal regions, and exhibits a more complex behaviour in dry temperate regions. We detect similar patterns in terrestrial net CO2 exchange maps obtained from a global atmospheric inversion model. Additional analysis of the long-term atmospheric CO2 concentration record of the station Point Barrow in Alaska suggests that the peak-to-peak amplitude of CO2 increased by 23 ± 11% for a +1 °C anomaly in Tmax from May to September over lands north of 51° N, but decreased by 28 ± 14% for a +1 °C anomaly in Tmin. These lines of evidence suggest that asymmetric diurnal warming, a process that is currently not taken into account in many global carbon cycle models, leads to a divergent response of Northern Hemisphere vegetation growth and carbon sequestration to rising temperatures.

  4. Night-waking trajectories and associated factors in French preschoolers from the EDEN birth-cohort.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Eve; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Plancoulaine, Sabine

    Night waking in preschoolers has been associated with adverse health outcomes in cross-sectional studies, but has rarely been analyzed in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, little is known about the evolution of night waking in early childhood. The objectives of the present study were: to identify night-waking trajectories in preschoolers, and to examine the risk factors associated with those trajectories. Analyses were based on the French birth-cohort study EDEN, which recruited 2002 pregnant women between 2003 and 2006. Data on a child's night waking at the ages of two, three, and five, six years, and potential confounders, were collected through parental self-reported questionnaires. Night-waking trajectories were computerized using group-based trajectory modeling on 1346 children. Two distinct developmental patterns were identified: the "2-5 rare night-waking" (77% of the children) and the "2-5 common night-waking" pattern. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the factors associated with the trajectories. Risk factors for belonging to the "2-5 common night-waking" trajectory were: exposure to passive smoking at home, daycare in a collective setting, watching television for extended periods, bottle feeding at night, high emotionality, and low shyness. This approach allowed identification of risk factors associated with night waking during a critical age window, and laid the groundwork for identifying children at higher risk of deleterious sleep patterns. Those risk factors were mainly living habits, which indicated that prevention and intervention programs could be highly beneficial in this population.

  5. Differential daytime and night-time stomatal behavior in plants from North American deserts.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kiona; Lucas, Richard W; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Cable, Jessica M; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Griffith, Alden; Ignace, Danielle; Jenerette, G Darrel; Tyler, Anna; Huxman, Travis E; Loik, Michael E; Smith, Stanley D; Tissue, David T

    2012-04-01

    Night-time stomatal conductance (g(night)) occurs in many ecosystems, but the g(night) response to environmental drivers is relatively unknown, especially in deserts. Here, we conducted a Bayesian analysis of stomatal conductance (g) (N=5013) from 16 species in the Sonoran, Chihuahuan, Mojave and Great Basin Deserts (North America). We partitioned daytime g (g(day)) and g(night) responses by describing g as a mixture of two extreme (dark vs high light) behaviors. Significant g(night) was observed across 15 species, and the g(night) and g(day) behavior differed according to species, functional type and desert. The transition between extreme behaviors was determined by light environment, with the transition behavior differing between functional types and deserts. Sonoran and Chihuahuan C(4) grasses were more sensitive to vapor pressure difference (D) at night and soil water potential (Ψ(soil)) during the day, Great Basin C(3) shrubs were highly sensitive to D and Ψ(soil) during the day, and Mojave C(3) shrubs were equally sensitive to D and Ψ(soil) during the day and night. Species were split between the exhibition of isohydric or anisohydric behavior during the day. Three species switched from anisohydric to isohydric behavior at night. Such behavior, combined with differential D, Ψ(soil) and light responses, suggests that different mechanisms underlie g(day) and g(night) regulation.

  6. Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Chiang, K. V.; Chen, H.; Sun, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Day-Night Band (DNB) onboard Suomi-NPP VIIRS is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 mm that is capable of observing the Earth scene in visible/near-Infrared spectral range at spatial resolution of 750 m. The DNB operates at low, mid, or high gain stages, and it uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) for low gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a mean to compute gain ratios between low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. With its large dynamic range and high sensitivity, the DNB detectors can make observations during both daytime and nighttime. We will describe the DNB on-orbit calibration methodology used by the VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) in supporting the NASA earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) made available by the Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). We will update the status of DNB calibration and characterization of its performance, including the SD degradation, detector gains and gain ratios trending, stray light contamination and its correction.

  7. Disappearing in the Night: An Overview on Trade and Legislation of Night Monkeys in South and Central America.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Magdalena S; Shanee, Sam; Shanee, Noga; Bannister, Flavia B; Cervera, Laura; Donati, Giuseppe; Huck, Maren; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Juarez, Cecilia P; Maldonado, Angela M; Martinez Mollinedo, Jesus; Méndez-Carvajal, Pedro G; Molina Argandoña, Miguel A; Mollo Vino, Antonietta D; Nekaris, K A I; Peck, Mika; Rey-Goyeneche, Jennifer; Spaan, Denise; Nijman, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The international trade in night monkeys (Aotus spp.), found throughout Central and South America, has been regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1975. We present a quantitative analysis of this trade from all 9 range countries, over 4 decades, and compare domestic legislation to CITES regulations. Night monkeys were exported from 8 of the 9 habitat countries, totalling 5,968 live individuals and 7,098 specimens, with trade of live individuals declining over time. In terms of species, the most commonly traded was Aotus nancymaae (present in Brazil, Colombia, Peru) followed by A. vociferans (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) and A. zonalis (Colombia, Panama). There was no significant correlation between levels of trade and species' geographic range size or the number of countries in which a species occurs. Five countries have legislation that meets CITES requirements for implementation, whereas the other 4 countries' legislation showed deficiencies. Research conducted in Colombia, Peru, and Brazil suggests significant cross-border trade not captured in official international trade registers. Although international trade has diminished, current trends suggest that populations of rarer species may be under unsustainable pressure. Further research is needed to quantify real trade numbers occurring between habitat countries.

  8. Multimodal Guidance for Land Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    night operations with night vision devices). Similarly, Van Erp (2005) reported successful application of tactile feedback for orientation of...the night vision goggle was in front of the other eye. The Soldier always had the map with his own position in relation to the waypoints at his...manual load). However, the visual load for the Soldier is high, especially when the night vision goggles also have to be used (see Duistermaat, 2005

  9. Session 21.2 - Measurement of Light at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the mercury vapor lamp for general lighting in the 1930s probably marked the beginning of significant light pollution. Lighting levels have increased slowly, year-to-year, with sky brightness levels increasing only slowly on timescales of a year; no measurement protocols or instruments existed to quantify this increase. However, on timescales of 10-20 years, or on generational timescales, the increases in night sky levels, particularly in urban areas, have been dramatic. Younger people speak with their parents or grandparents who remark how beautiful the sky used to be, and how many stars they could see when they when they were younger. Older people can themselves remember how many stars were visible in the sky when they were younger. Whole generations of children now grow up without ever seeing the Milky Way. Society has not had tools to easily measure sky brightness, and monitoring from space has only recently become available. A subtle increase of 10% sky brightness per year, for example, is not noticeable to the human eye on the time scale of a year, and has been tolerated by society. But such an increase compounds to an increase of a factor 2.6 in 10 years, 6.7 in 20 years, and a factor 45 in 40 years, corresponding to a dramatic increase in sky brightness, an almost complete loss in ability to see faint objects in the night sky, and rendering the sky unusable for most forms of astronomy. The most striking examples are the urban observatories found in many major cities that can no longer be used. Session 2 was primarily focused on measurement of light at night, with an emphasis on measurement of light pollution. It comprised of 6 papers that are summarized below. Over the last decade, our ability to measure light pollution has grown tremendously, and the instrumentation needed to produce reliable quantitative measurements has become much more affordable, and now includes consumer grade digital cameras and even smart phones. During this same

  10. Jupiter Night-Side Auroras, North and South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Oval-shaped auroras glow in night-side areas near Jupiter's north and south poles in these images taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on Jan. 13, 2001. The lower frame is the first to capture the southern aurora on the planet's night side. Blue lines of longitude and latitude have been added in each frame to indicate position of the glows.

    Jupiter's auroral ovals are similar to Earth's auroras, often called the northern lights or southern lights, although fluctuations in solar activity play a more important role in the auroras at Earth than at Jupiter. Energetic particles are constantly streaming towards Jupiter on magnetic field lines that intersect the planet's atmosphere on a ring around the magnetic pole. Where the energetic particles hit the upper atmosphere, they cause emission of light, similar to the glow in a fluorescent bulb. In the north (upper image), the magnetic pole is offset from the rotational pole, which is where the blue longitude lines converge, just to the left of the imaged area. The auroral oval appears like a draped necklace that is carried around by the rotation of the planet. In the south (lower image), the magnetic and rotational poles are nearly coincident, so no significant offset is visible.

    Cassini had passed its closest to Jupiter about two weeks before taking these pictures, so it was in position to see the night side of the planet. It was about 16.5 million kilometers (10.3 million miles) from the planet and about 2.5 degrees below the plane of Jupiter's equator. The smallest features visible are about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) across. The images were taken by Cassini's narrow-band camera through a filter centered on a light-wave frequency at which hydrogen emits light when it is excited. They have been processed to remove scattered light from the overexposed sunlit crescent of the planet. Hydrogen is a major ingredient of Jupiter's atmosphere.

    It is not understood why the auroral oval rings are so thin. Cassini

  11. Abandoned Mine Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned Mine Lands are those lands, waters, and surrounding watersheds where extraction, beneficiation, or processing of ores and minerals (excluding coal) has occurred. These lands also include areas where mining or processing activity is inactive.

  12. In the darkness of the polar night, scallops keep on a steady rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Damien; Sow, Mohamedou; Camus, Lionel; Ciret, Pierre; Berge, Jorgen; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevailing paradigm has held that the polar night is a period of biological quiescence, recent studies have detected noticeable activity levels in marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the circadian rhythm of the scallop Chlamys islandica by continuously recording the animal’s behaviour over 3 years in the Arctic (Svalbard). Our results showed that a circadian rhythm persists throughout the polar night and lasts for at least 4 months. Based on observations across three polar nights, we showed that the robustness and synchronicity of the rhythm depends on the angle of the sun below the horizon. The weakest rhythm occurred at the onset of the polar night during the nautical twilight. Surprisingly, the circadian behaviour began to recover during the darkest part of the polar night. Because active rhythms optimize the fitness of an organism, our study brings out that the scallops C. islandica remain active even during the polar night. PMID:27577847

  13. Citizen Science Provides Valuable Data for Monitoring Global Night Sky Luminance

    PubMed Central

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Wagner, Janna M.; Kuechly, Helga U.; Walker, Constance E.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Falchi, Fabio; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate. PMID:23677222

  14. In the darkness of the polar night, scallops keep on a steady rhythm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Damien; Sow, Mohamedou; Camus, Lionel; Ciret, Pierre; Berge, Jorgen; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2016-08-01

    Although the prevailing paradigm has held that the polar night is a period of biological quiescence, recent studies have detected noticeable activity levels in marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the circadian rhythm of the scallop Chlamys islandica by continuously recording the animal’s behaviour over 3 years in the Arctic (Svalbard). Our results showed that a circadian rhythm persists throughout the polar night and lasts for at least 4 months. Based on observations across three polar nights, we showed that the robustness and synchronicity of the rhythm depends on the angle of the sun below the horizon. The weakest rhythm occurred at the onset of the polar night during the nautical twilight. Surprisingly, the circadian behaviour began to recover during the darkest part of the polar night. Because active rhythms optimize the fitness of an organism, our study brings out that the scallops C. islandica remain active even during the polar night.

  15. Measuring urban sprawl in China by night time light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In the process of urbanization, a phenomenon called “urban sprawl” usually occurs. This phenomenon may exaggerated the negative effects of urbanization on environment, public and social health, energy efficiency, and maintenance of farmland. Therefore, the understanding of this phenomenon is urgently required for us to achieve sustainable development. This study proposed a group of night time lights (NTL) indicators of urban sprawl, which intend to use the distribution of lightness to quantify urban sprawl. These measures are proved to be efficient in describing urban sprawl. In addition, they are consistent and easy calculating, making comparison analysis easy to be done. These indicators are used to study urban sprawl in China during the year 2000 to 2010, the results show that in the last ten years, metropolitan areas in the northern part of China have undergone a more sprawl-like urban growth compared with other parts of China.

  16. Design of a Day/Night Lunar Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelman, Peter; Easudes, Jesse; Martin, Martin C.; Rollins, Eric; Silberman, Jack; Chen, Mei; Hancock, John; Mor, Andrew B.; Sharf, Alex; Warren, Tom; Bapna, Deepak

    1995-06-01

    The pair of lunar rovers discussed in this report will return video and state data to various ventures, including theme park and marketing concerns, science agencies, and educational institutions. The greatest challenge accepted by the design team was to enable operations throughout the extremely cold and dark lunar night, an unprecedented goal in planetary exploration. This is achieved through the use of the emerging technology of Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converters (AMTEC), provided with heat from a innovative beta-decay heat source, Krypton-85 gas. Although previous space missions have returned still images, our design will convey panoramic video from a ring of cameras around the rover. A six-wheel rocker bogie mechanism is implemented to propel the rover. The rovers will also provide the ability to safeguard their operation to allow untrained members of the general public to drive the vehicle. Additionally, scientific exploration and educational outreach will be supported with a user operable, steerable and zoomable camera.

  17. The sleepwalking/night terrors syndrome in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    A third of a million adults in the UK sleepwalk while a million suffer from night terrors. In both conditions the individual is unaware of the fullness of their surroundings and is totally focussed in their concern or activity. Doctors are only likely to become involved if the individual comes to harm or seeks help or if other people are inconvenienced or threatened. The constitutional basis of the disorder is beyond doubt, although the actual expression may be related to stressful life-events resulting from an individual's personality, relationships and circumstances. Treatment may include the provision of a secure environment, counselling, and the use of benzodiazepines and serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. PMID:8977941

  18. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Atlanta, Georgia at night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia at night as recorded on the 64th orbit of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The image was recorded using an image intensifier on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates on this image are 33.738 degrees north latitude and 84.414 degrees west longitude. Digital file name is ESC04030.IMG.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Snow Storms During the Polar Night on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) detected clouds associated with topographic features during the polar night on Mars. While uplift generated from flow over mountains initiates clouds on both Earth and Mars, we suggest that the Martian clouds differ greatly from terrestrial mountain wave clouds. Terrestrial wave clouds are generally compact features with sharp edges due to the relatively small particles in them. However, we find that the large mass of condensible carbon dioxide on Mars leads to clouds with snow tails that may extend many kilometers down wind from the mountain and even reach the surface. Both the observations and the simulations suggest substantial carbon dioxide snow precipitation in association with the underlying topography. This precipitation deposits CO2, dust and water ice to the polar caps, and may lead to propagating geologic features in the Martian polar regions.

  20. Development of the combiner-eyepiece night-vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alexander A.

    1990-10-01

    Conventional 'straightthrough ' nightvision goggles are now in widespread service with many armed forces throughout the world. Though originally designed for ground forces they have been successfully engineered into the airborne environment and are used on both rotary wing and fixed wing aircraft. However, a major disadvantage in the use of this type of NVG, particularly in fast jet applications, is that they obscure the pilots direct view of the Head Up Display. The combiner eyepiece NVGs solves this problem by giving the pilot a direct view of the HUD and cockpit instruments which is optically combined with the intensified image. The cockpit instruments and HUD are ofcourse compatible with the NVG and are invisible to the NVG. The development ofa Combiner eyepiece NVG from initial concept through to production isdiscussed including design considerations, trade offs and enhancements to the operation of the device. The further development of the combiner eyepiece NVG into a fully integrated ejection safe night vision helmet is also described.

  1. The 13th Biennial Psychology in the Department of Defense,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-17

    unique perceptual and psychomotor skills . In addition, with a machine as expensive and inherently dangerous as the LCAC, sound judgment and decision-making...abilities, 66 higher order processes, psychomotor skills , time-sharing ability, and personality traits that might predict success in LCAC training. The

  2. Proceedings of the 13th Project integration meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made by the Low Cost Solar Array Project during the period April through August 1979 is presented. Reports are given on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. A report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held August 22-23, 1979 are presented.

  3. The 13th Tihany Symposium on Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2016-07-01

    The Symposium was held in Balatonalmádi, a beautiful city by the Lake Balaton, Hungary, between August 29 and September 3, 2015. This time - to meet the expectations of many colleagues and friends - a place close to the village Tihany was selected, where the first Tihany Symposium was organized in 1962. The participants beside the excellent lectures could also enjoy the panorama of the Lake from the rooms and from the terrace of Hotel Ramada. The number of participants was close to 170 from about 33 countries. The highest number of participants arrived from Poland (14), followed by France (11), Turkey (9) and China (9). The Symposium had 6-6 colleagues from Brazil, Israel, and Romania. Beside China, Asia was represented by a few scientists from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and from Saudi Arabia.

  4. Proceedings, 13th Annual Conference on Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of manual control theory are discussed. Specific topics covered include: tracking; performance, attention allocation, and mental load; surface vehicle control; monitoring behavior and supervisory control; manipulators and prosthetics; aerospace vehicle control; motion and visual cues; and displays and controls.

  5. 13th annual meeting of the ALS Users' Association

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art

    2000-11-21

    A complement of 266 users, staff, and vendors descended upon the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) from Monday through Wednesday, October 16-18, 2000 for the thirteenth edition of the annual Advanced Light Source (ALS) users meeting. In a departure from previous practice, the meeting featured an increased emphasis on workshops with the result that the proceedings were equally divided between oral and poster presentations and the workshops. After the traditional welcomes and facility updates on the first morning, science dominated the first day and a half comprising the formal meeting with a session of highlights from young researchers, three sessions of scientific highlights from the ALS and elsewhere, and a poster session that included a student poster competition. A set of seven workshops covering research areas of current or growing interest at the ALS rounded out the final day and a half of the meeting.

  6. Miniaturized day/night sight in Soldato Futuro program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Alberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Sardelli, Mauro; Puntri, Stefano

    2013-06-01

    The market of the sights for the 5.56 mm assault rifles is dominated by mainly three types of systems: TWS (Thermal Weapon Sight), the Pocket Scope with Weapon Mount and the Clip-on. The latter are designed primarily for special forces and snipers use, while the TWS design is triggered mainly by the DRI (Detection, Recognition, Identification) requirements. The Pocket Scope design is focused on respecting the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power dissipation) requirements. Compared to the TWS systems, for the last two years there was a significant technological growth of the Pocket Scope/Weapon Mount solutions, concentrated on the compression of the overall dimensions. The trend for the assault rifles is the use of small size/light weight (SWaP) IR sights, suitable mainly for close combat operations but also for extraordinary use as pocket scopes - handheld or helmet mounted. The latest developments made by Selex ES S.p.A. are responding precisely to the above-mentioned trend, through a miniaturized Day/Night sight embedding state-of-the art sensors and using standard protocols (USB 2.0, Bluetooth 4.0) for interfacing with PDAs, Wearable computers, etc., while maintaining the "shoot around the corner" capability. Indeed, inside the miniaturized Day/Night sight architecture, a wireless link using Bluetooth technology has been implemented to transmit the video streaming of the rifle sight to an helmet mounted display. The video of the rifle sight is transmitted only to the eye-piece of the soldier shouldering the rifle.

  7. GLOBE At Night: Mobilizing The Citizen-scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Newhouse, M.

    2011-01-01

    GLOBE at Night is an annual international citizen-science event encouraging everyone to measure local levels of light pollution in February and March and contribute their observations online to a world map. (See www.globeatnight.org.) The campaign is hosted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in partnership with ESRI. In the last three years citizen-scientists from around the world contributed more than 50,000 observations, with nearly 18,000 data points from the 2010 campaign. During the same time, millions of touch-based, GPS-enabled smartphones and tablets have been sold worldwide. Each year NOAO staff has to discard data points due to inaccurate reporting of the location (latitude and longitude). Despite the use of innovative mapping tools on the data reporting web page, it is too easy to mistype numbers or forget a negative sign, spuriously relocating data points. Additionally, there is a time lag between when the data is collected at night and when it is reported later that can allow for additional error. One approach to address these problems would be to create a way to submit the data when it is observed and have a more automated GPS capability for reporting an accurate location. The rise in popularity of GPS-enabled mobile devices provides such a solution. These phones include state-of-the-art browsers that have access to the GPS and other data (date, time). These devices can potentially be used to show an appropriate magnitude/sky chart to the citizen-scientist and submit the data in real time, as the observation is made. NOAO staff is building a web application for mobile devices that will help realize these possibilities and potentially enable the accurate reporting of many more observations this year. Our poster will discuss this effort and describe what we hope to accomplish.

  8. Night time radical chemistry: Sources, sinks and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. J.; Stone, D.; Walker, H.; Heard, D. E.; Ouyang, B.; McLeod, M.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of tropospheric radical chemistry has been dominated by daytime studies. However, there is a dynamic chemistry associated with night-time processes. The UK ROle of Nighttime chemistry in controlling the Oxidising Capacity of the AtmOsphere (RONOCO) project aimed to investigate this chemistry, notably through the observation of HOx radicals (HO2 and OH) and NO3 and N2O5 radicals. Here we describe constrained box modelling studies of the observations uses a reasonably explicit (MCM v3.2) chemistry scheme. We investigate the sources, processing and sinks of radicals (mainly HO2 as OH concentrations were consistently below detection limits). We identify a complex and dynamic chemistry. Radical sources are dominated by the reactions of O3 and NO3 with alkenes and oxygenates. Radical processing is controlled by the reactions of radicals with NO3. There are a plethora of radical sinks involving a large range of compounds. NO3 plays the interesting role of both initiating VOC oxidation and processing the subsequent radicals and so is equivalent to both OH and NO during the day. Comparisons between predicted and observed concentrations of radicals are less good than their equivalent daytime comparisons, which we attribute to the paucity of previous field and laboratory studies. Notably we identify the rates and products of RO2 + NO3 reactions as a significant uncertainty which would benefit from more laboratory study. The inclusion of improved representation of night-time chemistry in a global CTM impacts the relationship between gas phase chemistry and aerosol surface area.

  9. Mobilizing the GLOBE at Night Citizen-Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, M. A.; Walker, C. E.; Boss, S. K.; Hennig, A. J.

    2013-04-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution. Citizen-scientists around the world measure their night sky brightness and submit their observations to a website from a computer. In the last two years a webapp was developed to enable reporting from mobile devices. Nearly 80,000 data points have been submitted by people in 115 countries during the last 7 years. Our poster will examine the effect of enabling real-time data reporting via mobile devices, and how the Adopt-a-Street pilot project has impacted data collection in two U.S. cities. Recognizing the increasing popularity of smartphones, in late 2010 NOAO staff built a webapp to take advantage of the GPS capabilities built into mobile devices to get an automated and accurate report of the user's location. Refinements to the application have enabled an order of magnitude reduction in the number of erroneous data points due to incorrect location. During the 2011 campaign a pilot program called Adopt-a-Street was created to further take advantage of the ability to report data in real-time via mobile devices. For the 2012 campaign the program continued in Tucson and expanded to Fayetteville, Arkansas. Both of these sub-campaigns encouraged more participation, and resulted in more meaningful results. For example, in prior years Fayetteville averaged three data points in the three years any points were submitted in that area. In 2012, due to the Adopt-a-Street program, there were 98 points submitted, clearly matching the map on their Adopt-a-Street page. Adding support for mobile devices has increased the accuracy and relevance of the data submitted via both mobile devices and desktop computers, as well as enabled new programs. We plan to expand the Adopt-a-Street program next year and find an easier way to accommodate multiple measurements.

  10. Night Vision and Electro-Optics Technology Transfer, 1972-1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    night blindness can now purchase a small image intensifier to improve their vision? Image intensifiers have also been used in eye re- search, in...Avoidance for the Blind ......................................... 13 Eye Research and Image Intensifiers ....................................... 14 Low...NV&EOL’s work in these areas. NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGIES Night Vision and the Electromagnetic Spectrum The human eye and many man-made devices such as

  11. Acoustic Measurement and Model Predictions for the Aural Nondetectability of Two Night-Vision Goggles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic Measurement and Model Predictions for the Aural Nondetectability of Two Night - Vision Goggles by Jeremy Gaston, Tim Mermagen, and...SUBTITLE Acoustic Measurement and Model Predictions for the Aural Nondetectability of Two Night - Vision Goggles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This study evaluates two different night - vision goggles (NVGs) to determine if the devices meet level II

  12. Patients with primary insomnia in the sleep laboratory: do they present with typical nights of sleep?

    PubMed

    Hirscher, Verena; Unbehaun, Thomas; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2015-08-01

    The validity of sleep laboratory investigations in patients with insomnia is important for researchers and clinicians. The objective of this study was to examine the first-night effect and the reverse first-night effect in patients with chronic primary insomnia compared with good sleeper controls. A retrospective comparison of a well-characterised sample of 50 patients with primary insomnia and 50 good sleeper controls was conducted with respect to 2 nights of polysomnography, and subjective sleep parameters in the sleep laboratory and the home setting. When comparing the first and second sleep laboratory night, a significant first-night effect was observed across both groups in the great majority of the investigated polysomnographic and subjective variables. However, patients with primary insomnia and good sleeper controls did not differ with respect to this effect. Regarding the comparison between the sleep laboratory nights and the home setting, unlike good sleeper controls, patients with primary insomnia reported an increased subjective sleep efficiency on both nights (in part due to a reduced bed time) and an increased subjective total sleep time on the second night. These results suggest that even the second sleep laboratory night does not necessarily provide clinicians and researchers with a representative insight into the sleep perception of patients with primary insomnia. Future studies should investigate whether these findings also hold for other patient populations.

  13. Unilateral or "side-locked" migrainous headache with autonomic symptoms linked to night guard use.

    PubMed

    Strahlendorf, Jean; Schiffer, Randolph; Strahlendorf, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Night guards are commonly prescribed as a palliative measure for bruxism, temporomandibular joint symptoms, and associated disorders. We describe a patient with a 10- to 12-year history of night guard use with concurrent unilateral side-locked migrainous headaches with autonomic symptoms characteristic of trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. These headaches were refractory to numerous pharmacological interventions. Upon self-initiated cessation of night guard use, there was complete remission of headaches. We believe the headaches were initiated by night guard-initiated irritation of the trigeminal nerve and a trigeminal autonomic reflex resulting in unilateral migrainous headache with autonomic signs.

  14. Solar neutrinos: Global analysis with day and night spectra from SNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Holanda, Pedro C.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2002-12-01

    We perform global analysis of the solar neutrino data including the day and night spectra of events at SNO. In the context of two active neutrino mixing, the best fit of the data is provided by the large-mixing angle (LMA) Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution with Δm2=6.15×10-5 eV2, tan2θ=0.41, fB=1.05, where fB is the boron neutrino flux in units of the corresponding flux in the standard solar model (SSM). At the 3σ level we find the following upper bounds: tan2θ<0.84 and Δm2<3.6×10-4 eV2. From a 1σ interval we expect the day-night asymmetries of the charged current and electron scattering events to be ACCDN=3.9+3.6-2.9% and AESDN=2.1+2.1-1.4%. The only other solution which appears at the 3σ level is the VAC solution with Δm2=4.5×10-10 eV2, tan2θ=2.1, and fB=0.75. The best fit point in the low probability, low mass region, with Δm2=0.93×10-7 eV2 and tan2θ=0.64, is accepted at 99.95% (3.5σ) C.L. The least χ2 point from the small mixing angle solution region, with Δm2=4.6×10-6 eV2 and tan2θ=5×10-4, could be accepted at the 5.5σ level only. In the three neutrino context the influence of θ13 is studied. We find that with an increase of θ13 the LMA best fit point shifts to a larger Δm2, the mixing angle is practically unchanged, and the quality of the fit becomes worse. The fits of LOW and SMA slightly improve. Predictions for the KamLAND experiment (total rates, spectrum distortion) have been calculated.

  15. Seasonally different response of photosynthetic activity to daytime and night-time warming in the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jianguang; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Anping; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Mao, Jiafu; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Shi, Xiaoying; Vicca, Sara

    2014-08-27

    Over the last century the Northern Hemisphere has experienced rapid climate warming, but this warming has not been evenly distributed seasonally, as well as diurnally. The implications of such seasonal and diurnal heterogeneous warming on regional and global vegetation photosynthetic activity, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated for different seasons how photosynthetic activity of vegetation correlates with changes in seasonal daytime and night-time temperature across the Northern Hemisphere (>30°N), using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2011 obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Our analysis revealed some striking seasonal differences in the response of NDVI to changes in day- versus night-time temperatures. For instance, while higher daytime temperature (Tmax) is generally associated with higher NDVI values across the boreal zone, the area exhibiting a statistically significant positive correlation between Tmax and NDVI is much larger in spring (41% of area in boreal zone – total area 12.6 × 106 km2) than in summer and autumn (14% and 9%, respectively). In contrast to the predominantly positive response of boreal ecosystems to changes in Tmax, increases in Tmax tended to negatively influence vegetation growth in temperate dry regions, particularly during summer. Changes in night-time temperature (Tmin) correlated negatively with autumnal NDVI in most of the Northern Hemisphere, but had a positive effect on spring and summer NDVI in most temperate regions (e.g., Central North America and Central Asia). Such divergent covariance between the photosynthetic activity of Northern Hemispheric vegetation and day- and night-time temperature changes among different seasons and climate zones suggests a changing dominance of ecophysiological processes across time and space. Lastly, understanding the seasonally

  16. Assessment for the possibility of a first night effect for wrist actigraphy in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Teresa; Omar, Omar M; Taheri, Shahrad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of a ‘first night effect’ has been documented for polysomnography. The possibility of this has not been previously assessed in wrist actigraphy, yet may have important implications for the study design of future sleep research. We sought to examine potential evidence of a ‘first night effect’ for wrist actigraphy in adolescents across weekdays and weekend nights for multiple sleep outcomes. Design 3-year prospective cohort study (Midlands Adolescent Schools Sleep Education Study). Setting 8 secondary schools in the Midlands region of the UK. Participants Adolescents (aged 11–13 years at baseline) were recruited to the study and were requested to wear a wrist actigraph for 7 consecutive days/nights at baseline and then annually for 2 years during the second term of the academic year. Primary outcome measures We compared multiple sleep outcomes (total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, length of awakenings, sleep onset time) when the device was worn on a weekday and weekend and compared these to other nights to identify possible evidence of a ‘first night effect’ for wrist actigraphy. Results No significant differences were found between any sleep outcomes when the first night of wrist actigraphy was on a weekday compared with other weekdays. When the first night was measured on a weekend (Friday), average total sleep time was significantly greater (486±5 min) compared with the second night (Saturday; 469±6 min), p=0.01. Conclusions We found no evidence to support a ‘first night effect’ for wrist actigraphy in our adolescent sample. The first night of actigraphy data should not be disregarded in future studies that deploy this technique to measure sleep over prolonged time periods. PMID:27697873

  17. Light-at-night-induced circadian disruption, cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Vinogradova, Irina A; Panchenko, Andrei V; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Light-at-night has become an increasing and essential part of the modern lifestyle and leads to a number of health problems, including excessive body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that "shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) [1]. According to the circadian disruption hypothesis, light-at-night might disrupt the endogenous circadian rhythm and specifically suppress nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin and its secretion into the blood. We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span, and spontaneous and chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. Exposure to constant illumination was followed by accelerated aging and enhanced spontaneous tumorigenesis in female CBA and transgenic HER-2/neu mice. In male and female rats maintained at various light/dark regimens (standard 12:12 light/dark [LD], the natural light [NL] of northwestern Russia, constant light [LL], and constant darkness [DD]) from the age of 25 days until natural death, it was found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated age-related switch-off of the estrous function (in females), induced development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, and shortened life span both in male and females rats compared to the standard LD regimen. Melatonin given in nocturnal drinking water prevented the adverse effect of the constant illumination (LL) and natural light (NL) regimens on the homeostasis, life span, and tumor development both in mice and rats. The exposure to the LL regimen accelerated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats, whereas the treatment with melatonin alleviated the effects of LL. The maintenance of rats at the DD regimen inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis. The LL regimen accelerated, whereas the DD regimen inhibited both mammary carcinogenesis

  18. Detection of Special Operations Forces Using Night Vision Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    2001-10-22

    Night vision devices, such image intensifiers and infrared imagers, are readily available to a host of nations, organizations, and individuals through international commerce. Once the trademark of special operations units, these devices are widely advertised to ''turn night into day''. In truth, they cannot accomplish this formidable task, but they do offer impressive enhancement of vision in limited light scenarios through electronically generated images. Image intensifiers and infrared imagers are both electronic devices for enhancing vision in the dark. However, each is based upon a totally different physical phenomenon. Image intensifiers amplify the available light energy whereas infrared imagers detect the thermal energy radiated from all objects. Because of this, each device operates from energy which is present in a different portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This leads to differences in the ability of each device to detect and/or identify objects. This report is a compilation of the available information on both state-of-the-art image intensifiers and infrared imagers. Image intensifiers developed in the United States, as well as some foreign made image intensifiers, are discussed. Image intensifiers are categorized according to their spectral response and sensitivity using the nomenclature of GEN I, GEN II, and GEN III. As the first generation of image intensifiers, GEN I, were large and of limited performance, this report will deal with only GEN II and GEN III equipment. Infrared imagers are generally categorized according to their spectral response, sensor materials, and related sensor operating temperature using the nomenclature Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) Cooled and Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Uncooled. MWIR Cooled refers to infrared imagers which operate in the 3 to 5 {micro}m wavelength electromagnetic spectral region and require either mechanical or thermoelectric coolers to keep the sensors operating at 77 K. LWIR Uncooled refers

  19. Changing Pre-School Children's Conceptions of the Day/Night Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valanides, N.; Gritsi, F.; Kampeza, M.; Ravanis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the impact of a teaching intervention on preschoolers' concepts of the day/night cycle. Found that most children readily accepted that the sun and earth are separate spherical objects, but fewer attributed the day/night cycle to rotation of the earth on its axis. Most were puzzled by simultaneous movements of the earth around the sun and…

  20. Intra-night optical activity of the blazar CTA 102 during its maximum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Velimir; Bachev, Rumen

    2016-11-01

    CTA 102 is known to experience violent outbursts in the optical, the latest of which happened just recently (ATel #9756, ATel #9732). Following these reports we observed this object for four nights (17.11.2016 - 20.11.2016) in a search for intra-night variability.

  1. The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Infant Night Waking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karraker, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This literature review focuses on factors found to be associated with individual differences in infant night waking. Infant night waking that requires parent intervention to assist the infant to return to sleep is of special concern to parents because of the sleep deprivation and fragmentation that they experience. Both intrinsic and extrinsic…

  2. Tips for Getting a Good Night's Sleep | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... weekends won't fully make up for a lack of sleep during the week and will make it harder ... in the middle of the night when the effects of the alcohol have worn off. ... that interferes with sleep. Drinking too many fluids at night can cause ...

  3. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 91.507 - Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. 91.507 Section 91.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations. No person may operate an airplane...

  5. Meetings without Dialogue: A Study of ESL Parent-Teacher Interactions at Secondary School Parents' Nights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Research in home-school communication has incorporated little, to date, about participation by English as a second language (ESL) parents. This article examines the communication processes between recent Chinese immigrant parents and Canadian teachers at secondary school Parents' Nights. Drawing from observations of three annual Parents' Nights,…

  6. 77 FR 64722 - Safety Zone: Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the Night Walk Fireworks Display; Willamette River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the Night Walk... Steele Bridge and the Burnside Bridge, and will be enforced during the Leukemia & Lymphoma Light the... Light the Night Walk Fireworks Display; Willamette River, Portland, OR. (a) Location. The following...

  7. 78 FR 77587 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 64 RIN 1625-AC11 Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night... Commandant to waive the statutory requirement to mark sunken vessels with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and waiving the requirement would not create an...

  8. The Importance of Artificial Light in the Development of Night Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Deloris

    This study traces the development of night photography, from February 7, 1839, when the effect of the moon on a Daguerreotype was first recorded by Alexander Von Humboldt, to the present. The contributions of the following photographers who advanced the field of night photography are discussed: Margaret Bourke-White, Paul Martin, Brassai, Bill…

  9. 33 CFR 100.908 - Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. 100.908 Section 100.908 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of Round...

  10. 33 CFR 100.908 - Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. 100.908 Section 100.908 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of Round...

  11. 33 CFR 100.908 - Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. 100.908 Section 100.908 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of Round...

  12. 33 CFR 100.908 - Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. 100.908 Section 100.908 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of Round...

  13. 33 CFR 100.908 - Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. 100.908 Section 100.908 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Charlevoix Venetian Night Boat Parade; Charlevoix, MI. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of Round...

  14. Driving home from the night shift: a bright light intervention study.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Denise M; Nikol, Maria; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2017-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs vigilance and increases the risk of driving accidents during the commute home after night work. Bright light (BL) can enhance alertness and cognitive performance. We examined the effects of BL (5600 lux) versus dim light (DL, 35 lux) at the end of a night awake on driving performance.

  15. Battle of the Brains: Election-Night Forecasting at the Dawn of the Computer Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinoy, Ira

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines journalists' early encounters with computers as tools for news reporting, focusing on election-night forecasting in 1952. Although election night 1952 is frequently mentioned in histories of computing and journalism as a quirky but seminal episode, it has received little scholarly attention. This dissertation asks how…

  16. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  17. Establishing Mobility Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Night Vision Devices: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zimmerman, George J.; Bowers, Alex R.; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their restricted peripheral fields, persons with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) report significant problems seeing in low levels of illumination, which causes difficulty with night travel. Several devices have been developed to support the visual needs of persons who have night blindness. These devices include wide-angle flashlights,…

  18. Poster 5: Day to night ion transport flow and its variation with SLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yingjuan; Nagy, Andy F.

    2016-06-01

    In this presentation, we will examine the day to night ion transport flow at Titan based on 3D MHD model results. As this flow is influenced by the relative direction of the upstream co-rotation plasma flow as Titan moved along its orbit, we will present and compare the day-to-night ion transport flow at four different SLTs.

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Dysfunctional Cognitions, and Infant Night Waking: The Role of Maternal Nighttime Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…

  20. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  1. Action of bromazepam on sleep of children with night terrors. I. Sleep organization and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Vela, A; Dobladez, B; Rubio, M E; Ramos, M; Suengas, A; Bujan, M; Arrigain, S

    1982-01-01

    Bromazepam was administered in a single dose of 1.5 mg one-half hour before bedtime to study its short-term action and the effect of its discontinuation on the sleep of 6 children suffering from night terrors. On the third night of the drug's administration, a statistically significant reduction in slow-wave sleep was observed which was maintained after the drug had been discontinued. The other sleep parameters were not significantly affected, although a slight increase in REM sleep was seen after discontinuation of bromazepam, with a statistically significant increase in the second third of the night on the first 2 nights 'off medication'. A comparison of the individual nights yielded no significant change in heart rate, although certain internal changes were observed during the second night 'on medication' and during the nights 'off medication'. These changes can be explained by the changing relationship between cardiac variability and sleep organization. There were insufficient episodes of night terror during the short duration of the study to allow any conclusions to be drawn on the effect of the drug on this aspect.

  2. The impact of a week of simulated night work on sleep, circadian phase, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, N; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; McCulloch, K; Holmes, A; Burgess, H; Fletcher, A; Dawson, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects participated in an adaptation and baseline night sleep, directly followed by seven simulated eight-hour night shifts (2300 to 0700 hours). At the end of each shift they were taken outside and exposed to natural light for 20 minutes. They then slept from approximately 0800 hours until they naturally awoke. Results: There was a significant increase in mean performance on a visual psychomotor vigilance task across the week. Daytime sleep quality and quantity were not negatively affected. Total sleep time (TST) for each of the daytime sleeps was reduced, resulting in an average cumulative sleep debt of 3.53 hours prior to the final night shift. TST for each of the daytime sleep periods did not significantly differ from the baseline night, nor did TST significantly vary across the week. There was a significant decrease in wake time after sleep onset and sleep onset latency across the week; sleep efficiency showed a trend towards greater efficiency across the consecutive daytime sleeps. Hours of wakefulness prior to each simulated night shift significantly varied across the week. The melatonin profile significantly shifted across the week. Conclusions: Results suggest that under optimal conditions, the sleep debt that accumulates during consecutive night shifts is relatively small and does not exacerbate decrements in night-time performance resulting from other factors. When sleep loss is minimised, adaptation of performance during consecutive night shifts can occur in conjunction with circadian adaptation. PMID:14573724

  3. Plasma and wave observations in the night sector of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Nairn, C.M.C.; Grard, R.; Skalsky, A. ); Trotignon, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    The Phobos 2 spacecraft, initially injected into an elliptical orbit around Mars on January 29, 1989, was subsequently transferred, on February 18, 1989, to a nearly circular orbit, close to that of the Phobos moon, with an areocentric radius of the order of 9,600 km. The spacecraft remained in this orbit until the end of the mission, on March 27, 1989. This paper summarizes the plasma and wave observations carried out in the night sector of Mars with the plasma wave system (PWS). Embedded in the magnetic field structure of the Martian tail, cold electron enhancements (tail rays) with densities in the range 10-65 cm{sup {minus}3} are observed in association with broadband wave activity extending from a few hertz up to several kilohertz; these enhancements appear to have characteristics analogous to enhancements observed at Venus. The ion outflow through the Martian eclipse region is estimated from Langmuir probe measurements to be of the order of 10{sup 25} ions/s.

  4. LAN MAP: An Innovative Airborne Light at Night Mapping Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. M.; Craine, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread installation of inefficient and misdirected artificial light at night (LAN) has led to increasing concerns about light pollution and its impact, not only on astronomical facilities but larger communities as well. Light pollution impacts scientific research, environmental ecosystems, human health, and quality of life. In recent years, the public policy response to light pollution has included formulation of government codes to regulate lighting design and installation. Various environmental groups now include light pollution among their rallying themes to protest both specific and general developments. The latter efforts are often conducted in the absence of any quantitative data and are frequently charged by emotion rather than reason. To bring some scientific objectivity, and quantitative data, to these discussions, we have developed a suite of tools for simultaneous photometric measurements and temporal monitoring of both local communities and the sky overhead. We have also developed novel protocols for the use of these tools, including a triad of airborne, ground mobile, and ground static photometric surveys. We present a summary of these tools and protocols, with special emphasis on the airborne systems, and discuss baseline and follow-up measurements of LAN environments in the vicinity of numerous observatories in Arizona, the home of the initial LAN MAP surveys.

  5. Night vision goggles, laser eye protection, and cockpit displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Gary; Havig, Paul; Dykes, James; Kuyk, Thomas; McLin, Leon

    2007-04-01

    The increasing use of lasers on the modern battlefield may necessitate the wear of laser eye protection devices (LEPDs) by warfighters. Unfortunately, LEPDs that protect against visible laser wavelengths often reduce overall light transmittance and a wearer's vision can be degraded, especially in low light conditions. Wearing night vision goggles (NVGs) provides laser eye protection behind the goggles, but NVGs do not block lasers that might enter the eye around the NVGs. Therefore, LEPDs will be worn under NVGs. People wearing NVGs look below the NVGs to read displays and for other near vision tasks. This effort involved determining the effects of wearing variable density filters on vision in low light conditions, with and without the presence of a simulated head-down display (HDD). Each subject's visual acuity was measured under moonlight illumination levels while wearing neutral density filters and LEPDs. Similar measurements of the subjects' visual detection thresholds, both on and off-axis, were made. Finally, the effects of wearing variable density filters on visual acuity on the HDD were determined. Wearing variable density filters in low-light conditions reduces visual acuity and detection. The presence of the HDD reduced acuity slightly through variable density filters but. the HDD had no effect on on-axis detection and actually improved off-axis detection. The reasons for this final finding are unclear.

  6. Detection of motion-defined form using night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuda, Todd; Craig, Greg; Allison, Robert S.; Guterman, Pearl; Thomas, Paul; Jennings, Sion

    2005-05-01

    Perception of motion-defined form is important in operational tasks such as search and rescue and camouflage breaking. Previously, we used synthetic Aviator Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS-9) imagery to demonstrate that the capacity to detect motion-defined form was degraded at low levels of illumination (see Macuda et al., 2004; Thomas et al., 2004). To validate our simulated NVG results, the current study evaluated observer"s ability to detect motion-defined form through a real ANVIS-9 system. The image sequences consisted of a target (square) that moved at a different speed than the background, or only depicted the moving background. For each trial, subjects were shown a pair of image sequences and required to indicate which sequence contained the target stimulus. Mean illumination and hence image noise level was varied by means of Neutral Density (ND) filters placed in front of the NVG objectives. At each noise level, we tested subjects at a series of target speeds. With both real and simulated NVG imagery, subjects had increased difficulty detecting the target with increased noise levels, at both slower and higher target speeds. These degradations in performance should be considered in operational planning. Further research is necessary to expand our understanding of the impact of NVG-produced noise on visual mechanisms.

  7. Light source halos in night vision goggles: psychophysical assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Greg; Macuda, Todd; Thomas, Paul; Allison, Rob; Jennings, Sion

    2005-05-01

    Anecdotal reports by pilots flying with Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) in urban environments suggest that halos produced by bright light sources impact flight performance. The current study developed a methodology to examine the impact of viewing distance on perceived halo size. This was a first step in characterizing the subtle phenomenon of halo. Observers provided absolute size estimates of halos generated by a red LED at several viewing distances. Physical measurements of these halos were also recorded. The results indicated that the perceived halo linear size decreased as viewing distance was decreased. Further, the data showed that halos subtended a constant visual angle on the goggles (1°48", +/-7") irrespective of distance up to 75". This invariance with distance may impact pilot visual performance. For example, the counterintuitive apparent contraction of halo size with decreasing viewing distance may impact estimates of closure rates and of the spatial layout of light sources in the scene. Preliminary results suggest that halo is a dynamic phenomenon that requires further research to characterize the specific perceptual effects that it might have on pilot performance.

  8. Night vision in Thales Angenieux: custom solutions for handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Joel; Teszner, Jean Louis; Delic, Gilles; Espie, Jean Luc; Sigonnaud, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Thales Angenieux has been developing for almost two decades, compact and flexible light intensifier goggles that are in service through numerous countries. More recently, a new product line, called Elvir, has been launched which is based upon uncooled sensitive arrays: as a consequence, Thales Angenieux has now at command a full set of night vision equipment's, answering most of the operational purposes. A 'blocks' policy has been used to cut the non-recurring expenses: the thermal camera re-uses some upgraded sub-assemblies of the previous IL goggles. This paper reviews the main trades off, showing how we relied on earlier and successful designs to meet the best compromises between performances, costs and compactness. Some issues, such as the front infrared optics set up, will be emphasized later on. The choices that have ruled the visualization unit design will be outlined. Future prospects backing the latest technologies breakthroughs wil be sketched out: topics such as new infrared materials and hybrid lenses made of subwavelength features are addressed.

  9. Putting baseload to work on the night shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.

  10. Postexercise ketosis in night-migrating passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, S; Jenni, L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the postexercise metabolism of six species of free-living, night-migrating passerine birds (European robin, pied flycatcher, wheatear, redstart, blackcap, and garden warbler). The birds were caught during autumn migration out of their nocturnal flight, and their metabolism changed from a fasting, highly active state to a fasting, resting state. Concentrations of six plasma metabolites of the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism were measured during up to 10 h of recovery time. The metabolic changes indicated a biphasic pattern: (a) a quick first response to the reduced energy demands during the first 20 min of recovery, suggested by an increase and subsequent decrease of free fatty acid levels, and (b) subsequently, a postexercise ketosis and a reduction of lipolysis and proteolysis, suggested by high beta-hydroxy-butyrate and low free fatty acid, glycerol, triglyceride, and uric acid levels. This metabolic pattern differs from that of humans and rats, in which ketosis starts immediately postexercise or is absent in trained subjects. Since migrating birds are naturally adapted to endurance exercise, it is hypothesized that the high and long-lasting postexercise ketosis does not evoke physiological problems (such as hypoglycemia) but, by contrast, increases the ability of birds to rely on lipids, to a very high extent, during and after flight and decreases the dependence on glucose and glucogenic amino acids. Differences between species in fat stores and metabolic pattern support this hypothesis.

  11. Mapping Nighttime Lights using the VIIRS Day/Night Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Temporal patterns in nighttime lights can reveal changes in economic activity, population, and development. Identifying areas of change mandates a baseline of nighttime light sources to use for comparison. Ideally this baseline would be free from ephemeral events such as fires, and have background (non-light) values identified and removed. Annual maps of persistent light sources have historically been created using data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) sensor, but the last available annual product is from 2013. Using the more recently available data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (VIIRS-DNB) provides an opportunity to extend the record of nighttime lights products beyond the DMSP era, and it is possible to create vastly improved products due to the increased spatial resolution and dynamic range of the DNB over the OLS. This presentation will focus on the use of long time-series of DNB radiance values to identify background (non-light) areas and to separate areas with persistent nighttime lights from ephemeral lights, especially fires. Stability of the DNB radiance values will also be addressed.

  12. Color night vision system for ground vehicle navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E. A.; Qadir, H.; Kozaitis, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    Operating in a degraded visual environment due to darkness can pose a threat to navigation safety. Systems have been developed to navigate in darkness that depend upon differences between objects such as temperature or reflectivity at various wavelengths. However, adding sensors for these systems increases the complexity by adding multiple components that may create problems with alignment and calibration. An approach is needed that is passive and simple for widespread acceptance. Our approach uses a type of augmented display to show fused images from visible and thermal sensors that are continuously updated. Because the raw fused image gave an unnatural color appearance, we used a color transfer process based on a look-up table to replace the false colors with a colormap derived from a daytime reference image obtained from a public database using the GPS coordinates of the vehicle. Although the database image was not perfectly registered, we were able to produce imagery acquired at night that appeared with daylight colors. Such an approach could improve the safety of nighttime navigation.

  13. "Travelers In The Night" in the Old and New Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2015-11-01

    "Travelers in the Night" is a series of 2 minute audio programs based on current research in astronomy and the space sciences.After more than a year of submitting “Travelers In The Night” 2 minute audio pieces to NPR and Community Radio stations with limited success, a parallel effort was initiated by posting the pieces as audio podcasts on Spreaker.com and iTunes.The classic media dispenses programming whose content and schedule is determined by editors and station managers. Riding the wave of new technology, people from every demographic group across the globe are selecting what, when, and how they receive information and entertainment. This change is significant with the Pew Research Center reporting that currently more than 60% of Facebook and Twitter users now get their news and/or links to stories from these sources. What remains constant is the public’s interest in astronomy and space.This poster presents relevant statistics and a discussion of the initial results of these two parallel efforts.

  14. All-CMOS night vision viewer with integrated microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosen, Marius E.; Venter, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Monuko; Faure, Nicolaas M.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    The unrivalled integration potential of CMOS has made it the dominant technology for digital integrated circuits. With the advent of visible light emission from silicon through hot carrier electroluminescence, several applications arose, all of which rely upon the advantages of mature CMOS technologies for a competitive edge in a very active and attractive market. In this paper we present a low-cost night vision viewer which employs only standard CMOS technologies. A commercial CMOS imager is utilized for near infrared image capturing with a 128x96 pixel all-CMOS microdisplay implemented to convey the image to the user. The display is implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, with no process alterations or post processing. The display features a 25 μm pixel pitch and a 3.2 mm x 2.4 mm active area, which through magnification presents the virtual image to the user equivalent of a 19-inch display viewed from a distance of 3 meters. This work represents the first application of a CMOS microdisplay in a low-cost consumer product.

  15. Design of a Day/Night Star Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Cheryl; Swift, Wesley; Ghosh, Kajal; Ramsey, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a camera system capable of acquiring stars during both the day and night cycles of a high altitude balloon flight (35-42 km). The camera system will be filtered to operate in the R band (590-810 nm). Simulations have been run using MODTRAN atmospheric code to determine the worse case sky brightness at 35 km. With a daytime sky brightness of 2(exp -05) W/sq cm/str/um in the R band, the sensitivity of the camera system will allow acquisition of at least 1-2 stars/sq degree at star magnitude limits of 8.25-9.00. The system will have an F2.8, 64.3 mm diameter lens and a 1340X1037 CCD array digitized to 12 bits. The CCD array is comprised of 6.8 X 6.8 micron pixels with a well depth of 45,000 electrons and a quantum efficiency of 0.525 at 700 nm. The camera's field of view will be 6.33 sq degree and provide attitude knowledge to 8 arcsec or better. A test flight of the system is scheduled for fall 1999.

  16. No Evidence for Memory Decontextualization across One Night of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Cordi, Maren Jasmin; Staudigl, Tobias; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Sleep after learning strengthens memory consolidation. According to the active system consolidation hypothesis, sleep supports the integration of newly acquired memories into cortical knowledge networks, presumably accompanied by a process of decontextualization of the memory trace (i.e., a gradual loss of memory for the learning context). However, the availability of contextual information generally facilitates memory recall and studies on the interaction of sleep and context on memory retrieval have revealed inconsistent results. Here, we do not find any evidence for a role of sleep in the decontextualization of newly learned declarative memories. In two separate studies, 104 healthy young adults incidentally learned words associated with a context. After a 12 h retention interval filled with either sleep or wakefulness, recall (Experiment 1) or recognition (Experiment 2) was tested with the same or different context. Overall, memory retrieval was significantly improved when the learning context was reinstated, as compared to a different context. However, this context effect of memory was not modulated by sleep vs. wakefulness. These findings argue against a decontextualization of memories, at least across a single night of sleep. PMID:26858622

  17. A Decade Of Development In Passive Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Philip J.

    1980-09-01

    Work carried out at PPE over the last ten years has resulted in the development of four head-mounted passive night vision goggles of unity magnification. Considered in relation to each other, these systems illustrate the technical progression from the oriainal sight, a twin image intensifier tube device that employed conventional optics, through a series of three single tube goggles of decreasing complexity, weight and cost. The MkI and MkII single tube devices, of beamsplitter/relay lens and collimator/multireflector design respectively, required precise manufacture: the later of the two designs, however,was both simpler in construction and more advanced in technical specification than the earlier. The concept of the MkIII single tube goggle was influenced by the lower relative cost of current intensifier tubes and resulted in a lens design that can be fabricated in its entirety in optical plastics. Compared with the original two tube goggle, the final system has a similar technical specification but is much cheaper and less than half the weight. The paper describes the optical design philosophy behind each goggle and the evolution of each subsequent stage.

  18. Night vision goggle luminance disparity and the Pulfrich phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, Harry L.

    2004-09-01

    When night vision goggle (NVG) image intensifier tubes (I2Ts) are replaced during maintenance, the output luminances of the two channels must not exceed a ratio of 1.5 (brighter channel luminance divided by the dimmer channel luminance) in order to meet the current allowed binocular luminance disparity specification. Two studies were performed to investigate the validity of this requirement. The first study estimated thresholds of binocular luminance disparity detection for observers looking through NVGs. For eight observers, the 25% corrected-for-chance probability of detecting an ocular luminance difference, yielded an average ratio of 1.43 indicating that the current 1.5 specification is perhaps too loose. The second study investigated the Pulfrich phenomenon, a pseudo-stereo effect that can be induced by presenting luminance imbalances to the eyes. This study created NVG luminance imbalances using neutral density (ND) filters and then investigated whether or not the various imbalance levels were sufficient to cause the Pulfrich phenomenon to be perceived. Results indicated an imbalance ratio of 1.10 was insufficient to cause the effect to be seen, but a ratio of 1.26 was sufficient (p <= 0.0003) for the effect to be seen, at least part of the time. Based on these results, it is apparent the allowed binocular luminance disparity ratio should probably be tightened to at least 1.3 with a goal of 1.2.

  19. Accessing Creativity: Jungian Night Sea Journeys, Wandering Minds, and Chaos.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Diane

    2016-01-01

    NDS theory has been meaningfully applied to the dynamics of creativity and psychology. These complex systems have much in common, including a broad definition of "product" as new order emerging from disorder, a new whole (etymologically, 'health') out of disintegration or destabilization. From a nonlinear dynamical systems perspective, this paper explores the far-from-equilibrium zone of creative incubation: first in the Jungian night sea journey, a primordial myth of psychological and creative transformation; then in the neuroscience of mind wandering, the well-spring of creative ideation within the larger neural matrix. Finally, chaos theory grounds the elusive subject of creativity, modeling chaotic generation of idea elements that tend toward strange attractors, combine unpredictably, and produce change by means of tension between opposites, particularly notes consciousness (light) and the poetic unconscious (darkness). Examples from my own artwork illustrate this dialectical process. Considered together, the unconscious mythic sea journey, the unknowing wandering mind, and the generative paradigm of deterministic chaos suggest conditions that facilitate creativity across disciplines, providing fresh indications that the darkness of the unknown or irrational is, paradoxically, the illuminative source and strength of creativity.

  20. Practical interventions to promote circadian adaptation to permanent night shift work: study 4.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark R; Fogg, Louis F; Eastman, Charmane I

    2009-04-01

    Scheduled bright light and darkness can phase shift the circadian clocks of night workers for complete adaptation to a night work, day sleep schedule, but few night workers would want this because it would leave them out of phase with the diurnal world on days off. This is the final study in a series designed to produce a compromise circadian phase position for permanent night shift work in which the sleepiest circadian time is delayed out of the night work period and into the first half of the day sleep episode. The target compromise phase position was a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) of 3:00, which puts the sleepiest circadian time at approximately 10:00. This was predicted to improve night shift alertness and performance while permitting sufficient daytime sleep after work as well as late-night sleep on days off. In a between-subjects design, 19 healthy subjects underwent 3 simulated night shifts (23:00-7:00), 2 days off, 4 more night shifts, and 2 more days off. Subjects "worked" in the lab and slept at home. Experimental subjects received four 15-min bright light pulses during each night shift, wore dark sunglasses when outside, slept in dark bedrooms at scheduled times, and received outdoor afternoon light exposure ("light brake") to keep their rhythms from delaying too far. Control subjects remained in normal room light during night shifts, wore lighter sunglasses, and had unrestricted sleep and outdoor light exposure. The final DLMO of the experimental group was 3:22 +/- 2.0 h, close to the target of 3:00, and later than the control group at 23:24 +/- 3.8 h. Experimental subjects slept for nearly all the permitted time in bed. Some control subjects who slept late on weekends also reached the compromise phase position and obtained more daytime sleep. Subjects who phase delayed (whether in the experimental or control group) close to the target phase performed better during night shifts. A compromise circadian phase position improved performance during night