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Sample records for 14-3-3 protein binding

  1. A fusicoccin binding protein belongs to the family of 14-3-3 brain protein homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Korthout, H A; de Boer, A H

    1994-01-01

    The fusicoccin binding protein (FCBP) is a highly conserved plasma membrane protein present in all higher plants tested thus far. It exhibits high- and low-affinity binding for the fungal toxin fusicoccin (FC). We purified the active FCBP from a fraction highly enriched in plasma membrane by selective precipitation and anion exchange chromatography. After SDS-PAGE, the two FCBP subunits of 30 and 31 kD were detected as major bands. Amino acid sequence analysis of the 31-kD polypeptide displayed a high degree of identity with so-called 14-3-3 proteins, a class of mammalian brain proteins initially described as regulators of neurotransmitter synthesis and protein kinase C inhibitors. Thereafter, we affinity purified the 30- and 31-kD FCBP subunits, using biotinylated FC in combination with a monomeric avidin column. Immunodecoration of these 30- and 31-kD FCBP subunits with polyclonal antibodies raised against a 14-3-3 homolog from yeast confirmed the identity of the FCBP as a 14-3-3 homolog. Similar to all 14-3-3 protein homologs, the FCBP seems to exist as a dimer in native form. Thus far, the FCBP is the only 14-3-3 homolog with a receptor-like function. The conserved structure of the 14-3-3 protein family is a further indication that the FCBP plays an important role in the physiology of higher plants. PMID:7827499

  2. Yeast 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G Paul H; Steensma, H Yde

    2006-02-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins which are present in all eukaryotic organisms investigated, often in multiple isoforms, up to 13 in some plants. They interact with more than 200 different, mostly phosphorylated proteins. The molecular consequences of 14-3-3 binding are diverse: this binding may result in stabilization of the active or inactive phosphorylated form of the protein, to a conformational alteration leading to activation or inhibition, to a different subcellular localization, to the interaction with other proteins or to shielding of binding sites. The binding partners, and hence the 14-3-3 proteins, are involved in almost every cellular process and 14-3-3 proteins have been linked to several diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, the neurological Miller-Dieker and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 diseases and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe both have two genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins, BMH1 and BMH2 and rad24 and rad25, respectively. In these yeasts, 14-3-3 proteins are essential in most laboratory strains. As in higher eukaryotes, yeast 14-3-3 proteins bind to numerous proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Recent genome-wide studies on yeast strains with impaired 14-3-3 function support the participation of 14-3-3 proteins in numerous yeast cellular processes. Given the high evolutionary conservation of the 14-3-3 proteins, the experimental accessibility and relative simplicity of yeasts make them excellent model organisms for elucidating the function of the 14-3-3 protein family.

  3. Evolution of signal multiplexing by 14-3-3-binding 2R-ohnologue protein families in the vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tinti, Michele; Johnson, Catherine; Toth, Rachel; Ferrier, David E. K.; MacKintosh, Carol

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate cellular responses to stimuli by docking onto pairs of phosphorylated residues on target proteins. The present study shows that the human 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteome is highly enriched in 2R-ohnologues, which are proteins in families of two to four members that were generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication at the origin of the vertebrates. We identify 2R-ohnologue families whose members share a ‘lynchpin’, defined as a 14-3-3-binding phosphosite that is conserved across members of a given family, and aligns with a Ser/Thr residue in pro-orthologues from the invertebrate chordates. For example, the human receptor expression enhancing protein (REEP) 1–4 family has the commonest type of lynchpin motif in current datasets, with a phosphorylatable serine in the –2 position relative to the 14-3-3-binding phosphosite. In contrast, the second 14-3-3-binding sites of REEPs 1–4 differ and are phosphorylated by different kinases, and hence the REEPs display different affinities for 14-3-3 dimers. We suggest a conceptual model for intracellular regulation involving protein families whose evolution into signal multiplexing systems was facilitated by 14-3-3 dimer binding to lynchpins, which gave freedom for other regulatory sites to evolve. While increased signalling complexity was needed for vertebrate life, these systems also generate vulnerability to genetic disorders. PMID:22870394

  4. Binding of 14-3-3 reader proteins to phosphorylated DNMT1 facilitates aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya; Deepti, Kanneganti; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Dai, Nan; Sagum, Cari; Black, Karynne; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Bedford, Mark T.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for maintenance methylation. Phosphorylation of Ser143 (pSer143) stabilizes DNMT1 during DNA replication. Here, we show 14-3-3 is a reader protein of DNMT1pSer143. In mammalian cells 14-3-3 colocalizes and binds DNMT1pSer143 post-DNA replication. The level of DNMT1pSer143 increased with overexpression of 14-3-3 and decreased by its depletion. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins with DNMT1pSer143 resulted in inhibition of DNA methylation activity in vitro. In addition, overexpression of 14-3-3 in NIH3T3 cells led to decrease in DNMT1 specific activity resulting in hypomethylation of the genome that was rescued by transfection of DNMT1. Genes representing cell migration, mobility, proliferation and focal adhesion pathway were hypomethylated and overexpressed. Furthermore, overexpression of 14-3-3 also resulted in enhanced cell invasion. Analysis of TCGA breast cancer patient data showed significant correlation for DNA hypomethylation and reduced patient survival with increased 14-3-3 expressions. Therefore, we suggest that 14-3-3 is a crucial reader of DNMT1pSer143 that regulates DNA methylation and altered gene expression that contributes to cell invasion. PMID:26553800

  5. 14-3-3-Pred: improved methods to predict 14-3-3-binding phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Fábio; Tinti, Michele; Murugesan, Gavuthami; Berrett, Emily; Stafford, Margaret; Toth, Rachel; Cole, Christian; MacKintosh, Carol; Barton, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The 14-3-3 family of phosphoprotein-binding proteins regulates many cellular processes by docking onto pairs of phosphorylated Ser and Thr residues in a constellation of intracellular targets. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop new prediction methods that use an updated set of 14-3-3-binding motifs for the identification of new 14-3-3 targets and to prioritize the downstream analysis of >2000 potential interactors identified in high-throughput experiments. Results: Here, a comprehensive set of 14-3-3-binding targets from the literature was used to develop 14-3-3-binding phosphosite predictors. Position-specific scoring matrix, support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) classification methods were trained to discriminate experimentally determined 14-3-3-binding motifs from non-binding phosphopeptides. ANN, position-specific scoring matrix and SVM methods showed best performance for a motif window spanning from −6 to +4 around the binding phosphosite, achieving Matthews correlation coefficient of up to 0.60. Blind prediction showed that all three methods outperform two popular 14-3-3-binding site predictors, Scansite and ELM. The new methods were used for prediction of 14-3-3-binding phosphosites in the human proteome. Experimental analysis of high-scoring predictions in the FAM122A and FAM122B proteins confirms the predictions and suggests the new 14-3-3-predictors will be generally useful. Availability and implementation: A standalone prediction web server is available at http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/1433pred. Human candidate 14-3-3-binding phosphosites were integrated in ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome database. Contact: cmackintosh@dundee.ac.uk or gjbarton@dundee.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25735772

  6. 14-3-3 and its binding partners are regulators of protein–protein interactions during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Wong, Elissa W P; Li, Michelle W M; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, spermiation takes place at the adluminal edge of the seminiferous epithelium at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during which fully developed spermatids (i.e. spermatozoa) detach from the epithelium in adult rat testes. This event coincides with the migration of preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes across the blood–testis barrier from the basal to the apical (or adluminal) compartment. At stage XIV of the epithelial cycle, Pachytene spermatocytes (diploid, 2n) differentiate into diplotene spermatocytes (tetraploid, 4n) in the apical compartment of the epithelium, which begin meiosis I to be followed by meiosis II to form spermatids (haploid, 1n) at stage XIVof the epithelial cycle. These spermatids, in turn, undergo extensive morphological changes and traverse the seminiferous epithelium until they differentiate into elongated spermatids. Thus, there are extensive changes at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface via protein ‘coupling’ and ‘uncoupling’ between cell adhesion protein complexes, as well as changes in interactions between integral membrane proteins and their peripheral adaptors, regulatory protein kinases and phosphatases, and the cytoskeletal proteins. These precisely coordinated protein–protein interactions affect cell adhesion and cell movement. In this review, we focus on the 14-3-3 protein family, whose members have different binding partners in the seminiferous epithelium. Recent studies have illustrated that 14-3-3 affects protein–protein interactions in the seminiferous epithelium, and regulates cell adhesion possibly via its effects on intracellular protein trafficking and cell-polarity proteins. This review provides a summary on the latest findings regarding the role of 14-3-3 family of proteins and their potential implications on spermatogenesis. We also highlight research areas that deserve attentions by investigators. PMID:19366886

  7. 14-3-3 proteins: regulators of numerous eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G Paul H

    2005-09-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins capable of binding to more than 200 different mostly phosphorylated proteins. They are present in all eukaryotic organisms investigated, often in multiple isoforms, up to 13 in some plants. 14-3-3 binding partners are involved in almost every cellular process and 14-3-3 proteins play a key role in these processes. 14-3-3 proteins interact with products encoded by oncogenes, with filament forming proteins involved in Alzheimer'ss disease and many other proteins related to human diseases. Disturbance of the interactions with 14-3-3 proteins may lead to diseases like cancer and the neurological Miller-Dieker disease. The molecular consequences of 14-3-3 binding are diverse and only partly understood. Binding of a protein to a 14-3-3 protein may result in stabilization of the active or inactive phosphorylated form of the protein, to a conformational alteration leading to activation or inhibition, to a different subcellular localization or to the interaction with other proteins. Currently genome- and proteome-wide studies are contributing to a wider knowledge of this important family of proteins.

  8. Structural characterization of a unique interface between carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) and 14-3-3β protein.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qiang; Huang, Nian; Wynn, R Max; Li, Yang; Du, Xinlin; Miller, Bonnie; Zhang, Hong; Uyeda, Kosaku

    2012-12-07

    Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is an insulin-independent, glucose-responsive transcription factor that is expressed at high levels in liver hepatocytes where it plays a critical role in converting excess carbohydrates to fat for storage. In response to fluctuating glucose levels, hepatic ChREBP activity is regulated in large part by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of ChREBP protein via interactions with 14-3-3 proteins. The N-terminal ChREBP regulatory region is necessary and sufficient for glucose-responsive ChREBP nuclear import and export. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex of 14-3-3β bound to the N-terminal regulatory region of ChREBP at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed that the α2 helix of ChREBP (residues 117-137) adopts a well defined α-helical conformation and binds 14-3-3 in a phosphorylation-independent manner that is different from all previously characterized 14-3-3 and target protein-binding modes. ChREBP α2 interacts with 14-3-3 through both electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, and the binding is partially mediated by a free sulfate or phosphate. Structure-based mutagenesis and binding assays indicated that disrupting the observed 14-3-3 and ChREBP α2 interface resulted in a loss of complex formation, thus validating the novel protein interaction mode in the 14-3-3β·ChREBP α2 complex.

  9. 14-3-3 Proteins in Guard Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cotelle, Valérie; Leonhardt, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells are specialized cells located at the leaf surface delimiting pores which control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. To optimize the CO2 uptake necessary for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss, guard cells integrate environmental signals to adjust stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is regulated by movements of the guard cells driven by variations in their volume and turgor. As guard cells perceive and transduce a wide array of environmental cues, they provide an ideal system to elucidate early events of plant signaling. Reversible protein phosphorylation events are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal movements. However, in some cases, phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to achieve complete protein regulation, but is necessary to mediate the binding of interactors that modulate protein function. Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as multiple isoforms in eukaryotes and have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about 14-3-3 roles in the regulation of their binding partners in guard cells: receptors, ion pumps, channels, protein kinases, and some of their substrates. Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal movements in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. PMID:26858725

  10. 14-3-3 proteins are promising LRRK2 interactors.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Iakov N; Cookson, Mark R

    2010-09-15

    Mutations in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) are the most common cause of familial PD (Parkinson's disease). Mutations that cause PD are found in either the GTPase or kinase domains of LRRK2 or an intervening sequence called the COR [C-terminus of ROC (Ras of complex proteins)] domain. As well as the two catalytic domains, LRRK2 possesses several protein-protein interaction domains, but their function and the proteins with which they interact are poorly understood. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Nichols et al. study the interaction of the N-terminal region of LRRK2 with 14-3-3 proteins, regulatory proteins that often bind to phosphorylated regions of components of cell signalling pathways. Using a combination of techniques, Nichols et al. have identified two residues (Ser910 and Ser935) that are critically responsible for 14-3-3 binding. The interaction of LRRK2 with 14-3-3 proteins can prevent dephosphorylation of Ser910/Ser935 and stabilize LRRK2 structure, perhaps by influencing the dimerization of LRRK2. The ability to interact with 14-3-3 correlates with the pattern of intracellular LRRK2 distribution. Collectively, these new results identify a potentially important regulatory mechanism of this complex protein and might provide ways to think about therapeutic opportunities for PD.

  11. Two genes encoding GF14 (14-3-3) proteins in Zea mays. Structure, expression, and potential regulation by the G-box binding complex.

    PubMed Central

    de Vetten, N C; Ferl, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two maize (Zea mays) genes, designated GRF1 and GRF2, have been isolated and characterized. The proteins encoded by these genes, called GF14 proteins, participate in protein/DNA complexes and show more than 60% identity with a highly conserved, widely distributed protein family, collectively referred to as 14-3-3 proteins. Members of the 14-3-3 protein family have been reported to activate Tyr and Trp hydroxylases, modulate protein kinase C activity, and activate ADP-ribosyltransferase. The mRNAs of the GRF genes are encoded by six exons interrupted by five introns. The transcriptional units of the GRF genes were found to be very similar, with complete conservation of the intron positions. In addition, the length and nucleotide sequences of the two genes' introns were highly conserved. The 5' flanking sequences of the two GRF genes were compared and regions of homology and divergence identified. This comparison revealed the presence of a conserved G-box element in the 5' flanking region of both genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of maize protein extract with the GRF G-box indicates that GBF binds to this G-box site in the 5' up stream region of GRF. Antibody supershifts indicate that GF14 protein is associated with the G-box-binding complex that interacts with the GRF upstream region. PMID:7846163

  12. Eimeria tenella: 14-3-3 protein interacts with telomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Gong, Pengtao; Cheng, Baiqi; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Guocai; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-10-01

    Telomerase, consisting of telomerase RNA and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is responsible for the maintenance of the end of linear chromosomes. TERT, as the catalytic subunit of telomerase, plays a critical role in telomerase activity. Researches indicate TERT-associated proteins participate in the regulation of telomerase assembly, posttranslational modification, localization, and enzymatic function. Here, the telomerase RNA-binding domain of Eimeria tenella TERT (EtTRBD) was cloned into pGBKT7 and performed as the bait. α-Galactosidase assay showed that the bait plasmid did not activate Gal4 reporter gene. Further, we isolated an EtTRBD-associated protein, 14-3-3, by yeast two-hybrid screening using the constructed bait plasmid. To confirm the interaction, EtTRBD and 14-3-3 were expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. Pull-down assays by purified proteins demonstrated a direct bind between EtTRBD and 14-3-3. Co-immunoprecipitation techniques successfully validated that 14-3-3 interacted with EtTRBD in 293T cells. The protein-protein interaction provides a starting point for more in-depth studies on telomerase and telomere regulation in E. tenella.

  13. 14-3-3 Proteins: insights from genome-wide studies in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G Paul H

    2009-11-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved, acidic, dimeric proteins. These proteins have been identified in all eukaryotic species investigated, often in multiple isoforms, up to 13 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Hundreds of proteins, from diverse eukaryotic organisms, implicated in numerous cellular processes, have been identified as binding partners of 14-3-3 proteins. Therefore, the major activity of 14-3-3 proteins seems to be its ability to bind other intracellular proteins. Binding to 14-3-3 proteins may result in a conformational change of the protein required for its full activity or for inhibition of its activity, in interaction between two binding partners or in a different subcellular localization. Most of these interactions take place after phosphorylation of the binding partners. These observations suggest a major role of 14-3-3 proteins in regulatory networks. Here, the information on 14-3-3 proteins gathered from several genome- and proteome-wide studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. In particular, the protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of 14-3-3 binding partners, phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins themselves, the transcriptional regulation of the 14-3-3 genes, and the role of 14-3-3 proteins in transcription are addressed. These large scale studies may help understand the function of 14-3-3 proteins at a cellular level rather than at the level of a single process.

  14. Membrane proteins as 14-3-3 clients in functional regulation and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J; Daut, Jürgen; Schwappach, Blanche

    2011-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate the function and subcellular sorting of membrane proteins. Often, 14-3-3 binding to client proteins requires phosphorylation of the client, but the relevant kinase is unknown in most cases. We summarize current progress in identifying kinases that target membrane proteins with 14-3-3 binding sites and discuss the molecular mechanisms of 14-3-3 action. One of the kinases involved is Akt/PKB, which has recently been shown to activate the 14-3-3-dependent switch in a number of client membrane proteins.

  15. Multisite phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins by calcium-dependent protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Swatek, Kirby N.; Wilson, Rashaun S.; Ahsan, Nagib; Tritz, Rebecca L.; Thelen, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphorylated at multiple sites in vivo; however, the protein kinase(s) responsible are unknown. Of the 34 CPK (calcium-dependent protein kinase) paralogues in Arabidopsis thaliana, three (CPK1, CPK24 and CPK28) contain a canonical 14-3-3-binding motif. These three, in addition to CPK3, CPK6 and CPK8, were tested for activity against recombinant 14-3-3 proteins χ and ε. Using an MS-based quantitative assay we demonstrate phosphorylation of 14-3-3 χ and ε at a total of seven sites, one of which is an in vivo site discovered in Arabidopsis. CPK autophosphorylation was also comprehensively monitored by MS and revealed a total of 45 sites among the six CPKs analysed, most of which were located within the N-terminal variable and catalytic domains. Among these CPK autophosphorylation sites was Tyr463 within the calcium-binding EF-hand domain of CPK28. Of all CPKs assayed, CPK28, which contained an autophosphorylation site (Ser43) within a canonical 14-3-3-binding motif, showed the highest activity against 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphomimetic mutagenesis of Ser72 to aspartate on 14-3-3χ, which is adjacent to the 14-3-3-binding cleft and conserved among all 14-3-3 isoforms, prevented 14-3-3-mediated inhibition of phosphorylated nitrate reductase. PMID:24438037

  16. Structural basis for protein–protein interactions in the 14-3-3 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaowen; Lee, Wen Hwa; Sobott, Frank; Papagrigoriou, Evangelos; Robinson, Carol V.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Sundström, Michael; Doyle, Declan A.; Elkins, Jonathan M.

    2006-01-01

    The seven members of the human 14-3-3 protein family regulate a diverse range of cell signaling pathways by formation of protein–protein complexes with signaling proteins that contain phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues within specific sequence motifs. Previously, crystal structures of three 14-3-3 isoforms (zeta, sigma, and tau) have been reported, with structural data for two isoforms deposited in the Protein Data Bank (zeta and sigma). In this study, we provide structural detail for five 14-3-3 isoforms bound to ligands, providing structural coverage for all isoforms of a human protein family. A comparative structural analysis of the seven 14-3-3 proteins revealed specificity determinants for binding of phosphopeptides in a specific orientation, target domain interaction surfaces and flexible adaptation of 14-3-3 proteins through domain movements. Specifically, the structures of the beta isoform in its apo and peptide bound forms showed that its binding site can exhibit structural flexibility to facilitate binding of its protein and peptide partners. In addition, the complex of 14-3-3 beta with the exoenzyme S peptide displayed a secondary structural element in the 14-3-3 peptide binding groove. These results show that the 14-3-3 proteins are adaptable structures in which internal flexibility is likely to facilitate recognition and binding of their interaction partners. PMID:17085597

  17. An account of fungal 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinder

    2017-02-24

    14-3-3s are a group of relatively low molecular weight, acidic, dimeric, protein(s) conserved from single-celled yeast to multicellular vertebrates including humans. Despite lacking catalytic activity, these proteins have been shown to be involved in multiple cellular processes. Apart from their role in normal cellular physiology, recently these proteins have been implicated in various medical consequences. In this present review, fungal 14-3-3 protein localization, interactions, transcription, regulation, their role in the diverse cellular process including DNA duplication, cell cycle, protein trafficking or secretion, apoptosis, autophagy, cell viability under stress, gene expression, spindle positioning, role in carbon metabolism have been discussed. In the end, I also highlighted various roles of yeasts 14-3-3 proteins in tabular form. Thus this review with primary emphasis on yeast will help in appreciating the significance of 14-3-3 proteins in cell physiology.

  18. A20 zinc finger protein inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis and stress response early in the signaling cascades and independently of binding to TRAF2 or 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lademann, U; Kallunki, T; Jäättelä, M

    2001-03-01

    A20 zinc finger protein is a negative regulator of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signaling pathways leading to apoptosis, stress response and inflammation. A20 has been shown to bind to TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and 14-3-3 chaperone proteins. Our data indicate that the zinc finger domain of A20 is sufficient and that neither TRAF2 nor 14-3-3 binding is necessary for the inhibitory effects of A20. Mutations in the 14-3-3 binding site of A20 did, however, result in a partial cleavage of A20 protein suggesting that 14-3-3 chaperone proteins may stabilize A20. Furthermore, we show that A20 acts early in TNF-induced signaling cascades blocking both TNF-induced rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and processing of the receptor-associated caspase-8. Taken together our data indicate that the zinc finger domain of A20 contains all necessary functional domains required for the inhibition of TNF signaling and that A20 may function at the level of the receptor signaling complex.

  19. Dynamic interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and phosphoproteins regulate diverse cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins exert an extraordinarily widespread influence on cellular processes in all eukaryotes. They operate by binding to specific phosphorylated sites on diverse target proteins, thereby forcing conformational changes or influencing interactions between their targets and other molecules. In these ways, 14-3-3s ‘finish the job’ when phosphorylation alone lacks the power to drive changes in the activities of intracellular proteins. By interacting dynamically with phosphorylated proteins, 14-3-3s often trigger events that promote cell survival – in situations from preventing metabolic imbalances caused by sudden darkness in leaves to mammalian cell-survival responses to growth factors. Recent work linking specific 14-3-3 isoforms to genetic disorders and cancers, and the cellular effects of 14-3-3 agonists and antagonists, indicate that the cellular complement of 14-3-3 proteins may integrate the specificity and strength of signalling through to different cellular responses. PMID:15167810

  20. 14-3-3 proteins regulate Tctp–Rheb interaction for organ growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thao Phuong; Vuong, Linh Thuong; Kim, Ah-Ram; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 family proteins regulate multiple signalling pathways. Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. Here we provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate two interacting components of Tor signalling in Drosophila, translationally controlled tumour protein (Tctp) and Rheb GTPase. Single knockdown of 14-3-3ɛ or 14-3-3ζ isoform does not show obvious defects in organ development but causes synergistic genetic interaction with Tctp and Rheb to impair tissue growth. 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with Tctp and Rheb. Knockdown of both 14-3-3 isoforms abolishes the binding between Tctp and Rheb, disrupting organ development. Depletion of 14-3-3s also reduces the level of phosphorylated S6 kinase, phosphorylated Thor/4E-BP and cyclin E (CycE). Growth defects from knockdown of 14-3-3 and Tctp are suppressed by CycE overexpression. This study suggests a novel mechanism of Tor regulation mediated by 14-3-3 interaction with Tctp and Rheb. PMID:27151460

  1. Fusicoccin, 14-3-3 Proteins, and Defense Responses in Tomato Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael R.; Bowles, Dianna J.

    1999-01-01

    Fusicoccin (FC) is a fungal toxin that activates the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by binding with 14-3-3 proteins, causing membrane hyperpolarization. Here we report on the effect of FC on a gene-for-gene pathogen-resistance response and show that FC application induces the expression of several genes involved in plant responses to pathogens. Ten members of the FC-binding 14-3-3 protein gene family were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to characterize their role in defense responses. Sequence analysis is suggestive of common biochemical functions for these tomato 14-3-3 proteins, but their genes showed different expression patterns in leaves after challenges. Different specific subsets of 14-3-3 genes were induced after treatment with FC and during a gene-for-gene resistance response. Possible roles for the H+-ATPase and 14-3-3 proteins in responses to pathogens are discussed. PMID:10198082

  2. Efficient nuclear export of p65-IkappaBalpha complexes requires 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Majada, Vanessa; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Rodilla, Verónica; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluís

    2006-09-01

    IkappaB are responsible for maintaining p65 in the cytoplasm under non-stimulating conditions and promoting the active export of p65 from the nucleus following NFkappaB activation to terminate the signal. We now show that 14-3-3 proteins regulate the NFkappaB signaling pathway by physically interacting with p65 and IkappaBalpha proteins. We identify two functional 14-3-3 binding domains in the p65 protein involving residues 38-44 and 278-283, and map the interaction region of IkappaBalpha in residues 60-65. Mutation of these 14-3-3 binding domains in p65 or IkappaBalpha results in a predominantly nuclear distribution of both proteins. TNFalpha treatment promotes recruitment of 14-3-3 and IkappaBalpha to NFkappaB-dependent promoters and enhances the binding of 14-3-3 to p65. Disrupting 14-3-3 activity by transfection with a dominant-negative 14-3-3 leads to the accumulation of nuclear p65-IkappaBalpha complexes and the constitutive association of p65 with the chromatin. In this situation, NFkappaB-dependent genes become unresponsive to TNFalpha stimulation. Together our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins facilitate the nuclear export of IkappaBalpha-p65 complexes and are required for the appropriate regulation of NFkappaB signaling.

  3. Regulation of the wheat MAP kinase phosphatase 1 by 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Mouna; Cotelle, Valérie; Ebel, Chantal; Zaidi, Ikram; Ormancey, Mélanie; Galaud, Jean-Philippe; Hanin, Moez

    2017-04-01

    Plant MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are major regulators of MAPK signaling pathways and play crucial roles in controlling growth, development and stress responses. The presence of several functional domains in plant MKPs such as a dual specificity phosphatase catalytic domain, gelsolin, calmodulin-binding and serine-rich domains, suggests that MKPs can interact with distinct cellular partners, others than MAPKs. In this report, we identified a canonical mode I 14-3-3-binding motif (574KLPSLP579) located at the carboxy-terminal region of the wheat MKP, TMKP1. We found that this motif is well-conserved among other MKPs from monocots including Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon and Aegilops taushii. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we provide evidence for interaction between TMKP1 and 14-3-3 proteins in wheat. Moreover, the phosphatase activity of TMKP1 is increased in a phospho-dependent manner by either Arabidopsis or yeast 14-3-3 isoforms. TMKP1 activation by 14-3-3 proteins is enhanced by Mn(2+), whereas in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, TMKP1 activation was limited to Arabidopsis 14-3-3φ (phi), an isoform harboring an EF-hand motif. Such findings strongly suggest that 14-3-3 proteins, in conjunction with specific divalent cations, may stimulate TMKP1 activity and point-out that 14-3-3 proteins bind and regulate the activity of a MKP in eukaryotes.

  4. Phosphorylation of HopQ1, a Type III Effector from Pseudomonas syringae, Creates a Binding Site for Host 14-3-3 Proteins1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giska, Fabian; Lichocka, Małgorzata; Piechocki, Marcin; Dadlez, Michał; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hennig, Jacek; Krzymowska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    HopQ1 (for Hrp outer protein Q), a type III effector secreted by Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola, is widely conserved among diverse genera of plant bacteria. It promotes the development of halo blight in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). However, when this same effector is injected into Nicotiana benthamiana cells, it is recognized by the immune system and prevents infection. Although the ability to synthesize HopQ1 determines host specificity, the role it plays inside plant cells remains unexplored. Following transient expression in planta, HopQ1 was shown to copurify with host 14-3-3 proteins. The physical interaction between HopQ1 and 14-3-3a was confirmed in planta using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy technique. Moreover, mass spectrometric analyses detected specific phosphorylation of the canonical 14-3-3 binding site (RSXpSXP, where pS denotes phosphoserine) located in the amino-terminal region of HopQ1. Amino acid substitution within this motif abrogated the association and led to altered subcellular localization of HopQ1. In addition, the mutated HopQ1 protein showed reduced stability in planta. These data suggest that the association between host 14-3-3 proteins and HopQ1 is important for modulating the properties of this bacterial effector. PMID:23396834

  5. Interaction network of the 14-3-3 protein in the ancient protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis.

    PubMed

    Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Sayadi, Ahmed; Crescenzi, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2012-05-04

    14-3-3s are phosphoserine/phosphotreonine binding proteins that play pivotal roles as regulators of multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. The flagellated protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, the causing agent of giardiasis, is a valuable simplified eukaryotic model. A single 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3) is expressed in Giardia, and it is directly involved in the differentiation of the parasite into cyst. To define the overall functions of g14-3-3, the protein interactome has been investigated. A transgenic G. duodenalis strain was engineered to express a FLAG-tagged g14-3-3 under its own promoter. Affinity chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis have been used to purify and identify FLAG-g14-3-3-associated proteins from trophozoites and encysting parasites. A total of 314 putative g14-3-3 interaction partners were identified, including proteins involved in several pathways. Some interactions seemed to be peculiar of one specific stage, while others were shared among the different stages. Furthermore, the interaction of g14-3-3 with the giardial homologue of the CDC7 protein kinase (gCDC7) was characterized, leading to the identification of a multiprotein complex containing not only g14-3-3 and gCDC7 but also a newly identified and highly divergent homologue of DBF4, the putative regulatory subunit of gCDC7. The relevance of g14-3-3 interactions in G. duodenalis biology was discussed.

  6. 14-3-3 proteins: key regulators of cell division, signalling and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, M J; Steensma, H Y; van Heusden, G P

    2001-10-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved proteins present in all eukaryotic organisms so far investigated. These proteins have attracted interest because they are involved in important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, stress response and malignant transformation and because at least 100 different binding partners for the 14-3-3 proteins have been reported. Although the exact function of 14-3-3 proteins is still unknown, they are known to (1) act as adaptor molecules stimulating protein-protein interactions, (2) regulate the subcellular localisation of proteins and (3) activate or inhibit enzymes. In this review, we discuss the role of the 14-3-3 proteins in three cellular processes: cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis. These processes are regulated by the 14-3-3 proteins at multiple steps. The 14-3-3 proteins have an overall inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression and apoptosis, whereas in signal transduction they may act as stimulatory or inhibitory factors. This article contains supplementary material which may be viewed at the BioEssays website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/Suppmat/23/v23_10.936.

  7. Identification and characterization of protein 14-3-3 in carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Alok; Puchadapirom, Pranom; Plumworasawat, Sirikanya; Dontumprai, Rieofarng; Chan-On, Waraporn; Buates, Sureemas; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas

    2016-10-27

    Protein 14-3-3s are abundant phospho-serine/threonine binding proteins, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Members of this protein family mediate metabolism and signal transduction networks through binding to hundreds of other protein partners. Protein 14-3-3s have been studied in other species of parasitic helminthes, but little is known about this protein in the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. In this study, we identified and characterized protein 14-3-3s of O. viverrini. Seven protein 14-3-3 encoded sequences were retrieved from the O. viverrini genome database. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Two isoforms (protein 14-3-3 zeta and protein 14-3-3 epsilon) that have been previously found in the excretory-secretory (ES) products of O. viverrini were produced as recombinant protein in E. coli and the proteins were then used to immunize mice to obtain specific antibodies. Western blot analysis showed that both proteins were detected in all obtainable developmental stages of O. viverrini and the ES products. Immunolocalization revealed that both isoforms were expressed throughout tissues and organs except the gut epithelium. The highest expression was observed in testes especially in developing spermatocytes, suggesting their role in spermatogenesis. Prominent expression was also detected on tegumental surface of the parasite and on epical surface of bile duct epithelium indicates their additional role in host-parasite interaction. These findings indicate that protein 14-3-3s play important role in the life cycle of the parasite and might be involved in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini infection.

  8. Regulation of the Regulators: Post-Translational Modifications, Subcellular, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Plant 14-3-3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rashaun S.; Swatek, Kirby N.; Thelen, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind to and modulate the activity of phosphorylated proteins that regulate a variety of metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Multiple 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in most organisms and display redundancy in both sequence and function. Plants contain the largest number of 14-3-3 isoforms. For example, Arabidopsis thaliana contains thirteen 14-3-3 genes, each of which is expressed. Interest in the plant 14-3-3 field has swelled over the past decade, largely due to the vast number of possibilities for 14-3-3 metabolic regulation. As the field progresses, it is essential to understand these proteins' activities at both the spatiotemporal and subcellular levels. This review summarizes current knowledge of 14-3-3 proteins in plants, including 14-3-3 interactions, regulatory functions, isoform specificity, and post-translational modifications. We begin with a historical overview and structural analysis of 14-3-3 proteins, which describes the basic principles of 14-3-3 function, and then discuss interactions and regulatory effects of plant 14-3-3 proteins in specific tissues and subcellular compartments. We conclude with a summary of 14-3-3 phosphorylation and current knowledge of the functional effects of this modification in plants. PMID:27242818

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Structural Analysis of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cau, Ylenia; Fiorillo, Annarita; Mori, Mattia; Ilari, Andrea; Botta, Maurizo; Lalle, Marco

    2015-12-28

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal diarrheal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which affects annually over 200 million people worldwide. The limited antigiardial drug arsenal and the emergence of clinical cases refractory to standard treatments dictate the need for new chemotherapeutics. The 14-3-3 family of regulatory proteins, extensively involved in protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with pSer/pThr clients, represents a highly promising target. Despite homology with human counterparts, the single 14-3-3 of G. duodenalis (g14-3-3) is characterized by a constitutive phosphorylation in a region critical for target binding, thus affecting the function and the conformation of g14-3-3/clients interaction. However, to approach the design of specific small molecule modulators of g14-3-3 PPIs, structural elucidations are required. Here, we present a detailed computational and crystallographic study exploring the implications of g14-3-3 phosphorylation on protein structure and target binding. Self-Guided Langevin Dynamics and classical molecular dynamics simulations show that phosphorylation affects locally and globally g14-3-3 conformation, inducing a structural rearrangement more suitable for target binding. Profitable features for g14-3-3/clients interaction were highlighted using a hydrophobicity-based descriptor to characterize g14-3-3 client peptides. Finally, the X-ray structure of g14-3-3 in complex with a mode-1 prototype phosphopeptide was solved and combined with structure-based simulations to identify molecular features relevant for clients binding to g14-3-3. The data presented herein provide a further and structural understanding of g14-3-3 features and set the basis for drug design studies.

  10. The 14-3-3 protein forms a molecular complex with heat shock protein Hsp60 and cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Arima, Kunimasa; Yamamura, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family consists of acidic 30-kDa proteins composed of 7 isoforms expressed abundantly in neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS). The 14-3-3 protein identified in the cerebrospinal fluid provides a surrogate marker for premortem diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although an active involvement of 14-3-3 in the pathogenesis of prion diseases remains unknown. By protein overlay and mass spectrometric analysis of protein extract of NTera2-derived differentiated neurons, we identified heat shock protein Hsp60 as a 14-3-3-interacting protein. The 14-3-3zeta and gamma isoforms interacted with Hsp60, suggesting that the interaction is not isoform-specific. Furthermore, the interaction was identified in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma, U-373MG astrocytoma, and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. The cellular prion protein (PrPC) along with Hsp60 was coimmunoprecipitated with 14-3-3 in the human brain protein extract. By protein overlay, 14-3-3 interacted with both recombinant human Hsp60 and PrPC produced by Escherichia coli, indicating that the molecular interaction is phosphorylation-independent. The 14-3-3-binding domain was located in the N-terminal half (NTF) of Hsp60 spanning amino acid residues 27-287 and the NTF of PrPC spanning amino acid residues 23-137. By immunostaining, the 14-3-3 protein Hsp60 and PrPC were colocalized chiefly in the mitochondria of human neuronal progenitor cells in culture, and were coexpressed most prominently in neurons and reactive astrocytes in the human brain. These observations indicate that the 14-3-3 protein forms a molecular complex with Hsp60 and PrPC in the human CNS under physiological conditions and suggest that this complex might become disintegrated in the pathologic process of prion diseases.

  11. Loss of Par3 promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through 14-3-3ζ protein.

    PubMed

    Song, Tong; Tian, Xia; Kai, Fan; Ke, Jiang; Wei, Zhai; Jing-Song, Li; Si-Hua, Wang; Jian-Jun, Wang

    2016-09-27

    Partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) can activate the Tiam1/Rac pathway to inhibit invasion and metastasis in many cancers; however, the role of Par3 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. Here we show that Par3 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and is associated with higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Our functional study demonstrated that knock-down of Par3 promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, cell migration, tumor formation, and metastasis, all of which were effectively inhibited when 14-3-3ζ was silenced. We found that Par3 binded with 14-3-3ζ protein and also showed that Par3 abrogated the binding of 14-3-3ζ to Tiam1, which was responsible for Rac1 activation. Knock-down of 14-3-3ζ inhibited Tiam1/Rac-GTP activation and blocked the invasive behavior of cells lacking Par3. These data suggest that loss of Par3 promotes metastatic behavior in lung adenocarcinoma cells through 14-3-3ζ protein.

  12. Loss of Par3 promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through 14-3-3ζ protein

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Song; Xia, Tian; Fan, Kai; Jiang, Ke; Zhai, Wei; Li, Jing-Song; Wang, Si-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) can activate the Tiam1/Rac pathway to inhibit invasion and metastasis in many cancers; however, the role of Par3 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. Here we show that Par3 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and is associated with higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Our functional study demonstrated that knock-down of Par3 promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, cell migration, tumor formation, and metastasis, all of which were effectively inhibited when 14-3-3ζ was silenced. We found that Par3 binded with 14-3-3ζ protein and also showed that Par3 abrogated the binding of 14-3-3ζ to Tiam1, which was responsible for Rac1 activation. Knock-down of 14-3-3ζ inhibited Tiam1/Rac-GTP activation and blocked the invasive behavior of cells lacking Par3. These data suggest that loss of Par3 promotes metastatic behavior in lung adenocarcinoma cells through 14-3-3ζ protein. PMID:27588399

  13. alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrerova, N; Petrucelli, L; Farrer, M; Mehta, N; Choi, P; Hardy, J; Wolozin, B

    1999-07-15

    alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in alpha-synuclein cause some cases of familial PD (Polymeropoulos et al., 1997; Kruger et al., 1998). In addition, many neurodegenerative diseases show accumulation of alpha-synuclein in dystrophic neurites and in Lewy bodies (Spillantini et al., 1998). Here, we show that alpha-synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins, which are a family of ubiquitous cytoplasmic chaperones. Regions of alpha-synuclein and 14-3-3 proteins share over 40% homology. In addition, alpha-synuclein binds to 14-3-3 proteins, as well as some proteins known to associate with 14-3-3, including protein kinase C, BAD, and extracellular regulated kinase, but not Raf-1. We also show that overexpression of alpha-synuclein inhibits protein kinase C activity. The association of alpha-synuclein with BAD and inhibition of protein kinase C suggests that increased expression of alpha-synuclein could be harmful. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein is toxic, and overexpression of alpha-synuclein containing the A53T or A30P mutations exhibits even greater toxicity. The activity and binding profile of alpha-synuclein suggests that it might act as a protein chaperone and that accumulation of alpha-synuclein could contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Discovery and structural characterization of a small molecule 14-3-3 protein-protein interaction inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jing; Du, Yuhong; Horton, John R.; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Lou, Bin; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe; Zhang, Lixin; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Fu, Haian

    2013-02-14

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphoserine/threonine-recognition proteins engage multiple nodes in signaling networks that control diverse physiological and pathophysiological functions and have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for such diseases as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, small molecule modulators of 14-3-3 are much needed agents for chemical biology investigations and therapeutic development. To analyze 14-3-3 function and modulate its activity, we conducted a chemical screen and identified 4-[(2Z)-2-[4-formyl-6-methyl-5-oxo-3-(phosphonatooxymethyl)pyridin-2-ylidene]hydrazinyl]benzoate as a 14-3-3 inhibitor, which we termed FOBISIN (FOurteen-three-three BInding Small molecule INhibitor) 101. FOBISIN101 effectively blocked the binding of 14-3-3 with Raf-1 and proline-rich AKT substrate, 40 kD{sub a} and neutralized the ability of 14-3-3 to activate exoenzyme S ADP-ribosyltransferase. To provide a mechanistic basis for 14-3-3 inhibition, the crystal structure of 14-3-3{zeta} in complex with FOBISIN101 was solved. Unexpectedly, the double bond linking the pyridoxal-phosphate and benzoate moieties was reduced by X-rays to create a covalent linkage of the pyridoxal-phosphate moiety to lysine 120 in the binding groove of 14-3-3, leading to persistent 14-3-3 inactivation. We suggest that FOBISIN101-like molecules could be developed as an entirely unique class of 14-3-3 inhibitors, which may serve as radiation-triggered therapeutic agents for the treatment of 14-3-3-mediated diseases, such as cancer.

  15. 14-3-3 proteins, FHA domains and BRCT domains in the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Duaa H; Yaffe, Michael B

    2009-09-02

    The DNA damage response depends on the concerted activity of protein serine/threonine kinases and modular phosphoserine/threonine-binding domains to relay the damage signal and recruit repair proteins. The PIKK family of protein kinases, which includes ATM/ATR/DNA-PK, preferentially phosphorylate Ser-Gln sites, while their basophilic downstream effecter kinases, Chk1/Chk2/MK2 preferentially phosphorylate hydrophobic-X-Arg-X-X-Ser/Thr-hydrophobic sites. A subset of tandem BRCT domains act as phosphopeptide binding modules that bind to ATM/ATR/DNA-PK substrates after DNA damage. Conversely, 14-3-3 proteins interact with substrates of Chk1/Chk2/MK2. FHA domains have been shown to interact with substrates of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK and CK2. In this review we consider how substrate phosphorylation together with BRCT domains, FHA domains and 14-3-3 proteins function to regulate ionizing radiation-induced nuclear foci and help to establish the G(2)/M checkpoint. We discuss the role of MDC1 a molecular scaffold that recruits early proteins to foci, such as NBS1 and RNF8, through distinct phosphodependent interactions. In addition, we consider the role of 14-3-3 proteins and the Chk2 FHA domain in initiating and maintaining cell cycle arrest.

  16. Small-Molecule Stabilization of the 14-3-3/Gab2 Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) Interface.

    PubMed

    Bier, David; Bartel, Maria; Sies, Katharina; Halbach, Sebastian; Higuchi, Yusuke; Haranosono, Yu; Brummer, Tilman; Kato, Nobuo; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-04-19

    Small-molecule modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is one of the most promising new areas in drug discovery. In the vast majority of cases only inhibition or disruption of PPIs is realized, whereas the complementary strategy of targeted stabilization of PPIs is clearly under-represented. Here, we report the example of a semi-synthetic natural product derivative--ISIR-005--that stabilizes the cancer-relevant interaction of the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and Gab2. The crystal structure of ISIR-005 in complex with 14-3-3 and the binding motif of Gab2 comprising two phosphorylation sites (Gab2pS210pT391) showed how the stabilizing molecule binds to the rim-of-the-interface of the protein complex. Only in the direct vicinity of 14-3-3/Gab2pT391 site is a pre-formed pocket occupied by ISIR-005; binding of the Gab2pS210 motif to 14-3-3 does not create an interface pocket suitable for the molecule. Accordingly, ISIR-005 only stabilizes the binding of the Gab2pT391 but not the Gab2pS210 site. This study represents structural and biochemical proof of the druggability of the 14-3-3/Gab2 PPI interface with important implications for the development of PPI stabilizers.

  17. Site-specific regulatory interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase and 14-3-3 proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toroser, D.; Athwal, G. S.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We report an Mg2+-dependent interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) and endogenous 14-3-3 proteins, as evidenced by co-elution during gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation. The content of 14-3-3s associated with an SPS immunoprecipitate was inversely related to activity, and was specifically reduced when tissue was pretreated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, suggesting metabolite control in vivo. A synthetic phosphopeptide based on Ser-229 was shown by surface plasmon resonance to bind a recombinant plant 14-3-3, and addition of the phosphorylated SPS-229 peptide was found to stimulate the SPS activity of an SPS:14-3-3 complex. Taken together, the results suggest a regulatory interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with Ser-229 of SPS.

  18. Regulation of transcription by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bruckmann, Astrid; Steensma, H. Yde; Teixeira de Mattos, M. Joost; van Heusden, G. Paul H.

    2004-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved eukaryotic proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, including signalling, apoptosis, cell-cycle control and transcriptional regulation. More than 150 binding partners have been found for these proteins. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins, BMH1 and BMH2. A bmh1 bmh2 double mutant is unviable in most laboratory strains. Previously, we constructed a temperature-sensitive bmh2 mutant and showed that mutations in RTG3 and SIN4, both encoding transcriptional regulators, can suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of this mutant, suggesting an inhibitory role of the 14-3-3 proteins in Rtg3-dependent transcription [van Heusden and Steensma (2001) Yeast 18, 1479–1491]. In the present paper, we report a genome-wide transcription analysis of a temperature-sensitive bmh2 mutant. Steady-state mRNA levels of 60 open reading frames were increased more than 2.0-fold in the bmh2 mutant, whereas those of 78 open reading frames were decreased more than 2.0-fold. In agreement with our genetic experiments, six genes known to be regulated by Rtg3 showed elevated mRNA levels in the mutant. In addition, several genes with other cellular functions, including those involved in gluconeogenesis, ergosterol biosynthesis and stress response, had altered mRNA levels in the mutant. Our data show that the yeast 14-3-3 proteins negatively regulate Rtg3-dependent transcription, stimulate the transcription of genes involved in ergosterol metabolism and in stress response and are involved in transcription regulation of multiple other genes. PMID:15142031

  19. Regulation of transcription by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bruckmann, Astrid; Steensma, H Yde; Teixeira De Mattos, M Joost; Van Heusden, G Paul H

    2004-09-15

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved eukaryotic proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, including signalling, apoptosis, cell-cycle control and transcriptional regulation. More than 150 binding partners have been found for these proteins. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins, BMH1 and BMH2. A bmh1 bmh2 double mutant is unviable in most laboratory strains. Previously, we constructed a temperature-sensitive bmh2 mutant and showed that mutations in RTG3 and SIN4, both encoding transcriptional regulators, can suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of this mutant, suggesting an inhibitory role of the 14-3-3 proteins in Rtg3-dependent transcription [van Heusden and Steensma (2001) Yeast 18, 1479-1491]. In the present paper, we report a genome-wide transcription analysis of a temperature-sensitive bmh2 mutant. Steady-state mRNA levels of 60 open reading frames were increased more than 2.0-fold in the bmh2 mutant, whereas those of 78 open reading frames were decreased more than 2.0-fold. In agreement with our genetic experiments, six genes known to be regulated by Rtg3 showed elevated mRNA levels in the mutant. In addition, several genes with other cellular functions, including those involved in gluconeogenesis, ergosterol biosynthesis and stress response, had altered mRNA levels in the mutant. Our data show that the yeast 14-3-3 proteins negatively regulate Rtg3-dependent transcription, stimulate the transcription of genes involved in ergosterol metabolism and in stress response and are involved in transcription regulation of multiple other genes.

  20. The Peripheral Binding of 14-3-3γ to Membranes Involves Isoform-Specific Histidine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Ming; Halskau, Øyvind; Baumann, Anne; Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Costas, Miguel; Underhaug, Jarl; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Martinez, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian 14-3-3 protein scaffolds include seven conserved isoforms that bind numerous phosphorylated protein partners and regulate many cellular processes. Some 14-3-3-isoforms, notably γ, have elevated affinity for membranes, which might contribute to modulate the subcellular localization of the partners and substantiate the importance of investigating molecular mechanisms of membrane interaction. By applying surface plasmon resonance we here show that the binding to phospholipid bilayers is stimulated when 14-3-3γ is complexed with its partner, a peptide corresponding to the Ser19-phosphorylated N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, membrane interaction is dependent on salts of kosmotropic ions, which also stabilize 14-3-3γ. Electrostatic analysis of available crystal structures of γ and of the non-membrane-binding ζ-isoform, complemented with molecular dynamics simulations, indicate that the electrostatic potential distribution of phosphopeptide-bound 14-3-3γ is optimal for interaction with the membrane through amphipathic helices at the N-terminal dimerization region. In addition, His158, and especially His195, both specific to 14-3-3γ and located at the convex lateral side, appeared to be pivotal for the ligand induced membrane interaction, as corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis. The participation of these histidine residues might be associated to their increased protonation upon membrane binding. Overall, these results reveal membrane-targeting motifs and give insights on mechanisms that furnish the 14-3-3γ scaffold with the capacity for tuned shuffling from soluble to membrane-bound states. PMID:23189152

  1. Arabidopsis 14-3-3 Proteins: Fascinating and Less Fascinating Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jaspert, Nina; Throm, Christian; Oecking, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    14-3-3 Dimers are well known to interact with diverse target proteins throughout eukaryotes. Most notably, association of 14-3-3s commonly requires phosphorylation of a serine or threonine residue within a specific sequence motif of the client protein. Studies with a focus on individual target proteins have unequivocally demonstrated 14-3-3s to be the crucial factors modifying the client’s activity state upon phosphorylation and, thus, finishing the job initiated by a kinase. In this respect, a recent in-depth analysis of the rice transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS D1 (OsFD1) revealed 14-3-3s to be essential players in floral induction. Such fascinating discoveries, however, can often be ascribed to the random identification of 14-3-3 as an interaction partner of the favorite protein. In contrast, our understanding of 14-3-3 function in higher organisms is frustratingly limited, mainly due to an overwhelming spectrum of putative targets in combination with the existence of a multigene 14-3-3 family. In this review we will discuss our current understanding of the function of plant 14-3-3 proteins, taking into account recent surveys of the Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interactome. PMID:22639620

  2. Inhibition of the Arabidopsis Salt Overly Sensitive Pathway by 14-3-3 Proteins[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huapeng; Lin, Huixin; Chen, She; Becker, Katia; Yang, Yongqing; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kudla, Jörg; Schumaker, Karen S.; Guo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway regulates intracellular sodium ion (Na+) homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms that inhibit the SOS pathway when plants are grown in the absence of salt stress. In this study, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana 14-3-3 proteins λ and κ interact with SOS2 and repress its kinase activity. Growth in the presence of salt decreases the interaction between SOS2 and the 14-3-3 proteins, leading to kinase activation in planta. 14-3-3 λ interacts with the SOS2 junction domain, which is important for its kinase activity. A phosphorylation site (Ser-294) is identified within this domain by mass spectrometry. Mutation of Ser-294 to Ala or Asp does not affect SOS2 kinase activity in the absence of the 14-3-3 proteins. However, in the presence of 14-3-3 proteins, the inhibition of SOS2 activity is decreased by the Ser-to-Ala mutation and enhanced by the Ser-to-Asp exchange. These results identify 14-3-3 λ and κ as important regulators of salt tolerance. The inhibition of SOS2 mediated by the binding of 14-3-3 proteins represents a novel mechanism that confers basal repression of the SOS pathway in the absence of salt stress. PMID:24659330

  3. 14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Diane L; Barnitz, Robert A; Sakai, Keiko; Lenardo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite continuing advances in our understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, the mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-1-infected individuals remains unclear. The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death, likely through a mechanism related to its ability to arrest cells in the G2,M phase. Recent evidence implicated the scaffold protein, 14-3-3, in Vpr cell cycle blockade. Results We found that in human T cells, 14-3-3 plays an active role in mediating Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest and reveal a dramatic increase in the amount of Cdk1, Cdc25C, and CyclinB1 bound to 14-3-3 θ during Vprv-induced G2,M arrest. By contrast, a cell-cycle-arrest-dead Vpr mutant failed to augment 14-3-3 θ association with Cdk1 and CyclinB1. Moreover, G2,M arrest caused by HIV-1 infection strongly correlated with a disruption in 14-3-3 θ binding to centrosomal proteins, Plk1 and centrin. Finally, Vpr caused elevated levels of CyclinB1, Plk1, and Cdk1 in a complex with the nuclear transport and spindle assembly protein, importin β. Conclusion Thus, our data reveal a new facet of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest involving previously unrecognized abnormal rearrangements of multiprotein assemblies containing key cell cycle regulatory proteins. Reviewers This article was reviewed by David Kaplan, Nathaniel R. Landau and Yan Zhou. PMID:18445273

  4. Deletion of the cruciform binding domain in CBP/14-3-3 displays reduced origin binding and initiation of DNA replication in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Wafaa; Callejo, Mario; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves many protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. We have previously shown that 14-3-3 proteins bind cruciform DNA and associate with mammalian and yeast replication origins in a cell cycle dependent manner. Results By expressing the human 14-3-3ε, as the sole member of 14-3-3 proteins family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that 14-3-3ε complements the S. cerevisiae Bmh1/Bmh2 double knockout, conserves its cruciform binding activity, and associates in vivo with the yeast replication origins ARS307. Deletion of the α5-helix, the potential cruciform binding domain of 14-3-3, decreased the cruciform binding activity of the protein as well as its association with the yeast replication origins ARS307 and ARS1. Furthermore, the mutant cells had a reduced ability to stably maintain plasmids bearing one or multiple origins. Conclusion 14-3-3, a cruciform DNA binding protein, associates with yeast origins of replication and functions as an initiator of DNA replication, presumably through binding to cruciform DNA forming at yeast replicators. PMID:17430600

  5. Small-Molecule Stabilization of 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions Stimulates Axon Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Andrew; Morquette, Barbara; Kroner, Antje; Leong, SooYuen; Madwar, Carolin; Sanz, Ricardo; Banerjee, Sara L; Antel, Jack; Bisson, Nicolas; David, Samuel; Fournier, Alyson E

    2017-03-08

    Damaged central nervous system (CNS) neurons have a poor ability to spontaneously regenerate, causing persistent functional deficits after injury. Therapies that stimulate axon growth are needed to repair CNS damage. 14-3-3 adaptors are hub proteins that are attractive targets to manipulate cell signaling. We identify a positive role for 14-3-3s in axon growth and uncover a developmental regulation of the phosphorylation and function of 14-3-3s. We show that fusicoccin-A (FC-A), a small-molecule stabilizer of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions, stimulates axon growth in vitro and regeneration in vivo. We show that FC-A stabilizes a complex between 14-3-3 and the stress response regulator GCN1, inducing GCN1 turnover and neurite outgrowth. These findings show that 14-3-3 adaptor protein complexes are druggable targets and identify a new class of small molecules that may be further optimized for the repair of CNS damage.

  6. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) 14-3-3 proteins participate in regulation of fibre initiation and elongation by modulating brassinosteroid signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Li, Mo; Wei, Xin-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Jie; Li, Bing-Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibre is an important natural raw material for textile industry in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism of fibre development is important for the development of future cotton varieties with superior fibre quality. In this study, overexpression of Gh14-3-3L in cotton promoted fibre elongation, leading to an increase in mature fibre length. In contrast, suppression of expression of Gh14-3-3L, Gh14-3-3e and Gh14-3-3h in cotton slowed down fibre initiation and elongation. As a result, the mature fibres of the Gh14-3-3 RNAi transgenic plants were significantly shorter than those of wild type. This 'short fibre' phenotype of the 14-3-3 RNAi cotton could be partially rescued by application of 2,4-epibrassinolide (BL). Expression levels of the BR-related and fibre-related genes were altered in the Gh14-3-3 transgenic fibres. Furthermore, we identified Gh14-3-3 interacting proteins (including GhBZR1) in cotton. Site mutation assay revealed that Ser163 in GhBZR1 and Lys51/56/53 in Gh14-3-3L/e/h were required for Gh14-3-3-GhBZR1 interaction. Nuclear localization of GhBZR1 protein was induced by BR, and phosphorylation of GhBZR1 by GhBIN2 kinase was helpful for its binding to Gh14-3-3 proteins. Additionally, 14-3-3-regulated GhBZR1 protein may directly bind to GhXTH1 and GhEXP promoters to regulate gene expression for responding rapid fibre elongation. These results suggested that Gh14-3-3 proteins may be involved in regulating fibre initiation and elongation through their interacting with GhBZR1 to modulate BR signalling. Thus, our study provides the candidate intrinsic genes for improving fibre yield and quality by genetic manipulation.

  7. Mechanism of inhibition of protein kinase C by 14-3-3 isoforms. 14-3-3 isoforms do not have phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, K; Jones, D; Patel, Y; Martin, H; Madrazo, J; Martin, S; Howell, S; Elmore, M; Finnen, M J; Aitken, A

    1994-01-01

    The ability of individual members of the 14-3-3 protein family to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) has been studied by using a synthetic peptide based on the specific 80 kDa substrate for PKC (MARCKS protein) in two different assay systems. Recombinant 14-3-3 and isoforms renatured by a novel method after separation by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. were studied. The detailed effects of diacylglycerol and the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on the inhibition were also investigated. This suggests that one of the sites of interaction of 14-3-3 may be the cysteine-rich (C1) domain in PKC. Since a region in secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) shares similarity with this domain, the ability of 14-3-3 to interact with mammalian PLA2 was studied. Cytosolic PLA2 has some similarity to the C2 region of PKC, and the effect of 14-3-3 on this class of PLA2 was also analysed. In contrast with a previous report, no PLA2 activity was found in brain 14-3-3, nor in any of the recombinant proteins tested. These include zeta 14-3-3 isoform, on which the original observation was made. Images Figure 2 PMID:8192676

  8. Characterization and small-molecule stabilization of the multisite tandem binding between 14-3-3 and the R domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Stevers, Loes M; Lam, Chan V; Leysen, Seppe F R; Meijer, Femke A; van Scheppingen, Daphne S; de Vries, Rens M J M; Carlile, Graeme W; Milroy, Lech G; Thomas, David Y; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a fatal genetic disease, most frequently caused by the retention of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The binding of the 14-3-3 protein to the CFTR regulatory (R) domain has been found to enhance CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane. To define the mechanism of action of this protein-protein interaction, we have examined the interaction in vitro. The disordered multiphosphorylated R domain contains nine different 14-3-3 binding motifs. Furthermore, the 14-3-3 protein forms a dimer containing two amphipathic grooves that can potentially bind these phosphorylated motifs. This results in a number of possible binding mechanisms between these two proteins. Using multiple biochemical assays and crystal structures, we show that the interaction between them is governed by two binding sites: The key binding site of CFTR (pS768) occupies one groove of the 14-3-3 dimer, and a weaker, secondary binding site occupies the other binding groove. We show that fusicoccin-A, a natural-product tool compound used in studies of 14-3-3 biology, can stabilize the interaction between 14-3-3 and CFTR by selectively interacting with a secondary binding motif of CFTR (pS753). The stabilization of this interaction stimulates the trafficking of mutant CFTR to the plasma membrane. This definition of the druggability of the 14-3-3-CFTR interface might offer an approach for cystic fibrosis therapeutics.

  9. 14-3-3 Proteins are essential for regulation of RTG3-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G P; Steensma, H Y

    2001-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins comprise a family of highly conserved proteins that bind more than 60 different, mostly phosphorylated, proteins. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two genes, BMH1 and BMH2, encoding 14-3-3 proteins. Disruption of both genes together is lethal. In this study we constructed a mutant with a single, temperature-sensitive bmh allele. Recessive mutations in SIN4 and RTG3 can suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of this mutant. These genes encode a global transcriptional regulator and a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, respectively. The yeast 14-3-3 proteins were shown to bind to the Rtg3 protein. Overexpression of RTG3 is lethal even in wild-type cells. These genetic and biochemical data are consistent with a model in which the 14-3-3 proteins are required to keep the Rtg3 protein in an inactive state, which is (one of) the essential function(s) of the 14-3-3 proteins.

  10. Functions of OsBZR1 and 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signaling in rice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming-Yi; Zhang, Li-Ying; Gampala, Srinivas S.; Zhu, Sheng-Wei; Song, Wen-Yuan; Chong, Kang; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) are essential growth hormones found throughout the plant kingdom. BR bind to the receptor kinase BRI1 on the cell surface to activate a signal transduction pathway that regulates nuclear gene expression and plant growth. To understand the downstream BR signaling mechanism in rice, we studied the function of OsBZR1 using reverse genetic approaches and identified OsBZR1-interacting proteins. Suppressing OsBZR1 expression by RNAi resulted in dwarfism, erect leaves, reduced BR sensitivity, and altered BR-responsive gene expression in transgenic rice plants, demonstrating an essential role of OsBZR1 in BR responses in rice. Moreover, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified 14-3-3 proteins as OsBZR1-interacting proteins. Mutation of a putative 14-3-3-binding site of OsBZR1 abolished its interaction with the 14-3-3 proteins in yeast and in vivo. Such mutant OsBZR1 proteins suppressed the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis bri1–5 mutant and showed an increased nuclear distribution compared with the wild-type protein, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins directly inhibit OsBZR1 function at least in part by reducing its nuclear localization. These results demonstrate a conserved function of OsBZR1 and an important role of 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in rice. PMID:17699623

  11. Rethinking the role of phosducin: Light-regulated binding of phosducin to 14-3-3 in rod inner segments

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Koichi; Chen, Jing; Tarr, George E.; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Flynn, Julia M.; Bitensky, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    Phosducin (Pd), a small protein found abundantly in photoreceptors, is widely assumed to regulate light sensitivity in the rod outer segment through interaction with the heterotrimeric G protein transducin. But, based on histochemistry and Western blot analysis, Pd is found almost entirely in the inner segment in both light and dark, most abundantly near the rod synapse. We report a second small protein, 14-3-3, in the rod with a similar distribution. By immunoprecipitation, phospho-Pd is found to interact with 14-3-3 in material from dark-adapted retina, and this interaction is markedly diminished by light, which dephosphorylates Pd. Conversely, unphosphorylated Pd binds to inner segment G protein(s) in the light. From these results and reported functions of 14-3-3, we have constructed a hypothesis for the regulation of light sensitivity at the level of rod synapse. By dissociating the Pd/14-3-3 complex, light enables both proteins to function in this role. PMID:11287646

  12. 14-3-3β protein expression in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasite endemic in the Southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Humans are incidentally infected either by eating uncooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables containing the living third-stage larvae. The 14-3-3β protein is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuronal damage during the development of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In addition, increased 14-3-3β protein is also found in CSF from patients with a variety of neurological disorders. The goal of this study is to determine the roles of serum/CSF14-3-3β protein in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Methods In a cohort study among nine Thai laborers with eosinophilic meningitis due to eating raw snails (Pomacea canaliculata), we examined the CSF weekly while patients were still hospitalized and followed up the serum for 6 months. The levels of 14-3-3β protein in CSF were analyzed by western blot and an in-house 14-3-3β enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement was established and tested in an animal model of eosinophilic meningitis. Results The elevated 14-3-3β level was detected in the CSF from eight out of nine (81%) patients After 2 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a declined level or cleared of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF. By developing an in-house ELISA for measurement of 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the serum 14-3-3β level was significantly increased in patients during initial visit. . This finding was consistent to the animal experiment result in which there was severe blood brain barrier damage three weeks after infection and increased 14-3-3β protein expression in the CSF and serum by western blot and in house ELISA. After treatment, the serum 14-3-3β level in meningitis patients was rapidly returned to normal threshold. There was a correlation between initial CSF 14-3-3β level with severity of headache (r = 0.692, p = 0.039), CSF pleocytosis (r = 0.807, p = 0.009) and eosinophilia (r = 0

  13. Association of GABA(B) receptors and members of the 14-3-3 family of signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Couve, A; Kittler, J T; Uren, J M; Calver, A R; Pangalos, M N; Walsh, F S; Moss, S J

    2001-02-01

    Two GABA(B) receptors, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2, have been cloned recently. Unlike other G protein-coupled receptors, the formation of a heterodimer between GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 is required for functional expression. We have used the yeast two hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with the C-terminus of GABA(B)R1. We report a direct association between GABA(B) receptors and two members of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3zeta. We demonstrate that the C-terminus of GABA(B)R1 associates with 14-3-3zeta in rat brain preparations and tissue cultured cells, that they codistribute after rat brain fractionation, colocalize in neurons, and that the binding site overlaps partially with the coiled-coil domain of GABA(B)R1. Furthermore we show a reduced interaction between the C-terminal domains of GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 in the presence of 14-3-3. The results strongly suggest that GABA(B)R1 and 14-3-3 associate in the nervous system and begin to reveal the signaling complexities of the GABA(B)R1/GABA(B)R2 receptor heterodimer.

  14. 14-3-3 proteins associate with phosphorylated simple epithelial keratins during cell cycle progression and act as a solubility cofactor

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    14-3-3 is a ubiquitous protein family that interacts with several signal transduction kinases. We show that 14-3-3 proteins associate with keratin intermediate filament polypeptides 8 and 18 (K8/18) that are expressed in simple-type epithelia. The association is stoichiometrically significant (> or = one 14-3-3 molecule/keratin tetramer), occurs preferentially with K18, and is phosphorylation- and cell cycle-dependent in that it occurs during S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle when keratins become hyperphosphorylated. Binding of phospho- K8/18 to 14-3-3 can be reconstituted in vitro using recombinant 14-3-3 or using total cellular cytosol. Phosphatase treatment results in dissociation of 14-3-3, and dephosphorylation of phospho-K8/18 prevents reconstitution of the binding. Three cellular keratin subpopulations were analyzed that showed parallel gradients of keratin phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding. Incubation of 14-3-3 with keratins during or after in vitro filament assembly results in sequestering of additional soluble keratin, only in cases when the keratins were hyperphosphorylated. Our results demonstrate a stoichiometrically significant cell cycle- and phosphorylation-regulated binding of 14-3-3 proteins to K18 and in vitro evidence of a simple epithelial keratin sequestering role for 14-3-3 proteins. PMID:8609167

  15. Light modulated activity of root alkaline/neutral invertase involves the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; van Kleeff, Paula J M; Oecking, Claudia; Li, Ka Wan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; de Boer, Albertus H

    2014-12-01

    Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Invs) are now recognized as essential proteins in plant life. They catalyze the irreversible breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and thus supply the cells with energy as well as signaling molecules. In this study we report on a mechanism that affects the activity of the cytosolic invertase AtCINV1 (At-A/N-InvG or AT1G35580). We demonstrate that Ser547 at the extreme C-terminus of the AtCINV1 protein is a substrate of calcium-dependent kinases (CPK3 and 21) and that phosphorylation creates a high-affinity binding site for 14-3-3 proteins. The invertase as such has basal activity, but we provide evidence that interaction with 14-3-3 proteins enhances its activity. The analysis of three quadruple 14-3-3 mutants generated from six T-DNA insertion mutants of the non-epsilon family shows both specificity as well as redundancy for this function of 14-3-3 proteins. The strong reduction in hexose levels in the roots of one 14-3-3 quadruple mutant plant is in line with the activating function of 14-3-3 proteins. The physiological relevance of this mechanism that affects A/N-invertase activity is underscored by the light-induced activation and is another example of the central role of 14-3-3 proteins in mediating dark/light signaling. The nature of the light-induced signal that travels from the shoot to root and the question whether this signal is transmitted via cytosolic Ca(++) changes that activate calcium-dependent kinases, await further study.

  16. Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis Ubiquitin Ligase ATL31 Is Critical for Plant Carbon/Nitrogen Nutrient Balance Response and Controls the Stability of 14-3-3 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shigetaka; Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Aoyama, Shoki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligase plays a fundamental role in regulating multiple cellular events in eukaryotes by fine-tuning the stability and activity of specific target proteins. We have previously shown that ubiquitin ligase ATL31 regulates plant growth in response to nutrient balance between carbon and nitrogen (C/N) in Arabidopsis. Subsequent study demonstrated that ATL31 targets 14-3-3 proteins for ubiquitination and modulates the protein abundance in response to C/N-nutrient status. However, the underlying mechanism for the targeting of ATL31 to 14-3-3 proteins remains unclear. Here, we show that ATL31 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified Thr209, Ser247, Ser270, and Ser303 as putative 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 by motif analysis. Mutation of these Ser/Thr residues to Ala in ATL31 inhibited the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Additionally, we identified in vivo phosphorylation of Thr209 and Ser247 on ATL31 by MS analysis. A peptide competition assay showed that the application of synthetic phospho-Thr209 peptide, but not the corresponding unphosphorylated peptide, suppresses the interaction between ATL31 and 14-3-3 proteins. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing mutated ATL31, which could not bind to 14-3-3 proteins, showed accumulation of 14-3-3 proteins and growth arrest in disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions similar to wild-type plants, although overexpression of intact ATL31 resulted in repression of 14-3-3 accumulation and tolerance to the conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that the physiological role of phosphorylation at 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 is to modulate the binding ability and stability of 14-3-3 proteins to control plant C/N-nutrient response. PMID:24722992

  17. CDPKs and 14-3-3 Proteins: Emerging Duo in Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ormancey, Mélanie; Thuleau, Patrice; Mazars, Christian; Cotelle, Valérie

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are Ca(2+)-sensors that play pivotal roles in plant development and stress responses. They have the unique ability to directly translate intracellular Ca(2+) signals into reversible phosphorylation events of diverse substrates which can mediate interactions with 14-3-3 proteins to modulate protein functions. Recent studies have revealed roles for the coordinated action of CDPKs and 14-3-3s in regulating diverse aspects of plant biology including metabolism, development, and stress responses. We review here the underlying interaction and cross-regulation of the two signaling proteins, and we discuss how this insight has led to the emerging concept of CDPK/14-3-3 signaling modules that could contribute to response specificity.

  18. Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 Protein Test of the Spinal Fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... JAKOB DISEASE: ACCURACY OF THE 14-3-3 PROTEIN TEST OF THE SPINAL FLUID This information sheet ... help you understand how the 14-3-3 protein test helps in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ( ...

  19. RGS3 interacts with 14-3-3 via the N-terminal region distinct from the RGS (regulator of G-protein signalling) domain.

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jiaxin; Scheschonka, Astrid; Druey, Kirk M; Davis, Amanda; Reed, Eleanor; Kolenko, Vladimir; Bodnar, Richard; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana; Du, Xiaoping; Kehrl, John; Dulin, Nickolai O

    2002-01-01

    RGS3 belongs to a family of the regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS), which bind and inhibit the G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins via a homologous RGS domain. Increasing evidence suggests that RGS proteins can also interact with targets other than G-proteins. Employing yeast two-hybrid screening of a cDNA library, we identified an interaction between RGS3 and the phosphoserine-binding protein 14-3-3. This interaction was confirmed by in vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. RGS3-deletion analysis revealed the presence of a single 14-3-3-binding site located outside of the RGS domain. Ser(264) was then identified as the 14-3-3-binding site of RGS3. The S(264)A mutation resulted in the loss of RGS3 binding to 14-3-3, without affecting its ability to bind G alpha(q). Signalling studies showed that the S(264)A mutant was more potent than the wild-type RGS3 in inhibition of G-protein-mediated signalling. Binding experiments revealed that RGS3 exists in two separate pools, either 14-3-3-bound or G-protein-bound, and that the 14-3-3-bound RGS3 is unable to interact with G-proteins. These data are consistent with the model wherein 14-3-3 serves as a scavenger of RGS3, regulating the amounts of RGS3 available for binding G-proteins. This study describes a new level in the regulation of G-protein signalling, in which the inhibitors of G-proteins, RGS proteins, can themselves be regulated by phosphorylation and binding 14-3-3. PMID:11985497

  20. Abscisic acid and 14-3-3 proteins control K channel activity in barley embryonic root.

    PubMed

    van den Wijngaard, Paul W J; Sinnige, Mark P; Roobeek, Ilja; Reumer, Annet; Schoonheim, Peter J; Mol, Jos N M; Wang, Mei; De Boer, Albertus H

    2005-01-01

    Germination of seeds proceeds in general in two phases, an initial imbibition phase and a subsequent growth phase. In grasses like barley, the latter phase is evident as the emergence of the embryonic root (radicle). The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits germination because it prevents the embryo from entering and completing the growth phase. Genetic and physiological studies have identified many steps in the ABA signal transduction cascade, but how it prevents radicle elongation is still not clear. For elongation growth to proceed, uptake of osmotically active substances (mainly K(+)) is essential. Therefore, we have addressed the question of how the activity of K(+) permeable ion channels in the plasma membrane of radicle cells is regulated under conditions of slow (+ABA) and rapid germination (+fusicoccin). We found that ABA arrests radicle growth, inhibits net K(+) uptake and reduces the activity of K(+) (in) channels as measured with the patch-clamp technique. In contrast, fusicoccin (FC), a well-known stimulator of germination, stimulates radicle growth, net K(+) uptake and reduces the activity of K(+) (out) channels. Both types of channels are under the control of 14-3-3 proteins, known as integral components of signal transduction pathways and instrumental in FC action. Intriguingly, 14-3-3 affected both channels in an opposite fashion: whereas K(+) (in) channel activity was fully dependent upon 14-3-3 proteins, K(+) (out) channel activity was reduced by 14-3-3 proteins by 60%. Together with previous data showing that 14-3-3 proteins control the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, this makes 14-3-3 a prime candidate for molecular master regulator of the cellular osmo-pump. Regulation of the osmo-pump activity by ABA and FC is an important mechanism in controlling the growth of the embryonic root during seed germination.

  1. Interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with the estrogen receptor alpha F domain provides a drug target interface.

    PubMed

    De Vries-van Leeuwen, Ingrid J; da Costa Pereira, Daniel; Flach, Koen D; Piersma, Sander R; Haase, Christian; Bier, David; Yalcin, Zeliha; Michalides, Rob; Feenstra, K Anton; Jiménez, Connie R; de Greef, Tom F A; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian; Zwart, Wilbert; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-05-28

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including breast cancer. Breast cancer therapy is therefore currently directed at inhibiting the transcriptional potency of ERα, either by blocking estrogen production through aromatase inhibitors or antiestrogens that compete for hormone binding. Due to resistance, new treatment modalities are needed and as ERα dimerization is essential for its activity, interference with receptor dimerization offers a new opportunity to exploit in drug design. Here we describe a unique mechanism of how ERα dimerization is negatively controlled by interaction with 14-3-3 proteins at the extreme C terminus of the receptor. Moreover, the small-molecule fusicoccin (FC) stabilizes this ERα/14-3-3 interaction. Cocrystallization of the trimeric ERα/14-3-3/FC complex provides the structural basis for this stabilization and shows the importance of phosphorylation of the penultimate Threonine (ERα-T(594)) for high-affinity interaction. We confirm that T(594) is a distinct ERα phosphorylation site in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using a phospho-T(594)-specific antibody and by mass spectrometry. In line with its ERα/14-3-3 interaction stabilizing effect, fusicoccin reduces the estradiol-stimulated ERα dimerization, inhibits ERα/chromatin interactions and downstream gene expression, resulting in decreased cell proliferation. Herewith, a unique functional phosphosite and an alternative regulation mechanism of ERα are provided, together with a small molecule that selectively targets this ERα/14-3-3 interface.

  2. Identification of cofilin and LIM-domain-containing protein kinase 1 as novel interaction partners of 14-3-3 zeta.

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Jörg; Betz, Heinrich; Roth, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 family have been implicated in various physiological processes, and are thought to function as adaptors in various signal transduction pathways. In addition, 14-3-3 proteins may contribute to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with as yet unidentified actin-binding proteins. Here we show that the 14-3-3 zeta isoform interacts with both the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin and its regulatory kinase, LIM (Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3)-domain-containing protein kinase 1 (LIMK1). In both yeast two-hybrid assays and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments, these proteins bound efficiently to 14-3-3 zeta. Deletion analysis revealed consensus 14-3-3 binding sites on both cofilin and LIMK1. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of 14-3-3 zeta inhibited the binding of cofilin to actin in co-sedimentation experiments. Upon co-transfection into COS-7 cells, 14-3-3 zeta-specific immunoreactivity was redistributed into characteristic LIMK1-induced actin aggregations. Our data are consistent with 14-3-3-protein-induced changes to the actin cytoskeleton resulting from interactions with cofilin and/or LIMK1. PMID:12323073

  3. Characterization and small-molecule stabilization of the multisite tandem binding between 14-3-3 and the R domain of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Stevers, Loes M.; Lam, Chan V.; Leysen, Seppe F. R.; Meijer, Femke A.; van Scheppingen, Daphne S.; de Vries, Rens M. J. M.; Carlile, Graeme W.; Milroy, Lech G.; Thomas, David Y.; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a fatal genetic disease, most frequently caused by the retention of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The binding of the 14-3-3 protein to the CFTR regulatory (R) domain has been found to enhance CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane. To define the mechanism of action of this protein–protein interaction, we have examined the interaction in vitro. The disordered multiphosphorylated R domain contains nine different 14-3-3 binding motifs. Furthermore, the 14-3-3 protein forms a dimer containing two amphipathic grooves that can potentially bind these phosphorylated motifs. This results in a number of possible binding mechanisms between these two proteins. Using multiple biochemical assays and crystal structures, we show that the interaction between them is governed by two binding sites: The key binding site of CFTR (pS768) occupies one groove of the 14-3-3 dimer, and a weaker, secondary binding site occupies the other binding groove. We show that fusicoccin-A, a natural-product tool compound used in studies of 14-3-3 biology, can stabilize the interaction between 14-3-3 and CFTR by selectively interacting with a secondary binding motif of CFTR (pS753). The stabilization of this interaction stimulates the trafficking of mutant CFTR to the plasma membrane. This definition of the druggability of the 14-3-3–CFTR interface might offer an approach for cystic fibrosis therapeutics. PMID:26888287

  4. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  5. The crystal structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the apo form: when protein post-translational modifications make the difference.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Annarita; di Marino, Daniele; Bertuccini, Lucia; Via, Allegra; Pozio, Edoardo; Camerini, Serena; Ilari, Andrea; Lalle, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.

  6. Destabilisation of dimeric 14-3-3 proteins as a novel approach to anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Joanna M; Coolen, Carl; Goodwin, Katy L; Baek, Dong Jae; Bittman, Robert; Samuel, Michael S; Pitson, Stuart M; Lopez, Angel F

    2015-06-10

    14-3-3 proteins play a pivotal role in controlling cell proliferation and survival, two commonly dysregulated hallmarks of cancers. 14-3-3 protein expression is enhanced in many human cancers and correlates with more aggressive tumors and poor prognosis, suggesting a role for 14-3-3 proteins in tumorigenesis and/or progression. We showed previously that the dimeric state of 14-3-3 proteins is regulated by the lipid sphingosine, a physiological inducer of apoptosis. As the functions of 14-3-3 proteins are dependent on their dimeric state, this sphingosine-mediated 14-3-3 regulation provides a possible means to target dimeric 14-3-3 for therapeutic effect. However, sphingosine mimics are needed that are not susceptible to sphingolipid metabolism. We show here the identification and optimization of sphingosine mimetics that render dimeric 14-3-3 susceptible to phosphorylation at a site buried in the dimer interface and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Two such compounds, RB-011 and RB-012, disrupt 14-3-3 dimers at low micromolar concentrations and induce rapid down-regulation of Raf-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling in Jurkat cells. Importantly, both RB-011 and RB-012 induce apoptosis of human A549 lung cancer cells and RB-012, through disruption of MAPK signaling, reduces xenograft growth in mice. Thus, these compounds provide proof-of-principle for this novel 14-3-3-targeting approach for anti-cancer drug discovery.

  7. Subcellular Targeting of p33ING1b by Phosphorylation-Dependent 14-3-3 Binding Regulates p21WAF1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Russell, Michael; Suzuki, Keiko; Riabowol, Karl

    2006-01-01

    ING1 is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell growth, stress signaling, apoptosis, and DNA repair by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Decreased ING1 expression is seen in several human cancers, and mislocalization has been noted in diverse types of cancer cells. Aberrant targeting may, therefore, functionally inactivate ING1. Bioinformatics analysis identified a sequence between the nuclear localization sequence and plant homeodomain domains of ING1 that closely matched the binding motif of 14-3-3 proteins that target cargo proteins to specific subcellular locales. We find that the widely expressed p33ING1b splicing isoform of ING1 interacts with members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins and that this interaction is regulated by the phosphorylation status of ING1. 14-3-3 binding resulted in significant amounts of p33ING1b protein being tethered in the cytoplasm. As shown previously, ectopic expression of p33ING1b increased levels of the p21Waf1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor upon UV-induced DNA damage. Overexpression of 14-3-3 inhibited the up-regulation of p21Waf1 by p33ING1b, consistent with the idea that mislocalization blocks at least one of ING1's biological activities. These data support the idea that the 14-3-3 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the activity of p33ING1b by directing its subcellular localization. PMID:16581770

  8. Quantifying protein interaction dynamics by SWATH mass spectrometry: application to the 14-3-3 system.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ben C; Gillet, Ludovic C; Rosenberger, George; Röst, Hannes L; Vichalkovski, Anton; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-12-01

    Protein complexes and protein interaction networks are essential mediators of most biological functions. Complexes supporting transient functions such as signal transduction processes are frequently subject to dynamic remodeling. Currently, the majority of studies on the composition of protein complexes are carried out by affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and present a static view of the system. For a better understanding of inherently dynamic biological processes, methods to reliably quantify temporal changes of protein interaction networks are essential. Here we used affinity purification combined with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (AP-SWATH) mass spectrometry to study the dynamics of the 14-3-3β scaffold protein interactome after stimulation of the insulin-PI3K-AKT pathway. The consistent and reproducible quantification of 1,967 proteins across all stimulation time points provided insights into the 14-3-3β interactome and its dynamic changes following IGF1 stimulation. We therefore establish AP-SWATH as a tool to quantify dynamic changes in protein-complex interaction networks.

  9. Biophysical Characterization of Essential Phosphorylation at the Flexible C-Terminal Region of C-Raf with 14-3-3ζ Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Nilanjan; Mroue, Kamal H.; Kar, Rajiv K.; Mandal, Atin K.; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation at the C-terminal flexible region of the C-Raf protein plays an important role in regulating its biological activity. Auto-phosphorylation at serine 621 (S621) in this region maintains C-Raf stability and activity. This phosphorylation mediates the interaction between C-Raf and scaffold protein 14-3-3ζ to activate the downstream MEK kinase pathway. In this study, we have defined the interaction of C-terminal peptide sequence of C-Raf with 14-3-3ζ protein and determined the possible structural adaptation of this region. Biophysical elucidation of the interaction was carried out using phosphopeptide (residue number 615–630) in the presence of 14-3-3ζ protein. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a high binding affinity with micro-molar range was found to exist between the peptide and 14-3-3ζ protein, whereas the non-phosphorylated peptide did not show any appreciable binding affinity. Further interaction details were investigated using several biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in addition to molecular modeling. This study provides the molecular basis for C-Raf C-terminal-derived phosphopeptide interaction with 14-3-3ζ protein as well as structural insights responsible for phosphorylated S621-mediated 14-3-3ζ binding at an atomic resolution. PMID:26295714

  10. Plasma Membrane CRPK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 Proteins Induces Their Nuclear Import to Fine-Tune CBF Signaling during Cold Response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziyan; Jia, Yuxin; Ding, Yanglin; Shi, Yiting; Li, Zhen; Guo, Yan; Gong, Zhizhong; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-04-06

    In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins. Consistent with this, the crpk1 and 14-3-3κλ mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, and transgenic plants overexpressing 14-3-3λ show reduced freezing tolerance. Further study shows that CRPK1 is essential for the nuclear translocation of 14-3-3 proteins and for 14-3-3 function in freezing tolerance. Thus, our study reveals that the CRPK1-14-3-3 module transduces the cold signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to modulate CBF stability, which ensures a faithfully adjusted response to cold stress of plants.

  11. Stimulation of 14-3-3 protein and its isoform on histamine secretion from permeabilized rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Ueeda, Takayuki

    2002-12-01

    The effect of the 14-3-3 protein, an adaptor protein of intracellular signal pathways, on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells was investigated. The exogenous 14-3-3 protein from bovine brain increased the Ca(2+)-dependent histamine release from permeabilized mast cells, but only slightly affected the non-permeabilized cells. Partial amino acid sequences showed that the bovine brain 14-3-3 protein contained 14-3-3beta, gamma and zeta isoforms, and that these recombinant isoforms were prepared. Among them, 14-3-3zeta was an active species while the 14-3-3beta and gamma were inactive for histamine release from the permeabilized mast cells. Approximately 15% of the histamine release was stimulated by 14-3-3zeta at 2.5 microM, and half-maximal stimulation occurred at 1 microM. Treatment of the mast cells with wortmannin or staurosporine completely inhibited the stimulatory effect on histamine release caused by Ca(2+) or Ca(2+)/14-3-3zeta, and genistein partially inhibited both stimulatory effects. PD 98059, however, had little effect on the histamine release. These results suggest the possibility that 14-3-3zeta is associated with signal transduction for degranulation of the mast cells.

  12. Protein kinase C-alpha regulates insulin action and degradation by interacting with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 14-3-3 epsilon.

    PubMed

    Oriente, Francesco; Andreozzi, Francesco; Romano, Chiara; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Perfetti, Anna; Fiory, Francesca; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2005-12-09

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha exerts a regulatory function on insulin action. We showed by overlay blot that PKCalpha directly binds a 180-kDa protein, corresponding to IRS-1, and a 30-kDa molecular species, identified as 14-3-3epsilon. In intact NIH-3T3 cells overexpressing insulin receptors (3T3-hIR), insulin selectively increased PKCalpha co-precipitation with IRS-1, but not with IRS-2, and with 14-3-3epsilon, but not with other 14-3-3 isoforms. Overexpression of 14-3-3epsilon in 3T3-hIR cells significantly reduced IRS-1-bound PKCalpha activity, without altering IRS-1/PKCalpha co-precipitation. 14-3-3epsilon overexpression also increased insulin-stimulated insulin receptor and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, followed by increased activation of Raf1, ERK1/2, and Akt/protein kinase B. Insulin-induced glycogen synthase activity and thymidine incorporation were also augmented. Consistently, selective depletion of 14-3-3epsilon by antisense oligonucleotides caused a 3-fold increase of IRS-1-bound PKCalpha activity and a similarly sized reduction of insulin receptor and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling. In turn, selective inhibition of PKCalpha expression by antisense oligonucleotides reverted the negative effect of 14-3-3epsilon depletion on insulin signaling. Moreover, PKCalpha inhibition was accompanied by a >2-fold decrease of insulin degradation. Similar results were also obtained by overexpressing 14-3-3epsilon. Thus, in NIH-3T3 cells, insulin induces the formation of multimolecular complexes, including IRS-1, PKCalpha, and 14-3-3epsilon. The presence of 14-3-3epsilon in the complex is not necessary for IRS-1/PKCalpha interaction but modulates PKCalpha activity, thereby regulating insulin signaling and degradation.

  13. Identification of novel 14-3-3ζ interacting proteins by quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown (QUICK).

    PubMed

    Ge, Feng; Li, Wen-Liang; Bi, Li-Jun; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xian-En

    2010-11-05

    The family of 14-3-3 proteins has emerged as critical regulators of diverse cellular responses under both physiological and pathological conditions. To gain insight into the molecular action of 14-3-3ζ in multiple myeloma (MM), we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of 14-3-3ζ-associated proteins. This analysis, recently developed by Matthias Mann, termed quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown (QUICK), integrates RNAi, SILAC, immunoprecipitation, and quantitative MS technologies. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis allowed us to distinguish 14-3-3ζ-interacting proteins from background proteins, resulting in the identification of 292 proteins in total with 95 novel interactions. Three 14-3-3ζ-interacting proteins-BAX, HSP70, and BAG3-were further confirmed by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitations and colocalization analysis. Our results therefore not only uncover a large number of novel 14-3-3ζ-associated proteins that possess a variety of cellular functions, but also provide new research directions for the study of the functions of 14-3-3ζ. This study also demonstrated that QUICK is a useful approach to detect specific protein-protein interactions with very high confidence and may have a wide range of applications in the investigation of protein complex interaction networks.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii: Effect of infection on expression of 14-3-3 proteins in human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Fernando P.

    2008-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are expressed in most eukaryotes organisms and play varied and crucial roles in a wide range of regulatory processes. In mammalian cells, seven 14-3-3 isoforms have been identified. However; it is not known what effect infection has on 14-3-3 isoform expression. In this study human colonic carcinoma cell lines were infected with Toxoplasma gondii for 24 h and expression of 14-3-3 proteins was determined by RT-PCR. HT-29 cells only expressed 3 out of the 7 isoforms while 5 and all 7 isoforms were found in HCT-116 and Caco-2 cells respectively. Infection had little or no effect in the expression of 14-3-3γ, ε, σ, and ξ; but in HCT-116 cells induced expression of 14-3-3η and σ, while 14-3-3β, η, and ξ were induced in HT-29 cells. If 14-3-3 proteins are involved in cell survival and/or prevention of parasite replication, longer incubation times may be required as no differences in percentage of infection were found among the cell lines at 24 h post-infection. PMID:17825295

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TWO 14-3-3 PROTEINS IN THE MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti, AN IMPORTANT ARBOVIRUSES VECTOR.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Ocampo, Abel; Cázares-Raga, Febe Elena; Celestino-Montes, Antonio; Cortés-Martínez, Leticia; Rodríguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz

    2016-11-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved acidic proteins that form a family with several isoforms in many cell types of plants and animals. In invertebrates, including dipteran and lepidopteran insects, only two isoforms have been reported. 14-3-3 proteins are scaffold molecules that form homo- or heterodimeric complexes, acting as molecular adaptors mediating phosphorylation-dependent interactions with signaling molecules involved in immunity, cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. Here, we describe the presence of two isoforms of 14-3-3 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika viruses. Both isoforms have the conserved characteristics of the family: two protein signatures (PS1 and PS2), an annexin domain, three serine residues, targets for phosphorylation (positions 58, 184, and 233), necessary for their function, and nine alpha helix-forming segments. By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, we found that the molecules correspond to Ɛ and ζ isoforms (Aeae14-3-3ε and Aeae14-3-3ζ). The messengers and protein products were present in all stages of the mosquito life cycle and all the tissues analyzed, with a small predominance of Aeae14-3-3ζ except in the midgut and ovaries of adult females. The 14-3-3 proteins in female midgut epithelial cells were located in the cytoplasm. Our results may provide insights to further investigate the functions of these proteins in mosquitoes.

  16. Validation of 14-3-3 Protein as a Marker in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Matthias; Ebert, Elisabeth; Stoeck, Katharina; Karch, André; Collins, Steven; Calero, Miguel; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Golanska, Ewa; Baldeiras, Ines; Satoh, Katsuya; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Ladogana, Anna; Skinningsrud, Anders; Hammarin, Anna-Lena; Mitrova, Eva; Llorens, Franc; Kim, Yong Sun; Green, Alison; Zerr, Inga

    2016-05-01

    At present, the testing of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard biomarker test in suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) diagnosis. Increasing 14-3-3 test referrals in CJD reference laboratories in the last years have led to an urgent need to improve established 14-3-3 test methods. The main result of our study was the validation of a commercially available 14-3-3 ELISA next to the commonly used Western blot method as a high-throughput screening test. Hereby, 14-3-3 protein expression was quantitatively analyzed in CSF of 231 sCJD and 2035 control patients. We obtained excellent sensitivity/specificity values of 88 and 96% that are comparable to the established Western blot method. Since standard protocols and preanalytical sample handling have become more important in routine diagnostic, we investigated in a further step the reproducibility and stability of 14-3-3 as a biomarker for human prion diseases. Ring trial data from 2009 to 2013 revealed an increase of Fleiss' kappa from 0.51 to 0.68 indicating an improving reliability of 14-3-3 protein detection. The stability of 14-3-3 protein under short-term and long-term storage conditions at various temperatures and after repeated freezing/thawing cycles was confirmed. Contamination of CSF samples with blood appears likely to be an important factor at a concentration of more than 2500 erythrocytes/μL. Hemolysis of erythrocytes with significant release of 14-3-3 protein started after 2 days at room temperature. We first define clear standards for the sample handling, short- and long-term storage of CSF samples as well as the handling of blood- contaminated samples which may result in artificially elevated CSF levels of 14-3-3.

  17. Human 14-3-3 gamma protein results in abnormal cell proliferation in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sophia W; Qi, Wenqing; Brabant, Marc; Bosco, Giovanni; Martinez, Jesse D

    2008-01-01

    Background 14-3-3 proteins are a family of adaptor proteins that participate in a wide variety of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that the expression levels of these proteins are elevated in some human tumors providing circumstantial evidence for their involvement in human cancers. However, the mechanism through which these proteins act in tumorigenesis is uncertain. Results To determine whether elevated levels of 14-3-3 proteins may perturb cell growth we overexpressed human 14-3-3 gamma (h14-3-3 gamma) in Drosophila larvae using the heat shock promoter or the GMR-Gal4 driver and then examined the effect that this had on cell proliferation in the eye imaginal discs of third instar larvae. We found that induction of h14-3-3 gamma resulted in the abnormal appearance of replicating cells in the differentiating proneural photoreceptor cells of eye imaginal discs where h14-3-3 gamma was driven by the heat shock promoter. Similarly, we found that driving h14-3-3 gamma expression specifically in developing eye discs with the GMR-Gal4 driver resulted in increased numbers of replicative cells following the morphogenetic furrow. Interestingly, we found that the effects of overexpressing h1433 gamma on eye development were increased in a genetic background where String (cdc25) function was compromised. Conclusion Taken together our results indicate that h14-3-3 gamma can promote abnormal cell proliferation and may act through Cdc25. This has important implications for 14-3-3 gamma as an oncogene as it suggests that elevated levels of 14-3-3 may confer a growth advantage to cells that overexpress it. PMID:18194556

  18. Quantitative proteomic dissection of a native 14-3-3ε interacting protein complex associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chen; Tang, Siwei; Bai, Chen; Chen, Xian

    2014-04-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins regulate diverse biological processes that are implicated in cancer development, and seven 14-3-3 isoforms were identified with isoform-specific roles in different human tumors. In our previous work, we dissected the interactome of 14-3-3ε formed during the DNA damage response in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell using an AACT/SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach. In this study, we used a similar proteomic approach to profile/identify the 14-3-3ε interactome formed in native HCC cells. Functional categorization and data-dependent network analysis of the native HCC-specific 14-3-3ε interactome revealed that 14-3-3ε is involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes (BPs)/pathways, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, signal transduction, transport, cell adhesion, carbohydrate metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism. Biological validation further supports that 14-3-3ε, via association with multiple BP/pathway-specific proteins, coordinates the regulation of proliferation, survival, and metastasis of HCC. The findings in this study, together with those of our previous study, provide an extensive profile of the 14-3-3ε interaction network in HCC cells, which should be valuable for understanding the pathology of HCC and HCC therapy.

  19. 14-3-3 Protein isoforms and atypical patterns of the 14-3-3 assay in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Saiz, Albert; Graus, Francesc

    2002-03-01

    A positive 14-3-3 assay is a criterion for probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 is usually detected by immunoblot using an antibody that recognizes all of the 14-3-3 isoforms. In a few cases, the antibody recognizes an inferior band and this pattern is associated with false positive results. We analyzed 43 CSF (26 CJD, 17 controls) samples using antibodies against specific isoforms (beta, epsilon, gamma, tau, xi) and compared the results with those obtained with the standard antibody. The anti-gamma and anti-beta antibody achieved similar results but the presence of atypical patterns made the standard antibody more accurate for the CJD diagnosis. To study the nature of the inferior band, CSF samples were probed with antibodies against light chain immunoglobulins, and immunoblots of human IgG with the standard antibody. The experiments suggested a cross-reaction of the anti-14-3-3 antibody with light chain immunoglobulins.

  20. Structural Basis for the Interaction of a Human Small Heat Shock Protein with the 14-3-3 Universal Signaling Regulator.

    PubMed

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Beelen, Steven; Kulikova, Alexandra A; Weeks, Stephen D; Antson, Alfred A; Gusev, Nikolai B; Strelkov, Sergei V

    2017-02-07

    By interacting with hundreds of protein partners, 14-3-3 proteins coordinate vital cellular processes. Phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein, HSPB6, within its intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain activates its interaction with 14-3-3, ultimately triggering smooth muscle relaxation. After analyzing the binding of an HSPB6-derived phosphopeptide to 14-3-3 using isothermal calorimetry and X-ray crystallography, we have determined the crystal structure of the complete assembly consisting of the 14-3-3 dimer and full-length HSPB6 dimer and further characterized this complex in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and limited proteolysis. We show that selected intrinsically disordered regions of HSPB6 are transformed into well-defined conformations upon the interaction, whereby an unexpectedly asymmetric structure is formed. This structure provides the first atomic resolution snapshot of a human small HSP in functional state, explains how 14-3-3 proteins sequester their regulatory partners, and can inform the design of small-molecule interaction modifiers to be used as myorelaxants.

  1. Structural basis for the interaction of a human small heat shock protein with the 14-3-3 universal signaling regulator

    PubMed Central

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Beelen, Steven; Kulikova, Alexandra A.; Weeks, Stephen D.; Antson, Alfred A.; Gusev, Nikolai B.; Strelkov, Sergei V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary By interacting with hundreds of protein partners, 14-3-3 proteins coordinate vital cellular processes. Phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein HSPB6 within its intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain activates its interaction with 14-3-3, ultimately triggering smooth muscle relaxation. After analyzing the binding of an HSPB6-derived phosphopeptide to 14-3-3 using isothermal calorimetry and X-ray crystallography, we have determined the crystal structure of the complete assembly consisting of the 14-3-3 dimer and full-length HSPB6 dimer and further characterized this complex in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and limited proteolysis. We show that selected intrinsically disordered regions of HSPB6 are transformed into well-defined conformations upon the interaction, whereby an unexpectedly asymmetric structure is formed. This structure provides the first-ever atomic resolution snapshot of a human small HSP in functional state, explains how 14-3-3 proteins sequester their regulatory partners, and can inform the design of small-molecule interaction modifiers to be used as myorelaxants. PMID:28089448

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of TAT-14-3-3ε Fusion Protein against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Wenhui; Wang, Yinye

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the major cause of death and disability worldwide, and the thrombolytic therapy currently available was unsatisfactory. 14-3-3ε is a well characterized member of 14-3-3 family, and has been reported to protect neurons against apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. However, it cannot transverse blood brain barrier (BBB) due to its large size. A protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV TAT protein, is capable of delivering a large variety of proteins into the brain. In this study, we generated a fusion protein TAT-14-3-3ε, and evaluated its potential neuroprotective effect in rat focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Western blot analysis validated the efficient transduction of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein into brain via a route of intravenous injection. TAT-14-3-3ε pre-treatment 2 h before ischemia significantly reduced cerebral infarction volume and improved neurologic score, while post-treatment 2 h after ischemia was less effective. Importantly, pre- or post-ischemic treatment with TAT-14-3-3ε significantly increased the number of surviving neurons as determined by Nissl staining, and attenuated I/R-induced neuronal apoptosis as showed by the decrease in apoptotic cell numbers and the inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Moreover, the introduction of 14-3-3ε into brain by TAT-mediated delivering reduced the formation of autophagosome, attenuated LC3B-II upregulation and reversed p62 downregulation induced by ischemic injury. Such inhibition of autophagy was reversed by treatment with an autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP), which also attenuated the neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε. Conversely, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) inhibited I/R-induced the increase in autophagic activity, and attenuated I/R-induced brain infarct. These results suggest that TAT-14-3-3ε can be efficiently transduced into brain and exert significantly protective effect against brain ischemic injury through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and autophagic activation. PMID

  3. Crystal structures of a yeast 14-3-3 protein from Lachancea thermotolerans in the unliganded form and bound to a human lipid kinase PI4KB-derived peptide reveal high evolutionary conservation.

    PubMed

    Eisenreichova, Andrea; Klima, Martin; Boura, Evzen

    2016-11-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind phosphorylated binding partners to regulate several of their properties, including enzymatic activity, stability and subcellular localization. Here, two crystal structures are presented: the crystal structures of the 14-3-3 protein (also known as Bmh1) from the yeast Lachancea thermotolerans in the unliganded form and bound to a phosphopeptide derived from human PI4KB (phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase B). The structures demonstrate the high evolutionary conservation of ligand recognition by 14-3-3 proteins. The structural analysis suggests that ligand recognition by 14-3-3 proteins evolved very early in the evolution of eukaryotes and remained conserved, underlying the importance of 14-3-3 proteins in physiology.

  4. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  5. Regulation of IRSp53-Dependent Filopodial Dynamics by Antagonism between 14-3-3 Binding and SH3-Mediated Localization ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Robens , Jeffrey M.; Yeow-Fong, Lee; Ng, Elsa; Hall, Christine; Manser, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Filopodia are dynamic structures found at the leading edges of most migrating cells. IRSp53 plays a role in filopodium dynamics by coupling actin elongation with membrane protrusion. IRSp53 is a Cdc42 effector protein that contains an N-terminal inverse-BAR (Bin-amphipysin-Rvs) domain (IRSp53/MIM homology domain [IMD]) and an internal SH3 domain that associates with actin regulatory proteins, including Eps8. We demonstrate that the SH3 domain functions to localize IRSp53 to lamellipodia and that IRSp53 mutated in its SH3 domain fails to induce filopodia. Through SH3 domain-swapping experiments, we show that the related IRTKS SH3 domain is not functional in lamellipodial localization. IRSp53 binds to 14-3-3 after phosphorylation in a region that lies between the CRIB and SH3 domains. This association inhibits binding of the IRSp53 SH3 domain to proteins such as WAVE2 and Eps8 and also prevents Cdc42-GTP interaction. The antagonism is achieved by phosphorylation of two related 14-3-3 binding sites at T340 and T360. In the absence of phosphorylation at these sites, filopodium lifetimes in cells expressing exogenous IRSp53 are extended. Our work does not conform to current views that the inverse-BAR domain or Cdc42 controls IRSp53 localization but provides an alternative model of how IRSp53 is recruited (and released) to carry out its functions at lamellipodia and filopodia. PMID:19933840

  6. The 14-3-3s

    PubMed Central

    Ferl, Robert J; Manak, Michael S; Reyes, Matthew F

    2002-01-01

    Multiple members of the 14-3-3 protein family have been found in all eukaryotes so far investigated, yet they are apparently absent from prokaryotes. The major native forms of 14-3-3s are homo- and hetero-dimers, the biological functions of which are to interact physically with specific client proteins and thereby effect a change in the client. As a result, 14-3-3s are involved in a vast array of processes such as the response to stress, cell-cycle control, and apoptosis, serving as adapters, activators, and repressors. There are currently 133 full-length sequences available in GenBank for this highly conserved protein family. A phylogenetic tree based on the conserved middle core region of the protein sequences shows that, in plants, the 14-3-3 family can be divided into two clearly defined groups. The core region encodes an amphipathic groove that binds the multitude of client proteins that have conserved 14-3-3-recognition sequences. The amino and carboxyl termini of 14-3-3 proteins are much more divergent than the core region and may interact with isoform-specific client proteins and/or confer specialized subcellular and tissue localization. PMID:12184815

  7. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-21

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.

  8. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  9. Alternative application of Tau protein in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis: Improvement for weakly positive 14-3-3 protein in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Jeongmin; Park, Jun Sun; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Lee, Sol Moe; An, SeongSoo A.; Lee, Myung Koo; Ju, Young Ran

    2015-01-01

    The 14-3-3 protein has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). However, weakly positive 14-3-3 leads to false positive results and an incorrect diagnosis. We attempted to use quantitative data for tau protein to provide an accurate diagnosis based on weak 14-3-3 protein. Sixty-two patients with sCJD, including pathologically confirmed, clinically definite, and probable cases, and 89 non-CJD patients were investigated based on a Korean population. Among them, 20 sCJD and 14 non-CJD showed weakly positive 14-3-3. The total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein levels were measured by ELISA, and the p-tau to t-tau ratio (p/t ratio) was calculated. The combined use of the 14-3-3 protein assay, t-tau levels, and p/t ratio improved the specificity of diagnosis compared with the use of the 14-3-3 protein assay alone (47% for 14-3-3 alone; 85.94% for 14-3-3 combined with t-tau; 90.62% for 14-3-3 combined with the p/t ratio). In addition, 18 of 20 sCJD and 12 of 14 non-CJD who were weakly positive for 14-3-3 were positive for the p/t ratio and negative for the p/t ratio, respectively. When used in combination with the 14-3-3 protein, the tau protein is useful as a biomarker for the precise diagnosis of sCJD. PMID:26507666

  10. Alternative application of Tau protein in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis: Improvement for weakly positive 14-3-3 protein in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Jeongmin; Park, Jun Sun; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Lee, Sol Moe; An, SeongSoo A; Lee, Myung Koo; Ju, Young Ran

    2015-10-28

    The 14-3-3 protein has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). However, weakly positive 14-3-3 leads to false positive results and an incorrect diagnosis. We attempted to use quantitative data for tau protein to provide an accurate diagnosis based on weak 14-3-3 protein. Sixty-two patients with sCJD, including pathologically confirmed, clinically definite, and probable cases, and 89 non-CJD patients were investigated based on a Korean population. Among them, 20 sCJD and 14 non-CJD showed weakly positive 14-3-3. The total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein levels were measured by ELISA, and the p-tau to t-tau ratio (p/t ratio) was calculated. The combined use of the 14-3-3 protein assay, t-tau levels, and p/t ratio improved the specificity of diagnosis compared with the use of the 14-3-3 protein assay alone (47% for 14-3-3 alone; 85.94% for 14-3-3 combined with t-tau; 90.62% for 14-3-3 combined with the p/t ratio). In addition, 18 of 20 sCJD and 12 of 14 non-CJD who were weakly positive for 14-3-3 were positive for the p/t ratio and negative for the p/t ratio, respectively. When used in combination with the 14-3-3 protein, the tau protein is useful as a biomarker for the precise diagnosis of sCJD.

  11. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of the Golgi Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Pik1 Is Regulated by 14-3-3 Proteins and Coordinates Golgi Function with Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Demmel, Lars; Beck, Mike; Klose, Christian; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Gloor, Yvonne; Hsu, Peggy P.; Havlis, Jan; Shevchenko, Andrej; Krause, Eberhard; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The yeast phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1p is essential for proliferation, and it controls Golgi homeostasis and transport of newly synthesized proteins from this compartment. At the Golgi, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate recruits multiple cytosolic effectors involved in formation of post-Golgi transport vesicles. A second pool of catalytically active Pik1p localizes to the nucleus. The physiological significance and regulation of this dual localization of the lipid kinase remains unknown. Here, we show that Pik1p binds to the redundant 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1p and Bmh2p. We provide evidence that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Pik1p involves phosphorylation and that 14-3-3 proteins bind Pik1p in the cytoplasm. Nutrient deprivation results in relocation of Pik1p from the Golgi to the nucleus and increases the amount of Pik1p–14-3-3 complex, a process reversed upon restored nutrient supply. These data suggest a role of Pik1p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in coordination of biosynthetic transport from the Golgi with nutrient signaling. PMID:18172025

  12. Protein kinase CK2 interacts at the neuromuscular synapse with Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7 proteins and phosphorylates the latter two.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Dustin; Straubinger, Marion; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2015-09-11

    Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CK2 associates with and phosphorylates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thereby preventing fragmentation of the NMJs (Cheusova, T., Khan, M. A., Schubert, S. W., Gavin, A. C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H. R., and Hashemolhosseini, S. (2006) Genes Dev. 20, 1800-1816). Here, we asked whether CK2 interacts with other proteins involved in processes at the NMJ, which would be consistent with the previous observation that CK2 appears enriched at the NMJ. We identified the following proteins to interact with protein kinase CK2: (a) the α and β subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with weak interaction, (b) dishevelled (Dsh), and (c) another four proteins, Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7, with strong interaction. CK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3γ at serine residue 235 and Dok-7 at several serine residues but does not phosphorylate Rapsyn or Rac1. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Dok-7 mutants aggregated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes with significantly higher frequency than wild type Dok-7. Additionally, we mapped the interacting epitopes of all four binding partners to CK2 and thereby gained insights into the potential role of the CK2/Rapsyn interaction.

  13. Dexamethasone downregulated the expression of CSF 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Bi-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. A previous study demonstrated that the 14-3-3β protein is a neuropathological marker in monitoring neuronal damage in meningitis. Steroids are commonly used in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. However, the mechanism by which steroids act in eosinophilic meningitis is unknown. We hypothesized that the beneficial effect of steroids on eosinophilic meningitis is partially mediated by the down-regulation of 14-3-3β protein expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal study, we determined the dynamic changes of 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis. The 14-3-3β protein in serum and CSF was increased in week 2 and 3 after infections. Dexamethasone administration significantly decreased the amounts of CSF 14-3-3β protein. By developing an in-house ELISA to measure 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the amounts of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF and serum increased over a three-week period after infection. There was a remarkable reduction of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF after 2 weeks of dexamethasone treatment. In conclusion, the administration of corticosteroids in mice with eosinophilic meningitis decreased the expression of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF.

  14. Identification of a 14-3-3 protein from Lentinus edodes that interacts with CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein), and conservation of this interaction in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Yamamoto, T; Ozoe, F; Yano, D; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    2000-01-01

    We previously identified a gene encoding a CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) homologue from the edible Basidiomycete Lentinus edodes. To further discover the cellular functions of the CAP protein, we searched for CAP-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Among the candidates thus obtained, many clones encoded the C-terminal half of an L. edodes 14-3-3 homologue (designated cip3). Southern blot analysis indicated that L. edodes contains only one 14-3-3 gene. Overexpression of the L. edodes 14-3-3 protein in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad24 null cells complemented the loss of endogenous 14-3-3 protein functions in cell morphology and UV sensitivity, suggesting functional conservation of 14-3-3 proteins between L. edodes and S. pombe. The interaction between L. edodes CAP and 14-3-3 protein was restricted to the N-terminal domain of CAP and was confirmed by in vitro co-precipitation. Results from both the two-hybrid system and in vivo co-precipitation experiments showed the conservation of this interaction in S. pombe. The observation that a 14-3-3 protein interacts with the N-terminal portion of CAP but not with full-length CAP in L. edodes and S. pombe suggests that the C-terminal region of CAP may have a negative effect on the interaction between CAP and 14-3-3 proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in regulation of CAP function.

  15. Protein Phosphatase 2A Reactivates FOXO3a through a Dynamic Interplay with 14-3-3 and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amrik; Ye, Min; Bucur, Octavian; Zhu, Shudong; Tanya Santos, Maria; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Wei, Wenyi; Gao, Daming; Hahn, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3a, a key regulator of cell survival, is regulated by reversible phosphorylation and subcellular localization. Although the kinases regulating FOXO3a activity have been characterized, the role of protein phosphatases (PP) in the control of FOXO3a subcellular localization and function is unknown. In this study, we detected a robust interaction between FOXO3a and PP2A. We further demonstrate that 14-3-3, while not impeding the interaction between PP2A and FOXO3a, restrains its activity toward AKT phosphorylation sites T32/S253. Disruption of PP2A function revealed that after AKT inhibition, PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of T32/S253 is required for dissociation of 14-3-3, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activation of FOXO3a. Our findings reveal that distinct phosphatases dephosphorylate conserved AKT motifs within the FOXO family and that PP2A is entwined in a dynamic interplay with AKT and 14-3-3 to directly regulate FOXO3a subcellular localization and transcriptional activation. PMID:20110348

  16. The EFF-1A Cytoplasmic Domain Influences Hypodermal Cell Fusions in C. elegans But Is Not Dependent on 14-3-3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shinn-Thomas, Jessica H.; del Campo, Jacob J.; Wang, Jianjun; Mohler, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of clear recent viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. One of these, EFF-1, is necessary for most cell fusions in Caenorhabditis elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Bioinformatic analysis of the EFF-1A isoform’s predicted cytoplasmic domain (endodomain) previously revealed two motifs that have high probabilities of interacting with 14-3-3 proteins when phosphorylated. Mutation of predicted phosphorylation sites within these motifs caused measurable loss of eff-1 gene function in cell fusion in vivo. Moreover, a human 14-3-3 isoform bound to EFF-1::GFP in vitro. We hypothesized that the two 14-3-3 proteins in C. elegans, PAR-5 and FTT-2, may regulate either localization or fusion-inducing activity of EFF-1. Methodology/Principal Findings Timing of fusion events was slightly but significantly delayed in animals unable to produce full-length EFF-1A. Yet, mutagenesis and live imaging showed that phosphoserines in putative 14-3-3 binding sites are not essential for EFF-1::GFP accumulation at the membrane contact between fusion partner cells. Moreover, although the EFF-1A endodomain was required for normal rates of eff-1-dependent epidermal cell fusions, reduced levels of FTT-2 and PAR-5 did not visibly affect the function of wild-type EFF-1 in the hypodermis. Conclusions/Significance Deletion of the EFF-1A endodomain noticeably affects the timing of hypodermal cell fusions in vivo. However

  17. Transcription variants of the prostate-specific PrLZ gene and their interaction with 14-3-3 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruoxiang; He, Hui; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xu, Jianchun; Marshall, Fray F.; Zhau, Haiyen; Chung, Leland W.K.; Fu, Haian; He, Dalin

    2009-11-20

    We have reported isolation and characterization of the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated PrLZ gene abnormally expressed in prostate cancer. PrLZ is a potential biomarker for prostate cancer and a candidate oncogene promoting cell proliferation and survival in prostate cancer cells. A full delineation of the PrLZ gene and its gene products may provide clues to the mechanisms regulating its expression and function. In this report, we identified three additional exons in the PrLZ gene and recognized five transcript variants from alternative splicing that could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Structural comparison demonstrated that the PrLZ proteins are highly conserved among species. PrLZ contains multiple potential sites for interaction with other proteins. We used mammalian two-hybrid assays to demonstrate that PrLZ isoforms interact with 14-3-3 proteins, and multiple sites in the PrLZ may be involved in the interaction. Alternative splicing may contribute to abnormally enhanced PrLZ levels in prostate cancer, and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins may be a mechanism by which PrLZ promotes cell proliferation and survival during prostate cancer development and progression. This information is a valuable addition to the investigation of the oncogenic properties of the PrLZ gene.

  18. Plant 14-3-3s: omnipotent metabolic phosphopartners?

    PubMed

    Sehnke, P C; Ferl, R J

    2000-10-31

    The accurate regulation of metabolism is crucial to the existence all organisms. The inappropriate activation of metabolic enzymes can waste precious energy; likewise, the failure to activate metabolic enzymes can disrupt homeostasis and lead to suboptimal cellular (and organismic) responses. Plants use several means to control their metabolic proteins, including a two-step process of protein phosphorylation and subsequent binding by phosphospecific binding proteins termed 14-3-3 proteins. Sehnke and Ferl discuss how 14-3-3 proteins regulate the activity of nitrate reductase and the H(+)-ATPase pump in plants, and compare the functions of 14-3-3 proteins in plants and animals.

  19. Spinach 14-3-3 protein interacts with the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and nitrate reductase in response to excess nitrate stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huini; Zhao, Xiuling; Guo, Chuanlong; Chen, Limei; Li, Kunzhi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the function of 14-3-3 protein in response to excess nitrate stress, a 14-3-3 protein, designated as So14-3-3, was isolated from spinach. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that So14-3-3 belongs to non-ε group of 14-3-3 superfamily. Real time-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that So14-3-3 was induced by excess nitrate stress in spinach roots and leaves. After nitrate treatment, the phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase and nitrate reductase (NR) increased and decreased respectively. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) suggested that the interaction of So14-3-3 with the phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase enhanced, but reduced with phosphorylated NR in spinach roots after nitrate treatment. Besides, 5 proteins interacted with So14-3-3 were found by Co-IP and LC-MS/MS analysis. So14-3-3 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced tolerance to nitrate treatment at the germination and young seedlings stage. The transgenic plants showed longer root length, lower malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, protein carbonyl contents, relatively higher soluble sugar and protein contents, than the WT plants after nitrate treatment. The phosphorylation levels of H(+)-ATPase in transgenic plants were higher than the WT plants after nitrate treatment, whereas NR were lower. Additionally, in transgenic plants, the interaction of So14-3-3 with phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase and NR increased and decreased more than the WT plants under nitrate stress, leading to higher H(+)-ATPase and NR activities in transgenic plants. These data suggested that So14-3-3 might be involved in nitrate stress response by interacting with H(+)-ATPase and NR.

  20. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems. PMID:27195976

  1. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M

    2016-05-19

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems.

  2. Deleting the 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 extends life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing stress response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Skinner, Craig; Easlon, Erin; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced stress response has been suggested to promote longevity in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) and conserved nutrient-sensing target of rapamycin (TOR) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways have also been suggested to extend life span by increasing stress response, which protects cells from age-dependent accumulation of oxidative damages. Here we show that deleting the yeast 14-3-3 protein, Bmh1, extends chronological life span (CLS) by activating the stress response. 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved chaperone-like proteins that play important roles in many cellular processes. bmh1Delta-induced heat resistance and CLS extension require the general stress-response transcription factors Msn2, Msn4, and Rim15. The bmh1Delta mutant also displays a decreased reactive oxygen species level and increased heat-shock-element-driven transcription activity. We also show that BMH1 genetically interacts with CR and conserved nutrient-sensing TOR- and PKA-signaling pathways to regulate life span. Interestingly, the level of phosphorylated Ser238 on Bmh1 increases during chronological aging, which is delayed by CR or by reduced TOR activities. In addition, we demonstrate that PKA can directly phosphorylate Ser238 on Bmh1. The status of Bmh1 phosphorylation is therefore likely to play important roles in life-span regulation. Together, our studies suggest that phosphorylated Bmh1 may cause inhibitory effects on downstream longevity factors, including stress-response proteins. Deleting Bmh1 may eliminate the inhibitory effects of Bmh1 on these longevity factors and therefore extends life span.

  3. The Pseudomonas syringae effector HopQ1 promotes bacterial virulence and interacts with tomato 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yadeta, Koste A; Elmore, James Mitch; Coaker, Gitta

    2013-04-01

    A key virulence strategy of bacterial pathogens is the delivery of multiple pathogen effector proteins into host cells during infection. The Hrp outer protein Q (HopQ1) effector from Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pto) strain DC3000 is conserved across multiple bacterial plant pathogens. Here, we investigated the virulence function and host targets of HopQ1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Transgenic tomato lines expressing dexamethasone-inducible HopQ1 exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to virulent Pto DC3000, the Pto ΔhrcC mutant, and decreased expression of a pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered marker gene after bacterial inoculation. HopQ1-interacting proteins were coimmunoprecipitated and identified by mass spectrometry. HopQ1 can associate with multiple tomato 14-3-3 proteins, including TFT1 and TFT5. HopQ1 is phosphorylated in tomato, and four phosphorylated peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. HopQ1 possesses a conserved mode I 14-3-3 binding motif whose serine-51 residue is phosphorylated in tomato and regulates its association with TFT1 and TFT5. Confocal microscopy and fractionation reveal that HopQ1 exhibits nucleocytoplasmic localization, while HopQ1 dephosphorylation mimics exhibit more pronounced nuclear localization. HopQ1 delivered from Pto DC3000 was found to promote bacterial virulence in the tomato genotype Rio Grande 76R. However, the HopQ1(S51A) mutant delivered from Pto DC3000 was unable to promote pathogen virulence. Taken together, our data demonstrate that HopQ1 enhances bacterial virulence and associates with tomato 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner that influences HopQ1's subcellular localization and virulence-promoting activities in planta.

  4. Ablation of the 14-3-3gamma Protein Results in Neuronal Migration Delay and Morphological Defects in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Wachi, Tomoka; Cornell, Brett; Marshall, Courtney; Zhukarev, Vladimir; Baas, Peter W; Toyo-oka, Kazuhito

    2016-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously-expressed and multifunctional proteins. There are seven isoforms in mammals with a high level of homology, suggesting potential functional redundancy. We previously found that two of seven isoforms, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3zeta, are important for brain development, in particular, radial migration of pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. In this work, we analyzed the function of another isoform, the protein 14-3-3gamma, with respect to neuronal migration in the developing cortex. We found that in utero 14-3-3gamma-deficiency resulted in delays in neuronal migration as well as morphological defects. Migrating neurons deficient in 14-3-3gamma displayed a thicker leading process stem, and the basal ends of neurons were not able to reach the boundary between the cortical plate and the marginal zone. Consistent with the results obtained from in utero electroporation, time-lapse live imaging of brain slices revealed that the ablation of the 14-3-3gamma proteins in pyramidal neurons slowed down their migration. In addition, the 14-3-3gamma deficient neurons showed morphological abnormalities, including increased multipolar neurons with a thicker leading processes stem during migration. These results indicate that the 14-3-3gamma proteins play an important role in radial migration by regulating the morphology of migrating neurons in the cerebral cortex. The findings underscore the pathological phenotypes of brain development associated with the disruption of different 14-3-3 proteins and will advance the preclinical data regarding disorders caused by neuronal migration defects.

  5. Involvement of 14-3-3 protein GRF9 in root growth and response under polyethylene glycol-induced water stress.

    PubMed

    He, Yuchi; Wu, Jingjing; Lv, Bing; Li, Jia; Gao, Zhiping; Xu, Weifeng; Baluška, František; Shi, Weiming; Shaw, Pang Chui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate a wide array of targets via direct protein-protein interactions. In this study, the role of a 14-3-3 protein, GRF9, in plant response to water stress was investigated. Arabidopsis wild-type, GRF9-deficient mutant (grf9), and GRF9-overexpressing (OE) plants were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce mild water stress. OE plant showed better whole-plant growth and root growth than the wild type under normal or water stress conditions while the grf9 mutant showed worse growth. In OE plants, GRF9 favours the allocation of shoot carbon to roots. In addition, GRF9 enhanced proton extrusion, mainly in the root elongation zone and root hair zone, and maintained root growth under mild water stress. Grafting among the wild type, OE, and grf9 plants showed that when OE plants were used as the scion and GRF9 was overexpressed in the shoot, it enhanced sucrose transport into the root, and when OE plants were used as rootstock and GRF9 was overexpressed in the root, it caused more release of protons into the root surface under water stress. Taken together, the results suggest that under PEG-induced water stress, GRF9 is involved in allocating more carbon from the shoot to the root and enhancing proton secretion in the root growing zone, and this process is important for root response to mild water stress.

  6. Self-association of the spindle pole body-related intermediate filament protein Fin1p and its phosphorylation-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 proteins in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, Martijn J; Deelder, André M; Molenaar, Chris; Steensma, H Yde; van Heusden, G Paul H

    2003-04-25

    The Fin1 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms filaments between the spindle pole bodies of dividing cells. In the two-hybrid system it binds to 14-3-3 proteins, which are highly conserved proteins involved in many cellular processes and which are capable of binding to more than 120 different proteins. Here, we describe the interaction of the Fin1 protein with the 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1p and Bmh2p in more detail. Purified Fin1p interacts with recombinant yeast 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction is strongly reduced after dephosphorylation of Fin1p. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that Fin1p has a higher affinity for Bmh2p than for Bmh1p (K(D) 289 versus 585 nm). Sequences in both the central and C-terminal part of Fin1p are required for the interaction with Bmh2p in the two-hybrid system. In yeast strains lacking 14-3-3 proteins Fin1 filament formation was observed, indicating that the 14-3-3 proteins are not required for this process. Fin1 also interacts with itself in the two-hybrid system. For this interaction sequences at the C terminus, containing one of two putative coiled-coil regions, are sufficient. Fin1p-Fin1p interactions were demonstrated in vivo by fluorescent resonance energy transfer between cyan fluorescent protein-labeled Fin1p and yellow fluorescent protein-labeled Fin1p.

  7. Discovery of 14-3-3 protein-protein interaction inhibitors that sensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to doxorubicin and the Akt inhibitor GSK690693.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mattia; Vignaroli, Giulia; Cau, Ylenia; Dinić, Jelena; Hill, Richard; Rossi, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Pešić, Milica; Link, Wolfgang; Chiariello, Mario; Ottmann, Christian; Botta, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    14-3-3 is a family of highly conserved adapter proteins that is attracting much interest among medicinal chemists. Small-molecule inhibitors of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are in high demand, both as tools to increase our understanding of 14-3-3 actions in human diseases and as leads to develop innovative therapeutic agents. Herein we present the discovery of novel 14-3-3 PPI inhibitors through a multidisciplinary strategy combining molecular modeling, organic synthesis, image-based high-content analysis of reporter cells, and in vitro assays using cancer cells. Notably, the two most active compounds promoted the translocation of c-Abl and FOXO pro-apoptotic factors into the nucleus and sensitized multidrug-resistant cancer cells to apoptotic inducers such as doxorubicin and the pan-Akt inhibitor GSK690693, thus becoming valuable lead candidates for further optimization. Our results emphasize the possible role of 14-3-3 PPI inhibitors in anticancer combination therapies.

  8. Engagement of beta2 integrins recruits 14-3-3 proteins to c-Cbl in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Melander, Fredrik; Andersson, Tommy; Dib, Karim

    2004-05-14

    We found that engagement of beta2 integrins on human neutrophils triggered both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of c-Cbl. Pretreatment of the neutrophils with the broad range protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF-109203X blocked the serine but not the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl. Moreover, the Src kinase inhibitor PP1 prevented the beta2 integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl but not the simultaneous serine phosphorylation. These results indicate that Src family kinases and PKC can separately modulate the properties of c-Cbl. Indeed, tyrosine kinase-dependent phosphorylation of c-Cbl regulated the ubiquitin ligase activity of that protein, whereas PKC-dependent phosphorylation of c-Cbl had no such effect. Instead, c-Cbl that underwent PKC-induced serine phosphorylation associated with the scaffolding and anti-apoptotic 14-3-3 proteins. Consequently, c-Cbl can independently target proteins for degradation or intracellular localization and may initiate an anti-apoptotic signal in neutrophils.

  9. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1 and Bmh2 directly influence the DNA damage-dependent functions of Rad53

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Takehiko; Petrini, John H. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we mutated autophosphorylation sites in Rad53 based on their conservation with previously identified autophosphorylation sites in the mammalian Rad53 ortholog, Chk2. As with wild-type Rad53, the autophosphorylation mutant, rad53-TA, undergoes Mec1/Tel1-dependent interactions with Rad9 and Dun1 in response to genotoxic stress. Whereas rad53-TA in vitro kinase activity is severely impaired, the rad53-TA strains are not completely deficient for cell-cycle checkpoint functions, indicating that the mutant kinase retains a basal level of function. We describe a genetic interaction among Rad53, Dun1, and the 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1 and Bmh2 and present evidence that 14-3-3 proteins directly facilitate Rad53 function in vivo. The data presented account for the previously observed checkpoint defects associated with 14-3-3 mutants in Saccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 14-3-3 functional interaction appears to modulate Rad53 activity, reminiscent of 14-3-3's effect on human Raf1 kinase and distinct from the indirect mode of regulation by 14-3-3 observed for Chk1 or Cdc25. PMID:17299042

  10. Proteomic identification of 14-3-3ϵ as a linker protein between pERK1/2 inhibition and BIM upregulation in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Ok; Hsu, Anny C; Lee, Heon Goo; Patel, Neel; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Hickernell, Thomas; Lee, Francis Young-In

    2014-06-01

    Despite advancements in multimodality chemotherapy, conventional cytotoxic treatments still remain ineffective for a subset of patients with aggressive metastatic or multifocal osteosarcoma. It has been shown that pERK1/2 inhibition enhances chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and promotes osteosarcoma cell death in vivo and in vitro. One of the pro-apoptotic mechanisms is upregulation of Bim by pERK1/2 inhibitors. To this end, we examined proteomic changes of 143B human osteosarcoma cells with and without treatment of PD98059, pERK1/2 inhibitor. Specifically, we identified 14-3-3ϵ protein as a potential mediator of Bim expression in response to inhibition of pERK1/2. We hypothesized that 14-3-3ϵ mediates upregulation of Bim expression after pERK1/2 inhibition. We examined the expression of Bim after silencing 14-3-3ϵ using siRNA. The 14-3-3ϵ gene silencing resulted in downregulation of Bim expression after PD98059 treatment. These data indicate that 14-3-3ϵ is required for Bim expression and that it has an anti-cancer effect under pERK1/2 inhibition in 143B cells. By playing an essential role upstream of Bim, 14-3-3ϵ may potentially be a coadjuvant factor synergizing the effect of pERK1/2 inhibitors in addition to conventional cytotoxic agents for more effective osteosarcoma treatments.

  11. Organellar proteomics of human platelet dense granules reveals that 14-3-3zeta is a granule protein related to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Laura; Valverde, Federico; Jimenez-Nuñez, Maria D; Ocaña, Esther; Sáez-Benito, Ana; Rodríguez-Martorell, Javier; Bohórquez, Juan-Carlos; Serrano, Aurelio; Ruiz, Felix A

    2007-11-01

    Dense granules, a type of platelet secretory organelle, are known to accumulate high concentrations of small molecules such as calcium, adenine nucleotides, serotonin, pyrophosphate, and polyphosphate. Protein composition of these granules has been obscure, however. In this paper, we use proteomics techniques to describe, for the first time, the soluble protein composition of platelet dense granules. We have isolated highly enriched human platelet dense granule fractions that have been analyzed using two proteomics methods. Using this approach, we have identified 40 proteins, and most of them, such as actin-associated proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and regulatory proteins, have not previously been related to the organelle. We have focused our efforts on studying 14-3-3zeta, a member of a conserved family of proteins that interact with hundreds of different proteins. We have demonstrated that 14-3-3zeta is localized mostly on dense granules and that it is secreted after platelet activation. As some proteins secreted from activated platelets could promote the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, we have studied the expression of 14-3-3zeta in sections of human abdominal aorta of patients with aneurysm, identifying it at the atherosclerotic plaques. Together, our results reveal new details of the composition of the platelet dense granule and suggest an extracellular function for 14-3-3zeta associated with atherosclerosis.

  12. Extract from mistletoe, Viscum album L., reduces Hsp27 and 14-3-3 protein expression and induces apoptosis in C6 rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Uçar, E Ö; Arda, N; Aitken, A

    2012-08-24

    Extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album) are intensively used in complementary medicine, but their mechanisms are not fully understood in most cases, and the effects on metabolism have not been investigated in detail. However, some biologically active natural products are well known to provoke unexpected cellular responses. They reduce overexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in cancer cells. The aim of the current study was to determine whether methanolic extract of V. album, which possesses antioxidant activity, has an effect on expression levels of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 proteins in a C6 glioma cell line. For the first time, the apoptosis-inducing effect of this extract was also determined via caspase-3 activation in the cells. Overexpression of Hsps was induced by heat shock at 42°C for 1 h. Expression levels of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 proteins were determined using Western blot analysis. The apoptosis-inducing effect was also evaluated via caspase-3 activation in C6 glioma cells. Pretreatment of the cells with a nontoxic dose (100 μg/mL) of V. album extract before heat shock significantly reduced expression levels of Hsp27 (73%) and 14-3-3β (124%), 14-3-3γ (23%), and 14-3-3ζ (84%) proteins. Pretreatment with the extract before heat shock increased apoptosis via caspase-3 activation (60%) in C6 glioma cells. This result suggested that the methanolic extract of V. album downregulates expression of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 chaperone proteins and induces apoptosis, which warrants further exploration as a potential bioactive compound for cancer therapy.

  13. Induction of androgen formation in the male by a TAT-VDAC1 fusion peptide blocking 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor and mitochondrial VDAC1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-10-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production.

  14. Meiotic failure in cyclin A1-deficient mouse spermatocytes triggers apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways and 14-3-3 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Sunil K.; Manterola, Marcia; Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Cyclin A1 (Ccna1), a member of the mammalian A type cyclins, is most abundantly expressed in spermatocytes and is essential for spermatogenesis in the mouse. Ccna1- deficient spermatocytes arrest at late meiotic prophase and undergo apoptosis. To further delineate the mechanisms and key factors involved in this process, we have examined changes in expression of genes involved in both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways that trigger apoptosis in the mutant spermatocytes. Our results show that both pathways are involved, and that the factors involved in the intrinsic pathway were expressed earlier than those involved in the extrinsic pathway. We have also begun to identify in vivo Ccna1-interacting proteins, using an unbiased biochemical approach, and identified 14-3-3, a key regulator of apoptosis, as a Ccna1-interacting protein. Expression levels of 14-3-3 proteins remain unchanged between wild type and mutant testes but there were differences in the subcellular distribution. In wild type control, 14-3-3 is detected in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions whereas it is restricted to the cytoplasm in mutant testes. This differential distribution of 14-3-3 may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in Ccna1-deficient spermatocytes. These results provide insight into the apoptotic mechanisms and pathways that are triggered when progression through the meiotic cell cycle is defective in male gametogenesis. PMID:28301569

  15. Induction of Androgen Formation in the Male by a TAT-VDAC1 Fusion Peptide Blocking 14-3-3ɛ Protein Adaptor and Mitochondrial VDAC1 Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production. PMID:24947306

  16. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 protein Bmh2 is required for regulation of the phosphorylation status of Fin1, a novel intermediate filament protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mayordomo, Isabel; Sanz, Pascual

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify proteins that interact with Bmh2, a yeast member of the 14-3-3 protein family, we performed a two-hybrid screening using LexA-Bmh2 as bait. We identified Fin1, a novel intermediate filament protein, as the protein that showed the highest degree of interaction. We also identified components of the vesicular transport machinery such as Gic2 and Msb3, proteins involved in transcriptional regulation such as Mbf1, Gcr2 and Reg2, and a variety of other different proteins (Ppt1, Lre1, Rps0A and Ylr177w). We studied the interaction between Bmh2 and Fin1 in more detail and found that Bmh2 only interacted with phosphorylated forms of Fin1. In addition, we showed that Glc7, the catalytic subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 complex, was also able to interact with Fin1. PMID:11931638

  17. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Uhna; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Link, Andrew J.; Blakely, Randy D.; E-mail: andy.blakely@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-08-05

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH{sub 2}-terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking.

  18. GARNL1, a major RalGAP α subunit in skeletal muscle, regulates insulin-stimulated RalA activation and GLUT4 trafficking via interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoli; Quan, Chao; Xie, Bingxian; Chen, Liang; Zhou, Shuilian; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G; Lu, Shuangshuang; Shirakawa, Ryutaro; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Li, Chaojun; Yang, Zhongzhou; MacKintosh, Carol; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai

    2014-08-01

    Insulin and muscle contraction each stimulate translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle, an important process regulating whole-body glucose homeostasis. RalA mediates insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation; however, it is unclear how this small GTPase is regulated in skeletal muscle in response to insulin. Here, we identified GARNL1/RalGAPα1, a major α subunit of the Ral-GTPase activating protein in skeletal muscle, as a protein whose phosphorylation and binding to the regulatory 14-3-3 proteins is stimulated by insulin and also by muscle contraction. The insulin-stimulated interaction with 14-3-3 involved PKB/Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Thr(735) on GARNL1/RalGAPα1. Knockdown of GARNL1/RalGAPα1 increased, while overexpression of GARNL1/RalGAPα1(Thr735Ala) mutant protein decreased, the RalA activation and the RalA-dependent GLUT4 translocation in response to insulin in muscle cells. These findings show that GARNL1/RalGAPα1 is the missing link that connects the insulin-PKB/Akt signaling pathway with the activation of the RalA small GTPase in muscle cells. GARNL1/RalGAPα1 and its phosphorylation and/or binding to 14-3-3s are critical for GLUT4 trafficking through RalA in muscle cells.

  19. 14-3-3 Proteins SGF14c and SGF14l Play Critical Roles during Soybean Nodulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Osman; Wu, Xia; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Libault, Marc; Neece, David J.; Oh, Man-Ho; Berg, R. Howard; Stacey, Gary; Taylor, Christopher G.; Huber, Steven C.; Clough, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean (Glycine max) genome contains 18 members of the 14-3-3 protein family, but little is known about their association with specific phenotypes. Here, we report that the Glyma0529080 Soybean G-box Factor 14-3-3c (SGF14c) and Glyma08g12220 (SGF14l) genes, encoding 14-3-3 proteins, appear to play essential roles in soybean nodulation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western-immunoblot analyses showed that SGF14c mRNA and protein levels were specifically increased in abundance in nodulated soybean roots 10, 12, 16, and 20 d after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To investigate the role of SGF14c during soybean nodulation, RNA interference was employed to silence SGF14c expression in soybean roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated root transformation. Due to the paleopolyploid nature of soybean, designing a specific RNA interference sequence that exclusively targeted SGF14c was not possible. Therefore, two highly similar paralogs (SGF14c and SGF14l) that have been shown to function as dimers were silenced. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in the SGF14c/SGF14l-silenced roots, and these roots exhibited reduced numbers of mature nodules. In addition, SGF14c/SGF14l-silenced roots contained large numbers of arrested nodule primordia following B. japonicum inoculation. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed that the host cytoplasm and membranes, except the symbiosome membrane, were severely degraded in the failed nodules. Altogether, transcriptomic, proteomic, and cytological data suggest a critical role of one or both of these 14-3-3 proteins in early development stages of soybean nodules. PMID:23060368

  20. The Double-Edged Sword of Prostate Cancer: 14-3-3(sigma)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    are highly conserved (1,2). The 14-3-3 proteins play important roles in many biological activities by directly binding to and altering the...apoptotic cell death. 15. SUBJECT TERMS No subject terms provided. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF...as Adriamycin and mitoxantrone (unpublished observations). 14-3-3σ is a member of a highly conserved family of 14-3-3 proteins that are present in

  1. A dual phosphorylation switch controls 14-3-3-dependent cell surface expression of TASK-1

    PubMed Central

    Kilisch, Markus; Lytovchenko, Olga; Arakel, Eric C.; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwappach, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The transport of the K+ channels TASK-1 and TASK-3 (also known as KCNK3 and KCNK9, respectively) to the cell surface is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 proteins to a trafficking control region at the extreme C-terminus of the channels. The current model proposes that phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 sterically masks a COPI-binding motif. However, the direct effects of phosphorylation on COPI binding and on the binding parameters of 14-3-3 isoforms are still unknown. We find that phosphorylation of the trafficking control region prevents COPI binding even in the absence of 14-3-3, and we present a quantitative analysis of the binding of all human 14-3-3 isoforms to the trafficking control regions of TASK-1 and TASK-3. Surprisingly, the affinities of 14-3-3 proteins for TASK-1 are two orders of magnitude lower than for TASK-3. Furthermore, we find that phosphorylation of a second serine residue in the C-terminus of TASK-1 inhibits 14-3-3 binding. Thus, phosphorylation of the trafficking control region can stimulate or inhibit transport of TASK-1 to the cell surface depending on the target serine residue. Our findings indicate that control of TASK-1 trafficking by COPI, kinases, phosphatases and 14-3-3 proteins is highly dynamic. PMID:26743085

  2. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard; Palacios, Isabel M; St Johnston, Daniel

    2002-11-01

    PAR-1 kinases are required to determine the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis in C. elegans and Drosophila, but little is known about their molecular function. We identified 14-3-3 proteins as Drosophila PAR-1 interactors and show that PAR-1 binds a domain of 14-3-3 distinct from the phosphoserine binding pocket. PAR-1 kinases phosphorylate proteins to generate 14-3-3 binding sites and may therefore directly deliver 14-3-3 to these targets. 14-3-3 mutants display identical phenotypes to par-1 mutants in oocyte determination and the polarization of the A-P axis. Together, these results indicate that PAR-1's function is mediated by the binding of 14-3-3 to its substrates. The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries.

  3. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the zeta isoform of the 14-3-3 protein: homologous sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of frog and human zeta isoforms.

    PubMed

    Miura, I; Nakajima, T; Ohtani, H; Kashiwagi, A; Nakamura, M

    1997-10-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well-conserved eukaryotic proteins that possess diverse biochemical activities such as regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation and activation of protein kinase C. At least 7 subtypes (alpha to theta) of 14-3-3 protein are known, but the zeta subtype of this protein has been cloned only in mammals. We cloned the zeta subtype of 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3 zeta) from the frog, Rana rugosa. The sequence encoded 245 amino acids that share 92% identity with rat and bovine 14-3-3 zeta s, and 92% with human phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 14-3-3 zeta). Northern blot analysis revealed a single band of about 1.8 kb in tadpoles at stage 25. The 14-3-3 zeta mRNA level was high in the brain, lung, spleen and kidney, and low in the heart and testis, as opposed to the mRNA level, which was only faintly detected in the liver, pancreas, ovary and muscle. Furthermore, high similarity in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was observed between frog and human 14-3-3 zeta cDNA. The results suggest that 14-3-3 zeta is highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, and that the homologous sequence in the 3'-UTR of 14-3-3 zeta cDNA may be conserved in frogs and humans.

  4. A Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o participates in stomatal and root hair development and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Mingzhe; Chen, Chao; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Xuedong; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Qingyue; Jia, Bowei; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.

  5. Antioxidant effects of carnitine supplementation on 14-3-3 protein isoforms in the aged rat hippocampus detected using fully automated two-dimensional chip gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, M; Miura, Y; Tsumoto, H; Tanaka, Y; Morisawa, H; Endo, T; Toda, T

    2014-12-01

    We here described the antioxidant effects of carnitine supplementation on 14-3-3 protein isoforms in the aged rat hippocampus detected using the fully automated two-dimensional chip gel electrophoresis system (Auto2D). This system was easy and convenient to use, and the resolution obtained was more sensitive and higher than that of conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). We separated and identified five isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein (beta/alpha, gamma, epsilon, zeta/delta, and eta) using the Auto2D system. We then examined the antioxidant effects of carnitine supplementation on the protein profiles of the cytosolic fraction in the aged rat hippocampus, demonstrating that carnitine supplementation suppressed the oxidation of methionine residues in these isoforms. Since methionine residues are easily oxidized to methionine sulfoxide, the convenient and high-resolution 2-D PAGE system can be available to analyze methionine oxidation avoiding artifactual oxidation. We showed here that the Auto2D system was a very useful tool for studying antioxidant effects through proteomic analysis of protein oxidation.

  6. Modulation of 14-3-3/phosphotarget interaction by physiological concentrations of phosphate and glycerophosphates.

    PubMed

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Chebotareva, Natalia A; Gusev, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms governing selective binding of a huge number of various phosphorylated protein partners to 14-3-3 remain obscure. Phosphate can bind to 14-3-3 and therefore being present at high intracellular concentration, which undergoes significant changes under physiological conditions, phosphate can theoretically regulate interaction of 14-3-3 with phosphorylated targets. In order to check this hypothesis we analyzed effect of phosphate and other natural abundant anions on interaction of 14-3-3 with phosphorylated human small heat shock protein HspB6 (Hsp20) participating in regulation of different intracellular processes. Inorganic phosphate, glycerol-1-phosphate and glycerol-2-phosphate at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-15 mM) significantly destabilized complexes formed by 14-3-3ζ and phosphorylated HspB6 (pHspB6), presumably, via direct interaction with the substrate-binding site of 14-3-3. Phosphate also destabilized complexes between pHspB6 and 14-3-3γ or the monomeric mutant form of 14-3-3ζ. Inorganic sulfate and pyrophosphate were less effective in modulation of 14-3-3 interaction with its target protein. The inhibitory effect of all anions on pHspB6/14-3-3 interaction was concentration-dependent. It is hypothesized that physiological changes in phosphate anions concentration can modulate affinity and specificity of interaction of 14-3-3 with its multiple targets and therefore the actual phosphointeractome of 14-3-3.

  7. ­­Presence and distribution of 14-3-3 proteins in human ocular surface tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shankardas, Jwalitha; Senchyna, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose 14–3-3 is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. At least seven mammalian isoforms (β, ε, γ, η, θ, σ, and ζ) are known. These proteins associate with over 200 different target molecules and activate several downstream signaling cascades involved in the regulation of metabolism, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein trafficking, transcription, stress responses, and malignant transformations. We are interested in the role of these proteins in the mechanisms regulating homeostasis and the pathologies of the human ocular surface. Therefore, our purpose is to determine the expression of the 14–3-3 proteins in the human cornea, the conjunctiva, and the primary cells comprising these tissues. Methods Using immunofluorescence, we determined the expression of 14–3-3 β, ε, γ, η, θ, σ, and ζ in paraffin sections of the human cornea and conjunctiva. Using indirect immunofluorescence and western blot analysis, we also determined the expression of these isoforms in primary corneal epithelial cells, keratocytes, endothelial cells, and primary conjunctival epithelial cells. The expressions of these isoforms in primary epithelial and endothelial cells were compared with the same expressions in several corneal cell lines. Western blot analysis was used to determine the presence of 14–3-3 isoforms in the culture medium from corneal epithelial cells, cell lines, and the tear fluid. Results All the 14–3-3 isoforms were expressed in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia as well as primary epithelial cells and cell lines. Expression of 14–3-3 σ was confined to epithelial cells and was secreted into the culture medium of primary cells and cell lines. We also report for the first time that two of the secreted isoforms, 14–3-3 γ and ζ, are also present in the human tear fluid. Conclusions We have determined that all the mammalian 14–3-3 isoforms are expressed in the human cornea, conjunctiva, and the component cells and that the 14

  8. Unveiling equal importance of two 14-3-3 proteins for morphogenesis, conidiation, stress tolerance and virulence of an insect pathogen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Li, Jin-Gen; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Wang, Juan-Juan; Sun, Wen-Liang; Tian, Chao-Guang; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Two conserved 14-3-3 proteins orthologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bmh1/2 are poorly understood in filamentous fungi. Here we show that Bmh1 and Bmh2 contribute equally to the fundamental biology and physiology of Beauveria bassiana by targeting many sets of proteins/enzymes. Single Bmh deletion caused similar upregulation of another. Excellent knockdown (∼91%) expressions of Bmh1 in ΔBmh2 and Bmh2 in ΔBmh1 resulted in equally more severe multiphenotypic defects than the single deletions, including G2 /M transition, blastospore size, carbon/nitrogen utilization, conidiation, germination and conidial tolerances to high osmolarity, oxidation, cell wall stress, high temperature and UV-B irradiation. All the deletion and deletion/knockdown mutants showed similar defects in blastospore yield and density, hyphal septation and cell size, hyphal responses to most chemical stresses and virulence. All the defects were evident with altered transcripts of phenotype-related genes and well restored by each Bmh complementation. Our Bmh1- and Bmh2-specific transcriptomes generated under osmotic and oxidative stresses revealed up to 6% genes differentially expressed by at least twofold in the fungal genome. Many of those were greatly depressed or co-depressed in ΔBmh1 and ΔBmh2. Our findings provide a thorough insight into the functions and complementary effects of the two 14-3-3 proteins in the filamentous entomopathogen.

  9. Osmoregulation in Lilium pollen grains occurs via modulation of the plasma membrane H+ ATPase activity by 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Pertl, Heidi; Pöckl, Magdalena; Blaschke, Christian; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    To allow successful germination and growth of a pollen tube, mature and dehydrated pollen grains (PGs) take up water and have to adjust their turgor pressure according to the water potential of the surrounding stigma surface. The turgor pressure of PGs of lily (Lilium longiflorum) was measured with a modified pressure probe for simultaneous recordings of turgor pressure and membrane potential to investigate the relation between water and electrogenic ion transport in osmoregulation. Upon hyperosmolar shock, the turgor pressure decreased, and the plasma membrane (PM) hyperpolarizes in parallel, whereas depolarization of the PM was observed with hypoosmolar treatment. An acidification and alkalinization of the external medium was monitored after hyper- and hypoosmotic treatments, respectively, and pH changes were blocked by vanadate, indicating a putative role of the PM H(+) ATPase. Indeed, an increase in PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins and an increase in PM H(+) ATPase activity were detected in PGs challenged by hyperosmolar medium. We therefore suggest that in PGs the PM H(+) ATPase via modulation of its activity by 14-3-3 proteins is involved in the regulation of turgor pressure.

  10. Osmoregulation in Lilium Pollen Grains Occurs via Modulation of the Plasma Membrane H+ ATPase Activity by 14-3-3 Proteins1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pertl, Heidi; Pöckl, Magdalena; Blaschke, Christian; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    To allow successful germination and growth of a pollen tube, mature and dehydrated pollen grains (PGs) take up water and have to adjust their turgor pressure according to the water potential of the surrounding stigma surface. The turgor pressure of PGs of lily (Lilium longiflorum) was measured with a modified pressure probe for simultaneous recordings of turgor pressure and membrane potential to investigate the relation between water and electrogenic ion transport in osmoregulation. Upon hyperosmolar shock, the turgor pressure decreased, and the plasma membrane (PM) hyperpolarizes in parallel, whereas depolarization of the PM was observed with hypoosmolar treatment. An acidification and alkalinization of the external medium was monitored after hyper- and hypoosmotic treatments, respectively, and pH changes were blocked by vanadate, indicating a putative role of the PM H+ ATPase. Indeed, an increase in PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins and an increase in PM H+ ATPase activity were detected in PGs challenged by hyperosmolar medium. We therefore suggest that in PGs the PM H+ ATPase via modulation of its activity by 14-3-3 proteins is involved in the regulation of turgor pressure. PMID:20974894

  11. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tonika; Thomas, Lisa M; White, Clayton A; Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit) and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit) and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung). 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198) or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR). 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA) in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  12. 14-3-3 Mediates Histone Cross-Talk during Transcription Elongation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Caline S.; Kellner, Wendy A.; Takenaka, Naomi; Clemmons, Alexa W.; Corces, Victor G.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of histone proteins modulate the binding of transcription regulators to chromatin. Studies in Drosophila have shown that the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 (H3S10ph) by JIL-1 is required specifically during early transcription elongation. 14-3-3 proteins bind H3 only when phosphorylated, providing mechanistic insights into the role of H3S10ph in transcription. Findings presented here show that 14-3-3 functions downstream of H3S10ph during transcription elongation. 14-3-3 proteins localize to active genes in a JIL-1–dependent manner. In the absence of 14-3-3, levels of actively elongating RNA polymerase II are severely diminished. 14-3-3 proteins interact with Elongator protein 3 (Elp3), an acetyltransferase that functions during transcription elongation. JIL-1 and 14-3-3 are required for Elp3 binding to chromatin, and in the absence of either protein, levels of H3K9 acetylation are significantly reduced. These results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins mediate cross-talk between histone phosphorylation and acetylation at a critical step in transcription elongation. PMID:20532201

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Maitreyi; Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia

    2015-10-01

    Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. Here we show how 14-3-3 protein Rad24 associates with Cdc42 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, limiting Gef1 availability to promote Cdc42 activation. Phosphorylation of Gef1 by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 promotes Gef1 binding to Rad24. Loss of Rad24-Gef1 interaction increases Gef1 protein localization and Cdc42 activation at the cell tips and reduces the anticorrelation of active Cdc42 oscillations. Increased Cdc42 activation promotes precocious bipolar growth activation, bypassing the normal requirement for an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and for microtubule-dependent polarity landmark Tea4-PP1. Further, increased Cdc42 activation by Gef1 widens cell diameter and alters tip curvature, countering the effects of Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Rga4. The respective levels of Gef1 and Rga4 proteins at the membrane define dynamically the growing area at each cell tip. Our findings show how the 14-3-3 protein Rad24 modulates the availability of Cdc42 GEF Gef1, a homologue of mammalian Cdc42 GEF DNMBP/TUBA, to spatially control Cdc42 GTPase activity and promote cell polarization and cell shape emergence.

  14. Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Maitreyi; Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J.; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia

    2015-01-01

    Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. Here we show how 14-3-3 protein Rad24 associates with Cdc42 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, limiting Gef1 availability to promote Cdc42 activation. Phosphorylation of Gef1 by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 promotes Gef1 binding to Rad24. Loss of Rad24–Gef1 interaction increases Gef1 protein localization and Cdc42 activation at the cell tips and reduces the anticorrelation of active Cdc42 oscillations. Increased Cdc42 activation promotes precocious bipolar growth activation, bypassing the normal requirement for an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and for microtubule-dependent polarity landmark Tea4-PP1. Further, increased Cdc42 activation by Gef1 widens cell diameter and alters tip curvature, countering the effects of Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Rga4. The respective levels of Gef1 and Rga4 proteins at the membrane define dynamically the growing area at each cell tip. Our findings show how the 14-3-3 protein Rad24 modulates the availability of Cdc42 GEF Gef1, a homologue of mammalian Cdc42 GEF DNMBP/TUBA, to spatially control Cdc42 GTPase activity and promote cell polarization and cell shape emergence. PMID:26246599

  15. Analysis of 14-3-3 Family Member Function in Xenopus Embryos by Microinjection of Antisense Morpholino Oligos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Jeffrey M. C.; Muslin, Anthony J.

    The 14-3-3 intracellular phosphoserine/threonine-binding proteins are adapter molecules that regulate signal transduction, cell cycle, nutrient sensing, apoptotic, and cytoskeletal pathways. There are seven 14-3-3 family members, encoded by separate genes, in vertebrate organisms. To evaluate the role of individual 14-3-3 proteins in vertebrate embryonic development, we utilized an antisense morpholino oligo microinjection technique in Xenopus laevis embryos. By use of this method, we showed that embryos lacking specific 14-3-3 proteins displayed unique phenotypic abnormalities. Specifically, embryos lacking 14-3-3 τ exhibited gastrulation and axial patterning defects, but embryos lacking 14-3-3 γ exhibited eye defects without other abnormalities, and embryos lacking 14-3-3 ζ appeared completely normal. These and other results demonstrate the power and specificity of the morpholino antisense oligo microinjection technique.

  16. 14-3-3ζ Interacts with Stat3 and Regulates Its Constitutive Activation in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3ζ, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3ζ interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3ζ interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3ζ interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3ζ/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3ζ protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3ζ is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3ζ binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3ζ serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

  17. The Arabidopsis SERK1 protein interacts with the AAA-ATPase AtCDC48, the 14-3-3 protein GF14lambda and the PP2C phosphatase KAPP.

    PubMed

    Rienties, Ingrid M; Vink, Josefien; Borst, Jan Willem; Russinova, Eugenia; de Vries, Sacco C

    2005-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are important components of plant signal transduction. The Arabidopsis thaliana somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 (AtSERK1) is an LRR-RLK proposed to participate in a signal transduction cascade involved in embryo development. By yeast two-hybrid screening we identified AtCDC48, a homologue of the mammalian AAA-ATPase p97 and GF14lambda, a member of the Arabidopsis family of 14-3-3 proteins as AtSERK1 interactors. In vitro, the AtSERK1 kinase domain is able to transphosphorylate and bind both AtCDC48 and GF14lambda. In yeast, AtCDC48 interacts with GF14lambda and with the PP2C phosphatase KAPP. In plant protoplasts AtSERK1 interacts with GF14lambda.

  18. A novel interaction partner for the C-terminus of Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane H+-ATPase (AHA1 isoform): site and mechanism of action on H+-ATPase activity differ from those of 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Piero; Valera, Marco; Albumi, Cristina; Bonza, Maria Cristina; Giacometti, Sonia; Ravera, Giuseppe; Murgia, Irene; Soave, Carlo; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2002-08-01

    Using the two-hybrid technique we identified a novel protein whose N-terminal 88 amino acids (aa) interact with the C-terminal regulatory domain of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase from Arabidopsis thaliana (aa 847-949 of isoform AHA1). The corresponding gene has been named Ppi1 for Proton pump interactor 1. The encoded protein is 612 aa long and rich in charged and polar residues, except for the extreme C-terminus, where it presents a hydrophobic stretch of 24 aa. Several genes in the A. thaliana genome and many ESTs from different plant species share significant similarity (50-70% at the aa level over stretches of 200-600 aa) to Ppi1. The PPI1 N-terminus, expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein with either GST or a His-tag, binds the PM H+-ATPase in overlay experiments. The same fusion proteins and the entire coding region fused to GST stimulate H+-ATPase activity. The effect of the His-tagged peptide is synergistic with that of fusicoccin (FC) and of tryptic removal of a C-terminal 10 kDa fragment. The His-tagged peptide binds also the trypsinised H+-ATPase. Altogether these results indicate that PPI1 N-terminus is able to modulate the PM H+-ATPase activity by binding to a site different from the 14-3-3 binding site and is located upstream of the trypsin cleavage site.

  19. Two cytosolic puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase isozymes in chicken brain: molecular homology to brain-specific 14-3-3 protein.

    PubMed

    Hui, K S; Saito, M; Hui, M; Saito, M; Lajtha, A; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1993-05-01

    Two puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase isozymes (PSA-I and PSA-II) were isolated from chicken brain cytosol by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by column chromatography on Cellex D and AH-Sepharose 4B and separated on Bio-Gel HTP. Each was purified to homogeneity on Sephadex G-200, Arg-Tyr-AH-Sepharose, Bio-Gel HTP, and preparative gel electrophoresis. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PSA-I appeared to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 105 kDa, and PSA-II to be composed of two subunits of 25 kDa and 100 kDa. The tryptic maps of 100 kDa and 105 kDa protein in HPLC are different in peak frequency, height, and composition. The internal peptide sequence of PSA-I has a considerable homology to PSA-II. Both isozymes have repeated copies of common peptide segments and have no significant sequence homology to other peptidases and proteinases. These thio and Co(2+)-activated isozymes have a neutral pH optimum and are inhibited by puromycin and bestatin. PSA-II is more sensitive to trypsin and heat treatment, has a lower Km to Met-enkephalin, and is more active on Arg BNA and Pro BNA. Our results suggest that PSA-I and PSA-II derive from translation of two RNAs of a new gene family related to the brain-specific 14-3-3 protein.

  20. Development of a dot blot assay with antibodies to recombinant “core” 14-3-3 protein: Evaluation of its usefulness in diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sarada; Mahadevan, Anita; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Shankar, Susarla Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) requires demonstration of infective prion protein (PrPSc) in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry or immunoblot, making antemortem diagnosis of CJD difficult. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cases of dementia, with clinical correlation, as a useful diagnostic marker for CJD, obviating the need for brain biopsy. This facility is currently available in only a few specialized centers in the West and no commercial kit is available for clinical diagnostic use in India. Hence the objective of this study was to develop an in-house sensitive assay for quantitation of 14-3-3 protein and to evaluate its diagnostic potential to detect 14-3-3 proteins in CSF as a biomarker in suspected cases of CJD. Materials and Methods: A minigene expressing the “core” 14-3-3 protein was synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the recombinant protein was produced by employing a bacterial expression system. Polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit against the purified recombinant protein were used for developing a dot blot assay with avidin-biotin technology for signal amplification and quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF. Results: The results in the present study suggest the diagnostic potential of the dot blot method with about 10-fold difference (P< 0.001) in the CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein between the CJD cases (N= 50) and disease controls (N= 70). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the results suggested an optimal cutoff value of 2 ng/mL. Conclusions: We have developed an indigenous, economical, and sensitive dot blot method for the quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF. PMID:27293331

  1. Transgenic Overexpression of 14-3-3 Zeta Protects Hippocampus against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Status Epilepticus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Gary P.; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.; McKiernan, Ross C.; Engel, Tobias; Tzivion, Guri; Henshall, David C.

    2013-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ) isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress. PMID:23359526

  2. The 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 functions in the spindle position checkpoint by breaking Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Micoogullari, Yagmur; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Palani, Saravanan; Pereira, Gislene

    2014-07-15

    In addition to their well-known role in microtubule organization, centrosomes function as signaling platforms and regulate cell cycle events. An important example of such a function is the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) of budding yeast. SPOC is a surveillance mechanism that ensures alignment of the mitotic spindle along the cell polarity axis. Upon spindle misalignment, phosphorylation of the SPOC component Bfa1 by Kin4 kinase engages the SPOC by changing the centrosome localization of Bfa1 from asymmetric (one centrosome) to symmetric (both centrosomes). Here we show that, unexpectedly, Kin4 alone is unable to break Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes. Instead, phosphorylation of Bfa1 by Kin4 creates a docking site on Bfa1 for the 14-3-3 family protein Bmh1, which in turn weakens Bfa1-centrosome association and promotes symmetric Bfa1 localization. Consistently, BMH1-null cells are SPOC deficient. Our work thus identifies Bmh1 as a new SPOC component and refines the molecular mechanism that breaks Bfa1 centrosome asymmetry upon SPOC activation.

  3. The 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 functions in the spindle position checkpoint by breaking Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Micoogullari, Yagmur; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Palani, Saravanan; Pereira, Gislene

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their well-known role in microtubule organization, centrosomes function as signaling platforms and regulate cell cycle events. An important example of such a function is the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) of budding yeast. SPOC is a surveillance mechanism that ensures alignment of the mitotic spindle along the cell polarity axis. Upon spindle misalignment, phosphorylation of the SPOC component Bfa1 by Kin4 kinase engages the SPOC by changing the centrosome localization of Bfa1 from asymmetric (one centrosome) to symmetric (both centrosomes). Here we show that, unexpectedly, Kin4 alone is unable to break Bfa1 asymmetry at yeast centrosomes. Instead, phosphorylation of Bfa1 by Kin4 creates a docking site on Bfa1 for the 14-3-3 family protein Bmh1, which in turn weakens Bfa1–centrosome association and promotes symmetric Bfa1 localization. Consistently, BMH1-null cells are SPOC deficient. Our work thus identifies Bmh1 as a new SPOC component and refines the molecular mechanism that breaks Bfa1 centrosome asymmetry upon SPOC activation. PMID:24850890

  4. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  5. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Nefla, Meriam; Sudre, Laure; Denat, Guillaume; Priam, Sabrina; Andre-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Berenbaum, Francis; Jacques, Claire

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N, APN) in the chondrocyte response to 14-3-3ε. After identifying CD13 in chondrocytes, we knocked down CD13 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and blocking antibodies in articular chondrocytes. 14-3-3ε-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 was significantly reduced with CD13 knockdown, which suggests that it has a crucial role in 14-3-3ε signal transduction. Aminopeptidase N activity was identified in chondrocytes, but the activity was unchanged after stimulation with 14-3-3ε. Direct interaction between CD13 and 14-3-3ε was then demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Using labeled 14-3-3ε, we also found that 14-3-3ε binds to the surface of chondrocytes in a manner that is dependent on CD13. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ε might directly bind to CD13, which transmits its signal in chondrocytes to induce a catabolic phenotype similar to that observed in osteoarthritis. The 14-3-3ε–CD13 interaction could be a new therapeutic target in osteoarthritis. PMID:26208633

  6. 14-3-3 antagonizes Ras-mediated Raf-1 recruitment to the plasma membrane to maintain signaling fidelity.

    PubMed

    Light, Yvonne; Paterson, Hugh; Marais, Richard

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the role that S259 phosphorylation, S621 phosphorylation, and 14-3-3 binding play in regulating Raf-1 activity. We show that 14-3-3 binding, rather than Raf-1 phosphorylation, is required for the correct regulation of kinase activity. Phosphorylation of S621 is not required for activity, but 14-3-3 binding is essential. When 14-3-3 binding to conserved region 2 (CR2) was disrupted, Raf-1 basal kinase activity was elevated and it could be further activated by (V12,G37)Ras, (V23)TC21, and (V38)R-Ras. Disruption of 14-3-3 binding at CR2 did not recover binding of Raf-1 to (V12,G37)Ras but allowed more efficient recruitment of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane and stimulated its phosphorylation on S338. Finally, (V12)Ras, but not (V12,G37)Ras, displaced 14-3-3 from full-length Raf-1 and the Raf-1 bound to Ras. GTP was still phosphorylated on S259. Our data suggest that stable association of Raf-1 with the plasma membrane requires Ras-mediated displacement of 14-3-3 from CR2. Small G proteins that cannot displace 14-3-3 fail to recruit Raf-1 to the membrane efficiently and so fail to stimulate kinase activity.

  7. 14-3-3-dependent inhibition of the deubiquitinating activity of UBPY and its cancellation in the M phase.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Emi; Kitamura, Naomi; Komada, Masayuki

    2007-10-01

    The deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY, also known as USP8, regulates cargo sorting and membrane traffic at early endosomes. Here we demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of the UBPY catalytic activity. We identified 14-3-3 epsilon, gamma, and zeta as UBPY-binding proteins using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The 14-3-3 binding of UBPY was inhibited by mutating the consensus 14-3-3-binding motif RSYS(680)SP, by phosphatase treatment, and by competition with the Ser(680)-phosphorylated RSYS(680)SP peptide. Metabolic labeling with [(32)P]orthophosphate and immunoblotting using antibody against the phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding motif showed that Ser(680) is a major phosphorylation site in UBPY. These results indicated that 14-3-3s bind to the region surrounding Ser(680) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The mutation at Ser(680) led to enhanced ubiquitin isopeptidase activity of UBPY toward poly-ubiquitin chains and a cellular substrate, epidermal growth factor receptor, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, addition of 14-3-3epsilon inhibited the UBPY activity in vitro. Finally, UBPY was dephosphorylated at Ser(680) and dissociated from 14-3-3s in the M phase, resulting in enhanced activity of UBPY during cell division. We conclude that UBPY is catalytically inhibited in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by 14-3-3s during the interphase, and this regulation is cancelled in the M phase.

  8. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  9. Regulation of the Yeast Hxt6 Hexose Transporter by the Rod1 α-Arrestin, the Snf1 Protein Kinase, and the Bmh2 14-3-3 Protein.

    PubMed

    Llopis-Torregrosa, Vicent; Ferri-Blázquez, Alba; Adam-Artigues, Anna; Deffontaines, Emilie; van Heusden, G Paul H; Yenush, Lynne

    2016-07-15

    Cell viability requires adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in this process, because it provides a mechanism to remove transport proteins from the membrane. Arrestin-related trafficking proteins are important regulators of the endocytic pathway in yeast, facilitating selective ubiquitylation of target proteins by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rsp5. Specifically, Rod1 (Art4) has been reported to regulate the endocytosis of both the Hxt1, Hxt3, and Hxt6 glucose transporters and the Jen1 lactate transporter. Also, the AMP kinase homologue, Snf1, and 14-3-3 proteins have been shown to regulate Jen1 via Rod1. Here, we further characterized the role of Rod1, Snf1, and 14-3-3 in the signal transduction route involved in the endocytic regulation of the Hxt6 high affinity glucose transporter by showing that Snf1 interacts specifically with Rod1 and Rog3 (Art7), that the interaction between the Bmh2 and several arrestin-related trafficking proteins may be modulated by carbon source, and that both the 14-3-3 protein Bmh2 and the Snf1 regulatory domain interact with the arrestin-like domain containing the N-terminal half of Rod1 (amino acids 1-395). Finally, using both co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we demonstrated the interaction of Rod1 with Hxt6 and showed that the localization of the Rod1-Hxt6 complex at the plasma membrane is affected by carbon source and is reduced upon overexpression of SNF1 and BMH2.

  10. PRMT5 C-terminal Phosphorylation Modulates a 14-3-3/PDZ Interaction Switch.

    PubMed

    Espejo, Alexsandra B; Gao, Guozhen; Black, Karynne; Gayatri, Sitaram; Veland, Nicolas; Kim, Jeesun; Chen, Taiping; Sudol, Marius; Walker, Cheryl; Bedford, Mark T

    2017-02-10

    PRMT5 is the primary enzyme responsible for the deposition of the symmetric dimethylarginine in mammalian cells. In an effort to understand how PRMT5 is regulated, we identified a threonine phosphorylation site within a C-terminal tail motif, which is targeted by the Akt/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases. While investigating the function of this posttranslational modification, we serendipitously discovered that its free C-terminal tail binds PDZ domains (when unphosphorylated) and 14-3-3 proteins (when phosphorylated). In essence, a phosphorylation event within the last few residues of the C-terminal tail generates a posttranslational modification-dependent PDZ/14-3-3 interaction "switch." The C-terminal motif of PRMT5 is required for plasma membrane association, and loss of this switching capacity is not compatible with life. This signaling phenomenon was recently reported for the HPV E6 oncoprotein but has not yet been observed for mammalian proteins. To investigate the prevalence of PDZ/14-3-3 switching in signal transduction, we built a protein domain microarray that harbors PDZ domains and 14-3-3 proteins. We have used this microarray to interrogate the C-terminal tails of a small group of candidate proteins and identified ERBB4, PGHS2, and IRK1 (as well as E6 and PRMT5) as conforming to this signaling mode, suggesting that PDZ/14-3-3 switching may be a broad biological paradigm.

  11. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445-6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ.

  12. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445–6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ. PMID:27548710

  13. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD. PMID:25996401

  14. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  15. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Kim, Sun-Am; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Yu Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform. PMID:27556493

  16. The Acid-sensitive, Anesthetic-activated Potassium Leak Channel, KCNK3, Is Regulated by 14-3-3β-dependent, Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated Endocytic Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Luke; Lvov, Anatoli; Orthodoxou, Demetra; Rittenhouse, Ann R.; Kobertz, William R.; Melikian, Haley E.

    2012-01-01

    The acid-sensitive neuronal potassium leak channel, KCNK3, is vital for setting the resting membrane potential and is the primary target for volatile anesthetics. Recent reports demonstrate that KCNK3 activity is down-regulated by PKC; however, the mechanisms responsible for PKC-induced KCNK3 down-regulation are undefined. Here, we report that endocytic trafficking dynamically regulates KCNK3 activity. Phorbol esters and Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation acutely decreased both native and recombinant KCNK3 currents with concomitant KCNK3 surface losses in cerebellar granule neurons and cell lines. PKC-mediated KCNK3 internalization required the presence of both 14-3-3β and a novel potassium channel endocytic motif, because depleting either 14-3-3β protein levels or ablating the endocytic motif completely abrogated PKC-regulated KCNK3 trafficking. These results demonstrate that neuronal potassium leak channels are not static membrane residents but are subject to 14-3-3β-dependent regulated trafficking, providing a straightforward mechanism to modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity by Group I mGluRs. PMID:22846993

  17. 14-3-3 Protects against stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, C; Portt, L; Khoury, C; Sheibani, S; Norman, G; Ebner, P; Eid, R; Vali, H; Mandato, C A; Madeo, F; Greenwood, M T

    2012-01-01

    Expression of human Bax, a cardinal regulator of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, causes death in yeast. We screened a human cDNA library for suppressors of Bax-mediated yeast death and identified human 14-3-3β/α, a protein whose paralogs have numerous chaperone-like functions. Here, we show that, yeast cells expressing human 14-3-3β/α are able to complement deletion of the endogenous yeast 14-3-3 and confer resistance to a variety of different stresses including cadmium and cycloheximide. The expression of 14-3-3β/α also conferred resistance to death induced by the target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin and by starvation for the amino acid leucine, conditions that induce autophagy. Cell death in response to these autophagic stimuli was also observed in the macroautophagic-deficient atg1Δ and atg7Δ mutants. Furthermore, 14-3-3β/α retained its ability to protect against the autophagic stimuli in these autophagic-deficient mutants arguing against so called ‘autophagic death'. In line, analysis of cell death markers including the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity and cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine indicated that 14-3-3β/α serves as a specific inhibitor of apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrate functional conservation of these phenotypes using the yeast homolog of 14-3-3: Bmh1. In sum, cell death in response to multiple stresses can be counteracted by 14-3-3 proteins. PMID:22785534

  18. Differences in Spatial Expression between 14-3-3 Isoforms in Germinating Barley Embryos1

    PubMed Central

    Testerink, Christa; van der Meulen, René M.; Oppedijk, Berry J.; de Boer, Albertus H.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, Sjoukje; Kijne, Jan W.; Wang, Mei

    1999-01-01

    The family of 14-3-3 proteins is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and has been shown to exert an array of functions. We were interested in the possible role of 14-3-3 proteins in seed germination. Therefore, we studied the expression of 14-3-3 mRNA and protein in barley (Hordeum distichum L.) embryos during germination. With the use of specific cDNA probes and antibodies, we could detect individual expression of three 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3A, 14-3-3B, and 14-3-3C. Each homolog was found to be expressed in barley embryos. Whereas protein levels of all three isoforms were constant during germination, mRNA expression was found to be induced upon imbibition of the grains. The induction of 14-3-3A gene expression during germination was different from that of 14-3-3B and 14-3-3C. In situ immunolocalization analysis showed similar spatial expression for 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B, while 14-3-3C expression was markedly different. Whereas 14-3-3A and 14-3-3B were expressed throughout the embryo, 14-3-3C expression was tissue specific, with the strongest expression observed in the scutellum and the L2 layer of the shoot apical meristem. These results show that 14-3-3 homologs are differently regulated in barley embryos, and provide a first step in acquiring more knowledge about the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the germination process. PMID:10482663

  19. 14-3-3-dependent inhibition of the deubiquitinating activity of UBPY and its cancellation in the M phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Emi; Kitamura, Naomi; Komada, Masayuki

    2007-10-01

    The deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY, also known as USP8, regulates cargo sorting and membrane traffic at early endosomes. Here we demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of the UBPY catalytic activity. We identified 14-3-3 {epsilon}, {gamma}, and {zeta} as UBPY-binding proteins using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The 14-3-3 binding of UBPY was inhibited by mutating the consensus 14-3-3-binding motif RSYS{sup 680}SP, by phosphatase treatment, and by competition with the Ser{sup 680}-phosphorylated RSYS{sup 680}SP peptide. Metabolic labeling with [{sup 32}P]orthophosphate and immunoblotting using antibody against the phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding motif showed that Ser{sup 680} is a major phosphorylation site in UBPY. These results indicated that 14-3-3s bind to the region surrounding Ser{sup 680} in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The mutation at Ser{sup 680} led to enhanced ubiquitin isopeptidase activity of UBPY toward poly-ubiquitin chains and a cellular substrate, epidermal growth factor receptor, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, addition of 14-3-3{epsilon} inhibited the UBPY activity in vitro. Finally, UBPY was dephosphorylated at Ser{sup 680} and dissociated from 14-3-3s in the M phase, resulting in enhanced activity of UBPY during cell division. We conclude that UBPY is catalytically inhibited in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by 14-3-3s during the interphase, and this regulation is cancelled in the M phase.

  20. Tomato 14-3-3 protein 7 (TFT7) positively regulates immunity-associated programmed cell death by enhancing accumulation and signaling ability of MAPKKKalpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is triggered when Pto, a serine-threonine protein kinase recognizes either the AvrPto or AvrPtoB effector from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. This PCD requires MAPKKKalpha as a positive regulator in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. To examine how PCD-eliciting activi...

  1. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells.

  2. Royal Jelly-Mediated Prolongevity and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Possibly Modulated by the Interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cook, Lauren F; Grasso, Lindsay M; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that royal jelly (RJ) and its related substances may have antiaging properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain elusive. We report that the effects of RJ and enzyme-treated RJ (eRJ) on life span and health span in Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) are modulated by the sophisticated interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 proteins. Dietary supplementation with RJ or eRJ increased C. elegans life span in a dose-dependent manner. The RJ and eRJ consumption increased the tolerance of C elegans to oxidative stress, ultraviolet irradiation, and heat shock stress. Our genetic analyses showed that RJ/eRJ-mediated life-span extension requires insulin/IGF-1 signaling and the activities of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and FTT-2, a 14-3-3 protein. Earlier studies reported that DAF-16/FOXO, SIR-2.1/SIRT1, FTT-2, and HCF-1 have extensive interplays in worms and mammals. Our present findings suggest that RJ/eRJ-mediated promotion of longevity and stress resistance in C elegans is dependent on these conserved interplays. From an evolutionary point of view, this study not only provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of RJ's action on health span promotion in C elegans, but also has imperative implications in using RJ/eRJ as nutraceuticals to delay aging and age-related disorders.

  3. Human 14-3-3 Paralogs Differences Uncovered by Cross-Talk of Phosphorylation and Lysine Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Marina; Bustos, Diego M.

    2013-01-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family interacts with more than 700 different proteins in mammals, in part as a result of its specific phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding activity. Upon binding to 14-3-3, the stability, subcellular localization and/or catalytic activity of the ligands are modified. Seven paralogs are strictly conserved in mammalian species. Although initially thought as redundant, the number of studies showing specialization is growing. We created a protein-protein interaction network for 14-3-3, kinases and their substrates signaling in human cells. We included information of phosphorylation, acetylation and other PTM sites, obtaining a complete representation of the 14-3-3 binding partners and their modifications. Using a computational system approach we found that networks of each 14-3-3 isoform are statistically different. It was remarkable to find that Tyr was the most phosphorylatable amino acid in domains of 14-3-3 epsilon partners. This, together with the over-representation of SH3 and Tyr_Kinase domains, suggest that epsilon could be involved in growth factors receptors signaling pathways particularly. We also found that within zeta’s network, the number of acetylated partners (and the number of modify lysines) is significantly higher compared with each of the other isoforms. Our results imply previously unreported hidden differences of the 14-3-3 isoforms interaction networks. The phosphoproteome and lysine acetylome within each network revealed post-transcriptional regulation intertwining phosphorylation and lysine acetylation. A global understanding of these networks will contribute to predict what could occur when regulatory circuits become dysfunctional or are modified in response to external stimuli. PMID:23418452

  4. Impairment of GABAB receptor dimer by endogenous 14-3-3ζ in chronic pain conditions

    PubMed Central

    Laffray, Sophie; Bouali-Benazzouz, Rabia; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Favereaux, Alexandre; Jiang, Yang; Holm, Tina; Spriet, Corentin; Desbarats, Pascal; Fossat, Pascal; Le Feuvre, Yves; Decossas, Marion; Héliot, Laurent; Langel, Ulo; Nagy, Frédéric; Landry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system, the inhibitory GABAB receptor is the archetype of heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, the regulation of GABAB dimerization, and more generally of GPCR oligomerization, remains largely unknown. We propose a novel mechanism for inhibition of GPCR activity through de-dimerization in pathological conditions. We show here that 14-3-3ζ, a GABAB1-binding protein, dissociates the GABAB heterodimer, resulting in the impairment of GABAB signalling in spinal neurons. In the dorsal spinal cord of neuropathic rats, 14-3-3ζ is overexpressed and weakens GABAB inhibition. Using anti-14-3-3ζ siRNA or competing peptides disrupts 14-3-3ζ/GABAB1 interaction and restores functional GABAB heterodimers in the dorsal horn. Importantly, both strategies greatly enhance the anti-nociceptive effect of intrathecal Baclofen in neuropathic rats. Taken together, our data provide the first example of endogenous regulation of a GPCR oligomeric state and demonstrate its functional impact on the pathophysiological process of neuropathic pain sensitization. PMID:22692127

  5. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  6. Rac1 activation driven by 14-3-3ζ dimerization promotes prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Abdalla, Maha; Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3σ is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3ζ, β and γ isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3ζ remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3ζ in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3ζ significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3ζ (DM-14-3-3) inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3ζ or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3ζ or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3ζ enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.

  7. Cannabinoid receptor activation inhibits cell cycle progression by modulating 14-3-3β.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye-Won; Park, Inae; Ghil, Sungho

    2014-09-01

    Cannabinoids display various pharmacological activities, including tumor regression, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen a mouse brain cDNA library for proteins interacting with type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). Using the intracellular loop 3 of CB1R as bait, we identified 14-3-3β as an interacting partner of CB1R and confirmed their interaction using affinity-binding assays. 14-3-3β has been reported to induce a cell cycle delay at the G2/M phase. We tested the effects of cannabinoids on cell cycle progression in HeLa cells synchronized using a double-thymidine block-and-release protocol and found an increase in the population of G2/M phase cells. We further found that CB1R activation augmented the interaction of 14-3-3β with Wee1 and Cdc25B, and promoted phosphorylation of Cdc2 at Tyr-15. These results suggest that cannabinoids induce cell cycle delay at the G2/M phase by activating 14-3-3β.

  8. 14-3-3 inhibition promotes dopaminergic neuron loss and 14-3-3θ overexpression promotes recovery in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huiping; Underwood, Rachel; Lavalley, Nicholas; Yacoubian, Talene A.

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3s are a highly conserved protein family that plays important roles in cell survival and interact with several proteins implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Disruption of 14-3-3 expression and function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. We have previously shown that increasing the expression level of 14-3-3θ is protective against rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in cultured cells. Here, we extend our studies to examine the effects of 14-3-3s in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We first investigated whether targeted nigral 14-3-3θ overexpression mediated by adeno-associated virus offers neuroprotection against MPTP-induced toxicity. 14-3-3θ overexpression using this approach did not reduce MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra nor the depletion of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum at three weeks after MPTP administration. However, 14-3-3θ-overexpressing mice showed a later partial recovery in striatal dopamine metabolites at eight weeks after MPTP administration compared to controls, suggesting that 14-3-3θ overexpression may help in the functional recovery of those dopaminergic neurons that survive. Conversely, we investigated whether disrupting 14-3-3 function in transgenic mice expressing the pan 14-3-3 inhibitor difopein exacerbates MPTP-induced toxicity. We found that difopein expression promoted dopaminergic cell loss in response to MPTP treatment. Together, these findings suggest that 14-3-3θ overexpression promotes recovery of dopamine metabolites whereas 14-3-3 inhibition exacerbates neuron loss in the MPTP mouse model of PD. PMID:26314634

  9. 14-3-3 phosphoprotein interaction networks – does isoform diversity present functional interaction specification?

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Denison, Fiona C.; Schultz, Eric R.; Zupanska, Agata K.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins have emerged as major phosphoprotein interaction proteins and thereby constitute a key node in the Arabidopsis Interactome Map, a node through which a large number of important signals pass. Throughout their history of discovery and description, the 14-3-3s have been described as protein families and there has been some evidence that the different 14-3-3 family members within any organism might carry isoform-specific functions. However, there has also been evidence for redundancy of 14-3-3 function, suggesting that the perceived 14-3-3 diversity may be the accumulation of neutral mutations over evolutionary time and as some 14-3-3 genes develop tissue or organ-specific expression. This situation has led to a currently unresolved question – does 14-3-3 isoform sequence diversity indicate functional diversity at the biochemical or cellular level? We discuss here some of the key observations on both sides of the resulting debate, and present a set of contrastable observations to address the theory functional diversity does exist among 14-3-3 isoforms. The resulting model suggests strongly that there are indeed functional specificities in the 14-3-3s of Arabidopsis. The model further suggests that 14-3-3 diversity and specificity should enter into the discussion of 14-3-3 roles in signal transduction and be directly approached in 14-3-3 experimentation. It is hoped that future studies involving 14-3-3s will continue to address specificity in experimental design and analysis. PMID:22934100

  10. On the role of residue phosphorylation in 14-3-3 partners: AANAT as a case study.

    PubMed

    Masone, Diego; Uhart, Marina; Bustos, Diego M

    2017-04-07

    Twenty years ago, a novel concept in protein structural biology was discovered: the intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). These regions remain largely unstructured under native conditions and the more are studied, more properties are attributed to them. Possibly, one of the most important is their ability to conform a new type of protein-protein interaction. Besides the classical domain-to-domain interactions, IDRs follow a 'fly-casting' model including 'induced folding'. Unfortunately, it is only possible to experimentally explore initial and final states. However, the complete movie of conformational changes of protein regions and their characterization can be addressed by in silico experiments. Here, we simulate the binding of two proteins to describe how the phosphorylation of a single residue modulates the entire process. 14-3-3 protein family is considered a master regulator of phosphorylated proteins and from a modern point-of-view, protein phosphorylation is a three component system, with writers (kinases), erasers (phosphatases) and readers. This later biological role is attributed to the 14-3-3 protein family. Our molecular dynamics results show that phosphorylation of the key residue Thr31 in a partner of 14-3-3, the aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase, releases the fly-casting mechanism during binding. On the other hand, the non-phosphorylation of the same residue traps the proteins, systematically and repeatedly driving the simulations into wrong protein-protein conformations.

  11. On the role of residue phosphorylation in 14-3-3 partners: AANAT as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Masone, Diego; Uhart, Marina; Bustos, Diego M.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty years ago, a novel concept in protein structural biology was discovered: the intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). These regions remain largely unstructured under native conditions and the more are studied, more properties are attributed to them. Possibly, one of the most important is their ability to conform a new type of protein-protein interaction. Besides the classical domain-to-domain interactions, IDRs follow a ‘fly-casting’ model including ‘induced folding’. Unfortunately, it is only possible to experimentally explore initial and final states. However, the complete movie of conformational changes of protein regions and their characterization can be addressed by in silico experiments. Here, we simulate the binding of two proteins to describe how the phosphorylation of a single residue modulates the entire process. 14-3-3 protein family is considered a master regulator of phosphorylated proteins and from a modern point-of-view, protein phosphorylation is a three component system, with writers (kinases), erasers (phosphatases) and readers. This later biological role is attributed to the 14-3-3 protein family. Our molecular dynamics results show that phosphorylation of the key residue Thr31 in a partner of 14-3-3, the aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase, releases the fly-casting mechanism during binding. On the other hand, the non-phosphorylation of the same residue traps the proteins, systematically and repeatedly driving the simulations into wrong protein-protein conformations. PMID:28387381

  12. Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    van Kleeff, P. J. M.; Jaspert, N.; Li, K. W.; Rauch, S.; Oecking, C.; de Boer, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

  13. Identification of 14-3-3epsilon substrates from embryonic murine brain.

    PubMed

    Ballif, Bryan A; Cao, Zhongwei; Schwartz, Daniel; Carraway, Kermit L; Gygi, Steven P

    2006-09-01

    Mice deficient in 14-3-3epsilon exhibit abnormal neuronal migration and die perinatally. We report here the first large-scale analysis of 14-3-3 interacting partners from primary animal tissue, identifying from embryonic murine brain 163 14-3-3epsilon interacting proteins and 85 phosphorylation sites on these proteins. Phosphorylation of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 at serine 680 was found essential for its interaction with 14-3-3epsilon and for maintaining USP8 in the cytosol.

  14. Molecular characterization of cotton 14-3-3L gene preferentially expressed during fiber elongation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Xiulan; Li, Dengdi; Tang, Wenkai; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wenliang; Li, Xuebao

    2007-02-01

    The 14-3-3 protein, highly conserved in all eukaryotic cells, is an important regulatory protein. It plays an important role in the growth, amplification, apoptosis, signal transduction, and other crucial life activities of cells. A cDNA encoding a putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library. The cDNA, designated as Gh14-3-3L (Gossypium hirsutum 14-3-3-like), is 1,029 bp in length (including a 762 bp long open reading frame and 5'-/3'-untranslated regions) and deduced a protein with 253 amino acids. The Gh14-3-3L shares higher homology with the known plant 14-3-3 proteins, and possesses the basic structure of 14-3-3 proteins: one dimeric domain, one phosphoralated-serine rich motif, four CC domains, and one EF Hand motif. Northern blotting analysis showed that Gh14-3-3L was predominantly expressed during early fiber development, and reached to the peak of expression in 10 days post anthers (DPA) fiber cells, suggesting that the gene may be involved in regulating fiber elongation. The gene is also expressed at higher level in both ovule and petal, but displays lower or undetectable level of activity in other tissues of cotton.

  15. Functional identification of a novel 14-3-3 epsilon splicing variant suggests dimerization is not necessary for 14-3-3 epsilon to inhibit UV-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dingding; Ye, Guangming; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Cong; Yang, Xianmei; Wan, Bo; Pan, Yuanwang; Yu, Long

    2010-05-28

    14-3-3 proteins function as a dimer and have been identified to involve in diverse signaling pathways. Here we reported the identification of a novel splicing variant of human 14-3-3 epsilon (14-3-3 epsilon sv), which is derived from a novel exon 1' insertion. The insertion contains a stop codon and leads to a truncated splicing variant of 14-3-3 epsilon. The splicing variant is translated from the exon 2 and results in the deletion of an N-terminal {alpha}-helix which is crucial for the dimerization. Therefore, the 14-3-3 epsilon sv could not form a dimer with 14-3-3 zeta. However, after UV irradiation 14-3-3 epsilon sv could also support cell survival, suggesting monomer of 14-3-3 epsilon is sufficient to protect cell from apoptosis.

  16. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the 14-3-3 from the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-yun; Jing, Chang-Qin; Dong, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Jun-He; Zhang, Yu

    2010-02-01

    Previously we reported the nucleotide sequence of a 14-3-3 cDNA cloned from the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina, however, the nucleotide sequence of this gene have not been reported so far. In the present study, the cloning and characterization of the nucleotide sequence, the gene copy and expression were undertaken. The coding sequence of the gene was found to be interrupted by five introns of 132, 266, 153, 152 and 625 bp, respectively. Introns 3-5 were found in conserved positions as compared to the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 14-3-3 gene. D. salina 14-3-3 cDNA was inserted into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28 and transformed into E. coli BL21, and the recombinant expressed 14-3-3 protein was purified from E. coli and immunized the rabbit. Indirect ELISA coated with 14-3-3 illustrated that the rabbit antisera titration was 1:1.00E + 06. Western blotting assays confirmed that prepared rabbit antibodies could recognize the recombinant 14-3-3 protein. Southern blotting results showed that there was only one copy of the 14-3-3 present in the genome of D. salina and 14-3-3 expression did not change throughout the Dnualiella cell cycle.

  17. Locomotor hyperactivity in 14-3-3ζ KO mice is associated with dopamine transporter dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, H; Xu, X; Jaehne, E J; McCarthy, P; Greenberg, Z; Saleh, E; McClure, B; Woodcock, J; Kabbara, S; Wiszniak, S; Wang, Ting-Yi; Parish, C; van den Buuse, M; Baune, B T; Lopez, A; Schwarz, Q

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission requires a complex series of enzymatic reactions that are tightly linked to catecholamine exocytosis and receptor interactions on pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Regulation of dopaminergic signalling is primarily achieved through reuptake of extracellular DA by the DA transporter (DAT) on presynaptic neurons. Aberrant regulation of DA signalling, and in particular hyperactivation, has been proposed as a key insult in the presentation of schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential component of neurodevelopment and a central risk factor in the schizophrenia protein interaction network. Our analysis of 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice now shows that baseline hyperactivity of knockout (KO) mice is rescued by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. 14-3-3ζ KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor hyperactivity induced by the DA releaser amphetamine. Consistent with 14-3-3ζ having a role in DA signalling, we found increased levels of DA in the striatum of 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Although 14-3-3ζ is proposed to modulate activity of the rate-limiting DA biosynthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), we were unable to identify any differences in total TH levels, TH localization or TH activation in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Rather, our analysis identified significantly reduced levels of DAT in the absence of notable differences in RNA or protein levels of DA receptors D1–D5. Providing insight into the mechanisms by which 14-3-3ζ controls DAT stability, we found a physical association between 14-3-3ζ and DAT by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, our results identify a novel role for 14-3-3ζ in DA neurotransmission and provide support to the hyperdopaminergic basis of pathologies associated with schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:24301645

  18. 14-3-3γ Prevents Centrosome Amplification and Neoplastic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Sehgal, Lalit; Bose, Arunabha; Gulvady, Anushree; Senapati, Parijat; Thorat, Rahul; Basu, Srikanta; Bhatt, Khyati; Hosing, Amol S.; Balyan, Renu; Borde, Lalit; Kundu, Tapas K.; Dalal, Sorab N.

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of malignant tumors show centrosome amplification and clustering. Centrosome amplification results from aberrations in the centrosome duplication cycle, which is strictly coordinated with DNA-replication-cycle. However, the relationship between cell-cycle regulators and centrosome duplicating factors is not well understood. This report demonstrates that 14-3-3γ localizes to the centrosome and 14-3-3γ loss leads to centrosome amplification. Loss of 14-3-3γ results in the phosphorylation of NPM1 at Thr-199, causing early centriole disjunction and centrosome hyper-duplication. The centrosome amplification led to aneuploidy and increased tumor formation in mice. Importantly, an increase in passage of the 14-3-3γ-knockdown cells led to an increase in the number of cells containing clustered centrosomes leading to the generation of pseudo-bipolar spindles. The increase in pseudo-bipolar spindles was reversed and an increase in the number of multi-polar spindles was observed upon expression of a constitutively active 14-3-3-binding-defective-mutant of cdc25C (S216A) in the 14-3-3γ knockdown cells. The increase in multi-polar spindle formation was associated with decreased cell viability and a decrease in tumor growth. Our findings uncover the molecular basis of regulation of centrosome duplication by 14-3-3γ and inhibition of tumor growth by premature activation of the mitotic program and the disruption of centrosome clustering. PMID:27253419

  19. 14-3-3ε Is Required for Germ Cell Migration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tsigkari, K. Kirki; Acevedo, Summer F.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins participate in multiple biological processes, isoform-specific specialized functions, as well as functional redundancy are emerging with tissue and developmental stage-specificity. Accordingly, the two 14-3-3ε proteins in Drosophila exhibit functional specificity and redundancy. Homozygotes for loss of function alleles of D14-3-3ε contain significantly fewer germ line cells (pole cells) in their gonads, a phenotype not shared by mutants in the other 14-3-3 gene leo. We show that although D14-3-3ε is enriched within pole cells it is required in mesodermal somatic gonad precursor cells which guide pole cells in their migration through the mesoderm and coalesce with them to form the embryonic gonad. Loss of D14-3-3ε results in defective pole cell migration, reduced pole cell number. We present evidence that D14-3-3ε loss results in reduction or loss of the transcription factor Zfh-1, one of the main regulatory molecules of the pole cell migration, from the somatic gonad precursor cells. PMID:22666326

  20. Transcriptional regulation of YWHAZ, the gene encoding 14-3-3ζ.

    PubMed

    Kasinski, Andrea; Dong, Xueyuan; Khuri, Fadlo R; Boss, Jeremy; Fu, Haian

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of oncogenic 14-3-3 proteins is correlated with poor survival of cancer patients. While the underlying mechanism of the abnormal expression in tumors remains elusive for the six oncogenic 14-3-3 isoforms; the potential involvement of a transcriptional component has been suggested. Unfortunately, little experimental data has been reported to support this hypothesis. In this study we describe the genetic structure of YWHAZ, the gene encoding 14-3-3ζ, including the identification of previously unreported transcript variants. In total, five transcript variants were revealed and their expressions confirmed in a panel of cell lines. Expressed sequence tag (EST) database mining and in vitro rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) confirmed that one variant, 1c, represents >80% of the expressed transcripts, which is also the most efficiently translated. An analysis of the proximal promoter of this variant revealed a functional Cyclic-AMP Response Element (CRE). Factors that bound to the CRE element were recognized through fractionation and subsequent EMSAs. This analysis identified CREB and ATF-1 as the trans-interacting factors. Cell-based assays confirm that ATF-1, and to a lesser extent CREB, bind the endogenous YWHAZ promoter especially under TNF-α stimulating conditions. In support of a role of ATF-1 in the regulation of YWHAZ, silencing of ATF-1 resulted in a marked reduction in two of the five YWHAZ transcripts. These data suggest a novel mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of a major pro-survival gene, YWHAZ, by ATF-1.

  1. Loss of ypk1 function causes rapamycin sensitivity, inhibition of translation initiation and synthetic lethality in 14-3-3-deficient yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Gelperin, Daniel; Horton, Lynn; DeChant, Anne; Hensold, Jack; Lemmon, Sandra K

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind to phosphorylated proteins and regulate a variety of cellular activities as effectors of serine/threonine phosphorylation. To define processes requiring 14-3-3 function in yeast, mutants with increased sensitivity to reduced 14-3-3 protein levels were identified by synthetic lethal screening. One mutation was found to be allelic to YPK1, which encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase. Loss of Ypk function causes hypersensitivity to rapamycin, similar to 14-3-3 mutations and other mutations affecting the TOR signaling pathway in yeast. Similar to treatment with rapamycin, loss of Ypk function disrupted translation, at least in part by causing depletion of eIF4G, a central adaptor protein required for cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation. In addition, Ypk1 as well as eIF4G protein levels were rapidly depleted upon nitrogen starvation, but not during glucose starvation, even though both conditions inhibit translation initiation. These results suggest that Ypk regulates translation initiation in response to nutrient signals, either through the TOR pathway or in a functionally related pathway parallel to TOR. PMID:12196392

  2. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  3. 14-3-3ζ Orchestrates Mammary Tumor Onset and Progression via miR221-Mediated Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wyszomierski, Shannon L.; Wang, Qingfei; Li, Ping; Sahin, Ozgur; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Siyuan; Xiong, Yan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Hai; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Jitao D.; Medina, Daniel; Muller, William J.; Yu, Dihua

    2013-01-01

    14-3-3ζ is overexpressed in over 40% of breast cancers but its pathophysiological relevance to tumorigenesis has not been established. Here we show that 14-3-3ζ overexpression is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. MMTV-LTR promoter driven HA-14-3-3ζ transgenic mice (MMTV-HA-14-3-3ζ) developed mammary tumors whereas control mice did not. Whey acidic protein promoter driven HA-14-3-3ζ transgenic mice (WAP-HA-14-3-3ζ) developed hyperplastic lesions and showed increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. When crossed with MMTV-neu transgenic mice, 14-3-3ζ.neu transgenic mice exhibited accelerated mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis compared to MMTV-neu mice. Mechanistically, 14-3-3ζ overexpression enhanced MAPK/c-Jun signaling leading to increased miR-221 transcription, which inhibited p27 CDKI translation, and consequently, promoted cell proliferation. Importantly, this 14-3-3ζ/miR-221/p27/proliferation axis is also functioning in patients' breast tumors and associates with high grade cancers. Taken together, our findings show that 14-3-3ζ overexpression has a causal role in mammary tumorigenesis and progression, acting through miR-221 in cooperation with known oncogenic events to drive neoplastic cell proliferation. PMID:24197133

  4. 14-3-3σ regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by modulating Yap1 cellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Sumitha A.T.; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Xue, Lei; Dean, Douglas C.; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2015-01-01

    The homozygous repeated epilation (Er/Er) mouse mutant of the gene encoding 14-3-3σ displays an epidermal phenotype characterized by hyperproliferative keratinocytes and undifferentiated epidermis. Heterozygous Er/+ mice develop spontaneous skin tumors and are highly sensitive to tumor-promoting DMBA/TPA induction. The molecular mechanisms underlying 14-3-3σ regulation of epidermal proliferation, differentiation, and tumor formation have not been well elucidated. In the present study, we found that Er/Er keratinocytes failed to sequester Yap1 in the cytoplasm, leading to its nuclear localization during epidermal development in vivo and under differentiation-inducing culture conditions in vitro. In addition, enhanced Yap1 nuclear localization was also evident in DMBA/TPA-induced tumors from Er/+ skin. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of Yap1 expression in Er/Er keratinocytes inhibited their proliferation, suggesting that YAP1 functions as a downstream effector of 14-3-3σ controlling epidermal proliferation. We then demonstrated that keratinocytes express all seven 14-3-3 protein isoforms, some of which form heterodimers with 14-3-3σ, either full-length WT or the mutant form found in Er/Er mice. However Er 14-3-3σ does not interact with Yap1, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. We conclude that Er 14-3-3σ disrupts the interaction between 14-3-3 and Yap1, thus fails to block Yap1 nuclear transcriptional function, causing continued progenitor expansion and inhibition of differentiation in Er/Er epidermis. PMID:25668240

  5. Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric behaviour defects arise from 14-3-3ζ deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheah, P S; Ramshaw, H S; Thomas, P Q; Toyo-Oka, K; Xu, X; Martin, S; Coyle, P; Guthridge, M A; Stomski, F; van den Buuse, M; Wynshaw-Boris, A; Lopez, A F; Schwarz, Q P

    2012-04-01

    Complex neuropsychiatric disorders are believed to arise from multiple synergistic deficiencies within connected biological networks controlling neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding and synapse formation. Here, we show that deletion of 14-3-3ζ causes neurodevelopmental anomalies similar to those seen in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice displayed striking behavioural and cognitive deficiencies including a reduced capacity to learn and remember, hyperactivity and disrupted sensorimotor gating. These deficits are accompanied by subtle developmental abnormalities of the hippocampus that are underpinned by aberrant neuronal migration. Significantly, 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice exhibited abnormal mossy fibre navigation and glutamatergic synapse formation. The molecular basis of these defects involves the schizophrenia risk factor, DISC1, which interacts isoform specifically with 14-3-3ζ. Our data provide the first evidence of a direct role for 14-3-3ζ deficiency in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders and identifies 14-3-3ζ as a central risk factor in the schizophrenia protein interaction network.

  6. Aberrant overexpression of an epithelial marker, 14-3-3σ, in a subset of hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Motokura, Toru; Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Background 14-3-3σ is a p53-mediated cell-cycle inhibitor in epithelial cells. The expression of 14-3-3σ is frequently altered in cancers of epithelial origin associated with altered DNA methylation. Since its involvement in a non-epithelial tumor is unknown, we examined 14-3-3σ expression in patients with haematological malignancies. Methods We analyzed 41 hematopoietic cell lines and 129 patients with a variety of hematological malignancies for 14-3-3σ expression with real-time RT-PCR. We also examined protein levels by Western blot analysis and DNA methylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene by methylation-specific PCR analysis of bisulfite-treated DNA. In addition, mutations of p53 gene were identified by RT-PCR-SSCP analysis and the expression levels of 14-3-3σ were compared with those of other cell-cycle inhibitor genes, CDKN2A and ARF. Results The expression levels of 14-3-3σ mRNA in almost all cell lines were low and comparable to those in normal hematopoietic cells except for 2 B-cell lines. On the contrary, 14-3-3σ mRNA was aberrantly overexpressed frequently in mature lymphoid malignancies (30 of 93, 32.3%) and rarely in acute leukemia (3 of 35, 8.6%). 14-3-3σ protein was readily detectable and roughly reflected the mRNA level. In contrast to epithelial tumors, methylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene was not associated with expression in hematological malignancies. Mutations of p53 were identified in 12 patients and associated with lower expression of 14-3-3σ. The expression levels of 14-3-3σ, CDKN2A and ARF were not correlated with but rather reciprocal to one another, suggesting that simultaneous overexpression of any two of them is incompatible with tumor growth. Conclusion 14-3-3σ, an epithelial cell marker, was overexpressed significantly in a subset of mature lymphoid malignancies. This is the first report of aberrant 14-3-3σ expression in non-epithelial tumors in vivo. Since the significance of 14-3-3σ overexpression is unknown even in

  7. 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cholangiocarcinoma via GSK-3β/snail signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-chuang; Wang, Jian-ming; Schemmer, Peter; Ma, Chao-qun; Qian, Ya-wei; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Wei-peng; Fu, Yang; Feng, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) invasion and metastasis are the primary causes of poor survival rates in patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is still unclear of the molecular mechanism. In this study, the expression of 14-3-3ζ and atypical protein kinase C-ι (aPKC-ι) was further detected in CCA tissues and cell lines. Meanwhile, we established the EMT model of CCA cells and investigated 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι co-regulatory effect on the EMT in vitro and in vivo. Further, we identified the downstream molecular glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β)/Snail signalling pathway that contribute to regulating the EMT. Our data showed that the expression of 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι was synergistically increased in CCA tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues and was intimately associated with differentiation and the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι expression separately predicted a poor prognosis and were independent prognostic indicators in patients with CCA. The CO-IP experiment confirmed that the mutual binding relationship between 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι. Small interfering RNAs and siRNA rescue experiment demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι regulated each other. In addition, 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι pretreatment by si-RNA inhibit the phosphorylated GSK-3β and Snail expression during EMT. Meanwhile, silence of 14-3-3ζ or aPKC-ι suppressed CCA cells migration, metastasis and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates that 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate EMT of CCA via GSK-3β/Snail signalling pathway, and may be potential therapeutic target for CCA. PMID:27409422

  8. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuxing

    2014-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to ε-like group of 14-3-3 superfamilies. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear.

  9. Identification of 14-3-3 Family in Common Bean and Their Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta; Bian, Shaomin; Li, Xuyan

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3s are a class of conserved regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, which play important roles in a variety of cellular processes including response to diverse stresses. Although much has been learned about 14-3-3s in several plant species, it remains unknown in common bean. In this study, 9 common bean 14-3-3s (PvGF14s) were identified by exhaustive data mining against the publicly available common bean genomic database. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that each predicted PvGF14 was clustered with two GmSGF14 paralogs from soybean. Both epsilon-like and non-epsilon classes of PvGF14s were found in common bean, and the PvGF14s belonging to each class exhibited similar gene structure. Among 9 PvGF14s, only 8 are transcribed in common bean. Expression patterns of PvGF14s varied depending on tissue type, developmental stage and exposure of plants to stress. A protein-protein interaction study revealed that PvGF14a forms dimer with itself and with other PvGF14 isoforms. This study provides a first comprehensive look at common bean 14-3-3 proteins, a family of proteins with diverse functions in many cellular processes, especially in response to stresses. PMID:26599110

  10. 14-3-3theta Protects against Neurotoxicity in a Cellular Parkinson's Disease Model through Inhibition of the Apoptotic Factor Bax

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Sunny R.; Lesort, Mathieu; Yacoubian, Talene A.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of 14-3-3 function by alpha-synuclein has been implicated in Parkinson's disease. As 14-3-3s are important regulators of cell death pathways, disruption of 14-3-3s could result in the release of pro-apoptotic factors, such as Bax. We have previously shown that overexpression of 14-3-3θ reduces cell loss in response to rotenone and MPP+ in dopaminergic cell culture and reduces cell loss in transgenic C. elegans that overexpress alpha-synuclein. In this study, we investigate the mechanism for 14-3-3θ's neuroprotection against rotenone toxicity. While 14-3-3s can inhibit many pro-apoptotic factors, we demonstrate that inhibition of one factor in particular, Bax, is important to 14-3-3s' protection against rotenone toxicity in dopaminergic cells. We found that 14-3-3θ overexpression reduced Bax activation and downstream signaling events, including cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA knockdown of Bax provided protection against rotenone, comparable to 14-3-3θ's neuroprotective effects. A 14-3-3θ mutant incapable of binding Bax failed to protect against rotenone. These data suggest that 14-3-3θ's neuroprotective effects against rotenone are at least partially mediated by Bax inhibition and point to a potential therapeutic role of 14-3-3s in Parkinson's disease. PMID:21799745

  11. Phosphorylation-related modification at the dimer interface of 14-3-3ω dramatically alters monomer interaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Denison, Fiona C; Gökirmak, Tufan; Ferl, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are generally believed to function as dimers in a broad range of eukaryotic signaling pathways. The consequences of altering dimer stability are not fully understood. Phosphorylation at Ser58 in the dimer interface of mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms has been reported to destabilise dimers. An equivalent residue, Ser62, is present across most Arabidopsis isoforms but the effects of phosphorylation have not been studied in plants. Here, we assessed the effects of phosphorylation at the dimer interface of Arabidopsis 14-3-3ω. Protein kinase A phosphorylated 14-3-3ω at Ser62 and also at a previously unreported residue, Ser67, resulting in a monomer-sized band on native-PAGE. Phosphorylation at Ser62 alone, or with additional Ser67 phosphorylation, was investigated using phosphomimetic versions of 14-3-3ω. In electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses, these mutants showed mobilities intermediate between dimers and monomers. Mobility was increased by detergents, by reducing protein concentration, or by increasing pH or temperature. Urea gradient gels showed complex structural transitions associated with alterations of dimer stability, including a previously unreported 14-3-3 aggregation phenomenon. Overall, our analyses showed that dimer interface modifications such as phosphorylation reduce dimer stability, dramatically affecting the monomer-dimer equilibrium and denaturation trajectory. These findings may have dramatic implications for 14-3-3 structure and function in vivo.

  12. 14-3-3ζ up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in hepatocellular carcinoma via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-кB signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yufu; Lv, Pengfei; Sun, Zhongyi; Han, Lei; Luo, Bichao; Zhou, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3ζ protein, a member of 14-3-3 family, plays important roles in multiple cellular processes. Our previous study showed that 14-3-3ζ could bind to regulate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is induced by hypoxia and a crucial factor for induction of tumor metastasis. Moreover, we also have confirmed the response of 14-3-3ζ to hypoxia in our unpublished data as well. Thus, in the present study, we attempted to reveal that whether the regulation effect of 14-3-3ζ on HIF-1α functioned in a similar pattern as hypoxia. Stable regulation of 14-3-3ζ in human HCC cell line SMMC-772 and HCC-LM3 was achieved. The regulation of 14-3-3ζ on HIF-1α mRNA transcription was evaluated by luciferase activity assay and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The effect of 14-3-3ζ on the production of HIF-1α and pathways determining HIF-1α’s response to hypoxia was assessed using western blotting assay. Our results showed that regulation of 14-3-3ζ expression influenced the activity of HIF-1α, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB). Blocking of these pathways using indicated inhibitors revealed that 14-3-3ζ enhanced the production of HIF-1α via the activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-кB pathway, which was identical to hypoxia induced HIF-1α expression. For the first time, our study described the key role of 14-3-3ζ in the HIF-1α production in HCC cells. And the molecule exerted its function on HIF-1α both by directly binding to it and via PI3K/Akt/NF-кB signal transduction pathway. PMID:26884855

  13. Chemical Genetics of 14-3-3 Regulation and Role in Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    antifungal chemical typically used in the treatment of fungal (Tinea) skin such as athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm and tinea versicolor...DeCaprio JA: Cytoplasmic localization of human cdc25C during interphase requires an intact 14-3-3 binding site. Mol Cell Biol 1999, 19(6):4465- 4479. 12...epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways of the human prostate epithelial cell line M12. Oncogene 2004, 23(41):6881-6889. 15. Lopez-Girona

  14. Isolation and expression analysis of a homolog of the 14-3-3 epsilon gene in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Se Hui; Han, Yeon Soo; Cho, Saeyoull

    2011-02-01

    A full-length 14-3-3 gene homolog (also referred to as the Px14-3-3 epsilon "ε" or Px14-3-3ε gene) was cloned from cDNA of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. The Px14-3-3 transcript is 789 nucleotides in length, and the predicted polypeptide is 263 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 29.6 kDa. The Px14-3-3 gene contains the typical and predicted 14-3-3 domains and motifs. The amino acid sequence of the diamondback moth 14-3-3 gene is very similar to that of other insect epsilons (ε) but not to other insect zetas (ζ). In particular, the protein sequence of the Px14-3-3 gene shows high identity to the Bombyx mori epsilon (96.2%). Western blot analysis using an antibody against Px14-3-3ε verified the expression of 14-3-3ε in the larval, pupal, and adult stages. The Px14-3-3ε expression patterns in all the different tissue types were examined in the fourth instar larvae. Px14-3-3ε was detected in every tissue examined, including the body fat, hemocytes, brain, gut, and cuticle.

  15. [Inhibitory effect of 14-3-3ζ on the proliferation of HL-60 cells and HL-60/VCR cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong; Chen, Xie-Qun; Wang, Zhe; Xiong, Hua; Bai, Qing-Xian; Gao, Guang-Xun; Dong, Bao-Xia; Zhu, Hua-Feng

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression and role of 14-3-3ζ in the AML cell lines: sensitive HL-60 and drug-resistant HL-60/VCR cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were respectively used to examine the expression of mdr1 mRNA and Pgp in AML cell lines to validate the results of microarray. Western blot was performed to investigate the expression of Pgp, 14-3-3ζ, and anti-apoptosis protein BCL-2, MCL-1 proteins. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the subcellular location of 14-3-3ζ protein in HL-60 and HL-60/VCR cells by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Transduction with siRNA was used to silence 14-3-3ζ in AML cell lines. Cell count method and flow cytometry of cell cycle were used to analyze the changes of growth of AML cells. The results found that mdr1 mRNA and Pgp did not expressed in HL-60 cells, but significantly overexpressed in HL-60/VCR cells. Except 14-3-3σ, the expression of other subtypes of 14-3-3 was higher in HL-60/VCR cells than that in HL-60 cells, especially 14-3-3ζ. The higher expression of 14-3-3ζ, BCL-2, MCL-1 protein was observed in HL-60/VCR cells than that in HL-60 cells. These results were same results from gene chip. It was also noticed that 14-3-3ζ was located in the cytoplasma and nuclei of AML cell lines, especially over-expressed in HL-60/VCR cells. Furthermore, suppression of 14-3-3ζ by RNA interference resulted in inhibition of the proliferation of AML cells with decreased protein expression of BCL-2 and MCL-1, especially in HL-60/VCR cells. It is concluded that 14-3-3ζ plays an important role in proliferation of AML cells and associates with BCL-2 and MCL-1 expression. These results suggested that development of therapy targeting 14-3-3ζ may provide novel, effective strategies for refractory and relapsed AML.

  16. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnostic accuracy is improved by a new CSF ELISA 14-3-3γ assay.

    PubMed

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-05-13

    Protein 14-3-3 is a reliable marker of rapid neuronal damage, specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Its detection is usually performed by Western Blot (WB), prone to methodological issues. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a recently developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay for 14-3-3γ, in comparison with WB and other neurodegeneration markers. CSF samples from 145 patients with suspicion of prion disease, later classified as definite sCJD (n=72) or Non-prion diseases (Non-CJD; n=73) comprised our population. 14-3-3 protein was determined by WB and ELISA. Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were also evaluated. Apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) and prionic protein gene (PRNP) genotyping was assessed. ELISA 14-3-3γ levels were significantly increased in sCJD compared to Non-CJD patients (p<0.001), showing very good accuracy (AUC=0.982; sensitivity=97%; specificity=94%), and matching WB results in 81% of all cases. It strongly correlated with t-Tau and p-Tau (p<0.0001), showing slightly higher specificity (14-3-3 WB - 63%; Tau - 90%; p-Tau/t-Tau ratio - 88%). From WB inconclusive results (n=44), ELISA 14-3-3γ correctly classified 41 patients. Additionally, logistic regression analysis selected ELISA 14-3-3γ as the best single predictive marker for sCJD (overall accuracy=93%). ApoE and PRNP genotypes did not influence ELISA 14-3-3γ levels. Despite specificity for 14-3-3γ isoform, ELISA results not only match WB evaluation but also help discrimination of inconclusive results. Our results therefore reinforce this assay as a single screening test, allowing higher sample throughput and unequivocal results.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  18. 14-3-3ζ regulates the mitochondrial respiratory reserve linked to platelet phosphatidylserine exposure and procoagulant function

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M.; Darbousset, Roxane; Cranmer, Susan L.; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Orive, Stephanie L.; Sturgeon, Sharelle; Yuan, Yuping; Yao, Yu; Krycer, James R.; Woodcock, Joanna; Maclean, Jessica; Pitson, Stuart; Zheng, Zhaohua; Henstridge, Darren C.; van der Wal, Dianne; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Berndt, Michael C.; Andrews, Robert K.; James, David E.; Lopez, Angel F.; Jackson, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of adaptor proteins regulate diverse cellular functions including cell proliferation, metabolism, adhesion and apoptosis. Platelets express numerous 14-3-3 isoforms, including 14-3-3ζ, which has previously been implicated in regulating GPIbα function. Here we show an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating arterial thrombosis. Interestingly, this thrombosis defect is not related to alterations in von Willebrand factor (VWF)–GPIb adhesive function or platelet activation, but instead associated with reduced platelet phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and procoagulant function. Decreased PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient platelets is associated with more sustained levels of metabolic ATP and increased mitochondrial respiratory reserve, independent of alterations in cytosolic calcium flux. Reduced platelet PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice does not increase bleeding risk, but results in decreased thrombin generation and protection from pulmonary embolism, leading to prolonged survival. Our studies define an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating platelet bioenergetics, leading to decreased platelet PS exposure and procoagulant function. PMID:27670677

  19. The human cruciform-binding protein, CBP, is involved in DNA replication and associates in vivo with mammalian replication origins.

    PubMed

    Novac, Olivia; Alvarez, David; Pearson, Christopher E; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-03-29

    We previously identified and purified from human (HeLa) cells a 66-kDa cruciform-binding protein, CBP, with binding specificity for cruciform DNA regardless of its sequence. DNA cruciforms have been implicated in the regulation of initiation of DNA replication. CBP is a member of the 14-3-3 family of proteins, which are conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotes. Here, the in vivo association of CBP/14-3-3 with mammalian origins of DNA replication was analyzed by studying its association with the monkey replication origins ors8 and ors12, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and quantitative PCR analysis. The association of the 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with these origins was found to be approximately 9-fold higher, compared with other portions of the genome, in logarithmically growing cells. In addition, the association of these isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was also analyzed as a function of the cell cycle. Higher binding of 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was found at the G(1)/S border, by comparison with other stages of the cell cycle. The CBP/14-3-3 cruciform binding activity was also found to be maximal at the G(1)/S boundary. The involvement of 14-3-3 in mammalian DNA replication was analyzed by studying the effect of anti-14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of ors8. Anti-14-3-3epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies alone or in combination inhibited p186 replication by approximately 50-80%, while anti-14-3-3beta antibodies had a lesser effect ( approximately 25-50%). All of the antibodies tested were also able to interfere with CBP binding to cruciform DNA. The results indicate that CBP/14-3-3 is an origin-binding protein, acting at the initiation step of DNA replication by binding to cruciform-containing molecules, and dissociates after origin firing.

  20. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Ying; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  1. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  2. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  3. The RGK family: a regulatory tail of small GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kathleen

    2005-12-01

    RGK proteins are small Ras-related GTP-binding proteins that function as potent inhibitors of voltage-dependent calcium channels, and two members of the family, Gem and Rad, modulate Rho-dependent remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Within the Ras superfamily, RGK proteins have distinct structural and regulatory characteristics. It is an open question as to whether RGK proteins catalyze GTP hydrolysis in vivo. Binding of calmodulin and the 14-3-3 protein to RGK proteins controls downstream pathways. Here, we discuss the structural and functional properties of RGK proteins and highlight recent work by Beguin and colleagues addressing the mechanism of Gem regulation by calmodulin and 14-3-3.

  4. miR-137 modulates coelomocyte apoptosis by targeting 14-3-3ζ in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Miao; Chen, Huahui; Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Xuelin; Duan, Xuemei

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in the host immune response and play a pivotal role in host-pathogen interactions by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, was previously found by high-throughput sequencing to be differentially expressed in diseased specimens of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, we identified 14-3-3ζ protein (Aj14-3-3ζ) as a novel target of miR-137 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and transcriptome screening. Expression analysis indicated that consistently depressed expression profiles of miR-137 and Aj14-3-3ζ were detected in both LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus-challenged sea cucumbers, suggesting a positive regulatory interaction. Consistently, miR-137 overexpression or inhibition in vitro and in vivo showed no effect on Aj14-3-3ζ mRNA levels, but the concentration of Aj14-3-3ζ protein was induced or repressed, respectively. Moreover, siRNA-mediated Aj14-3-3ζ knockdown in vivo decreased both mRNA and protein expression levels of Aj14-3-3ζ and significantly promoted coelomocyte apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometry, consistent with miR-137 inhibition. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of miR-137 regulatory roles in sea cucumber pathogenesis.

  5. Metabolic-Stress-Induced Rearrangement of the 14-3-3ζ Interactome Promotes Autophagy via a ULK1- and AMPK-Regulated 14-3-3ζ Interaction with Phosphorylated Atg9

    PubMed Central

    Weerasekara, Vajira K.; Panek, David J.; Broadbent, David G.; Mortenson, Jeffrey B.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Logan, Gideon N.; Prince, John T.; Thomson, David M.; Thompson, J. Will

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3ζ promotes cell survival via dynamic interactions with a vast network of binding partners, many of which are involved in stress regulation. We show here that hypoxia (low glucose and oxygen) triggers a rearrangement of the 14-3-3ζ interactome to favor an interaction with the core autophagy regulator Atg9A. Our data suggest that the localization of mammalian Atg9A to autophagosomes requires phosphorylation on the C terminus of Atg9A at S761, which creates a 14-3-3ζ docking site. Under basal conditions, this phosphorylation is maintained at a low level and is dependent on both ULK1 and AMPK. However, upon induction of hypoxic stress, activated AMPK bypasses the requirement for ULK1 and mediates S761 phosphorylation directly, resulting in an increase in 14-3-3ζ interactions, recruitment of Atg9A to LC3-positive autophagosomes, and enhanced autophagosome production. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby the level of autophagy induction can be modulated by AMPK/ULK1-mediated phosphorylation of mammalian Atg9A. PMID:25266655

  6. 14-3-3ε Plays a Role in Cardiac Ventricular Compaction by Regulating the Cardiomyocyte Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Li, Ling; Lezin, George; Maguire, Colin T.; Saijoh, Yukio; Toyo-oka, Kazuhito; Gambello, Michael J.; Vatta, Matteo; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Baldini, Antonio; Yost, H. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Trabecular myocardium accounts for the majority of the ventricles during early cardiogenesis, but compact myocardium is the primary component at later developmental stages. Elucidation of the genes regulating compact myocardium development is essential to increase our understanding of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), a cardiomyopathy characterized by increased ratios of trabecular to compact myocardium. 14-3-3ε is an adapter protein expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, but its in vivo cardiac functions remain to be defined. Here we show that 14-3-3ε is expressed in the developing mouse heart as well as in cardiomyocytes. 14-3-3ε deletion did not appear to induce compensation by other 14-3-3 isoforms but led to ventricular noncompaction, with features similar to LVNC, resulting from a selective reduction in compact myocardium thickness. Abnormal compaction derived from a 50% decrease in cardiac proliferation as a result of a reduced number of cardiomyocytes in G2/M and the accumulation of cardiomyocytes in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. These defects originated from downregulation of cyclin E1 and upregulation of p27Kip1, possibly through both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Our work shows that 14-3-3ε regulates cardiogenesis and growth of the compact ventricular myocardium by modulating the cardiomyocyte cell cycle via both cyclin E1 and p27Kip1. These data are consistent with the long-held view that human LVNC may result from compaction arrest, and they implicate 14-3-3ε as a new candidate gene in congenital human cardiomyopathies. PMID:23071090

  7. Overexpression of 14-3-3σ counteracts tumorigenicity by positively regulating p73 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    GENG, CUIZHI; SANG, MEIXIANG; YANG, RUILING; GAO, WEI; ZHOU, TAO; WANG, SHIJIE

    2011-01-01

    14-3-3σ, one of the 14-3-3 family members, was initially identified as a human mammary epithelium-specific marker 1. The expression of 14-3-3σ is directly regulated by p53. It has been demonstrated that 14-3-3σ stabilizes p53 and enhances its transcriptional activity through the interaction with p53, suggesting that 14-3-3σ has a positive feedback effect on p53. Our previous study showed that 14-3-3σ is a direct transcriptional target of p73 and enhances the p73-mediated transcriptional as well as pro-apoptotic activity in vitro. In the present study, we explored the tumor-suppressive effect of 14-3-3σ by establishing a breast cancer xenograft nude mouse model with an inducible expression of 14-3-3σ or with an inducible expression of p53/p73 plus 14-3-3σ with ADR treatment. Tumor formation was then assayed. Moreover, 66 primary breast cancer specimens and paired tumor-free breast specimens obtained from the female patients were examined. Results showed that the expression of p73 and 14-3-3σ in breast cancer specimens was significantly lower than the tumor-free breast specimens and that 14-3-3σ expression was positively correlated with the expression of p73. Furthermore, overexpression of 14-3-3σ counteracts tumorigenicity by positively regulating p73 in p53-mutated or -deficient cancers in vivo. Therefore, our results may lead to the use of 14-3-3σ in the therapeutic application for the p53-mutated and p73-expressed breast cancer patients. PMID:22848285

  8. IFNγ-induced suppression of β-catenin signaling: evidence for roles of Akt and 14.3.3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Porfirio; Kamekura, Ryuta; Quirós, Miguel; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Hamilton, Ross W.; Kolegraff, Keli N.; Koch, Stefan; Candelario, Aurora; Romo-Parra, Hector; Laur, Oskar; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Denning, Timothy L.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ ) influences intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis in a biphasic manner by acutely stimulating proliferation that is followed by sustained inhibition of proliferation despite continued mucosal injury. β-Catenin activation has been classically associated with increased IEC proliferation. However, we observed that IFNγ inhibits IEC proliferation despite sustained activation of Akt/β-catenin signaling. Here we show that inhibition of Akt/β-catenin–mediated cell proliferation by IFNγ is associated with the formation of a protein complex containing phosphorylated β-catenin 552 (pβ-cat552) and 14.3.3ζ. Akt1 served as a bimodal switch that promotes or inhibits β-catenin transactivation in response to IFNγ stimulation. IFNγ initially promotes β-catenin transactivation through Akt-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of β-catenin to promote its association with 14.3.3ζ. Augmented β-catenin transactivation leads to increased Akt1 protein levels, and active Akt1 accumulates in the nucleus, where it phosphorylates 14.3.3ζ to translocate 14.3.3ζ/β-catenin from the nucleus, thereby inhibiting β-catenin transactivation and IEC proliferation. These results outline a dual function of Akt1 that suppresses IEC proliferation during intestinal inflammation. PMID:25079689

  9. The cell cycle regulator 14-3-3σ opposes and reverses cancer metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Liem; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Samudio, Ismael; Parreno, Kenneth; Huang, Yaling; Tseng, Chieh; Vu, Thuy; Gully, Chris; Su, Chun-Hui; Wang, Edward; Chen, Jian; Choi, Hyun-Ho; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Shin, Ji-Hyun; Shiang, Christine; Grabiner, Brian; Blonska, Marzenna; Skerl, Stephen; Shao, Yiping; Cody, Dianna; Delacerda, Jorge; Kingsley, Charles; Webb, Douglas; Carlock, Colin; Zhou, Zhongguo; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Lee, Jaehyuk; Elliott, Andrew; Ramirez, Marc; Bankson, Jim; Hazle, John; Wang, Yongxing; Li, Lei; Weng, Shaofan; Rizk, Nibal; Wen, Yu Ye; Lin, Xin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Huamin; Zhang, Aijun; Xia, Xuefeng; Wu, Yun; Habra, Mouhammed; Yang, Wei; Pusztai, Lajos; Yeung, Sai-Ching; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Extensive reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism controlling this tumour metabolic shift remains not fully understood. Here we show that 14-3-3σ regulates cancer metabolic reprogramming and protects cells from tumourigenic transformation. 14-3-3σ opposes tumour-promoting metabolic programs by enhancing c-Myc poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. 14-3-3σ demonstrates the suppressive impact on cancer glycolysis, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and other major metabolic processes of tumours. Importantly, 14-3-3σ expression levels predict overall and recurrence-free survival rates, tumour glucose uptake and metabolic gene expression in breast cancer patients. Thus, these results highlight that 14-3-3σ is an important regulator of tumour metabolism, and loss of 14-3-3σ expression is critical for cancer metabolic reprogramming. We anticipate that pharmacologically elevating the function of 14-3-3σ in tumours could be a promising direction for targeted anti-cancer metabolism therapy development in future. PMID:26179207

  10. Anchoring of both PKA and 14-3-3 inhibits the Rho-GEF activity of the AKAP-Lbc signaling complex.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Abuin, Liliane; Cotecchia, Susanna; Pansier, Laetitia

    2004-07-21

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) target the cAMP-regulated protein kinase (PKA) to its physiological substrates. We recently identified a novel anchoring protein, called AKAP-Lbc, which functions as a PKA-targeting protein as well as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoA. We demonstrated that AKAP-Lbc Rho-GEF activity is stimulated by the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein G12. Here, we identified 14-3-3 as a novel regulatory protein interacting with AKAP-Lbc. Elevation of the cellular concentration of cAMP activates the PKA holoenzyme anchored to AKAP-Lbc, which phosphorylates the anchoring protein on the serine 1565. This phosphorylation event induces the recruitment of 14-3-3, which inhibits the Rho-GEF activity of AKAP-Lbc. AKAP-Lbc mutants that fail to interact with PKA or with 14-3-3 show a higher basal Rho-GEF activity as compared to the wild-type protein. This suggests that, under basal conditions, 14-3-3 maintains AKAP-Lbc in an inactive state. Therefore, while it is known that AKAP-Lbc activity can be stimulated by Galpha12, in this study we demonstrated that it is inhibited by the anchoring of both PKA and 14-3-3.

  11. The prion protein binds thiamine.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Berjanskii, Mark V; Hau, David; Li, Li; Huang, Alan; Lee, Rose; Gibbs, Ebrima; Ladner, Carol; Dong, Ying Wei; Abera, Ashenafi; Cashman, Neil R; Wishart, David S

    2011-11-01

    Although highly conserved throughout evolution, the exact biological function of the prion protein is still unclear. In an effort to identify the potential biological functions of the prion protein we conducted a small-molecule screening assay using the Syrian hamster prion protein [shPrP(90-232)]. The screen was performed using a library of 149 water-soluble metabolites that are known to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Using a combination of 1D NMR, fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance we identified thiamine (vitamin B1) as a specific prion ligand with a binding constant of ~60 μM. Subsequent studies showed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved, with similar binding constants being seen for mouse, hamster and human prions. Various protein construct lengths, both with and without the unstructured N-terminal region in the presence and absence of copper, were examined. This indicates that the N-terminus has no influence on the protein's ability to interact with thiamine. In addition to thiamine, the more biologically abundant forms of vitamin B1 (thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate) were also found to bind the prion protein with similar affinity. Heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to determine thiamine's interaction site, which is located between helix 1 and the preceding loop. These data, in conjunction with computer-aided docking and molecular dynamics, were used to model the thiamine-binding pharmacophore and a comparison with other thiamine binding proteins was performed to reveal the common features of interaction.

  12. Origin and evolution of a new exon of 14-3-3ξ in bees and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Leilei; Jiang, Chao

    2013-04-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing, one type of alternative splicing, involves selection of alternatively spliced exons arranged in tandem and creates protein products with substitution of one segment of the amino acid sequence for another. Previous studies revealed that exon 5 of 14-3-3ξ from Apis mellifera (western honeybee) had three mutually exclusive exons, while orthologous exon of Nasonia vitripennis (parasitic wasp) had only two, suggesting that cases of exon gain or loss might have happened during the evolution of hymenopteran species. In the current study, we annotated and analyzed the 14-3-3ξ genes from 20 hymenopteran species successfully, and the results of phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a new mutually exclusive exon in corbiculate bees. In addition, we found that duplication via staggered homologous recombination was responsible for the origin of the new exon.

  13. PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Plk1–Ser99 promotes association with 14-3-3γ and is required for metaphase–anaphase transition

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kousuke; Goto, Hidemasa; Izawa, Ichiro; Kiyono, Tohru; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Elowe, Sabine; Nigg, Erich A; Inagaki, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) controls multiple aspects of mitosis and is activated through its phosphorylation at Thr210. Here we identify Ser99 on Plk1 as a novel mitosis-specific phosphorylation site, which operates independently of Plk1–Thr210 phosphorylation. Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation creates a docking site for 14-3-3γ, and this interaction stimulates the catalytic activity of Plk1. Knockdown of 14-3-3γ or replacement of wild-type (WT) Plk1 by a Ser99-phospho-blocking mutant leads to a prometaphase/metaphase-like arrest due to the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt significantly reduces the level of Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation and delays metaphase to anaphase transition. Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation requires not only Akt activity but also protein(s) associated with Plk1 in a mitosis-specific manner. Therefore, mitotic Plk1 activity is regulated not only by Plk1–Thr210 phosphorylation, but also by Plk1 binding to 14-3-3γ following Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation downstream of the PI3K–Akt signalling pathway. This novel Plk1 activation pathway controls proper progression from metaphase to anaphase. PMID:23695676

  14. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector XopQ interacts with tomato and pepper 14-3-3 isoforms to suppress effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Teper, Doron; Salomon, Dor; Sunitha, Sukumaran; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sessa, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to host-adapted pathogens is associated with rapid cell death at the infection site. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) interferes with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion system. Here, we show that the Xcv effector XopQ suppresses cell death induced by components of the ETI-associated MAP kinase cascade MAPKKKα MEK2/SIPK and by several R/avr gene pairs. Inactivation of xopQ by insertional mutagenesis revealed that this effector inhibits ETI-associated cell death induced by avirulent Xcv in resistant pepper (Capsicum annuum), and enhances bacterial growth in resistant pepper and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Using protein-protein interaction studies in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we identified the tomato 14-3-3 isoform SlTFT4 and homologs from other plant species as XopQ interactors. A mutation in the putative 14-3-3 binding site of XopQ impaired interaction of the effector with CaTFT4 in yeast and its virulence function in planta. Consistent with a role in ETI, TFT4 mRNA abundance increased during the incompatible interaction of tomato and pepper with Xcv. Silencing of NbTFT4 in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly reduced cell death induced by MAPKKKα. In addition, silencing of CaTFT4 in pepper delayed the appearance of ETI-associated cell death and enhanced growth of virulent and avirulent Xcv, demonstrating the requirement of TFT4 for plant immunity to Xcv. Our results suggest that the XopQ virulence function is to suppress ETI and immunity-associated cell death by interacting with TFT4, which is an important component of ETI and a bona fide target of XopQ.

  15. A signature motif in LIM proteins mediates binding to checkpoint proteins and increases tumour radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojie; Fan, Zhongyi; Liang, Chaoyang; Li, Ling; Wang, Lili; Liang, Yingchun; Wu, Jun; Chang, Shaohong; Yan, Zhifeng; Lv, Zhaohui; Fu, Jing; Liu, Yang; Jin, Shuai; Wang, Tao; Hong, Tian; Dong, Yishan; Ding, Lihua; Cheng, Long; Liu, Rui; Fu, Shenbo; Jiao, Shunchang; Ye, Qinong

    2017-01-01

    Tumour radiotherapy resistance involves the cell cycle pathway. CDC25 phosphatases are key cell cycle regulators. However, how CDC25 activity is precisely controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we show that LIM domain-containing proteins, such as FHL1, increase inhibitory CDC25 phosphorylation by forming a complex with CHK2 and CDC25, and sequester CDC25 in the cytoplasm by forming another complex with 14-3-3 and CDC25, resulting in increased radioresistance in cancer cells. FHL1 expression, induced by ionizing irradiation in a SP1- and MLL1-dependent manner, positively correlates with radioresistance in cancer patients. We identify a cell-penetrating 11 amino-acid motif within LIM domains (eLIM) that is sufficient for binding CHK2 and CDC25, reducing the CHK2–CDC25 and CDC25–14-3-3 interaction and enhancing CDC25 activity and cancer radiosensitivity accompanied by mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. Our results provide novel insight into molecular mechanisms underlying CDC25 activity regulation. LIM protein inhibition or use of eLIM may be new strategies for improving tumour radiosensitivity. PMID:28094252

  16. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  18. Induction of expression of a 14-3-3 gene in response to copper exposure in the marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jennifer R; Morris, Ceri A; Nicolaus, Beate; Harwood, John L; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The macro-alga Fucus vesiculosus has a broad global and estuarine distribution and exhibits exceptional resistance to toxic metals, the molecular basis of which is poorly understood. To address this issue a cDNA library was constructed from an environmental isolate of F. vesiculosus growing in an area with chronic copper pollution. Characterisation of this library led to the identification of a cDNA encoding a protein known to be synthesised in response to toxicity, a full length 14-3-3 exhibiting a 71% identity to human/mouse epsilon isoform, 70-71% identity to yeast BMH1/2 and 95 and 71% identity to the Ectocarpus siliculosus 14-3-3 isoforms 1 and 2 respectively. Preliminary characterisation of the expression profile of the 14-3-3 indicated concentration- and time-dependent inductions on acute exposure of F. vesiculosus of copper (3-30 μg/l). Higher concentrations of copper (≥150 μg/l) did not elicit significant induction of the 14-3-3 gene compared with the control even though levels of both intracellular copper and the expression of a cytosolic metal chaperone, metallothionein, continued to rise. Analysis of gene expression within environmental isolates demonstrated up-regulation of the 14-3-3 gene associated with the known copper pollution gradient. Here we report for the first time, identification of a gene encoding a putative 14-3-3 protein in a multicellular alga and provide preliminary evidence to link the induction of this 14-3-3 gene to copper exposure in this alga. Interestingly, the threshold exposure profile may be associated with a decrease in the organism's ability to control copper influx so that it perceives copper as a toxic response.

  19. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  20. Data of protein-RNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Choi, Daesik; Han, Kyungsook

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of protein-RNA complexes in structure databases, few data resources have been made available which can be readily used in developing or testing a method for predicting either protein-binding sites in RNA sequences or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. The problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received much less attention than the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein. The data presented in this paper are related to the article entitled "PRIdictor: Protein-RNA Interaction predictor" (Tuvshinjargal et al. 2016) [1]. PRIdictor can predict protein-binding sites in RNA as well as RNA-binding sites in protein at the nucleotide- and residue-levels. This paper presents four datasets that were used to test four prediction models of PRIdictor: (1) model RP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from protein and RNA sequences, (2) model RaP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from RNA sequence alone, (3) model PR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein and RNA sequences, and (4) model PaR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein sequence alone. The datasets supplied in this article can be used as a valuable resource to evaluate and compare different methods for predicting protein-RNA binding sites.

  1. Chemical Genetics of 14-3-3 Regulation and Role in Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    from proteolysis (e.g. plant nitrate reductase) or from dephosphorylation (e.g. Raf and BAD). However, to date the most common mode of 14-3-3 function is...the general CRMI-mediated nuclear export I further studied the effects of haloprogin. This compound is a topical antifungal agent whose target is

  2. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  3. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  4. Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2013-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins.

  5. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Bie, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  6. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  7. Internal Amino Acids Promote Gap1 Permease Ubiquitylation via TORC1/Npr1/14-3-3-Dependent Control of the Bul Arrestin-Like Adaptors

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitylation of many plasma membrane proteins promotes their endocytosis followed by degradation in the lysosome. The yeast general amino acid permease, Gap1, is ubiquitylated and downregulated when a good nitrogen source like ammonium is provided to cells growing on a poor nitrogen source. This ubiquitylation requires the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase and the redundant arrestin-like Bul1 and Bul2 adaptors. Previous studies have shown that Gap1 ubiquitylation involves the TORC1 kinase complex, which inhibits the Sit4 phosphatase. This causes inactivation of the protein kinase Npr1, which protects Gap1 against ubiquitylation. However, the mechanisms inducing Gap1 ubiquitylation after Npr1 inactivation remain unknown. We here show that on a poor nitrogen source, the Bul adaptors are phosphorylated in an Npr1-dependent manner and bound to 14-3-3 proteins that protect Gap1 against downregulation. After ammonium is added and converted to amino acids, the Bul proteins are dephosphorylated, dissociate from the 14-3-3 proteins, and undergo ubiquitylation. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of Bul requires the Sit4 phosphatase, which is essential to Gap1 downregulation. The data support the emerging concept that permease ubiquitylation results from activation of the arrestin-like adaptors of the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase, this coinciding with their dephosphorylation, dissociation from the inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, and ubiquitylation. PMID:22966204

  8. Monobodies and other synthetic binding proteins for expanding protein science.

    PubMed

    Sha, Fern; Salzman, Gabriel; Gupta, Ankit; Koide, Shohei

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic binding proteins are constructed using nonantibody molecular scaffolds. Over the last two decades, in-depth structural and functional analyses of synthetic binding proteins have improved combinatorial library designs and selection strategies, which have resulted in potent platforms that consistently generate binding proteins to diverse targets with affinity and specificity that rival those of antibodies. Favorable attributes of synthetic binding proteins, such as small size, freedom from disulfide bond formation and ease of making fusion proteins, have enabled their unique applications in protein science, cell biology and beyond. Here, we review recent studies that illustrate how synthetic binding proteins are powerful probes that can directly link structure and function, often leading to new mechanistic insights. We propose that synthetic proteins will become powerful standard tools in diverse areas of protein science, biotechnology and medicine.

  9. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  10. Costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone combination treatment inhibit breast cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through c-Myc/p53 and AKT/14-3-3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhangxiao; Wang, Yan; Fan, Jianhui; Lin, Xuejing; Liu, Chunying; Xu, Yang; Ji, Weidan; Yan, Chao; Su, Changqing

    2017-01-24

    Our previous studies demonstrated that volatile oil from saussurea lappa root (VOSL), rich in two natural sesquiterpene lactones, costunolide (Cos) and dehydrocostuslactone (Dehy), exerts better anti-breast cancer efficacy and lower side effects than Cos or Dehy alone in vivo, however, their anti-cancer molecular mechanisms were still unknown. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of Cos and Dehy combination treatment (CD) on breast cancer cells through proteomics technology coupled with Western blot validation. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) results based on the differentially expressed proteins revealed that both VOSL and CD affect the 14-3-3-mediated signaling, c-Myc mediated apoptosis signaling and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Western blot coupled with cell cycle and apoptosis analysis validated the results of proteomics analysis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced in a dose-dependent manner, and the expressions of p53 and p-14-3-3 were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expressions of c-Myc, p-AKT, p-BID were significantly down-regulated, furthermore, the ratio of BAX/BCL-2 were significantly increased in breast cancer cells after CD and VOSL treatment. The findings indicated that VOSL and CD could induce breast cancer cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through c-Myc/p53 and AKT/14-3-3 signaling pathways and may be novel effective candidates for breast cancer treatment.

  11. Accumulation and tolerance to cadmium heavy metal ions and induction of 14-3-3 gene expression in response to cadmium exposure in Coprinus atramentarius.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengjian; Hu, Liujie; Yang, Yongzhu; Liao, Dunxiu; Yang, Xingyong

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy-metal pollutants, has a strong and irreversible tendency to accumulate. Bioremediation is a promising technology to remedy and control heavy metal pollutants because of its low cost and ability to recycle heavy metals. Coprinus atramentarius is recognized as being able to accumulate heavy metal ions. In this work, C. atramentarius is cultivated on a solid medium containing Cd(2+) ions to analyze its ability to tolerate different concentrations of the heavy metal ion. It is found that the growth of C. atramentarius is not significantly inhibited when the concentration of Cd(2+) is less than 0.6mgL(-1). The accumulation capacity of C. atramentarius at different Cd(2+) concentrations also was determined. The results show that 76% of the Cd(2+) present can be accumulated even when the concentration of the Cd(2+) is 1mgL(-1). The different proteins of C. atramentarius exposed to Cd(2+) were further analyzed using gel electrophoresis. A 14-3-3 protein was identified and shown to be significantly up-regulated. In a further study, a full-length 14-3-3 gene was cloned containing a 759bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide consisting of 252 amino acids and 3 introns. The gene expression work also showed that the 14-3-3 was significantly induced, and showed coordinated patterns of expression, with Cd(2+) exposure.

  12. Costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone combination treatment inhibit breast cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through c-Myc/p53 and AKT/14-3-3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhangxiao; Wang, Yan; Fan, Jianhui; Lin, Xuejing; Liu, Chunying; Xu, Yang; Ji, Weidan; Yan, Chao; Su, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that volatile oil from saussurea lappa root (VOSL), rich in two natural sesquiterpene lactones, costunolide (Cos) and dehydrocostuslactone (Dehy), exerts better anti-breast cancer efficacy and lower side effects than Cos or Dehy alone in vivo, however, their anti-cancer molecular mechanisms were still unknown. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of Cos and Dehy combination treatment (CD) on breast cancer cells through proteomics technology coupled with Western blot validation. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) results based on the differentially expressed proteins revealed that both VOSL and CD affect the 14-3-3-mediated signaling, c-Myc mediated apoptosis signaling and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Western blot coupled with cell cycle and apoptosis analysis validated the results of proteomics analysis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced in a dose-dependent manner, and the expressions of p53 and p-14-3-3 were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expressions of c-Myc, p-AKT, p-BID were significantly down-regulated, furthermore, the ratio of BAX/BCL-2 were significantly increased in breast cancer cells after CD and VOSL treatment. The findings indicated that VOSL and CD could induce breast cancer cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through c-Myc/p53 and AKT/14-3-3 signaling pathways and may be novel effective candidates for breast cancer treatment. PMID:28117370

  13. Structure and Function of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ralf R.; Leong, Steven R.; Flaggs, Gail W.; Gray, Patrick W.; Wright, Samuel D.; Mathison, John C.; Tobias, Peter S.; Ulevitch, Richard J.

    1990-09-01

    The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with cholesterol ester transport protein of the plasma. LBP may control the response to LPS under physiologic conditions by forming high-affinity complexes with LPS that bind to monocytes and macrophages, which then secrete tumor necrosis factor. The identification of this pathway for LPS-induced monocyte stimulation may aid in the development of treatments for diseases in which Gram-negative sepsis or endotoxemia are involved.

  14. SVOP Is a Nucleotide Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) and SV2-related protein (SVOP) are transporter-like proteins that localize to neurotransmitter-containing vesicles. Both proteins share structural similarity with the major facilitator (MF) family of small molecule transporters. We recently reported that SV2 binds nucleotides, a feature that has also been reported for another MF family member, the human glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). In the case of Glut1, nucleotide binding affects transport activity. In this study, we determined if SVOP also binds nucleotides and assessed its nucleotide binding properties. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed in vitro photoaffinity labeling experiments with the photoreactive ATP analogue, 8-azido-ATP[γ] biotin and purified recombinant SVOP-FLAG fusion protein. We found that SVOP is a nucleotide-binding protein, although both its substrate specificity and binding site differ from that of SV2. Within the nucleotides tested, ATP, GTP and NAD show same level of inhibition on SVOP-FLAG labeling. Dose dependent studies indicated that SVOP demonstrates the highest affinity for NAD, in contrast to SV2, which binds both NAD and ATP with equal affinity. Mapping of the binding site revealed a single region spanning transmembrane domains 9–12, which contrasts to the two binding sites in the large cytoplasmic domains in SV2A. Conclusions/Significance SVOP is the third MF family member to be found to bind nucleotides. Given that the binding sites are unique in SVOP, SV2 and Glut1, this feature appears to have arisen separately. PMID:19390693

  15. A Member of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon, BdGF14d, Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Lihong; Wu, Chunlai; Luo, Qingchen; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are involved in diverse biological processes, but for the model monocotyledonous species, Brachypodium distachyon, their roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not well understood. In this study, a total of eight Bd14-3-3 genes were identified from B. distachyon and these were designated respectively as BdGF14a–BdGF14g. The qRT-PCR analyses of 3-month-old plants of B. distachyon showed that these genes were all expressed in the stems, leaves, and spikelets. By contrast, most of the plants had relatively lower transcriptional levels in their roots, except for the BdGF14g gene. The different expression profiles of the Bd14-3-3s under various stress treatments, and the diverse interaction patterns between Bd14-3-3s and BdAREB/ABFs, suggested that these gene products probably had a range of functions in the stress responses. The NaCl-induced Bd14-3-3 gene, BdGF14d, was selected for overexpression in tobacco. BdGF14d was found to be localized throughout the cell and it conferred enhanced tolerance to salt in the transgenic plants. Lowered contents of malondialdehyde, H2O2, and Na+, and lower relative electronic conductance (Rec%), yet greater activities of catalase and peroxidase, were observed in the overexpressing plants. Higher photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency were measured in the transgenic lines. Following abscisic acid (ABA) or NaCl treatment, stomatal aperture in leaves of the BdGF14d-overexpression plants was significantly lower than in leaves of the wild type (WT) controls. The stress-related marker genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system, and the ion transporters were all up-regulated in the BdGF14d-overexpressing plants as compared with WT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Bd14-3-3 genes play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance. The ABA signaling pathway, the ROS-scavenging system, and ion

  16. In-vivo administration of clozapine affects behaviour but does not reverse dendritic spine deficits in the 14-3-3ζ KO mouse model of schizophrenia-like disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Ramshaw, Hayley; Xu, Xiangjun; Saleh, Eiman; Clark, Scott R; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Lopez, Angel; Schwarz, Quenten; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-11-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia, which has been shown to reverse behavioural and dendritic spine deficits in mice. It has recently been shown that deficiency of 14-3-3ζ has an association with schizophrenia, and that a mouse model lacking this protein displays several schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. To test the effect of clozapine in this mouse model, 14-3-3ζ KO mice were administered clozapine (5mg/kg) for two weeks prior to being analysed in a test battery of cognition, anxiety, and despair (depression-like) behaviours. Following behavioural testing brain samples were collected for analysis of specific anatomical defects and dendritic spine formation. We found that clozapine reduced despair behaviour of 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the forced swim test (FST) and altered the behaviour of wild types and 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the Y-maze task. In contrast, clozapine had no effects on hippocampal laminar defects or decreased dendritic spine density observed in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Our results suggest that clozapine may have beneficial effects on clinical behaviours associated with deficiencies in the 14-3-3ζ molecular pathway, despite having no effects on morphological defects. These findings may provide mechanistic insight to the action of this drug.

  17. Surface-Based Protein Binding Pocket Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2011-01-01

    Protein similarity comparisons may be made on a local or global basis and may consider sequence information or differing levels of structural information. We present a local 3D method that compares protein binding site surfaces in full atomic detail. The approach is based on the morphological similarity method which has been widely applied for global comparison of small molecules. We apply the method to all-by-all comparisons two sets of human protein kinases, a very diverse set of ATP-bound proteins from multiple species, and three heterogeneous benchmark protein binding site data sets. Cases of disagreement between sequence-based similarity and binding site similarity yield informative examples. Where sequence similarity is very low, high pocket similarity can reliably identify important binding motifs. Where sequence similarity is very high, significant differences in pocket similarity are related to ligand binding specificity and similarity. Local protein binding pocket similarity provides qualitatively complementary information to other approaches, and it can yield quantitative information in support of functional annotation. PMID:21769944

  18. BIS targeting induces cellular senescence through the regulation of 14-3-3 zeta/STAT3/SKP2/p27 in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-J; Lee, J-S; Cui, M N; Yun, H H; Kim, H Y; Lee, S H; Lee, J-H

    2014-11-20

    Cellular senescence is an important mechanism for preventing tumor progression. The elevated expression of Bcl-2-interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), an anti-apoptotic and anti-stress protein, often correlates with poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma; however, the role of BIS in the regulation of senescence has not been well defined. Here, we describe for the first time that the depletion of BIS induces G1 arrest and cellular senescence through the accumulation of p27 that is independent of p53, p21 or p16. The increase in p27 expression in BIS-depleted cells was attributable to an impairment of the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, which was caused by a decrease in S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) at the transcriptional level. As an underlying molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that the loss of activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was specifically linked to the suppression of SKP2 expression. Despite a reduction in phospho-STAT3 levels, total STAT3 levels were unexpectedly increased by BIS depletion, specifically in the insoluble fraction. Our results show that 14-3-3ζ expression is decreased by BIS knockdown and that 14-3-3ζ depletion per se significantly induced senescence phenotypes. In addition, the ectopic expression of 14-3-3ζ blocked senescence caused by BIS depletion, which was paralleled with a decrease in insoluble STAT3 in A172 glioblastoma cells. These findings indicate that the impairment of the protein quality control conferred by BIS and/or 14-3-3ζ is critical for BIS depletion-induced senescence. Moreover, BIS knockdown also induced senescence along with an accumulation of total STAT3 and p27 in several different cell types as well as embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bis-knock out mice with/without variations in 14-3-3ζ levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that a downregulation of BIS expression could serve as a potential strategy for restricting tumor progression

  19. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    TWO MAIN FAMILIES OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED IN PARASITIC PLATYHELMINTHES: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  20. The binding domain structure of retinoblastoma-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Figge, J.; Breese, K.; Vajda, S.; Zhu, Q. L.; Eisele, L.; Andersen, T. T.; MacColl, R.; Friedrich, T.; Smith, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb), a cellular growth suppressor, complexes with viral and cellular proteins that contain a specific binding domain incorporating three invariant residues: Leu-X-Cys-X-Glu, where X denotes a nonconserved residue. Hydrophobic and electrostatic properties are strongly conserved in this segment even though the nonconserved amino acids vary considerably from one Rb-binding protein to another. In this report, we present a diagnostic computer pattern for a high-affinity Rb-binding domain featuring the three conserved residues as well as the conserved physico-chemical properties. Although the pattern encompasses only 10 residues (with only 4 of these explicitly defined), it exhibits 100% sensitivity and 99.95% specificity in database searches. This implies that a certain pattern of structural and physico-chemical properties encoded by this short sequence is sufficient to govern specific Rb binding. We also present evidence that the secondary structural conformation through this region is important for effective Rb binding. PMID:8382993

  1. Folding funnels, binding funnels, and protein function.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. J.; Kumar, S.; Ma, B.; Nussinov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Folding funnels have been the focus of considerable attention during the last few years. These have mostly been discussed in the general context of the theory of protein folding. Here we extend the utility of the concept of folding funnels, relating them to biological mechanisms and function. In particular, here we describe the shape of the funnels in light of protein synthesis and folding; flexibility, conformational diversity, and binding mechanisms; and the associated binding funnels, illustrating the multiple routes and the range of complexed conformers. Specifically, the walls of the folding funnels, their crevices, and bumps are related to the complexity of protein folding, and hence to sequential vs. nonsequential folding. Whereas the former is more frequently observed in eukaryotic proteins, where the rate of protein synthesis is slower, the latter is more frequent in prokaryotes, with faster translation rates. The bottoms of the funnels reflect the extent of the flexibility of the proteins. Rugged floors imply a range of conformational isomers, which may be close on the energy landscape. Rather than undergoing an induced fit binding mechanism, the conformational ensembles around the rugged bottoms argue that the conformers, which are most complementary to the ligand, will bind to it with the equilibrium shifting in their favor. Furthermore, depending on the extent of the ruggedness, or of the smoothness with only a few minima, we may infer nonspecific, broad range vs. specific binding. In particular, folding and binding are similar processes, with similar underlying principles. Hence, the shape of the folding funnel of the monomer enables making reasonable guesses regarding the shape of the corresponding binding funnel. Proteins having a broad range of binding, such as proteolytic enzymes or relatively nonspecific endonucleases, may be expected to have not only rugged floors in their folding funnels, but their binding funnels will also behave similarly

  2. Defective erythroid differentiation in miR-451 mutant mice mediated by 14-3-3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, David M.; Zhang, Cheng C.; Tao, Ye; Yao, Huiyu; Qi, Xiaoxia; Schwartz, Robert J.; Jun-Shen Huang, Lily; Olson, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Erythrocyte formation occurs throughout life in response to cytokine signaling. We show that microRNA-451 (miR-451) regulates erythropoiesis in vivo. Mice lacking miR-451 display a reduction in hematrocrit, an erythroid differentiation defect, and ineffective erythropoiesis in response to oxidative stress. 14-3-3ζ, an intracellular regulator of cytokine signaling that is repressed by miR-451, is up-regulated in miR-451−/− erythroblasts, and inhibition of 14-3-3ζ rescues their differentiation defect. These findings reveal an essential role of 14-3-3ζ as a mediator of the proerythroid differentiation actions of miR-451, and highlight the therapeutic potential of miR-451 inhibitors. PMID:20679397

  3. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  4. Computational analysis of maltose binding protein translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    We propose a computational model for the study of maltose binding protein translocation across α-hemolysin nanopores. The phenomenological approach simplifies both the pore and the polypeptide chain; however it retains the basic structural protein-like properties of the maltose binding protein by promoting the correct formation of its native key interactions. By considering different observables characterising the channel blockade and molecule transport, we verified that MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed in a recent experiment. Simulations reveal that blockade events consist of a capture stage, to some extent related to the unfolding kinetics, and a single file translocation process in the channel. A threshold mechanics underlies the process activation with a critical force depending on the protein denaturation state. Finally, our results support the simple interpretation of translocation via first-passage statistics of a driven diffusion process of a single reaction coordinate.

  5. ABP: a novel AMPA receptor binding protein.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Ziff, E B

    1999-04-30

    We review the cloning of a novel AMPA receptor binding protein (ABP) that interacts with GluR2/3 and is homologous to GRIP. ABP is enriched in the PSD with GluR2 and is localized to the PSD by EM. ABP binds GluR2 via the C-terminal VXI motif through a Class I PDZ interaction. ABP and GRIP can also homo- and heteromultimerize. Thus, ABP and GRIP may be involved in AMPA receptor regulation and localization, by linking it to other cytoskeletal or signaling molecules. We suggest that the ABP/GRIP and PSD-95 families form distinct scaffolds that anchor, respectively, AMPA and NMDA receptors. We are currently investigating proteins that bind ABP and that may regulate the AMPA receptor.

  6. Exploring the binding dynamics of BAR proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabaso, Doron; Gongadze, Ekaterina; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Van Rienen, Ursula; Zorec, Robert; Iglič, Aleš

    2011-09-01

    We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature. According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged amino acids at the binding interface of BAR proteins, contributing a negative binding energy to the system free energy. In addition, the cone-like shape of negatively charged lipids on the inner side of a cell membrane might contribute a positive intrinsic curvature, facilitating the initial bending towards the crescent-like shape of the BAR domain. In the present study, we hypothesize that in the limit of a rigid BAR domain shape, the negative binding energy and the coupling between the intrinsic curvature of negatively charged lipids and the membrane curvature drive the bending of the membrane. To estimate the binding energy, the electric potential at the charged surface of a BAR domain was calculated using the Langevin-Bikerman equation. Results of numerical simulations reveal that the binding energy is important for the initial instability (i.e. bending of a membrane), while the coupling between the intrinsic shapes of lipids and membrane curvature could be crucial for the curvature-dependent aggregation of negatively charged lipids near the surface of the BAR domain. In the discussion, we suggest novel experiments using patch clamp techniques to analyze the binding dynamics of BAR proteins, as well as the possible role of BAR proteins in the fusion pore stability of exovesicles.

  7. IκB kinase-induced interaction of TPL-2 kinase with 14-3-3 is essential for Toll-like receptor activation of ERK-1 and -2 MAP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Brender, Christine; Martin, Stephen R.; Janzen, Julia; Kjaer, Sven; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Ley, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    The MEK-1/2 kinase TPL-2 is critical for Toll-like receptor activation of the ERK-1/2 MAP kinase pathway during inflammatory responses, but it can transform cells following C-terminal truncation. IκB kinase (IKK) complex phosphorylation of the TPL-2 C terminus regulates full-length TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2 by a mechanism that has remained obscure. Here, we show that TPL-2 Ser-400 phosphorylation by IKK and TPL-2 Ser-443 autophosphorylation cooperated to trigger TPL-2 association with 14-3-3. Recruitment of 14-3-3 to the phosphorylated C terminus stimulated TPL-2 MEK-1 kinase activity, which was essential for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2. The binding of 14-3-3 to TPL-2 was also indispensible for lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor by macrophages, which is regulated by TPL-2 independently of ERK-1/2 activation. Our data identify a key step in the activation of TPL-2 signaling and provide a mechanistic insight into how C-terminal deletion triggers the oncogenic potential of TPL-2 by rendering its kinase activity independent of 14-3-3 binding. PMID:24912162

  8. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  9. Phylointeractomics reconstructs functional evolution of protein binding

    PubMed Central

    Kappei, Dennis; Scheibe, Marion; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Bluhm, Alina; Gossmann, Toni Ingolf; Dietz, Sabrina; Dejung, Mario; Herlyn, Holger; Buchholz, Frank; Mann, Matthias; Butter, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Molecular phylogenomics investigates evolutionary relationships based on genomic data. However, despite genomic sequence conservation, changes in protein interactions can occur relatively rapidly and may cause strong functional diversification. To investigate such functional evolution, we here combine phylogenomics with interaction proteomics. We develop this concept by investigating the molecular evolution of the shelterin complex, which protects telomeres, across 16 vertebrate species from zebrafish to humans covering 450 million years of evolution. Our phylointeractomics screen discovers previously unknown telomere-associated proteins and reveals how homologous proteins undergo functional evolution. For instance, we show that TERF1 evolved as a telomere-binding protein in the common stem lineage of marsupial and placental mammals. Phylointeractomics is a versatile and scalable approach to investigate evolutionary changes in protein function and thus can provide experimental evidence for phylogenomic relationships. PMID:28176777

  10. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  11. Polynucleotides encoding TRF1 binding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Kim, Sahn-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel telomere associated protein (Trf1-interacting nuclear protein 2 "Tin2") that hinders the binding of Trf1 to its specific telomere repeat sequence and mediates the formation of a Tin2-Trf1-telomeric DNA complex that limits telomerase access to the telomere. Also included are the corresponding nucleic acids that encode the Tin2 of the present invention, as well as mutants of Tin2. Methods of making, purifying and using Tin2 of the present invention are described. In addition, drug screening assays to identify drugs that mimic and/or complement the effect of Tin2 are presented.

  12. Novel retinoid-binding proteins from filarial parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Sani, B P; Vaid, A; Comley, J C; Montgomery, J A

    1985-01-01

    The present study deals with the discovery and partial characterization of specific binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid from filarial parasites (worms of the superfamily Filarioidea), including those from two species of Onchocerca. These binding proteins, which are distinct in their physicochemical properties and in the mode of ligand interactions from the host-tissue retinoid-binding proteins, may be involved in the mediation of the putative biological roles of retinoids in the control of parasitic growth, differentiation and reproduction. Parasite retinol-binding protein and retinoic acid-binding protein exhibited specificity for binding retinol and retinoic acid respectively. Both the binding proteins showed an s20,w value of 2.0 S. On gel filtration, both proteins were retarded to a position corresponding to the same molecular size (19.0 kDa). On preparative columns, the parasite binding proteins exhibited isoelectric points at pH 5.7 and 5.75. Unlike the retinoid-binding proteins of mammalian and avian origin, the parasite retinoid-binding proteins showed a lack of mercurial sensitivity in ligand binding. The comparative amounts of retinoic acid-binding protein in five parasites, Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Dipetalonema viteae, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, were between 2.7 and 3.1 pmol of retinoic acid bound/mg of extractable protein. However, the levels of parasite retinol-binding protein were between 4.8 and 5.8 pmol/mg, which is considerably higher than the corresponding levels of cellular retinol-binding protein of mammalian and avian origin. Both retinol- and retinoic acid-binding-protein levels in O. volvulus-infected human nodules and O. gibsoni-infected bovine nodules were similar to their levels in mammalian tissues. Also, these nodular binding proteins, like the host-binding proteins, exhibited mercurial sensitivity to ligand interactions. PMID:3004410

  13. Binding of transition metals to S100 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gilston, Benjamin A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The S100 proteins are a unique class of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins distributed in a cell-specific, tissue-specific, and cell cycle-specific manner in humans and other vertebrates. These proteins are distinguished by their distinctive homodimeric structure, both intracellular and extracellular functions, and the ability to bind transition metals at the dimer interface. Here we summarize current knowledge of S100 protein binding of Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions, focusing on binding affinities, conformational changes that arise from metal binding, and the roles of transition metal binding in S100 protein function. PMID:27430886

  14. Phosphorylation of native porcine olfactory binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Brimau, Fanny; Chemineau, Philippe; Michalski, Jean-Claude

    2009-07-01

    The identification of various isoforms of olfactory binding proteins is of major importance to elucidate their involvement in detection of pheromones and other odors. Here, we report the characterization of the phosphorylation of OBP (odorant binding protein) and Von Ebner's gland protein (VEG) from the pig, Sus scrofa. After labeling with specific antibodies raised against the three types of phosphorylation (Ser, Thr, Tyr), the phosphate-modified residues were mapped by using the beta-elimination followed by Michael addition of dithiothreitol (BEMAD) method. Eleven phosphorylation sites were localized in the pOBP sequence and nine sites in the VEG sequence. OBPs are secreted by Bowman's gland cells in the extracellular mucus lining the nasal cavity. After tracking the secretion pathway in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, we hypothesize that these proteins may be phosphorylated by ectokinases that remain to be characterized. The existence of such a regulatory mechanism theoretically increases the number of OBP variants, and it suggests a more specific role for OBPs in odorant coding than the one of odorant solubilizer and transporter.

  15. Novel stereospecificity of the L-arabinose-binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiocho, Florante A.; Vyas, Nand K.

    1984-08-01

    Tertiary structure refinement at 1.7 Å resolution of the liganded form of L-arabinose-binding protein from Escherichia coli has revealed a novel binding site geometry which accommodates both α- and β-anomers of L-arabinose. This detailed structure analysis provides new understanding of protein-sugar interaction, the process by which the binding protein minimizes the difference in the stability of the two bound sugar anomers, and the roles of periplasmic binding proteins in active transport

  16. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  17. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  18. Neurodegeneration and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    De Conti, Laura; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    In the eukaryotic nucleus, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a very important role in the life cycle of both coding and noncoding RNAs. As soon as they are transcribed, in fact, all RNA molecules within a cell are bound by distinct sets of RBPs that have the task of regulating its correct processing, transport, stability, and function/translation up to its final degradation. These tasks are particularly important in cells that have a complex RNA metabolism, such as neurons. Not surprisingly, therefore, recent findings have shown that the misregulation of genes involved in RNA metabolism or the autophagy/proteasome pathway plays an important role in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we aim to review the recent advances that link neurodegenerative processes and RBP proteins. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1394. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1394 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    He, X; Li, Y; Schembri-King, J; Jakes, S; Hayashi, J

    2000-08-01

    Human Lnk (hLnk) is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains that regulates T cell activation signaling. In order to identify cellular Lnk binding partners, a yeast two-hybrid screening of human spleen cDNA library was carried out using human hLnk as bait. A polypeptide sequence identical to the C-terminal segment of the actin binding protein (ABP-280) was identified as a hLnk binding protein. The expressed hLnk and the FLAG tagged C-terminal 673 amino acid residues of ABP-280 or the endogenous ABP-280 in COS-7 cells could be co-immunoprecipitated using antibodies either to hLnk, FLAG or ABP-280, respectively. Furthermore, immunofluorescence confocal microscope showed that hLnk and ABP-280 co-localized at the plasma membrane and at juxtanuclear region of COS-7 cells. In Jurkat cells, the endogenous hLnk also associates with the endogenous ABP-280 indicating that the association of these two proteins is physiological. The interacting domains of both proteins were mapped using yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results indicate that hLnk binds to the residues 2006-2454 (repeats 19-23C) of ABP-280. The domain in hLnk that associates with ABP-280 was mapped to an interdomain region of 56 amino acids between pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains. These results suggest that hLnk may exert its regulatory role through its association with ABP-280.

  20. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  1. Selective 14-3-3γ induction quenches p-β-catenin Ser37/Bax-enhanced cell death in cerebral cortical neurons during ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, X J; Ye, S Q; Zheng, L; Li, L; Liu, Q R; Yu, S B; Pang, Y; Jin, S; Li, Q; Yu, A C H; Chen, X Q

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-induced cell death is a major cause of disability or death after stroke. Identifying the key intrinsic protective mechanisms induced by ischemia is critical for the development of effective stroke treatment. Here, we reported that 14-3-3γ was a selective ischemia-inducible survival factor in cerebral cortical neurons reducing cell death by downregulating Bax depend direct 14-3-3γ/p-β-catenin Ser37 interactions in the nucleus. 14-3-3γ, but not other 14-3-3 isoforms, was upregulated in primary cerebral cortical neurons upon oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) as measured by quantitative PCR, western blot and fluorescent immunostaining. The selective induction of 14-3-3γ in cortical neurons by OGD was verified by the in vivo ischemic stroke model. Knocking down 14-3-3γ alone or inhibiting 14-3-3/client interactions was sufficient to induce cell death in normal cultured neurons and exacerbate OGD-induced neuronal death. Ectopic overexpression of 14-3-3γ significantly reduced OGD-induced cell death in cultured neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer demonstrated that endogenous 14-3-3γ bound directly to more p-β-catenin Ser37 but not p-Bad, p-Ask-1, p-p53 and Bax. During OGD, p-β-catenin Ser37 but not p-β-catenin Ser45 was increased prominently, which correlated with Bax elevation in cortical neurons. OGD promoted the entry of 14-3-3γ into the nuclei, in correlation with the increase of nuclear p-β-catenin Ser37 in neurons. Overexpression of 14-3-3γ significantly reduced Bax expression, whereas knockdown of 14-3-3γ increased Bax in cortical neurons. Abolishing β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser37 (S37A) significantly reduced Bax and cell death in neurons upon OGD. Finally, 14-3-3γ overexpression completely suppressed β-catenin-enhanced Bax and cell death in neurons upon OGD. Based on these data, we propose that the 14-3-3γ/p-β-catenin Ser37/Bax axis determines cell survival or death of neurons during ischemia

  2. Differential 14-3-3 sigma DNA methylation and expression in c-myc- and activated H-ras-transformed cells under r- and K-selection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukari; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-08

    We cloned rat 14-3-3 sigma, a mediator of p53 tumor suppressor, as a target of K-selection. 14-3-3 sigma expression is suppressed with DNA methylation in breast cancers while its overexpression with hypomethylation is frequent in pancreatic cancers. These opposite findings were recapitulated through r- and K-selection of transformed rat embryo fibroblasts. 14-3-3 sigma expression was suppressed with DNA methylation after r-selection and the gene was overexpressed and demethylated in K-selected cells. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine recovered 14-3-3 sigma expression in r-selected cells. The presence of heterogeneous methylation patterns and expression levels before selection suggests that different 14-3-3 sigma expression levels play a role as a prerequisite for selection and clonal evolution.

  3. BindML/BindML+: Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Interface Propensity from Amino Acid Substitution Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; La, David; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in a protein structure provides important information for elucidating the mechanism of protein function and can also be useful in guiding a modeling or design procedures of protein complex structures. Since prediction methods essentially assess the propensity of amino acids that are likely to be part of a protein docking interface, they can help in designing protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce BindML and BindML+ protein-protein interaction sites prediction methods. BindML predicts protein-protein interaction sites by identifying mutation patterns found in known protein-protein complexes using phylogenetic substitution models. BindML+ is an extension of BindML for distinguishing permanent and transient types of protein-protein interaction sites. We developed an interactive web-server that provides a convenient interface to assist in structural visualization of protein-protein interactions site predictions. The input data for the web-server are a tertiary structure of interest. BindML and BindML+ are available at http://kiharalab.org/bindml/ and http://kiharalab.org/bindml/plus/ .

  4. Neuronal calcium-binding proteins and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J; Reynolds, G P

    2002-09-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) such as calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin are used as immunohistochemical markers for discrete neuronal subpopulations. They are particularly useful in identifying the various subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons that control output from prefrontal and cingulate cortices as well as from the hippocampus. The strategic role these interneurons play in regulating output from these three crucial brain regions has made them a focus for neuropathological investigation in schizophrenia. The number of pathological reports detailing subtle changes in these CBP-containing interneurons in patients with schizophrenia is rapidly growing. These proteins however are more than convenient neuronal markers. They confer survival advantages to neurons and can increase the neuron's ability to sustain firing. These properties may be important in the subtle pathophysiology of nondegenerative phenomena such as schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to the functional properties of CBPs and to examine the emerging literature reporting alterations in these proteins in schizophrenia as well as draw some conclusions about the significance of these findings.

  5. Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Joel; Gurumoorthy, Sairam; Gibson, Claire; Melcher, Martin; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Wang, Ruobing; Schief, William R.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s) lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development. PMID:23853575

  6. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  7. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  8. Prediction of zinc finger DNA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Nakata, K

    1995-04-01

    Using the neural network algorithm with back-propagation training procedure, we analysed the zinc finger DNA binding protein sequences. We incorporated the characteristic patterns around the zinc finger motifs TFIIIA type (Cys-X2-5-Cys-X12-13-His-X2-5-His) and the steroid hormone receptor type (Cys-X2-5-Cys-X12-15-Cys-X2-5-Cys-X15-16-Cys-X4-5-Cys-X8-10- Cys-X2-3-Cys) in the neural network algorithm. The patterns used in the neural network were the amino acid pattern, the electric charge and polarity pattern, the side-chain chemical property and subproperty patterns, the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity patterns and the secondary structure propensity pattern. Two consecutive patterns were also considered. Each pattern was incorporated in the single layer perceptron algorithm and the combinations of patterns were considered in the two-layer perceptron algorithm. As for the TFIIIA type zinc finger DNA binding motifs, the prediction results of the two-layer perceptron algorithm reached up to 96.9% discrimination, and the prediction results of the discriminant analysis using the combination of several characters reached up to 97.0%. As for the steroid hormone receptor type zinc finger, the prediction results of neural network algorithm and the discriminant analyses reached up to 96.0%.

  9. Penicillin-binding proteins in Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Because some Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are β-lactam-producing bacteria, they have to have some self-resistant mechanism. The β-lactam biosynthetic gene clusters include genes for β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), suggesting that these are involved in self-resistance. However, direct evidence for the involvement of β-lactamases does not exist at the present time. Instead, phylogenetic analysis revealed that PBPs in Streptomyces are distinct in that Streptomyces species have much more PBPs than other Actinobacteria, and that two to three pairs of similar PBPs are present in most Streptomyces species examined. Some of these PBPs bind benzylpenicillin with very low affinity and are highly similar in their amino-acid sequences. Furthermore, other low-affinity PBPs such as SCLAV_4179 in Streptomyces clavuligerus, a β-lactam-producing Actinobacterium, may strengthen further the self-resistance against β-lactams. This review discusses the role of PBPs in resistance to benzylpenicillin in Streptomyces belonging to Actinobacteria.

  10. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  11. An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Natalie T; Nelson, Jim; Flory, Mark R; Joseph, Jomon; Th'ng, John; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dasso, Mary; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2006-08-22

    Using a chemical genetics screen, we have identified ent-15-oxokaurenoic acid (EKA) as a chemical that causes prolonged mitotic arrest at a stage resembling prometaphase. EKA inhibits the association of the mitotic motor protein centromeric protein E with kinetochores and inhibits chromosome movement. Unlike most antimitotic agents, EKA does not inhibit the polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin. To identify EKA-interacting proteins, we used a cell-permeable biotinylated form that retains biological activity to isolate binding proteins from living cells. Mass spectrometric analysis identified six EKA-binding proteins, including Ran-binding protein 2, a kinetochore protein whose depletion by small interfering RNA causes a similar mitotic arrest phenotype.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, D; Dembinski, J; Heep, A; Bartmann, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in preterm infants with neonatal bacterial infection (NBI). Methods: Blood samples were analysed of 57 preterm (28+1 to 36+6, median 33+2 weeks gestation) and 17 term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 72 hours of life with suspicion of NBI. Samples were obtained at first suspicion of sepsis and after 12 and 24 hours. Diagnosis of NBI was confirmed by raised concentrations of C reactive protein and/or interleukin 6. The influence of gestational age and labour was analysed. Results: Maximum LBP concentrations in infants with NBI were greatly increased compared with infants without NBI (13.0–46.0 µg/ml (median 20.0 µg/ml) v 0.6–17.4 µg/ml (median 4.2 µg/ml)). LBP concentrations in infected infants were not yet significantly raised when NBI was first suspected. The LBP concentrations of preterm infants were comparable to those of term infants. Regression analysis revealed no significant effect of labour or gestational age on LBP. Conclusions: Raised LBP concentrations indicate NBI in preterm and term infants. Preterm infants of > 28 weeks gestation seem to be capable of producing LBP as efficiently as term infants. Neonatal LBP concentrations are not influenced by labour. LBP may be a useful diagnostic marker of NBI in preterm infants. PMID:15499153

  13. A Negative Regulatory Mechanism Involving 14-3-3ζ Limits Signaling Downstream of ROCK to Regulate Tissue Stiffness in Epidermal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kular, Jasreen; Scheer, Kaitlin G; Pyne, Natasha T; Allam, Amr H; Pollard, Anthony N; Magenau, Astrid; Wright, Rebecca L; Kolesnikoff, Natasha; Moretti, Paul A; Wullkopf, Lena; Stomski, Frank C; Cowin, Allison J; Woodcock, Joanna M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Pitson, Stuart M; Timpson, Paul; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Lopez, Angel F; Samuel, Michael S

    2015-12-21

    ROCK signaling causes epidermal hyper-proliferation by increasing ECM production, elevating dermal stiffness, and enhancing Fak-mediated mechano-transduction signaling. Elevated dermal stiffness in turn causes ROCK activation, establishing mechano-reciprocity, a positive feedback loop that can promote tumors. We have identified a negative feedback mechanism that limits excessive ROCK signaling during wound healing and is lost in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Signal flux through ROCK was selectively tuned down by increased levels of 14-3-3ζ, which interacted with Mypt1, a ROCK signaling antagonist. In 14-3-3ζ(-/-) mice, unrestrained ROCK signaling at wound margins elevated ECM production and reduced ECM remodeling, increasing dermal stiffness and causing rapid wound healing. Conversely, 14-3-3ζ deficiency enhanced cutaneous SCC size. Significantly, inhibiting 14-3-3ζ with a novel pharmacological agent accelerated wound healing 2-fold. Patient samples of chronic non-healing wounds overexpressed 14-3-3ζ, while cutaneous SCCs had reduced 14-3-3ζ. These results reveal a novel 14-3-3ζ-dependent mechanism that negatively regulates mechano-reciprocity, suggesting new therapeutic opportunities.

  14. 14-3-3ζ deficient mice in the BALB/c background display behavioural and anatomical defects associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangjun; Jaehne, Emily J; Greenberg, Zarina; McCarthy, Peter; Saleh, Eiman; Parish, Clare L; Camera, Daria; Heng, Julian; Haas, Matilda; Baune, Bernhard T; Ratnayake, Udani; van den Buuse, Maarten; Lopez, Angel F; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Schwarz, Quenten

    2015-07-24

    Sequencing and expression analyses implicate 14-3-3ζ as a genetic risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In support of this notion, we recently found that 14-3-3ζ(-/-) mice in the Sv/129 background display schizophrenia-like defects. As epistatic interactions play a significant role in disease pathogenesis we generated a new congenic strain in the BALB/c background to determine the impact of genetic interactions on the 14-3-3ζ(-/-) phenotype. In addition to replicating defects such as aberrant mossy fibre connectivity and impaired spatial memory, our analysis of 14-3-3ζ(-/-) BALB/c mice identified enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced synaptic density and ectopically positioned pyramidal neurons in all subfields of the hippocampus. In contrast to our previous analyses, 14-3-3ζ(-/-) BALB/c mice lacked locomotor hyperactivity that was underscored by normal levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine signalling. Taken together, our results demonstrate that dysfunction of 14-3-3ζ gives rise to many of the pathological hallmarks associated with the human condition. 14-3-3ζ-deficient BALB/c mice therefore provide a novel model to address the underlying biology of structural defects affecting the hippocampus and ventricle, and cognitive defects such as hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  15. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  16. Identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel J; Henderson, Brian; Sharp, Lindsay J; Nair, Sean P

    2002-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has been reported to bind to a number of host cell extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin. Here we report the identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from S. epidermidis. A phage display library of S. epidermidis genomic DNA was constructed and panned against immobilized fibronectin. A number of phagemid clones containing overlapping inserts were identified, and one of these clones, pSE109FN, contained a 1.4-kb insert. Phage pSE109FN was found to bind to fibronectin but not to collagen, fibrinogen, laminin, or vitronectin. However, pSE109FN also bound to heparin, hyaluronate, and plasminogen, although to a lesser extent than it bound to fibronectin. Analysis of The Institute for Genomic Research S. epidermidis genome sequence database revealed a 1.85-kb region within a putative 30.5-kb open reading frame, to which the overlapping DNA inserts contained within the fibronectin-binding phagemids mapped. We have designated the gene encoding the fibronectin-binding domain embp. A recombinant protein, Embp32, which encompassed the fibronectin-binding domain of Embp, blocked the binding of S. epidermidis, but not the binding of Staphylococcus aureus, to fibronectin. In contrast, a recombinant protein, FnBPB[D1-D4], spanning the fibronectin-binding domain of the S. aureus fibronectin-binding protein FnBPB, blocked binding of S. aureus to fibronectin but had a negligible effect on the binding of S. epidermidis.

  17. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  18. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets.

  19. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  20. Exploring NMR ensembles of calcium binding proteins: Perspectives to design inhibitors of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disrupting protein-protein interactions by small organic molecules is nowadays a promising strategy employed to block protein targets involved in different pathologies. However, structural changes occurring at the binding interfaces make difficult drug discovery processes using structure-based drug design/virtual screening approaches. Here we focused on two homologous calcium binding proteins, calmodulin and human centrin 2, involved in different cellular functions via protein-protein interactions, and known to undergo important conformational changes upon ligand binding. Results In order to find suitable protein conformations of calmodulin and centrin for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening, we performed in silico structural/energetic analysis and molecular docking of terphenyl (a mimicking alpha-helical molecule known to inhibit protein-protein interactions of calmodulin) into X-ray and NMR ensembles of calmodulin and centrin. We employed several scoring methods in order to find the best protein conformations. Our results show that docking on NMR structures of calmodulin and centrin can be very helpful to take into account conformational changes occurring at protein-protein interfaces. Conclusions NMR structures of protein-protein complexes nowadays available could efficiently be exploited for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening processes employed to design small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21569443

  1. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins.

  2. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  3. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  4. Plasma protein binding: from discovery to development.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Tonika; Gan, Liang-Shang

    2013-09-01

    The importance of plasma protein binding (PPB) in modulating the effective drug concentration at pharmacological target sites has been the topic of significant discussion and debate amongst drug development groups over the past few decades. Free drug theory, which states that in absence of energy-dependent processes, after steady state equilibrium has been attained, free drug concentration in plasma is equal to free drug concentration at the pharmacologic target receptor(s) in tissues, has been used to explain pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics relationships in a large number of cases. Any sudden increase in free concentration of a drug could potentially cause toxicity and may need dose adjustment. Free drug concentration is also helpful to estimate the effective concentration of drugs that potentially can precipitate metabolism (or transporter)-related drug-drug interactions. Disease models are extensively validated in animals to progress a compound into development. Unbound drug concentration, and therefore PPB information across species is very informative in establishing safety margins and guiding selection of First in Human (FIH) dose and human efficacious dose. The scope of this review is to give an overview of reported role of PPB in several therapeutic areas, highlight cases where PPB changes are clinically relevant, and provide drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics recommendations in discovery and development settings.

  5. Phosphorylation of Rap1 by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Creates a Binding Site for KSR to Sustain ERK Activation by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Maho; Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Stork, Philip J S

    2017-01-27

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1 have been proposed to mediate this activation. Using HEK293 cells as a model system, we have recently shown that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. However, cAMP-dependent Ras signaling to ERKs is transient and rapidly terminated by PKA phosphorylation of the Raf isoforms C-Raf and B-Raf. In contrast, cAMP-dependent Rap1 signaling to ERKs and Rap1 is potentiated by PKA. We show that this is due to sustained binding of B-Raf to Rap1. One of the targets of PKA is Rap1 itself, directly phosphorylating Rap1a on serine 180 and Rap1b on serine 179. We show that these phosphorylations create potential binding sites for the adaptor protein 14-3-3 that links Rap1 to the scaffold protein KSR. These results suggest that Rap1 activation of ERKs requires PKA phosphorylation and KSR binding. Because KSR and B-Raf exist as heterodimers within the cell, this binding also brings B-Raf to Rap1, allowing Rap1 to couple to ERKs through B-Raf binding to Rap1 independently of its Ras-binding domain.

  6. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  7. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  8. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-08-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L.

  9. Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.

    PubMed

    Gossett, R E; Frolov, A A; Roths, J B; Behnke, W D; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to microM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functions in vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred microM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.

  10. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    PubMed Central

    Teyra, Joan; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Anders, Gerd; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs) might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions. The hierarchical

  11. Inhibition of Specific NF-κB Activity Contributes to the Tumor Suppressor Function of 14-3-3σ in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Morales, Mònica; Dalmases, Alba; Garcia-Carbonell, Ricard; Jené-Sanz, Alba; López-Bigas, Núria; Iglesias, Mar; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Rovira, Ana; Rojo, Federico; Albanell, Joan; Gomis, Roger R.

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3σ is frequently lost in human breast cancers by genetic deletion or promoter methylation. We have now investigated the involvement of 14-3-3σ in the termination of NF-κB signal in mammary cells and its putative role in cancer relapse and metastasis. Our results show that 14-3-3σ regulates nuclear export of p65-NF-κB following chronic TNFα stimulation. Restoration of 14-3-3σ in breast cancer cells reduces migration capacity and metastatic abilities in vivo. By microarray analysis, we have identified a genetic signature that responds to TNFα in a 14-3-3σ-dependent manner and significantly associates with different breast and other types of cancer. By interrogating public databases, we have found that over-expression of this signature correlates with poor relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients. Finally, screening of 96 human breast tumors showed that NF-κB activation strictly correlates with the absence of 14-3-3σ and it is significantly associated with worse prognosis in the multivariate analysis. Our findings identify a genetic signature that is important for breast cancer prognosis and for future personalized treatments based on NF-κB targeting. PMID:22675457

  12. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  13. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G; Moses, John E; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-11-16

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  14. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  15. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  16. Identification of a common hyaluronan binding motif in the hyaluronan binding proteins RHAMM, CD44 and link protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B; Yang, B L; Savani, R C; Turley, E A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two hyaluronan (HA) binding domains in the HA receptor, RHAMM, that occur near the carboxyl-terminus of this protein. We show here that these two HA binding domains are the only HA binding regions in RHAMM, and that they contribute approximately equally to the HA binding ability of this receptor. Mutation of domain II using recombinant polypeptides of RHAMM demonstrates that K423 and R431, spaced seven amino acids apart, are critical for HA binding activity. Domain I contains two sets of two basic amino acids, each spaced seven residues apart, and mutation of these basic amino acids reduced their binding to HA--Sepharose. These results predict that two basic amino acids flanking a seven amino acid stretch [hereafter called B(X7)B] are minimally required for HA binding activity. To assess whether this motif predicts HA binding in the intact RHAMM protein, we mutated all basic amino acids in domains I and II that form part of these motifs using site-directed mutagenesis and prepared fusion protein from the mutated cDNA. The altered RHAMM protein did not bind HA, confirming that the basic amino acids and their spacing are critical for binding. A specific requirement for arginine or lysine residues was identified since mutation of K430, R431 and K432 to histidine residues abolished binding. Clustering of basic amino acids either within or at either end of the motif enhanced HA binding activity while the occurrence of acidic residues between the basic amino acids reduced binding. The B(X7)B motif, in which B is either R or K and X7 contains no acidic residues and at least one basic amino acid, was found in all HA binding proteins molecularly characterized to date. Recombinant techniques were used to generate chimeric proteins containing either the B(X7)B motifs present in CD44 or link protein, with the amino-terminus of RHAMM (amino acids 1-238) that does not bind HA. All chimeric proteins containing the motif bound HA in transblot analyses

  17. High frequency of hypermethylation at the 14-3-3 σ locus leads to gene silencing in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Anne T.; Evron, Ella; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Pandita, Tej K.; Chan, Timothy A.; Hermeking, Heiko; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Lambers, Anouk R.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stampfer, Martha R.; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2000-01-01

    Expression of 14-3-3 σ (σ) is induced in response to DNA damage, and causes cells to arrest in G2. By SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) analysis, we identified σ as a gene whose expression is 7-fold lower in breast carcinoma cells than in normal breast epithelium. We verified this finding by Northern blot analysis. Remarkably, σ mRNA was undetectable in 45 of 48 primary breast carcinomas. Genetic alterations at σ such as loss of heterozygosity were rare (1/20 informative cases), and no mutations were detected (0/34). On the other hand, hypermethylation of CpG islands in the σ gene was detected in 91% (75/82) of breast tumors and was associated with lack of gene expression. Hypermethylation of σ is functionally important, because treatment of σ-non-expressing breast cancer cell lines with the drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of the gene and synthesis of σ mRNA. Breast cancer cells lacking σ expression showed increased number of chromosomal breaks and gaps when exposed to γ-irradiation. Therefore, it is possible that loss of σ expression contributes to malignant transformation by impairing the G2 cell cycle checkpoint function, thus allowing an accumulation of genetic defects. Hypermethylation and loss of σ expression are the most consistent molecular alterations in breast cancer identified so far. PMID:10811911

  18. Molecular simulations of multimodal ligand-protein binding: elucidation of binding sites and correlation with experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alexander S; Garde, Shekhar; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-11-17

    Multimodal chromatography, which employs more than one mode of interaction between ligands and proteins, has been shown to have unique selectivity and high efficacy for protein purification. To test the ability of free solution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water to identify binding regions on the protein surface and to shed light on the "pseudo affinity" nature of multimodal interactions, we performed MD simulations of a model protein ubiquitin in aqueous solution of free ligands. Comparisons of MD with NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin mutants in solutions of free ligands show a good agreement between the two with regard to the preferred binding region on the surface of the protein and several binding sites. MD simulations also identify additional binding sites that were not observed in the NMR experiments. "Bound" ligands were found to be sufficiently flexible and to access a number of favorable conformations, suggesting only a moderate loss of ligand entropy in the "pseudo affinity" binding of these multimodal ligands. Analysis of locations of chemical subunits of the ligand on the protein surface indicated that electrostatic interaction units were located on the periphery of the preferred binding region on the protein. The analysis of the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity maps, and the binding of both acetate and benzene probes were used to further study the localization of individual ligand moieties. These results suggest that water-mediated electrostatic interactions help the localization and orientation of the MM ligand to the binding region with additional stability provided by nonspecific hydrophobic interactions.

  19. Regulation of the mRNA-binding protein HuR by posttranslational modification: spotlight on phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Doller, Anke; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2012-06-01

    The ubiquitous mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) and its neuronal relatives (HuB, HuC, HuD) participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of many AU-rich element-bearing mRNAs. In addition to its originally described role in controlling mRNA decay, the binding of HuR to target mRNAs can affect many aspects of mRNA processing including splicing, polyadenylation, intracellular trafficking, translation and modulation of mRNA repression by miRNAs. In accordance to the growing list of signalling events which are involved in regulating these different HuR functions, recent data implicate that posttranslational modification, namely protein kinase-triggered phosphorylation of HuR plays a crucial role in connecting extracellular signal inputs to a specific post-transcriptional program by HuR. Notably, in addition to directly targeting HuR functions, posttranslational modifications of HuR have a major impact on the sequestration and binding to various HuR ligand proteins as has been demonstrated e.g. for the 14-3-3 chaperones. However, the detailed mechanisms of how a specific modification of HuR coordinates different aspects in HuR regulation are currently poorly understood. Due to the fact that most of the described HuR activities are closely related to its subcellular localization and the binding to cargo mRNA, this review will focus on these aspects of HuR functions and their control by posttranslational modification, particularly by HuR phosphorylations by different protein kinases.

  20. Identification of an imidazoline binding protein: Creatine kinase and an imidazoline-2 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Atsuko; Tyacke, Robin J.; Robinson, James J.; Husbands, Stephen M.; Minchin, Michael C.W.; Nutt, David J.; Hudson, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Drugs that bind to imidazoline binding proteins have major physiological actions. To date, three subtypes of such proteins, I1, I2 and I3, have been proposed, although characterisations of these binding proteins are lacking. I2 binding sites are found throughout the brain, particularly dense in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Selective I2 ligands demonstrate antidepressant-like activity and the identity of the proteins that respond to such ligands remained unknown until now. Here we report the isolation of a ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein from rabbit and rat brain using a high affinity ligand for the I2 subtype, 2-BFI, to generate an affinity column. Following protein sequencing of the isolated ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein, we identified it to be brain creatine kinase (B-CK). B-CK shows high binding capacity to selective I2 ligands; [3H]-2-BFI (5 nM) specifically bound to B-CK (2330 ± 815 fmol mg protein− 1). We predicted an I2 binding pocket near the active site of B-CK using molecular modelling. Furthermore, B-CK activity was inhibited by a selective I2 irreversible ligand, where 20 μM BU99006 reduced the enzyme activity by 16%, confirming the interaction between B-CK and the I2 ligand. In summary, we have identified B-CK to be the ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein and we have demonstrated the existence of an I2 binding site within this enzyme. The importance of B-CK in regulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release may well explain the various actions of I2 ligands in brain and the alterations in densities of I2 binding sites in psychiatric disorders. PMID:19410564

  1. Fibrinogen and Fibronectin Binding Activity and Immunogenic Nature of Choline Binding Protein M

    PubMed Central

    AFSHAR, Davoud; POURMAND, Mohammad Reza; JEDDI-TEHRANI, Mahmood; SABOOR YARAGHI, Ali Akbar; AZARSA, Mohammad; SHOKRI, Fazel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Choline-binding proteins (CBPs) are a group of surface-exposed proteins, which play crucial and physiological roles in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The novel member of CBPs, choline-binding protein M (CbpM) may have binding activity to plasma proteins. This study aimed to clone and express CbpM and demonstrate its interaction with plasma proteins and patients’ sera. Methods: The total length of cbpM gene was cloned in pET21a vector and expressed in BL21 expression host. Verification of recombinant protein was evaluated by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody. Binding ability of the recombinant protein to plasma proteins and the interaction with patients’ sera were assessed by Western blot and ELISA methods. Results: The cbpM gene was successfully cloned into pET21a and expressed in BL21 host. Binding activity to fibronectin and fibrinogen and antibody reaction of CbpM to patients’ sera was demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA methods, respectively. Conclusion: CbpM is one of the pneumococcal surface-exposed proteins, which mediates pneumococcal binding to fibronectin and fibrinogen proteins. PMID:28053927

  2. Binding of globular proteins to DNA from surface tension measurement.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Chattoraj, D K; Chakraborty, P

    2001-10-01

    Extent of binding (gammap) of globular proteins to calf-thymus DNA have been measured in mole per mole of nucleotide as function of equilibrium protein concentration. We have exploited measurement of the surface tension of the protein solution in the presence and absence of DNA to calculate the binding ration (gammap). Interaction of bovine serum albumin with DNA has been studied at different pH. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with DNA has been studied at different pH, ionic strength and in presence of Ca2+. Interaction of BSA with denatured DNA has also been investigated. Binding isotherms for other globular proteins like beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme have been compared under identical physicochemical condition. It has been noted with considerable interest that globular form of protein is important to some extent in protein-DNA interaction. An attempt has been made to explain the significance of difference in binding ratios of these two biopolymers in aqueous medium for different systems in the light of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects. Values of maximum binding ration (gammap(m)) at saturated level for different systems have been also presented. The Gibb's free energy decrease (-deltaG0) of the binding of proteins to DNA has been compared more precisely for the saturation of binding sites in the DNA with the change of activity of protein in solution from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale.

  3. Concentration-dependent Cu(II) binding to prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The prion protein plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of the prion protein is unknown, but it has been linked to its ability to bind copper ions. Experimental evidence suggests that copper can be bound in three distinct modes depending on its concentration, but only one of those binding modes has been fully characterized experimentally. Using a newly developed hybrid DFT/DFT method [1], which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT, we have examined all the binding modes and obtained their detailed binding geometries and copper ion binding energies. Our results also provide explanation for experiments, which have found that when the copper concentration increases the copper binding mode changes, surprisingly, from a stronger to a weaker one. Overall, our results indicate that prion protein can function as a copper buffer. 1. Hodak, Lu, Bernholc, JCP, in press.

  4. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  5. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  6. The RNA-binding protein Gemin5 binds directly to the ribosome and regulates global translation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in all organisms. The protein Gemin5 harbors two functional domains. The N-terminal domain binds to snRNAs targeting them for snRNPs assembly, while the C-terminal domain binds to IRES elements through a non-canonical RNA-binding site. Here we report a comprehensive view of the Gemin5 interactome; most partners copurified with the N-terminal domain via RNA bridges. Notably, Gemin5 sediments with the subcellular ribosome fraction, and His-Gemin5 binds to ribosome particles via its N-terminal domain. The interaction with the ribosome was lost in F381A and Y474A Gemin5 mutants, but not in W14A and Y15A. Moreover, the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 bind directly with Gemin5, and conversely, Gemin5 mutants impairing the binding to the ribosome are defective in the interaction with L3 and L4. The overall polysome profile was affected by Gemin5 depletion or overexpression, concomitant to an increase or a decrease, respectively, of global protein synthesis. Gemin5, and G5-Nter as well, were detected on the polysome fractions. These results reveal the ribosome-binding capacity of the N-ter moiety, enabling Gemin5 to control global protein synthesis. Our study uncovers a crosstalk between this protein and the ribosome, and provides support for the view that Gemin5 may control translation elongation. PMID:27507887

  7. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-08-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed.

  8. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed. PMID:23852086

  9. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  10. Structure and Function of Nematode RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kaymak, Ebru; Wee, L.M.; Ryder, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are critical effectors of gene expression. They guide mRNA localization, translation, and stability, and potentially play a role in regulating mRNA synthesis. The structural basis for RNA recognition by RNA-binding proteins is the key to understanding how they target specific transcripts for regulation. Compared to other metazoans, nematode genomes contain a significant expansion in several RNA-binding protein families, including Pumilio-FBF (PUF), TTP-like zinc finger (TZF), and argonaute-like (AGO) proteins. Genetic data suggest that individual members of each family have distinct functions, presumably due to sequence variations that alter RNA binding specificity or protein interaction partners. In this review, we highlight example structures and identify the variable regions that likely contribute to functional divergence in nematodes. PMID:20418095

  11. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  12. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-06

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.

  13. Comparative serum protein binding of anthracycline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chassany, O; Urien, S; Claudepierre, P; Bastian, G; Tillement, J P

    1996-01-01

    The binding of doxorubicin, iododoxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin, zorubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone to 600 microM human serum albumin and 50 microM alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was studied by ultrafiltration at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. Anthracycline concentrations (total and free) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection. Binding to albumin (600 microM) varied from 61% (daunorubicin) to 94% (iododoxorubicin). The binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (50 microM) was more variable, ranging from 31% (epirubicin) to 64% (zorubicin), and was essentially related to the hydrophobicity of the derivatives. Simulations showed that the total serum binding varied over a broad range from 71% (doxorubicin) to 96% (iododoxorubicin). We recently reported that the binding to lipoproteins of a series of eight anthracycline analogues could be ascribed to chemicophysical determinants of lipophilicity [2]. The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro the contribution of albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to the total serum binding of these drugs.

  14. Predicting protein-binding RNA nucleotides with consideration of binding partners.

    PubMed

    Tuvshinjargal, Narankhuu; Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2015-06-01

    In recent years several computational methods have been developed to predict RNA-binding sites in protein. Most of these methods do not consider interacting partners of a protein, so they predict the same RNA-binding sites for a given protein sequence even if the protein binds to different RNAs. Unlike the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein, the problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received little attention mainly because it is much more difficult and shows a lower accuracy on average. In our previous study, we developed a method that predicts protein-binding nucleotides from an RNA sequence. In an effort to improve the prediction accuracy and usefulness of the previous method, we developed a new method that uses both RNA and protein sequence data. In this study, we identified effective features of RNA and protein molecules and developed a new support vector machine (SVM) model to predict protein-binding nucleotides from RNA and protein sequence data. The new model that used both protein and RNA sequence data achieved a sensitivity of 86.5%, a specificity of 86.2%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72.6%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.8% and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.69 in a 10-fold cross validation; it achieved a sensitivity of 58.8%, a specificity of 87.4%, a PPV of 65.1%, a NPV of 84.2% and MCC of 0.48 in independent testing. For comparative purpose, we built another prediction model that used RNA sequence data alone and ran it on the same dataset. In a 10 fold-cross validation it achieved a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 80.5%, a PPV of 67.7%, a NPV of 92.2% and MCC of 0.63; in independent testing it achieved a sensitivity of 67.7%, a specificity of 78.8%, a PPV of 57.6%, a NPV of 85.2% and MCC of 0.45. In both cross-validations and independent testing, the new model that used both RNA and protein sequences showed a better performance than the model that used RNA sequence data alone in

  15. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  16. 9S binding protein for androgens and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E M; Lea, O A; French, F S

    1977-05-01

    A steroid binding protein fraction with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 9 S (molecular weight approximately equal to 200,000) has been identified in 105,000 X g supernatants of several androgen-responsive organs. Highest concentrations were found in epididymis and testis, but small amounts were detected in prostate, seminal vesicle, kidney, submandibular gland, and lung. The 9S protein binds [3H]dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one) and [3H]progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione) with equilibrium binding constants of approximately 10(5) M-1 and 10(6) M-1, respectively. The concentration of 9S binding sites in epididymis is approximately 10(-11) mol/mg of supernatant protein, which is at least 10(5) times greater than the concentration of androgen receptor. 9S binding protein appears to be a nonsecretory, intracellular protein and has properties different from the andorgen receptor. It is unretarded on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography at pH 8.0, and its sedimentation rate on sucrose gradients is not altered at high ionic strength (0.4 M KCl). Like the androgen receptor, its binding activity, which is maximal between pH 7 and 9.5, is heat labile, decreased by sulfhydryl reagents, and enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. It is suggested that because of its high concentration and low affinity, 9S binding protein may function in the intracellular accumulation of compartmentalization of androgens or progesterone.

  17. Protein surface-distribution and protein-protein interactions in the binding of peripheral proteins to charged lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heimburg, T; Marsh, D

    1995-01-01

    The binding of native cytochrome c to negatively charged lipid dispersions of dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol has been studied over a wide range of ionic strengths. Not only is the strength of protein binding found to decrease rapidly with increasing ionic strength, but also the binding curves reach an apparent saturation level that decreases rapidly with increasing ionic strength. Analysis of the binding isotherms with a general statistical thermodynamic model that takes into account not only the free energy of the electrostatic double layer, but also the free energy of the surface distribution of the protein, demonstrates that the apparent saturation effects could arise from a competition between the out-of-plane binding reaction and the lateral in-plane interactions between proteins at the surface. It is found that association with nonlocalized sites results in binding isotherms that display the apparent saturation effect to a much more pronounced extent than does the Langmuir adsorption isotherm for binding to localized sites. With the model for nonlocalized sites, the binding isotherms of native cytochrome c can be described adequately by taking into account only the entropy of the surface distribution of the protein, without appreciable enthalpic interactions between the bound proteins. The binding of cytochrome c to dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol dispersions at a temperature at which the bound protein is denatured on the lipid surface, but is nondenatured when free in solution, has also been studied. The binding curves for the surface-denatured protein differ from those for the native protein in that the apparent saturation at high ionic strength is less pronounced. This indicates the tendency of the denatured protein to aggregate on the lipid surface, and can be described by the binding isotherms for nonlocalized sites only if attractive interactions between the surface-bound proteins are included in addition to the distributional entropic terms. Additionally

  18. Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging To Identify Protein Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient biomolecular interactions are the cornerstones of the cellular machinery. The identification of the binding sites for low affinity molecular encounters is essential for the development of high affinity pharmaceuticals from weakly binding leads but is hindered by the lack of robust methodologies for characterization of weakly binding complexes. We introduce a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of low affinity protein–ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, which are invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. The methodology is corroborated by identification of the low millimolar volatile anesthetic interaction site of the calcium sensor protein calmodulin. It presents an efficient route to binding site localization for low affinity complexes and is applicable to rapid screening of protein–ligand systems with varying binding affinity. PMID:26289584

  19. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  20. De-novo protein function prediction using DNA binding and RNA binding proteins as a test case

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Sapir; Leiderman, Olga; Charar, Rotem; Efroni, Gilat; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-01-01

    Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally. For example, FGF14, which belongs to a family of secreted growth factors was predicted to bind DNA. We verify this experimentally and also show that FGF14 is localized to the nucleus. Mutating the predicted binding site on FGF14 abrogated DNA binding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of automated de-novo function prediction based on identifying function-related biophysical features. PMID:27869118

  1. De-novo protein function prediction using DNA binding and RNA binding proteins as a test case.

    PubMed

    Peled, Sapir; Leiderman, Olga; Charar, Rotem; Efroni, Gilat; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-11-21

    Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally. For example, FGF14, which belongs to a family of secreted growth factors was predicted to bind DNA. We verify this experimentally and also show that FGF14 is localized to the nucleus. Mutating the predicted binding site on FGF14 abrogated DNA binding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of automated de-novo function prediction based on identifying function-related biophysical features.

  2. Prediction of DNA-binding proteins from relational features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The process of protein-DNA binding has an essential role in the biological processing of genetic information. We use relational machine learning to predict DNA-binding propensity of proteins from their structures. Automatically discovered structural features are able to capture some characteristic spatial configurations of amino acids in proteins. Results Prediction based only on structural relational features already achieves competitive results to existing methods based on physicochemical properties on several protein datasets. Predictive performance is further improved when structural features are combined with physicochemical features. Moreover, the structural features provide some insights not revealed by physicochemical features. Our method is able to detect common spatial substructures. We demonstrate this in experiments with zinc finger proteins. Conclusions We introduced a novel approach for DNA-binding propensity prediction using relational machine learning which could potentially be used also for protein function prediction in general. PMID:23146001

  3. Ca2+ signaling and intracellular Ca2+ binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Niki, I; Yokokura, H; Sudo, T; Kato, M; Hidaka, H

    1996-10-01

    Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations evoke a wide range of cellular responses and intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins are the key molecules to transduce Ca2+ signaling via enzymatic reactions or modulation of protein/protein interations (Fig.1). The EF hand proteins, like calmodulin and S100 proteins, are considered to exert Ca(2+)-dependent actions in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. The Ca2+/phospholipid binding proteins are classified into two groups, the annexins and the C2 region proteins. These proteins, distributed mainly in the cytoplasm, translocate to the plasma membrane in response to an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and function in the vicinity of the membrane. Ca2+ storage proteins in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum provide the high Ca2+ capacity of the Ca2+ store sites, which regulate intracellular Ca2+ distribution. The variety and complexity of Ca2+ signaling result from the cooperative actions of specific Ca(2+)-binding proteins. This review describes biochemical properties of intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins and their proposed roles in mediating Ca2+ signaling.

  4. A new aspect of serum protein binding of tolbutamide.

    PubMed

    Ayanoğlu, G; Uihlein, M; Grigoleit, H G

    1986-02-01

    Tolbutamide is known to bind highly to serum proteins. Quite different values have, however, been reported for binding, ranging from 80 to 99 percent. In this study, in vivo and in vitro binding of increasing concentrations of tolbutamide to human serum proteins were evaluated. In vitro studies were done serum from three healthy males and for in vivo studies serum samples from eight healthy males who had received 1,000 mg tolbutamide were used. Protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis, using DIANORM system. Tolbutamide concentrations were determined by HPLC method of Uihlein and Hack. The results suggest that there is an increase in percent tolbutamide bound with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. Generally, an inverse relationship between the total concentration of a drug in serum and its bound fraction is observed. Our findings seem to be contrary to this, at least within the concentration range studied. There exist at least two binding sites on albumin with different affinities for tolbutamide and most probably, at low concentrations, the drug binds mainly to the high affinity sites, whereas at higher concentrations additional drug will bind to the lower affinity sites leading to the observed increase in fraction bound with concentration. In conclusion it may be said that serum protein binding is a much more complicated phenomenon than generally stated and that the normal observations are only true for some ideal compounds where only one site of adsorption has to be taken into account.

  5. Nucleic acid-binding specificity of human FUS protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueyin; Schwartz, Jacob C.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    FUS, a nuclear RNA-binding protein, plays multiple roles in RNA processing. Five specific FUS-binding RNA sequence/structure motifs have been proposed, but their affinities for FUS have not been directly compared. Here we find that human FUS binds all these sequences with Kdapp values spanning a 10-fold range. Furthermore, some RNAs that do not contain any of these motifs bind FUS with similar affinity. FUS binds RNA in a length-dependent manner, consistent with a substantial non-specific component to binding. Finally, investigation of FUS binding to different nucleic acids shows that it binds single-stranded DNA with three-fold lower affinity than ssRNA of the same length and sequence, while binding to double-stranded nucleic acids is weaker. We conclude that FUS has quite general nucleic acid-binding activity, with the various proposed RNA motifs being neither necessary for FUS binding nor sufficient to explain its diverse binding partners. PMID:26150427

  6. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  7. Carbohydrate-binding protein identification by coupling structural similarity searching with binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; von Itzstein, Mark; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2014-11-15

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins (CBPs) are potential biomarkers and drug targets. However, the interactions between carbohydrates and proteins are challenging to study experimentally and computationally because of their low binding affinity, high flexibility, and the lack of a linear sequence in carbohydrates as exists in RNA, DNA, and proteins. Here, we describe a structure-based function-prediction technique called SPOT-Struc that identifies carbohydrate-recognizing proteins and their binding amino acid residues by structural alignment program SPalign and binding affinity scoring according to a knowledge-based statistical potential based on the distance-scaled finite-ideal gas reference state (DFIRE). The leave-one-out cross-validation of the method on 113 carbohydrate-binding domains and 3442 noncarbohydrate binding proteins yields a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.56 for SPalign alone and 0.63 for SPOT-Struc (SPalign + binding affinity scoring) for CBP prediction. SPOT-Struc is a technique with high positive predictive value (79% correct predictions in all positive CBP predictions) with a reasonable sensitivity (52% positive predictions in all CBPs). The sensitivity of the method was changed slightly when applied to 31 APO (unbound) structures found in the protein databank (14/31 for APO versus 15/31 for HOLO). The result of SPOT-Struc will not change significantly if highly homologous templates were used. SPOT-Struc predicted 19 out of 2076 structural genome targets as CBPs. In particular, one uncharacterized protein in Bacillus subtilis (1oq1A) was matched to galectin-9 from Mus musculus. Thus, SPOT-Struc is useful for uncovering novel carbohydrate-binding proteins. SPOT-Struc is available at http://sparks-lab.org.

  8. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of Cytokinesis Actin-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Morganthaler, Alisha N; Kovar, David R; Suarez, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the biochemical and biophysical properties of purified proteins is critical to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that facilitate complicated cellular processes such as cytokinesis. Here we outline in vitro assays to investigate the effects of cytokinesis actin-binding proteins on actin filament dynamics and organization. We describe (1) multicolor single-molecule TIRF microscopy actin assembly assays, (2) "bulk" pyrene actin assembly/disassembly assays, and (3) "bulk" sedimentation actin filament binding and bundling assays.

  9. Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    fatty acid probe anilinonaphtalene-8- sulphonic acid (ANS) was measured. ANS readily associates with various FABPs and its fluorescence is highly...DAMD17-03-1-0249 TITLE: Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein and Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leslie J. (Willmert) Donato...DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 Apr 03 – 13 Apr 06 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein and Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  10. Theoretical studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA binding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A.

    Proteins are folded chains of amino acids. Some of the amino acids (e.g. Lys, Arg, His, Asp, and Glu) carry charges under physiological conditions. Proteins almost always function through binding to other proteins or ligands, for example barnase is a ribonuclease protein, found in the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaceus. Barnase degrades RNA by hydrolysis. For the bacterium to inhibit the potentially lethal action of Barnase within its own cell it co-produces another protein called barstar which binds quickly, and tightly, to barnase. The biological function of this binding is to block the active site of barnase. The speeds (rates) at which proteins associate are vital to many biological processes. They span a wide range (from less than 103 to 108 M-1s-1 ). Rates greater than ˜ 106 M -1s-1 are typically found to be manifestations of enhancements by long-range electrostatic interactions between the associating proteins. A different paradigm appears in the case of protein binding to DNA. The rate in this case is enhanced through attractive surface potential that effectively reduces the dimensionality of the available search space for the diffusing protein. This thesis presents computational and theoretical models on the rate of association of ligands/proteins to other proteins or DNA. For protein-protein association we present a general strategy for computing protein-protein rates of association. The main achievements of this strategy is the ability to obtain a stringent reaction criteria based on the landscape of short-range interactions between the associating proteins, and the ability to compute the effect of the electrostatic interactions on the rates of association accurately using the best known solvers for Poisson-Boltzmann equation presently available. For protein-DNA association we present a mathematical model for proteins targeting specific sites on a circular DNA topology. The main achievements are the realization that a linear DNA with reflecting ends

  11. Being a binding site: characterizing residue composition of binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Iván, Gábor; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince

    2007-12-30

    The Protein Data Bank contains the description of more than 45,000 three-dimensional protein and nucleic-acid structures today. Started to exist as the computer-readable depository of crystallographic data complementing printed articles, the proper interpretation of the content of the individual files in the PDB still frequently needs the detailed information found in the citing publication. This fact implies that the fully automatic processing of the whole PDB is a very hard task. We first cleaned and re-structured the PDB data, then analyzed the residue composition of the binding sites in the whole PDB for frequency and for hidden association rules. Main results of the paper: (i) the cleaning and repairing algorithm (ii) redundancy elimination from the data (iii) application of association rule mining to the cleaned non-redundant data set. We have found numerous significant relations of the residue-composition of the ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, summarized in two figures. One of the classical data-mining methods for exploring implication-rules, the association-rule mining, is capable to find previously unknown residue-set preferences of bind ligands on protein surfaces. Since protein-ligand binding is a key step in enzymatic mechanisms and in drug discovery, these uncovered preferences in the study of more than 19,500 binding sites may help in identifying new binding protein-ligand pairs.

  12. Evidence against a Role for the JIL-1 Kinase in H3S28 Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Recruitment to Active Genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yeran; Cai, Weili; Bao, Xiaomin; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen; Johansen, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    JIL-1 is the major kinase controlling phosphorylation of histone H3S10 and has been demonstrated to function to counteract heterochromatization and gene silencing. However, an alternative model has been proposed in which JIL-1 is required for transcription to occur, additionally phosphorylates H3S28, and recruits 14-3-3 to active genes. Since these findings are incompatible with our previous demonstration that there are robust levels of transcription in the complete absence of JIL-1 and that JIL-1 is not present at developmental or heat shock-induced polytene chromosome puffs, we have reexamined JIL-1’s possible role in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment. Using two different H3S28ph antibodies we show by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting that in Drosophila the H3S28ph mark is not present at detectable levels above background on polytene chromosomes at interphase but only on chromosomes at pro-, meta-, and anaphase during cell division in S2 cells and third instar larval neuroblasts. Moreover, this mitotic H3S28ph signal is also present in a JIL-1 null mutant background at undiminished levels suggesting that JIL-1 is not the mitotic H3S28ph kinase. We also demonstrate that H3S28ph is not enriched at heat shock puffs. Using two different pan-specific 14-3-3 antibodies as well as an enhancer trap 14-3-3ε-GFP line we show that 14-3-3, while present in salivary gland nuclei, does not localize to chromosomes but only to the nuclear matrix surrounding the chromosomes. In our hands 14-3-3 is not recruited to developmental or heat shock puffs. Furthermore, using a lacO repeat tethering system to target LacI-JIL-1 to ectopic sites on polytene chromosomes we show that only H3S10ph is present and upregulated at such sites, not H3S28ph or 14-3-3. Thus, our results argue strongly against a model where JIL-1 is required for H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment at active genes. PMID:23638096

  13. A 14-3-3γ dimer-based scaffold bridges CtBP1-S/BARS to PI(4)KIIIβ to regulate post-Golgi carrier formation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Carmen; Turacchio, Gabriele; Mariggiò, Stefania; Pagliuso, Alessandro; Gaibisso, Renato; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Santoro, Michele; Formiggini, Fabio; Spanò, Stefania; Piccini, Daniele; Polishchuk, Roman S; Colanzi, Antonino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2012-02-26

    Large pleiomorphic carriers leave the Golgi complex for the plasma membrane by en bloc extrusion of specialized tubular domains, which then undergo fission. Several components of the underlying molecular machinery have been identified, including those involved in the budding/initiation of tubular carrier precursors (for example, the phosphoinositide kinase PI(4)KIIIβ, the GTPase ARF, and FAPP2), and in the fission of these precursors (for example, PKD, CtBP1-S/BARS). However, how these proteins interact to bring about carrier formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a protein complex that mediates carrier formation and contains budding and fission molecules, as well as other molecules, such as the adaptor protein 14-3-3γ. Specifically, we show that 14-3-3γ dimers bridge CtBP1-S/BARS with PI(4)KIIIβ, and that the resulting complex is stabilized by phosphorylation by PKD and PAK. Disrupting the association of these proteins inhibits the fission of elongating carrier precursors, indicating that this complex couples the carrier budding and fission processes.

  14. Characterization of binding of N'-nitrosonornicotine to protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent activation of the carcinogenic nitrosamine, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) to a reactive intermediate which binds covalently to protein was assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rat liver and lung microsomes. The NADPH-dependent covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)NNN to liver and lung microsomes was linear with time up to 90 and 45 min, respectively and was also linear with protein concentrations up to 3.0 and 2.0 mg/ml, respectively. The apparent K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ of the NADPH-dependent binding to liver microsomes were determined from the initial velocities. Addition of the thiols glutathione, cystein, N-acetylcysteine or 2-mercapthoethanol significantly decreased the non-NADPH-dependent binding to liver microsomal protein, but did not affect the NADPH-dependent binding. Glutathione was required in order to observe any NADPH-dependent binding to lung microsomal protein. In lung microsomes, SKF-525A significantly decreased the NADPH-dependent binding by 79%. Replacement of an air atmosphere with N/sub 2/ or CO:O/sub 2/ (8:2) significantly decreased the NADPH-dependent binding of (/sup 14/C)NNN to liver microsomal protein by 40% or 27% respectively. Extensive covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)NNN to liver and muscle microsomal protein occurred in the absence of an NADPH-generating system, in the presence of 50% methanol and also to bovine serum albumin, indicating a nonenzymatic reaction. These data indicate that cytochrome P-450 is at least in part responsible for the metabolic activation of the carcinogen NNN, but also suggest additional mechanisms of activation.

  15. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  20. Discodermolide interferes with the binding of tau protein to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kar, Santwana; Florence, Gordon J; Paterson, Ian; Amos, Linda A

    2003-03-27

    We investigated whether discodermolide, a novel antimitotic agent, affects the binding to microtubules of tau protein repeat motifs. Like taxol, the new drug reduces the proportion of tau that pellets with microtubules. Despite their differing structures, discodermolide, taxol and tau repeats all bind to a site on beta-tubulin that lies within the microtubule lumen and is crucial in controlling microtubule assembly. Low concentrations of tau still bind strongly to the outer surfaces of preformed microtubules when the acidic C-terminal regions of at least six tubulin dimers are available for interaction with each tau molecule; otherwise binding is very weak.

  1. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  2. A sliding selectivity scale for lipid binding to membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Landreh, Michael; Marty, Michael T.; Gault, Joseph; Robinson, Carol V.

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes form barriers that are essential for cellular integrity and compartmentalisation. Proteins that reside in the membrane have co-evolved with their hydrophobic lipid environment which serves as a solvent for proteins with very diverse requirements. As a result, membrane protein-lipid interactions range from completely non-selective to highly discriminating. Mass spectrometry (MS), in combination with X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations, enables us to monitor how lipids interact with intact membrane protein complexes and assess their effects on structure and dynamics. Recent studies illustrate the ability to differentiate specific lipid binding, preferential interactions with lipid subsets, and nonselective annular contacts. In this review, we consider the biological implications of different lipid-binding scenarios and propose that binding occurs on a sliding selectivity scale, in line with the view of biological membranes as facilitators of dynamic protein and lipid organization. PMID:27155089

  3. HIGH AFFINITY, DSRNA BINDING BY DISCONNECTED INTERACTING PROTEIN 1†

    PubMed Central

    Catanese, Daniel J.; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Disconnected Interacting Protein 1 (DIP1) appears from sequence analysis and preliminary binding studies to be a member of the dsRNA-binding protein family. Of interest, DIP1 was shown previously to interact with and influence multiple proteins involved in transcription regulation in Drosophila melanogaster. We show here that the longest isoform of this protein, DIP1-c, exhibits a 500-fold preference for dsRNA over dsDNA of similar nucleotide sequence. Further, DIP1-c demonstrated very high affinity for a subset of dsRNA ligands, with binding in the picomolar range for VA1 RNA and miR-iab-4 precursor stem-loop, a potential physiological RNA target involved in regulating expression of its protein partner, Ultrabithorax. PMID:20643095

  4. The presence of zinc-binding proteins in brain.

    PubMed

    Itoh, M; Ebadi, M; Swanson, S

    1983-09-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant divalent metal ions in the brain, its concentration being greater than those of copper and manganese. Since free zinc ion is a potent inhibitor of sulfhydryl enzymes, we postulated that zinc in the brain most probably exists bound to macromolecules. As zinc-binding proteins in brain have not been characterized, we attempted to discover the occurrence and properties of these proteins. By using Sephadex G-75 column chromatography calibrated with proteins of known molecular weights, and by other techniques, we detected separate zinc-binding proteins, with apparent estimated molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 210,000. Unlike the hepatic or renal zinc thioneins, the zinc-binding proteins in brain are not inducible following administration of zinc. Our interpretation of the results is that the major portion of the existing zinc in the brain is bound, and does not exist in free form.

  5. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  6. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity.

  7. Interaction of ruthenium red with Ca2(+)-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Charuk, J.H.; Pirraglia, C.A.; Reithmeier, R.A. )

    1990-07-01

    The interaction of ruthenium red, ((NH3)5Ru-O-Ru(NH3)4-O-Ru(NH3)5)Cl6.4H2O, with various Ca2(+)-binding proteins was studied. Ruthenium red inhibited Ca2+ binding to the sarcoplasmic reticulum protein, calsequestrin, immobilized on Sepharose 4B. Furthermore, ruthenium red bound to calsequestrin with high affinity (Kd = 0.7 microM; Bmax = 218 nmol/mg protein). The dye stained calsequestrin in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels or on nitrocellulose paper and was displaced by Ca2+ (Ki = 1.4 mM). The specificity of ruthenium red staining of several Ca2(+)-binding proteins was investigated by comparison with two other detection methods, 45Ca2+ autoradiography and the Stains-all reaction. Ruthenium red bound to the same proteins detected by the 45Ca2+ overlay technique. Ruthenium red stained both the erythrocyte Band 3 anion transporter and the Ca2(+)-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ruthenium red also stained the EF hand conformation Ca2(+)-binding proteins, calmodulin, troponin C, and S-100. This inorganic dye provides a simple, rapid method for detecting various types of Ca2(+)-binding proteins following electrophoresis.

  8. Modulation of Auxin-Binding Proteins in Cell Suspensions 1

    PubMed Central

    LoSchiavo, Fiorella; Filippini, Francesco; Cozzani, Fabrizio; Vallone, Daniela; Terzi, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows that the level of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the medium determines the level of auxin-binding proteins in the membranes of carrot, Daucus carota, cells grown in suspension. This induction takes slightly more than 2 hours to complete and can be elicited by natural as well as synthetic auxins. The auxin binding sites thus generated, which are pronase-sensitive, bind 2,4-D, indoleacetic acid, and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) equally well. However both α- and β-NAA bind, whereas only α-NAA is effective in the inductive process. Cells committed to embryogeny (proembryogenic masses) do not respond to auxin, i.e. their level of auxin-binding proteins remains very low, and they do not seem to synthesize the hormone, as indicated by inhibitor studies. Sensitivity to, and production of, auxin, begins when the embryo becomes polarized, i.e. at postglobular stage. PMID:16668416

  9. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context. PMID:27668217

  10. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, H F

    1986-01-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass. PMID:3709437

  11. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.F.

    1986-03-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass.

  12. Protein binding elements in the human beta-polymerase promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Englander, E W; Wilson, S H

    1990-01-01

    The core promoter for human DNA polymerase beta contains discrete binding sites for mammalian nuclear proteins, as revealed by DNasel footprinting and gel mobility shift assays. Two sites correspond to sequences identical with the Sp1 factor binding element, and a third site includes an eight residue palindromic sequence, TGACGTCA, known as the CRE element of several cAMP responsive promoters; the 5 to 10 residues flanking this palindrome on each side have no apparent sequence homology with known elements in other promoters. Nuclear extract from a variety of tissues and cells were examined; these included rat liver and testes and cultured cells of human and hamster origin. The DNasel footprint is strong over and around the palindromic element for each of the extracts and is equivalent in size (approximately 22 residues); footprinting over the Sp1 binding sites is seen also. Two potential tissue-specific binding sites, present in liver but not in testes, were found corresponding to residues -13 to -10 and +33 to +48, respectively. Protein binding to the palindromic element was confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the core promoter as probe. Binding specificity of the 22 residue palindromic element, as revealed by oligonucleotide competition, is different from that of AP-1 binding element. Controlled proteolysis with trypsin was used to study structural properties of proteins forming the mobility shift bands. Following digestion with trypsin, most of the palindrome binding activity of each extract corresponded to a sharp, faster migrating band, potentially representing a DNA binding domain of the palindrome binding protein. Images PMID:2315044

  13. Binding and measuring natural rubber latex proteins on glove powder.

    PubMed

    Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Lucas, Anne D; Sanchez, Beatriz A

    2004-01-01

    Cornstarch used as a donning powder on natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves adsorbs NRL proteins. During glove use, powder-carried proteins can be aerosolized and can cause allergic reactions in NRL sensitized individuals. The amount of NRL proteins bound to glove powder and its relative relationship to the total amount of proteins on the glove has not been studied, due to the difficulty in measuring proteins on powder. Using the ELISA inhibition assay for NRL proteins [Standard test method for the immunological measurement of antigenic protein in natural rubber and its products. In: The Annual Book of ASTM Standards; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, 2000; ASTM D 64-0] we have investigated possible protocol modifications in order to include measurement of proteins bound to glove powder, as well as the water-extractable glove proteins. Possible interference of the starch itself was evaluated by adding clean cornstarch to the assay. No significant interference was observed with powder concentrations below 5 mg/mL. We analyzed 19 extracts of powdered surgical and examination gloves before and after removal of the particulate component. Comparison of NRL glove extracts with, and without, the cornstarch powder fraction indicated significant variations in the ratios of powder-bound protein and corresponding water-extractable protein. The ratios did not appear to correlate with either the total protein on the glove, the glove weight, or the total amount of powder on the glove. However, when virgin glove powders were exposed to NRL proteins, binding was proportional to the protein concentration in the suspension. Temperature in the range from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C, did not affect binding intensity, while a higher pH resulted in a higher level of protein associated with, or bound to, the starch. The major differences in the propensity for NRL protein binding were observed among different glove powders. The data indicate that the amount of protein that binds to glove powder

  14. Detecting O2 binding sites in protein cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Ryo; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Xue, Mengjun; Kameda, Tomoshi; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Internal cavities are important elements in protein structure, dynamics, stability and function. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate the binding of molecular oxygen (O2) to cavities in a well-studied model for ligand binding, the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. On increasing the O2 concentration to 8.9 mM, changes in 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts and signal broadening were observed specifically for backbone amide and side chain methyl groups located around the two hydrophobic cavities of the protein. O2-induced longitudinal relaxation enhancements for amide and methyl protons could be adequately accounted for by paramagnetic dipolar relaxation. These data provide the first experimental demonstration that O2 binds specifically to the hydrophobic, and not the hydrophilic cavities, in a protein. Molecular dynamics simulations visualized the rotational and translational motions of O2 in the cavities, as well as the binding and egress of O2, suggesting that the channel consisting of helices D, E, G, H, and J could be the potential gateway for ligand binding to the protein. Due to strong paramagnetic relaxation effects, O2 gas-pressure NMR measurements can detect hydrophobic cavities when populated to as little as 1%, and thereby provide a general and highly sensitive method for detecting oxygen binding in proteins. PMID:26830762

  15. Theoretical studies of binding of mannose-binding protein to monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi

    2004-11-01

    Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.

  16. Mining the characteristic interaction patterns on protein-protein binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Han, Li; Li, Chengke; Wang, Renxiao

    2013-09-23

    Protein-protein interactions are observed in various biological processes. They are important for understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and can be potential targets for developing small-molecule regulators of such processes. Previous studies suggest that certain residues on protein-protein binding interfaces are "hot spots". As an extension to this concept, we have developed a residue-based method to identify the characteristic interaction patterns (CIPs) on protein-protein binding interfaces, in which each pattern is a cluster of four contacting residues. Systematic analysis was conducted on a nonredundant set of 1,222 protein-protein binding interfaces selected out of the entire Protein Data Bank. Favored interaction patterns across different protein-protein binding interfaces were retrieved by considering both geometrical and chemical conservations. As demonstrated on two test tests, our method was able to predict hot spot residues on protein-protein binding interfaces with good recall scores and acceptable precision scores. By analyzing the function annotations and the evolutionary tree of the protein-protein complexes in our data set, we also observed that protein-protein interfaces sharing common characteristic interaction patterns are normally associated with identical or similar biological functions.

  17. Assessing Energetic Contributions to Binding from a Disordered Region in a Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    S Cho; C Swaminathan; D Bonsor; M Kerzic; R Guan; J Yang; C Kieke; P Anderson; D Kranz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Many functional proteins are at least partially disordered prior to binding. Although the structural transitions upon binding of disordered protein regions can influence the affinity and specificity of protein complexes, their precise energetic contributions to binding are unknown. Here, we use a model protein-protein interaction system in which a locally disordered region has been modified by directed evolution to quantitatively assess the thermodynamic and structural contributions to binding of disorder-to-order transitions. Through X-ray structure determination of the protein binding partners before and after complex formation and isothermal titration calorimetry of the interactions, we observe a correlation between protein ordering and binding affinity for complexes along this affinity maturation pathway. Additionally, we show that discrepancies between observed and calculated heat capacities based on buried surface area changes in the protein complexes can be explained largely by heat capacity changes that would result solely from folding the locally disordered region. Previously developed algorithms for predicting binding energies of protein-protein interactions, however, are unable to correctly model the energetic contributions of the structural transitions in our model system. While this highlights the shortcomings of current computational methods in modeling conformational flexibility, it suggests that the experimental methods used here could provide training sets of molecular interactions for improving these algorithms and further rationalizing molecular recognition in protein-protein interactions.

  18. Ligand binding to a high-energy partially unfolded protein.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Joseph R; Park, Chiwook

    2015-01-01

    The conformational energy landscape of a protein determines populations of all possible conformations of the protein and also determines the kinetics of the conversion between the conformations. Interaction with ligands influences the conformational energy landscapes of proteins and shifts populations of proteins in different conformational states. To investigate the effect of ligand binding on partial unfolding of a protein, we use Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its functional ligand NADP(+) as a model system. We previously identified a partially unfolded form of DHFR that is populated under native conditions. In this report, we determined the free energy for partial unfolding of DHFR at varying concentrations of NADP(+) and found that NADP(+) binds to the partially unfolded form as well as the native form. DHFR unfolds partially without releasing the ligand, though the binding affinity for NADP(+) is diminished upon partial unfolding. Based on known crystallographic structures of NADP(+) -bound DHFR and the model of the partially unfolded protein we previously determined, we propose that the adenosine-binding domain of DHFR remains folded in the partially unfolded form and interacts with the adenosine moiety of NADP(+) . Our result demonstrates that ligand binding may affect the conformational free energy of not only native forms but also high-energy non-native forms.

  19. A Binding Model and Similarity for Flexible Modular Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máté, Gabriell; Feinauer, Christoph J.; Hofmann, Andreas; Goldt, Sebastian; Liu, Lei; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2013-03-01

    Modular proteins are one of the most commonly found disordered protein motifs. An example is CTCF, a protein that has been named the master waver of the genome i.e., the organizer of the 3D structure of the chromosomes. Using NMR and numerical simulations, much progress has been made in understanding their various functions and ways of binding. Modular proteins are often composed of protein modules interconnected by flexible linkers. They can be imagined as ``beads on a string.'' We argue that when the number of beads is small, these structures behave like a self avoiding random walk. Nevertheless, when binding to a target, linkers can fold in more ordered and stable states. At the same time, folding can influence functional roles. We show that the flexibility of the linkers can boost binding affinity. As a result of flexibility, the conformations of these proteins before and after binding are different. So this implies that generic binding site prediction methods may fail. To deal with this we introduce a new methodology to characterize and compare these flexible structures. Employing topological concepts we propose a method which intrinsically fuses topology and geometry. GM gratefully acknowledges support from the HGS-MathComp and the RTG 1653.

  20. Structural mechanism of the simultaneous binding of two drugs to a multidrug-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A; Miller, Marshall C; Brennan, Richard G

    2004-01-01

    The structural basis of simultaneous binding of two or more different drugs by any multidrug-binding protein is unknown and also how this can lead to a noncompetitive, uncompetitive or cooperative binding mechanism. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the Staphylococcus aureus multidrug-binding transcription repressor, QacR, bound simultaneously to ethidium (Et) and proflavin (Pf). The structure underscores the plasticity of the multidrug-binding pocket and reveals an alternative, Pf-induced binding mode for Et. To monitor the simultaneous binding of Pf and Et to QacR, as well as to determine the effects on the binding affinity of one drug when the other drug is prebound, a novel application of near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (UVCD) was developed. The UVCD equilibrium-binding studies revealed identical affinities of Pf for QacR in the presence or absence of Et, but significantly diminished affinity of Et for QacR when Pf is prebound, findings that are readily explicable by their structures. The principles for simultaneous binding of two different drugs discerned here are likely employed by the multidrug efflux transporters. PMID:15257299

  1. Gene expressions levels of 14-3-3a, NKCCla, APO-14, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ in gill tissue of Mugil cephalus acclimated to low salinity.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Jiang, M; Shen, X Q

    2017-02-16

    Fishes adapt to salinity changes primarily through osmotic pressure regulation, a process often associated with several genes, including 14-3-3a, NKCCla, APO-14, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ. The present study investigated the differential expression of genes 14-3-3a, NKCCla, APO-14, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ in the gill tissue of Mugil cephalus acclimated to low salinity. Susceptibility relationships between the four gene expressions levels and salinity were detected and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Homology analysis results indicated significant differences in the correlation between gene expression and salinity. Under low-salt conditions, expression levels for genes Na(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ and NKCC1a were significantly elevated (P < 0.05), whereas those of genes 14-3-3a and APO-14 were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Thus, when compared to 14-3-3a and APO-14, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ, and NKCC1a may be better suited to promoting the development of osmotic-regulation mechanisms and increased resistance to environmental stress under low-salt conditions. Furthermore, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPaseβ and NKCC1a were identified as suitable potential molecular biomarkers for regulating and controlling genes in low-salinity aquatic environments.

  2. Amifostine alleviates radiation-induced lethal small bowel damage via promotion of 14-3-3σ-mediated nuclear p53 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Fan; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, I-Hui; Huang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-10-30

    Amifostine (AM) is a radioprotector that scavenges free radicals and is used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. p53 has long been implicated in cell cycle arrest for cellular repair after radiation exposure. We therefore investigated the protective p53-dependent mechanism of AM on small bowel damage after lethal whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI). AM increased both the survival rate of rats and crypt survival following lethal 18 Gy WAI. The p53 inhibitor PFT-α compromised AM-mediated effects when administered prior to AM administration. AM significantly increased clonogenic survival in IEC-6 cells expressing wild type p53 but not in p53 knockdown cells. AM significantly increased p53 nuclear accumulation and p53 tetramer expression before irradiation through the inhibition of p53 degradation. AM inhibited p53 interactions with MDM2 but enhanced p53 interactions with 14-3-3σ. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ also compromised the effect of AM on clonogenic survival and p53 nuclear accumulation in IEC-6 cells. For the first time, our data reveal that AM alleviates lethal small bowel damage through the induction of 14-3-3σ and subsequent accumulation of p53. Enhancement of the p53/14-3-3σ interaction results in p53 tetramerization in the nucleus that rescues lethal small bowel damage.

  3. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  4. Liver takes up retinol-binding protein from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gjoen, T.; Bjerkelund, T.; Blomhoff, H.K.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.; Blomhoff, R.

    1987-08-15

    Retinol is transported in plasma bound to a specific transport protein, retinol-binding protein. We prepared /sup 125/I-tyramine cellobiose-labeled rat retinol-binding protein and studied its tissue uptake 1, 5, and 24 h after intravenous injection into rats. The liver was the organ containing most radioactivity at all time points studied. After 5 and 24 h, 30 and 22% of the injected dose were recovered in liver, respectively. After separating the liver into parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the 5-h group, we found that both cell fractions contained approximately the same amount of radioactivity (per gram of liver). Most of the retinol-binding protein radioactivity in the nonparenchymal cell fraction was in the stellate cells. The implication of these results for a possible transfer mechanism for retinol between parenchymal and stellate cells is discussed.

  5. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins regulate the abundance of LIM domain and LIM domain-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhixiong; Meng, Xianzhang; Cai, Ying; Liang, Hong; Nagarajan, Lalitha; Brandt, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The LIM domain-binding protein Ldb1 is an essential cofactor of LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) and LIM-only (LMO) proteins in development. The stoichiometry of Ldb1, LIM-HD, and LMO proteins is tightly controlled in the cell and is likely a critical determinant of their biological actions. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBPs) were recently shown to interact with Ldb1 and are also important in developmental programs. We establish here that two mammalian SSBPs, SSBP2 and SSBP3, contribute to an erythroid DNA-binding complex that contains the transcription factors Tal1 and GATA-1, the LIM domain protein Lmo2, and Ldb1 and binds a bipartite E-box-GATA DNA sequence motif. In addition, SSBP2 was found to augment transcription of the Protein 4.2 (P4.2) gene, a direct target of the E-box-GATA-binding complex, in an Ldb1-dependent manner and to increase endogenous Ldb1 and Lmo2 protein levels, E-box-GATA DNA-binding activity, and P4.2 and β-globin expression in erythroid progenitors. Finally, SSBP2 was demonstrated to inhibit Ldb1 and Lmo2 interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM, prevent RLIM-mediated Ldb1 ubiquitination, and protect Ldb1 and Lmo2 from proteasomal degradation. These results define a novel biochemical function for SSBPs in regulating the abundance of LIM domain and LIM domain-binding proteins. PMID:17437998

  6. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) – a drug’s ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a

  7. Determinants of the plasma protein binding of theophylline in health.

    PubMed Central

    Buss, D; Leopold, D; Smith, A P; Routledge, P A

    1983-01-01

    1 The plasma protein binding of theophylline was determined after addition of [14C]-theophylline (15 micrograms/ml) to plasma from 24 healthy drug-free volunteers and equilibrium dialysis for 2 h at 37 degrees C. 2 The percentage of drug unbound was 60.0% +/- 2.2% (s.d.) with very little variation between individuals. The binding ratio of theophylline was not significantly related to the plasma albumin or alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) concentrations but was significantly, although weakly, negatively related to the logarithm of the non-esterified fatty acid concentration (NEFA) (r = 0.443, P less than 0.05). 3 Intravenous administration of heparin (1000 units) caused a significant rise in plasma NEFA concentration and in the percentage of drug unbound in plasma after equilibrium dialysis. 4 In human serum albumin solutions, the binding ratio of theophylline was significantly related to the albumin concentration and at the albumin concentration seen in the 24 normal subjects, the percentage of drug unbound was almost identical. Addition of AAG in physiological concentrations did not enhance theophylline binding but oleic acid, and to a lesser extent palmitic acid, reduced binding significantly. 5 The percentage of theophylline unbound in plasma varied markedly with pH so that at pH7 the percentage unbound was 52% greater than at pH 8. There was no evidence of concentration dependence of binding up to 140 micrograms/ml theophylline. 6 Theophylline appears to bind almost exclusively to albumin and its plasma protein binding varies little in healthy subjects, showing no concentration-dependence over the therapeutic range of concentrations. The binding is affected by pH and by NEFA concentration, however, and these factors may be of greater importance in disease states. Caution should be employed in the use of heparin in studies of plasma protein binding of theophylline. PMID:6849774

  8. FRET in a Synthetic Flavin- and Bilin-binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Simon, Julian; Losi, Aba; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-05

    The last decade has seen development and application of a large number of novel fluorescence-based techniques that have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy in life sciences. Preferred tags for such applications are genetically encoded fluorescent proteins (FP), mostly derivatives of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Combinations of FPs with wavelength-separated absorption/fluorescence properties serve as excellent tools for molecular interaction studies, for example, protein-protein complexes or enzyme-substrate interactions, based on the FRET phenomenon (Förster resonance energy transfer). However, alternatives are requested for experimental conditions where FP proteins or FP couples are not or less efficiently applicable. We here report as a "proof of principle" a specially designed, non-naturally occurring protein (LG1) carrying a combination of a flavin-binding LOV- and a photochromic bilin-binding GAF domain and demonstrate a FRET process between both chromophores.

  9. Leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein contracts upon binding of ligand.

    PubMed

    Olah, G A; Trakhanov, S; Trewhella, J; Quiocho, F A

    1993-08-05

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and computer modeling have been used to study the effects of ligand binding to the leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein, an initial component of the high-affinity active transport system for branched-chain aliphatic amino acids in Escherichia coli. Measurements were made with no ligand present and with either L-leucine or L-valine present. Upon binding of either leucine or valine, there is a decrease in the radius of gyration, from 23.2 +/- 0.2 to 22.2 +/- 0.2 A, and in the maximum particle dimension, from 82 +/- 3 to 73 +/- 3 A. The x-ray structure of the unbound form has been determined and gives a radius of gyration and a maximum dimension consistent with the values found for the solution structure in this study (Sack, J. S., Saper, M. A., and Quiocho, F. A. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 206, 171-191). The reduction in the radius of gyration and maximum dimension upon ligand binding can be accounted for by a substrate-induced cleft closure in a combined "hinge-twist" motion. Modeling of the substrate-bound state was done by comparison of this protein with another periplasmic binding protein (L-arabinose-binding protein), which possesses a similar two-lobe structure and for which the x-ray structure is known in its ligand-bound form.

  10. The biotin repressor: thermodynamic coupling of corepressor binding, protein assembly, and sequence-specific DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Streaker, Emily D; Gupta, Aditi; Beckett, Dorothy

    2002-12-03

    The Escherichia coli biotin repressor, an allosteric transcriptional regulator, is activated for binding to the biotin operator by the small molecule biotinyl-5'-AMP. Results of combined thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural studies of the protein have revealed that corepressor binding results in disorder to order transitions in the protein monomer that facilitate tighter dimerization. The enhanced stability of the dimer leads to stabilization of the resulting biotin repressor-biotin operator complex. It is not clear, however, that the allosteric response in the system is transmitted solely through the protein-protein interface. In this work, the allosteric mechanism has been quantitatively probed by measuring the biotin operator binding and dimerization properties of three biotin repressor species: the apo or unliganded form, the biotin-bound form, and the holo or bio-5'-AMP-bound form. Comparisons of the pairwise differences in the bioO binding and dimerization energetics for the apo and holo species reveal that the enhanced DNA binding energetics resulting from adenylate binding track closely with the enhanced assembly energetics. However, when the results for repressor pairs that include the biotin-bound species are compared, no such equivalence is observed.

  11. Fragile X mental retardation protein: A paradigm for translational control by RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eileen; Joseph, Simpson

    2015-07-01

    Translational control is a common mechanism used to regulate gene expression and occur in bacteria to mammals. Typically in translational control, an RNA-binding protein binds to a unique sequence in the mRNA to regulate protein synthesis by the ribosomes. Alternatively, a protein may bind to or modify a translation factor to globally regulate protein synthesis by the cell. Here, we review translational control by the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the absence of which causes the neurological disease, fragile X syndrome (FXS).

  12. Natural history of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kozbial, Piotr Z; Mushegian, Arcady R

    2005-01-01

    Background S-adenosylmethionine is a source of diverse chemical groups used in biosynthesis and modification of virtually every class of biomolecules. The most notable reaction requiring S-adenosylmethionine, transfer of methyl group, is performed by a large class of enzymes, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, which have been the focus of considerable structure-function studies. Evolutionary trajectories of these enzymes, and especially of other classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins, nevertheless, remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by computational comparison of sequences and structures of various S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Results Two widespread folds, Rossmann fold and TIM barrel, have been repeatedly used in evolution for diverse types of S-adenosylmethionine conversion. There were also cases of recruitment of other relatively common folds for S-adenosylmethionine binding. Several classes of proteins have unique unrelated folds, specialized for just one type of chemistry and unified by the theme of internal domain duplications. In several cases, functional divergence is evident, when evolutionarily related enzymes have changed the mode of binding and the type of chemical transformation of S-adenosylmethionine. There are also instances of functional convergence, when biochemically similar processes are performed by drastically different classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Comparison of remote sequence similarities and analysis of phyletic patterns suggests that the last universal common ancestor of cellular life had between 10 and 20 S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins from at least 5 fold classes, providing for S-adenosylmethionine formation, polyamine biosynthesis, and methylation of several substrates, including nucleic acids and peptide chain release factor. Conclusion We have observed several novel relationships between families that were not known to be related before, and defined 15

  13. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P.; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  14. Lactation-induced cadmium-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Solaiman, D.; Garvey, J.S.; Miyazaki, W.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated an increase during midlactation in /sup 109/Cd adsorption and increased retention by the duodenum, kidney, and mammary tissue of mouse dams receiving environmental levels of cadmium//sup 109/Cd via drinking water, with little change in /sup 109/Cd retention in liver and jejunum compared to nonpregnant controls. Results are reported here of a study of cadmium deposition during midlactation as associated with induction of metallothionein (MT). A cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) assay and radioimmunoassay for MT which measures heat-stable cadmium binding capacity in tissues was used to determine MT concentrations in fractions of kidney, liver, duodenum, and jejunum from female mice. Both assays demonstrated clear lactation-induced increases in MT concentrations in liver, kidney, and duodenum, with MT concentrations falling rapidly to control levels after weaning. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Camptothecin-binding site in human serum albumin and protein transformations induced by drug binding.

    PubMed

    Fleury, F; Ianoul, A; Berjot, M; Feofanov, A; Alix, A J; Nabiev, I

    1997-07-14

    Circular dichroism (CD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed in order to locate a camptothecin (CPT)-binding site within human serum albumin (HSA) and to identify protein structural transformations induced by CPT binding. A competitive binding of CPT and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (a ligand occupying IIIA structural sub-domain of the protein) to HSA does not show any competition and demonstrates that the ligands are located in the different binding sites, whereas a HSA-bound CPT may be replaced by warfarin, occupying IIA structural sub-domain of the protein. Raman and CD spectra of HSA and HSA/CPT complexes show that the CPT-binding does not induce changes of the global protein secondary structure. On the other hand, Raman spectra reveal pronounced CPT-induced local structural modifications of the HSA molecule, involving changes in configuration of the two disulfide bonds and transfer of a single Trp-residue to hydrophilic environment. These data suggest that CPT is bound in the region of interdomain connections within the IIA structural domain of HSA and it induces relative movement of the protein structural domains.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 erythrocyte binding peptides implicate AMA-1 as erythrocyte binding protein.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, M; Suarez, J E; Cardenas, C; Lopez, R; Puentes, A; Chavez, F; Calvo, J C; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-10-15

    The role of AMA-1 during merozoite invasion has not yet been determined. However, reported experimental evidence suggests that this protein can be used, in particular as erythrocyte-binding protein, since, Fab fragments against this protein are able to block merozoite invasion. Using a previously described methodology, eight peptides with high binding activity to human erythrocyte, scattered along the different domains and having around 130 nM affinity constants, were identified in the Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 protein. Their binding activity was sialic acid independent. Some of these peptides showed homology with the erythrocyte binding domains of one of the apical organelle protein family, MAEBL, identified in rodent malarial parasites. One of these peptides shares amino acid sequence with a previously reported B-cell epitope which induces antibodies to block parasite growth. The critical residues were identified for erythrocyte binding conserved peptides 4313 (DAEVAGTQYRLPSGKCPVFG), 4321 (VVDNWEKVCPRKNLQNAKFG), 4325 (MIKSAFLPTGAFKADRYKSH) and 4337 (WGEEKRASHTTPVLMEKPYY). All conserved peptides were able to block merozoite invasion of new RBC and development, suggesting that these peptides are involved in P. falciparum invasion.

  17. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajian; Stormo, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data. PMID:16014175

  18. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  19. Characterization of the cellulose-binding domain of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose-binding protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, M A; Takagi, M; Hashida, S; Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H; Segel, I H

    1993-01-01

    Cellulose-binding protein A (CbpA), a component of the cellulase complex of Clostridium cellulovorans, contains a unique sequence which has been demonstrated to be a cellulose-binding domain (CBD). The DNA coding for this putative CBD was subcloned into pET-8c, an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein produced under the direction of the recombinant plasmid, pET-CBD, had a high affinity for crystalline cellulose. Affinity-purified CBD protein was used in equilibrium binding experiments to characterize the interaction of the protein with various polysaccharides. It was found that the binding capacity of highly crystalline cellulose samples (e.g., cotton) was greater than that of samples of low crystallinity (e.g., fibrous cellulose). At saturating CBD concentration, about 6.4 mumol of protein was bound by 1 g of cotton. Under the same conditions, fibrous cellulose bound only 0.2 mumol of CBD per g. The measured dissociation constant was in the 1 microM range for all cellulose samples. The results suggest that the CBD binds specifically to crystalline cellulose. Chitin, which has a crystal structure similar to that of cellulose, also was bound by the CBD. The presence of high levels of cellobiose or carboxymethyl cellulose in the assay mixture had no effect on the binding of CBD protein to crystalline cellulose. This result suggests that the CBD recognition site is larger than a simple cellobiose unit or more complex than a repeating cellobiose moiety. This CBD is of particular interest because it is the first CBD from a completely sequenced nonenzymatic protein shown to be an independently functional domain. Images PMID:8376323

  20. Mercury-binding proteins from the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed Central

    Roesijadi, G

    1986-01-01

    The marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, possesses low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins which can be induced by and, in turn, bind mercury when individuals are exposed to low, but elevated concentrations of mercury as HgCl2. Induction of the proteins by exposure of mussels to copper, cadmium, or mercury is associated with enhanced tolerance to mercury toxicity. Mercury-binding proteins isolated from gills of mussels occur as two molecular weight variants of about 20-25 and 10-12 kdaltons, respectively, on Sephadex G-75. These have been designated as HgBP20 and HgBP10 following the nomenclature used for cadmium-binding proteins. HgBP20 represents the primary mercury-binding species. These exist as dimers which can be dissociated into subunits by treatment with 1% 2-mercaptoethanol. Further purification of HgBP20 by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography resulted in the resolution of three major mercury-binding protein peaks; analysis of two of these showed that both had similar amino acid compositions with 26% half-cystine, 16% glycine, and very low levels of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine (0.3-0.5%), histidine (0.4%), methionine (about 0.5%), and leucine (about 1%). These are similar to the compositions of proteins reported as mussel thioneins by others. Separation of HgBP20 by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the resolution of six peaks, indicating a more complex situation than was evident from DEAE-cellulose separations. Although not completely purified, these also contain cysteine- and glycine-rich proteins. PMID:3709464

  1. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.

  2. Carotenoid Antenna Binding and Function in Retinal Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-13

    REPORT Carotenoid antenna binding and function in retinal proteins 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Xanthorhodopsin, a proton pump from the...eubacterium Salinibacter ruber, is a unique dual chromophore system that contains, in addition to retinal, the carotenoid salinixanthin as a light... carotenoid ring near the retinal ring. Substitution of the small glycine with bulky tryptophan in this site eliminates binding. The second factor is the 4

  3. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  4. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is not a universal immunoglobulin D-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Munson, R S

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b and nontypeable H. influenzae have been reported to bind human immunoglobulin D (IgD). IgD myeloma sera from five patients were tested for the ability of IgD to bind to H. influenzae. Serotype b strains bound human IgD in four of the five sera tested. IgD in the fifth serum bound strongly to type b strain MinnA but poorly to other type b strains. Additionally, IgD binding was not observed when nontypeable strains were tested. The gene for protein D, the putative IgD-binding protein, was cloned from the IgD-binding H. influenzae type b strain MinnA and expressed in Escherichia coli. IgD binding to E. coli expressing protein D was not demonstrable. Recombinant protein D was purified, and antisera were generated in rabbits. Using these rabbit sera, we detected protein D in nontypeable as well as serotype b strains by Western blotting (immunoblotting). In contrast, IgD myeloma protein 4490, which was previously reported to bind to protein D by Ruan and coworkers (M. Ruan, M. Akkoyunlu, A. Grubb, and A. Forsgren, J. Immunol. 145:3379-3384), bound strongly to both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae as well as to E. coli expressing protein D. Thus, IgD binding is a general property of H. influenzae type b strains but not a general property of nontypeable strains, although both type b and nontypeable strains produce protein D. With the exception of IgD myeloma protein 4490 binding, we have no evidence for a role of protein D in IgD binding to H. influenzae. Images PMID:8514409

  5. Universal protein binding microarrays for the comprehensive characterization of the DNA binding specificities of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael F.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein binding microarray (PBM) technology provides a rapid, high-throughput means of characterizing the in vitro DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs). Using high-density, custom-designed microarrays containing all 10-mer sequence variants, one can obtain comprehensive binding site measurements for any TF, regardless of its structural class or species of origin. Here, we present a protocol for the examination and analysis of TF binding specificities at high resolution using such ‘all 10-mer’ universal PBMs. This procedure involves double-stranding a commercially synthesized DNA oligonucleotide array, binding a TF directly to the double-stranded DNA microarray, and labeling the protein-bound microarray with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody. We describe how to computationally extract the relative binding preferences of the examined TF for all possible contiguous and gapped 8-mers over the full range of affinities, from highest affinity sites to nonspecific sites. Multiple proteins can be tested in parallel in separate chambers on a single microarray, enabling the processing of a dozen or more TFs in a single day. PMID:19265799

  6. DNA-binding properties of ARID family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Patsialou, Antonia; Wilsker, Deborah; Moran, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The ARID (A–T Rich Interaction Domain) is a helix–turn–helix motif-based DNA-binding domain, conserved in all eukaryotes and diagnostic of a family that includes 15 distinct human proteins with important roles in development, tissue-specific gene expression and proliferation control. The 15 human ARID family proteins can be divided into seven subfamilies based on the degree of sequence identity between individual members. Most ARID family members have not been characterized with respect to their DNA-binding behavior, but it is already apparent that not all ARIDs conform to the pattern of binding AT-rich sequences. To understand better the divergent characteristics of the ARID proteins, we undertook a survey of DNA-binding properties across the entire ARID family. The results indicate that the majority of ARID subfamilies (i.e. five out of seven) bind DNA without obvious sequence preference. DNA-binding affinity also varies somewhat between subfamilies. Site-specific mutagenesis does not support suggestions made from structure analysis that specific amino acids in Loop 2 or Helix 5 are the main determinants of sequence specificity. Most probably, this is determined by multiple interacting differences across the entire ARID structure. PMID:15640446

  7. Escherchia coli ribose binding protein based bioreporters revisited

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Artur; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Roy, Shantanu; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2014-01-01

    Bioreporter bacteria, i.e., strains engineered to respond to chemical exposure by production of reporter proteins, have attracted wide interest because of their potential to offer cheap and simple alternative analytics for specified compounds or conditions. Bioreporter construction has mostly exploited the natural variation of sensory proteins, but it has been proposed that computational design of new substrate binding properties could lead to completely novel detection specificities at very low affinities. Here we reconstruct a bioreporter system based on the native Escherichia coli ribose binding protein RbsB and one of its computationally designed variants, reported to be capable of binding 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Our results show in vivo reporter induction at 50 nM ribose, and a 125 nM affinity constant for in vitro ribose binding to RbsB. In contrast, the purified published TNT-binding variant did not bind TNT nor did TNT cause induction of the E. coli reporter system. PMID:25005019

  8. Chromate Binding and Removal by the Molybdate-Binding Protein ModA.

    PubMed

    Karpus, Jason; Bosscher, Michael; Ajiboye, Ifedayo; Zhang, Liang; He, Chuan

    2017-02-02

    Effective and cheap methods and techniques for the safe removal of hexavalent chromate from the environment are in increasingly high demand. High concentrations of hexavalent chromate have been shown to have numerous harmful effects on human biology. We show that the E. coli molybdate-binding protein ModA is a genetically encoded tool capable of removing chromate from aqueous solutions. Although previously reported to not bind chromate, we show that ModA binds chromate tightly and is capable of removing chromate to levels well below current US federal standards.

  9. Novel DNA-binding properties of the RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Suswam, Esther A; Li, Yan Yan; Mahtani, Harry; King, Peter H

    2005-01-01

    TIA-1 related protein binds avidly to uridine-rich elements in mRNA and pre-mRNAs of a wide range of genes, including interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The protein has diverse regulatory roles, which in part depend on the locus of binding within the transcript, including translational control, splicing and apoptosis. Here, we observed selective and potent inhibition of TIAR-RNP complex formation with IL-8 and VEGF 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) using thymidine-rich deoxyoligonucleotide (ODN) sequences derived from the VEFG 3'-UTR. We show by ultraviolet crosslinking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that TIAR can bind directly to single-stranded, thymidine-rich ODNs but not to double-stranded ODNs containing the same sequence. TIAR had a nearly 6-fold greater affinity for DNA than RNA (K(d)app = 1.6x10(-9) M versus 9.4 x 10(-9) M). Truncation of TIAR indicated that the high affinity DNA-binding site overlaps with the RNA-binding site involving RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2). However, RRM1 alone could also bind to DNA. Finally, we show that TIAR can be displaced from single-stranded DNA by active transcription through the binding site. These results provide a potential mechanism by which TIAR can shuttle between RNA and DNA ligands.

  10. Zinc-protein from rat prostate fluid binds epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sansone, G; Abrescia, P

    1991-09-01

    The detection and the isolation of a zinc-protein from the secretion of the rat dorsolateral prostate is described. The purification procedure, based on gel filtration and cationic exchange chromatography, allowed to separate a minor protein (Mr approximately 66,000) from free zinc ions and other secretory components. Two zinc ions were estimated to be associated with one molecule of isolated protein. The zinc-protein was labelled with 125I and then incubated at 37 degrees C with spermatozoa from rat epididymal cauda. Time-dependent in vitro binding of the radioactive protein to sperm cells was demonstrated. This binding was not affected by the presence of proteins from the seminal vesicle during the incubation, while it was blocked in the presence of an excess of unlabelled zinc-protein. After binding, the labelled spermatozoa were treated with a buffer containing 0.5% sodium deoxycholate and 40 mM EDTA; only very small amounts of label were removed from the cells, thus suggesting that the zinc-proteins were kept on the plasma membrane by interactions which do not involve merely hydrophobic bonds.

  11. Grafting odorant binding proteins on diamond bio-MEMS.

    PubMed

    Manai, R; Scorsone, E; Rousseau, L; Ghassemi, F; Possas Abreu, M; Lissorgues, G; Tremillon, N; Ginisty, H; Arnault, J-C; Tuccori, E; Bernabei, M; Cali, K; Persaud, K C; Bergonzo, P

    2014-10-15

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are small soluble proteins found in olfactory systems that are capable of binding several types of odorant molecules. Cantilevers based on polycrystalline diamond surfaces are very promising as chemical transducers. Here two methods were investigated for chemically grafting porcine OBPs on polycrystalline diamond surfaces for biosensor development. The first approach resulted in random orientation of the immobilized proteins over the surface. The second approach based on complexing a histidine-tag located on the protein with nickel allowed control of the proteins' orientation. Evidence confirming protein grafting was obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical sensing performances of these OBP modified transducers were assessed. The second grafting method led to typically 20% more sensitive sensors, as a result of better access of ligands to the proteins active sites and also perhaps a better yield of protein immobilization. This new grafting method appears to be highly promising for further investigation of the ligand binding properties of OBPs in general and for the development of arrays of non-specific biosensors for artificial olfaction applications.

  12. Bovine coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (p28) is an RNA binding protein that binds terminal genomic cis-replication elements.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Kortney M; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Brian, David A

    2009-06-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), a 28-kDa protein in the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and closely related mouse hepatitis coronavirus, is the first protein cleaved from the open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) polyprotein product of genome translation. Recently, a 30-nucleotide (nt) cis-replication stem-loop VI (SLVI) has been mapped at nt 101 to 130 within a 288-nt 5'-terminal segment of the 738-nt nsp1 cistron in a BCoV defective interfering (DI) RNA. Since a similar nsp1 coding region appears in all characterized groups 1 and 2 coronavirus DI RNAs and must be translated in cis for BCoV DI RNA replication, we hypothesized that nsp1 might regulate ORF 1 expression by binding this intra-nsp1 cistronic element. Here, we (i) establish by mutation analysis that the 72-nt intracistronic SLV immediately upstream of SLVI is also a DI RNA cis-replication signal, (ii) show by gel shift and UV-cross-linking analyses that cellular proteins of approximately 60 and 100 kDa, but not viral proteins, bind SLV and SLVI, (SLV-VI) and (iii) demonstrate by gel shift analysis that nsp1 purified from Escherichia coli does not bind SLV-VI but does bind three 5' untranslated region (UTR)- and one 3' UTR-located cis-replication SLs. Notably, nsp1 specifically binds SLIII and its flanking sequences in the 5' UTR with approximately 2.5 muM affinity. Additionally, under conditions enabling expression of nsp1 from DI RNA-encoded subgenomic mRNA, DI RNA levels were greatly reduced, but there was only a slight transient reduction in viral RNA levels. These results together indicate that nsp1 is an RNA-binding protein that may function to regulate viral genome translation or replication but not by binding SLV-VI within its own coding region.

  13. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-08

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner.

  14. Behind the scenes of vitamin D binding protein: more than vitamin D binding.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, Joris R; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Speeckaert, Marijn M

    2015-10-01

    Although being discovered in 1959, the number of published papers in recent years reveals that vitamin D binding protein (DBP), a member of the albuminoid superfamily, is a hot research topic. Besides the three major phenotypes (DBP1F, DBP1S and DBP2), more than 120 unique variants have been described of this polymorphic protein. The presence of DBP has been demonstrated in different body fluids (serum, urine, breast milk, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and seminal fluid) and organs (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, placenta, spleen, testes and uterus). Although the major function is binding, solubilization and transport of vitamin D and its metabolites, the name of this glycoprotein hides numerous other important biological functions. In this review, we will focus on the analytical aspects of the determination of DBP and discuss in detail the multifunctional capacity [actin scavenging, binding of fatty acids, chemotaxis, binding of endotoxins, influence on T cell response and influence of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) on bone metabolism and cancer] of this abundant plasma protein.

  15. Reprogramming cellular events by poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pic, Émilie; Ethier, Chantal; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that has led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions. PMID:23268355

  16. Solvation structure of ice-binding antifreeze proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, John

    2009-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can be found in organisms which survive at subzero temperatures. They were first discovered in polar fishes since the 1950's [1] and have been isolated meanwhile also from insects, plants, and bacteria. While AFPs shift the freezing point of water below the bulk melting point and hence can prevent recrystallization; the effect is non-colligative and there is a pronounced hysteresis between freezing and melting. For many AFPs it is generally accepted that they function through an irreversible binding to the ice-water interface which leads to a piecewise convex growth front with a lower nonequilibrium freezing point due to the Kelvin effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the AFP from Choristoneura fumiferana reveal that the solvation structures of water at ice-binding and non-ice-binding faces of the protein are crucial for understanding how the AFP binds to the ice surface and how it is protected from being overgrown [2]. We use density functional theory of classical fluids in order to assess the microscopic solvent structure in the vicinity of protein faces with different surface properties. With our method, binding energies of different protein faces to the water-ice-interface can be computed efficiently in a simplified model. [1] Y. Yeh and R.E. Feeney, Chem. Rev. 96, 601 (1996). [2] D.R. Nutt and J.C. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 13066 (2008).

  17. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  18. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  19. Molecular Characterization of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon L. Reveals High Evolutionary Conservation and Diverse Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Xu, Yuxing; Yuan, Linlin; Bian, Yanwei; Wang, Lihui; Zhen, Shoumin; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 gene family identified in all eukaryotic organisms is involved in a wide range of biological processes, particularly in resistance to various abiotic stresses. Here, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characterization, phylogenetics, and responses to various abiotic stresses of the 14-3-3 gene family in Brachypodium distachyon L. A total of seven 14-3-3 genes from B. distachyon and 120 from five main lineages among 12 species were identified, which were divided into five well-conserved subfamilies. The molecular structure analysis showed that the plant 14-3-3 gene family is highly evolutionarily conserved, although certain divergence had occurred in different subfamilies. The duplication event investigation revealed that segmental duplication seemed to be the predominant form by which the 14-3-3 gene family had expanded. Moreover, seven critical amino acids were detected, which may contribute to functional divergence. Expression profiling analysis showed that BdGF14 genes were abundantly expressed in the roots, but showed low expression in the meristems. All seven BdGF14 genes showed significant expression changes under various abiotic stresses, including heavy metal, phytohormone, osmotic, and temperature stresses, which might play important roles in responses to multiple abiotic stresses mainly through participating in ABA-dependent signaling and reactive oxygen species-mediated MAPK cascade signaling pathways. In particular, BdGF14 genes generally showed upregulated expression in response to multiple stresses of high temperature, heavy metal, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA), but downregulated expression under H2O2, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Meanwhile, dynamic transcriptional expression analysis of BdGF14 genes under longer treatments with heavy metals (Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, and Zn2+) and phytohormone (ABA) and recovery revealed two main expression trends in both roots and leaves: up-down and up

  20. Actin-binding proteins take the reins in growth cones.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chi W; Flynn, Kevin C; Bamburg, James R

    2008-02-01

    Higher-order actin-based networks (actin superstructures) are important for growth-cone motility and guidance. Principles for generating, organizing and remodelling actin superstructures have emerged from recent findings in cell-free systems, non-neuronal cells and growth cones. This Review examines how actin superstructures are initiated de novo at the leading-edge membrane and how the spontaneous organization of actin superstructures is driven by ensembles of actin-binding proteins. How the regulation of actin-binding proteins can affect growth-cone turning and axonal regeneration is also discussed.

  1. Functional interactions between polypyrimidine tract binding protein and PRI peptide ligand containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel B; Ascher, David B; Gooding, Clare; Lang, Emma; Maude, Hannah; Turner, David; Llorian, Miriam; Pires, Douglas E V; Attig, Jan; Smith, Christopher W J

    2016-08-15

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that plays roles in most stages of the life-cycle of pre-mRNA and mRNAs in the nucleus and cytoplasm. PTBP1 has four RNA binding domains of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family, each of which can bind to pyrimidine motifs. In addition, RRM2 can interact via its dorsal surface with proteins containing short peptide ligands known as PTB RRM2 interacting (PRI) motifs, originally found in the protein Raver1. Here we review our recent progress in understanding the interactions of PTB with RNA and with various proteins containing PRI ligands.

  2. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using β-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between β-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the β-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  3. Conserved Odorant-Binding Proteins from Aphids and Eavesdropping Predators

    PubMed Central

    Vandermoten, Sophie; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric; Leal, Walter S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The sesquiterpene (E)-ß-farnesene is the main component of the alarm pheromone system of various aphid species studied to date, including the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. Aphid natural enemies, such as the marmalade hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis, eavesdrop on aphid chemical communication and utilize (E)-ß-farnesene as a kairomone to localize their immediate or offspring preys. These aphid-predator systems are important models to study how the olfactory systems of distant insect taxa process the same chemical signal. We postulated that odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception, have conserved regions involved in binding (E)-ß-farnesene. Methodology We cloned OBP genes from the English grain aphid and two major predators of this aphid species. We then expressed these proteins and compare their binding affinities to the alarm pheromone/kairomone. By using a fluorescence reporter, we tested binding of (E)-ß-farnesene and other electrophysiologically and behaviorally active compounds, including a green leaf volatile attractant. Conclusion We found that OBPs from disparate taxa of aphids and their predators are highly conserved proteins, with apparently no orthologue genes in other insect species. Properly folded, recombinant proteins from the English grain aphid, SaveOBP3, and the marmalade hoverfly, EbalOBP3, specifically bind (E)-ß-farnesene with apparent high affinity. For the first time we have demonstrated that insect species belonging to distinct Orders have conserved OBPs, which specifically bind a common semiochemical and has no binding affinity for related compounds. PMID:21912599

  4. Human CAP18: a novel antimicrobial lipopolysaccharide-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Larrick, J W; Hirata, M; Balint, R F; Lee, J; Zhong, J; Wright, S C

    1995-01-01

    CAP18 (18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein) is a protein originally identified and purified from rabbit leukocytes on the basis of its capacity to bind and inhibit various activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report the cloning of human CAP18 and characterize the anti-LPS activity of the C-terminal fragment. Oligonucleotide probes designed from the rabbit CAP18 cDNA were used to identify human CAP18 from a bone marrow cDNA library. The cDNA encodes a protein composed of a 30-amino-acid signal peptide, a 103-amino-acid N-terminal domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal domain of 37 amino acids homologous to the LPS-binding antimicrobial domain of rabbit CAP18, designated CAP18(104-140). A human CAP18-specific antiserum was generated by using CAP18 expressed as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. Western blots (immunoblots) with this antiserum showed specific expression of human CAP18 in granulocytes. Synthetic human CAP18(104-140) and a more active truncated fragment, CAP18(104-135), were shown to (i) bind to erythrocytes coated with diverse strains of LPS, (ii) inhibit LPS-induced release of nitric oxide from macrophages, (iii) inhibit LPS-induced generation of tissue factor, and (iv) protect mice from LPS lethality. CAP18(104-140) may have therapeutic utility for conditions associated with elevated concentrations of LPS. PMID:7890387

  5. Drug-drug plasma protein binding interactions of ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elena K; Huang, Johnny X; Carbone, Vincenzo; Baker, Mark; Azad, Mohammad A K; Cooper, Matthew A; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Ivacaftor is a novel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for patients with CF bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs may compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This, in turn, could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This biochemical study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site-selective probes. Because of their ability to strongly compete for the ivacaftor binding sites on HSA and AGP, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole, and loratadine. The significance of these plasma protein drug-drug interactions is also interpreted in terms of molecular docking simulations. This in vitro study provides valuable insights into the plasma protein drug-drug interactions of ivacaftor with co-administered CF drugs. The data may prove useful in future clinical trials for a staggered treatment that aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

  6. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  7. Structural and functional analysis of fatty acid-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Judith; McDermott, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian FA-binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain FA with high affinity. The large number of FABP types is suggestive of distinct functions in specific tissues. Multiple experimental approaches have shown that individual FABPs possess both unique and overlapping functions, some of which are based on specific elements in the protein structure. Although FA binding affinities for all FABPs tend to correlate directly with FA hydrophobicity, structure-function studies indicate that subtle three-dimensional changes that occur upon ligand binding may promote specific protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions that ultimately determine the function of each FABP. The conformational changes are focused in the FABP helical/portal domain, a region that was identified by in vitro studies to be vital for the FA transport properties of the FABPs. Thus, the FABPs modulate intracellular lipid homeostasis by regulating FA transport in the nuclear and extra-nuclear compartments of the cell; in so doing, they also impact systemic energy homeostasis. PMID:19017610

  8. The size and detergent binding of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S

    1975-07-25

    Sucrose density gradient centrifugation has been used to measure the binding of Triton X-100 above its critical micellar concentration to a variety of purified membrane and non-membrane proteins. In addition, binding studies were done on the three proteins below the critical micellar concentration of detergent to distinguish between the interaction of proteins with detergent monomers and detergent micelles. A procedure is described for the calculation of the molecular weight of these Triton X-100 protein complexes and measurements were made for opsin, plasma low density lipoprotein, the (Na-+ plus K-+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase, the human red blood cell major sialoglycoprotein (PAS-1) and the human red blood cell minor glycoprotein (bandIII). These proteins behave as monomers or dimers in detergent and bind between 0.28 and 1.12 g of detergent per g of protein. A general method is also present for calculating the molecular size and shape of impure membrane proteins in detergent. Finally, Triton X-100 was shown to replace bound Na dodecyl-SO4 on the minor glycoprotein of the red blood cell.

  9. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

  10. Molecular beacons for DNA binding proteins: an emerging technology for detection of DNA binding proteins and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Dummitt, Benjamin; Chang, Yie-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Quantitation of the level or activity of specific proteins is one of the most commonly performed experiments in biomedical research. Protein detection has historically been difficult to adapt to high throughput platforms because of heavy reliance upon antibodies for protein detection. Molecular beacons for DNA binding proteins is a recently developed technology that attempts to overcome such limitations. Protein detection is accomplished using inexpensive, easy-to-synthesize oligonucleotides, accompanied by a fluorescence readout. Importantly, detection of the protein and reporting of the signal occur simultaneously, allowing for one-step protocols and increased potential for use in high throughput analysis. While the initial iteration of the technology allowed only for the detection of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, more recent adaptations allow for the possibility of development of beacons for any protein, independent of native DNA binding activity. Here, we discuss the development of the technology, the mechanism of the reaction, and recent improvements and modifications made to improve the assay in terms of sensitivity, potential for multiplexing, and broad applicability.

  11. Translational repression by RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Lal, Ashish; Martindale, Jennifer L; Kawai, Tomoko; Gorospe, Myriam

    2006-04-01

    The RNA-binding protein TIAR has been proposed to inhibit protein synthesis transiently by promoting the formation of translationally silent stress granules. Here, we report the selective binding of TIAR to several mRNAs encoding translation factors such as eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) and eIF4E (translation initiation factors), eEF1B (a translation elongation factor), and c-Myc (which transcriptionally controls the expression of numerous translation regulatory proteins). TIAR bound the 3'-untranslated regions of these mRNAs and potently suppressed their translation, particularly in response to low levels of short-wavelength UV (UVC) irradiation. The UVC-imposed global inhibition of the cellular translation machinery was significantly relieved after silencing of TIAR expression. We propose that the TIAR-mediated inhibition of translation factor expression elicits a sustained repression of protein biosynthesis in cells responding to stress.

  12. An Ancient Family of RNA-Binding Proteins: Still Important!

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Perera, Lalith; Blackshear, Perry J

    2017-04-01

    RNA-binding proteins are important modulators of mRNA stability, a crucial process that determines the ultimate cellular levels of mRNAs and their encoded proteins. The tristetraprolin (TTP) family of RNA-binding proteins appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes, and has persisted in modern eukaryotes. The domain structures and biochemical functions of family members from widely divergent lineages are remarkably similar, but their mRNA 'targets' can be very different, even in closely related species. Recent gene knockout studies in species as distantly related as plants, flies, yeasts, and mice have demonstrated crucial roles for these proteins in a wide variety of physiological processes. Inflammatory and hematopoietic phenotypes in mice have suggested potential therapeutic approaches for analogous human disorders.

  13. Free enthalpies of replacing water molecules in protein binding pockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riniker, Sereina; Barandun, Luzi J.; Diederich, François; Krämer, Oliver; Steffen, Andreas; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    2012-12-01

    Water molecules in the binding pocket of a protein and their role in ligand binding have increasingly raised interest in recent years. Displacement of such water molecules by ligand atoms can be either favourable or unfavourable for ligand binding depending on the change in free enthalpy. In this study, we investigate the displacement of water molecules by an apolar probe in the binding pocket of two proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, using the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) to obtain free enthalpy differences. In both cases, a ligand core is placed inside the respective pocket and the remaining water molecules are converted to apolar probes, both individually and in pairs. The free enthalpy difference between a water molecule and a CH3 group at the same location in the pocket in comparison to their presence in bulk solution calculated from EDS molecular dynamics simulations corresponds to the binding free enthalpy of CH3 at this location. From the free enthalpy difference and the enthalpy difference, the entropic contribution of the displacement can be obtained too. The overlay of the resulting occupancy volumes of the water molecules with crystal structures of analogous ligands shows qualitative correlation between experimentally measured inhibition constants and the calculated free enthalpy differences. Thus, such an EDS analysis of the water molecules in the binding pocket may give valuable insight for potency optimization in drug design.

  14. Free enthalpies of replacing water molecules in protein binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Riniker, Sereina; Barandun, Luzi J; Diederich, François; Krämer, Oliver; Steffen, Andreas; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2012-12-01

    Water molecules in the binding pocket of a protein and their role in ligand binding have increasingly raised interest in recent years. Displacement of such water molecules by ligand atoms can be either favourable or unfavourable for ligand binding depending on the change in free enthalpy. In this study, we investigate the displacement of water molecules by an apolar probe in the binding pocket of two proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, using the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) to obtain free enthalpy differences. In both cases, a ligand core is placed inside the respective pocket and the remaining water molecules are converted to apolar probes, both individually and in pairs. The free enthalpy difference between a water molecule and a CH(3) group at the same location in the pocket in comparison to their presence in bulk solution calculated from EDS molecular dynamics simulations corresponds to the binding free enthalpy of CH(3) at this location. From the free enthalpy difference and the enthalpy difference, the entropic contribution of the displacement can be obtained too. The overlay of the resulting occupancy volumes of the water molecules with crystal structures of analogous ligands shows qualitative correlation between experimentally measured inhibition constants and the calculated free enthalpy differences. Thus, such an EDS analysis of the water molecules in the binding pocket may give valuable insight for potency optimization in drug design.

  15. High-affinity RNA binding by a hyperthermophilic single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Morten, Michael J; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Cubeddu, Liza; Kariawasam, Ruvini; Peregrina, Jose; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F

    2017-03-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), including replication protein A (RPA) in eukaryotes, play a central role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. SSBs utilise an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain to bind DNA, and typically oligomerise in solution to bring multiple OB fold domains together in the functional SSB. SSBs from hyperthermophilic crenarchaea, such as Sulfolobus solfataricus, have an unusual structure with a single OB fold coupled to a flexible C-terminal tail. The OB fold resembles those in RPA, whilst the tail is reminiscent of bacterial SSBs and mediates interaction with other proteins. One paradigm in the field is that SSBs bind specifically to ssDNA and much less strongly to RNA, ensuring that their functions are restricted to DNA metabolism. Here, we use a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that the binding properties of S. solfataricus SSB are essentially identical for ssDNA and ssRNA. These features may represent an adaptation to a hyperthermophilic lifestyle, where DNA and RNA damage is a more frequent event.

  16. Tritium NMR spectroscopy of ligand binding to maltose-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Williams, P.G.; Pelton, J.G.; Morimoto, H.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1991-06-04

    Tritium-labeled {alpha}- and {beta}-maltodextrins have been used to study their complexes with maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40-kDa bacterial protein. Five substrates, from maltose to maltohexaose, were labeled at their reducing ends and their binding studied. Tritium NMR specctroscopy of the labeled sugars showed large upfield chamical shift changes upon binding and strong anomeric specficity. At 10{degrees}C, MBP bound {alpha}-maltose with 2.7 {plus minus} 0.5-fold higher affinity than {beta}-maltose, and, for longer maltodextrins, the ratio of affinities was even larger. The maximum chemical shift change was 2.2 ppm, suggesting that the reducing end of bound {alpha}-maltodextrin makes close contact with an aromatic residue in the MBP-binding site. Experiments with maltotriose (and longer maltodextrins) also revealed the presence of two bound {beta}-maltotriose resonances in rapid exchange. The authors interpret these two resonances as arising from two distinct sugar-protein complexes. In one complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by its reducing end, and, in the other complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by the middle glucose residue(s). This interpretation also suggests how MBP is able to bind both linear and circular maltodextrins.

  17. Importance of DNA stiffness in protein-DNA binding specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. E.; Austin, R. H.

    1987-09-01

    From the first high-resolution structure of a repressor bound specifically to its DNA recognition sequence1 it has been shown that the phage 434 repressor protein binds as a dimer to the helix. Tight, local interactions are made at the ends of the binding site, causing the central four base pairs (bp) to become bent and overtwisted. The centre of the operator is not in contact with protein but repressor binding affinity can be reduced at least 50-fold in response to a sequence change there2. This observation might be explained should the structure of the intervening DNA segment vary with its sequence, or if DNA at the centre of the operator resists the torsional and bending deformation necessary for complex formation in a sequence dependent fashion. We have considered the second hypothesis by demonstrating that DNA stiffness is sequence dependent. A method is formulated for calculating the stiffness of any particular DNA sequence, and we show that this predicted relationship between sequence and stiffness can explain the repressor binding data in a quantitative manner. We propose that the elastic properties of DNA may be of general importance to an understanding of protein-DNA binding specificity.

  18. Using the telobox to search for plant telomere binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Peška, Vratislav; Schrumpfová, Petra Procházková; Fajkus, Jiŕí

    2011-03-01

    Telobox is a Myb-related DNA-binding domain which is present in a number of yeast, plant and animal proteins. Its capacity to bind preferentially double-stranded telomeric DNA has been used in numerous studies to search for candidate telomeric proteins in various organisms, including plants. Here we provide an overview of these studies with a special emphasis on plants, where a specific subfamily of the proteins possessing the N-terminally positioned telobox is present in addition to more common C-terminal telobox proteins. We further demonstrate the presence of a telobox protein (CpTBP1) in Cestrum parqui, a plant lacking typical telomeres and telomerase. The protein shows nuclear localisation and association with chromatin. The role of this protein in ancestral and current telomere structure is discussed in the evolutionary context. Altogether, the present overview shows the importance of the telobox domain in a search for candidate telomere proteins but at the same time warns against oversimplified identification of any telobox protein with telomere structure without appropriate evidence of its telomeric localisation and function.

  19. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Fisher, S Zoë

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments.

  20. Asymmetric DNA binding by a homodimeric bHLH protein.

    PubMed

    Winston, R L; Ehley, J A; Baird, E E; Dervan, P B; Gottesfeld, J M

    2000-08-08

    Protein-DNA interactions that lie outside of the core recognition sequence for the Drosophila bHLH transcription factor Deadpan (Dpn) were investigated using minor groove binding pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting demonstrate that hairpin polyamides bound immediately upstream, but not immediately downstream of the Dpn homodimer selectively inhibit protein-DNA complex formation. Mutation of the Dpn consensus binding site from the asymmetric sequence 5'-CACGCG-3' to the palindromic sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' abolishes asymmetric inhibition. A Dpn mutant containing the unnatural amino acid norleucine in place of lysine at position 80 in the bHLH loop region is not inhibited by the polyamide, suggesting that the epsilon amino group at this position is responsible for DNA contacts outside the major groove. We conclude that the nonpalindromic Dpn recognition site imparts binding asymmetry by providing unique contacts to the basic region of each monomer in the bHLH homodimer.

  1. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Measurements of Metal Ions Binding to Proteins.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colette F; Carpenter, Margaret C; Croteau, Molly L; Wilcox, Dean E

    2016-01-01

    ITC measurements involving metal ions are susceptible to a number of competing reactions (oxidation, precipitation, and hydrolysis) and coupled reactions involving the buffer and protons. Stabilization and delivery of the metal ion as a well-defined and well-characterized complex with the buffer, or a specific ligand, can suppress undesired solution chemistry and, depending on the stability of the metal complex, allow accurate measurements of higher affinity protein-binding sites. This requires, however, knowledge of the thermodynamics of formation of the metal complex and accounting for its contribution to the experimentally measured values (KITC and ΔHITC) through a post hoc analysis that provides the condition-independent binding thermodynamics (K, ΔG(o), ΔH, ΔS, and ΔCP). This analysis also quantifies the number of protons that are displaced when the metal ion binds to the protein.

  2. Effect of FGF-binding Protein 3 on Vascular Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yifan; Swift, Matthew R.; Tassi, Elena; Stylianou, Dora C.; Gibby, Krissa A.; Riegel, Anna T.; Wellstein, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 (FGF-BP1 is BP1) is involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tumor growth, and angiogenesis by mobilizing endogenous FGFs from their extracellular matrix storage. Here we describe a new member of the FGF-BP family, human BP3. We show that the hBP3 protein is secreted from cells, binds to FGF2 in vitro and in intact cells, and inhibits FGF2 binding to heparin. To determine the function of hBP3 in vivo, hBP3 was transiently expressed in chicken embryos and resulted in >50% lethality within 24 h because of vascular leakage. The onset of vascular permeability was monitored by recording the extravasation kinetics of FITC-labeled 40-kDa dextran microperfused into the vitelline vein of 3-day-old embryos. Vascular permeability increased as early as 8 h after expression of hBP3. The increased vascular permeability caused by hBP3 was prevented by treatment of embryos with PD173074, a selective FGFR kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, a C-terminal 66-amino acid fragment (C66) of hBP3, which contains the predicted FGF binding domain, still inhibited binding of FGF2 to heparin similar to full-length hBP3. However, expression of the C66 fragment did not increase vascular permeability on its own, but required the administration of exogenous FGF2 protein. We conclude that the FGF binding domain and the heparin binding domain are necessary for the hBP3 interaction with endogenous FGF and the activation of FGFR signaling in vivo. PMID:18669637

  3. Urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein predicts necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Katherine E; Winston, Abigail B; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Fichorova, Raina N; Van Marter, Linda J

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis, characterized by sudden onset and rapid progression, remains the most significant gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. In seeking a predictive biomarker, we found intestinal fatty acid binding protein, an indicator of enterocyte damage, was substantially increased within three and seven days before the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.

  4. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1997-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  5. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  6. Guanylate-binding proteins: niche recruiters for antimicrobial effectors.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christopher D; Hunter, Christopher A

    2012-08-24

    There are fundamental questions regarding how IFN-γ activates host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens. In this issue of Immunity, Yamamoto et al. (2012) demonstrate a critical role for the p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) in this process during infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

  7. JadX is a Disparate Natural Product Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew W; Forget, Stephanie M; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; McCormick, Nicole E; Syvitski, Raymond T; Jakeman, David L

    2016-02-24

    We report that JadX, a protein of previously undetermined function coded for in the jadomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, affects both chloramphenicol and jadomycin production levels in blocked mutants. Characterization of recombinant JadX through protein-ligand interactions by chemical shift perturbation and WaterLOGSY NMR spectroscopy resulted in the observation of binding between JadX and a series of jadomycins and between JadX and chloramphenicol, another natural product produced by S. venezuelae ISP5230. These results suggest JadX to be an unusual class of natural product binding protein involved in binding structurally disparate natural products. The ability for JadX to bind two different natural products in vitro and the ability to affect production of these secondary metabolites in vivo suggest a potential role in regulation or signaling. This is the first example of functional characterization of these JadX-like proteins, and provides insight into a previously unobserved regulatory process.

  8. Differential DNA binding properties of three human homeodomain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, M T; Briata, P; Sanseverino, L; Daga, A; Airoldi, I; Simeone, A; Palmisano, G; Angelini, C; Boncinelli, E; Corte, G

    1992-01-01

    The products of three human homeobox containing (HOX) genes, 2C, 3C and 4B, were produced in insect cells using the Baculovirus expression system and purified to near homogeneity. In this system we observed that the DNA binding forms of the three proteins are not glycosylated. HOX 3C and 4B are phosphorylated in insect cells, while HOX 2C is not. The three HOX proteins bind to a DNA sequence known to be a target site for Antennapedia protein with a very similar affinity (Kd = 1-2 x 10(-9) M). We then measured their binding properties to four human sequences present in the HOX 3D, 4C, 1C and 4B promoters. Two of these sequences have been reported to be binding sites for HOX proteins. HOX 2C, 3C and 4B behaved quite differently, showing low affinity for promoters of genes located upstream from their own gene in the HOX clusters and a higher affinity for regulatory sequences of their own gene and downstream HOX genes. Images PMID:1357628

  9. Protein-Ligand Binding Detected by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, J.; Chen, J. Y.; Mader, M.; Markelz, A.

    2004-03-01

    Established measures of protein flexibility through the B-factor use time intensive and facility limited techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR structure analysis and inelastic neutron scattering. We demonstrate a novel technique that may be used for determination of ligand binding for proteins as well as a measure of protein flexibility. Using the method of terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy, we measured the far infrared dielectric response as a function of the binding of N (1-4)-acetylglucosamine (NAG) to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Vibrational modes associated with tertiary structure conformational motions lay in the THz frequency range. The THz dielectric response reflects the density and amplitude of these normal modes through dipole coupling. Transmission measurements on thin films show that while there is no change in the real part of the refractive index as a function of binding, there is a decrease in the absorbance for the HEWL+NAG thin films relative to HEWL films. This decrease can be attributed to a reduction in the flexibility of the protein with binding. These results are compared to calculated absorbance spectra.

  10. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters.

  11. Damage-specific DNA-binding proteins from human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kanjilal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to detect and characterize factors from human cells that bind DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation. An application of the gel-shift assay was devised in which a DNA probe was UV-irradiated and compared with non-irradiated probe DNA for the ability to bind to such factors in cell extracts. UV-dose dependent binding proteins were identified. Formation of the DNA-protein complexes was independent of the specific sequence, form or source of the DNA. There was a marked preference for lesions on double stranded DNA over those on single stranded DNA. DNA irradiated with gamma rays did not compete with UV-irradiated DNA for the binding activities. Cell lines from patients with genetic diseases associated with disorders of the DNA repair system were screened for the presence of damaged-DNA-binding activities. Simultaneous occurrence of the clinical symptoms of some of these diseases had been previously documented and possible links between the syndromes proposed. However, supporting biochemical or molecular evidence for such associations were lacking. The data from the present investigations indicate that some cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum group A, Cockayne's Syndrome, Bloom's Syndrome and Ataxia Telangiectasia, all of which exhibit sensitivity to UV or gamma radiation, share an aberrant damaged-DNA-binding factor. These findings support the hypothesis that some of the repair disorder diseases are closely related and may have arisen from a common defect. Partial purification of the binding activities from HeLa cells was achieved. Size-exclusion chromatography resolved the activities into various peaks, one of which was less damage-specific than the others as determined by competition studies using native or UV-irradiated DNA. Some of the activities were further separated by ion-exchange chromatography. On using affinity chromatography methods, the major damage-binding factor could be eluted in the presence of 2 M KCl and 1% NP-40.

  12. Sequence specific binding of chlamydial histone H1-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, R; Allen, M; Bradbury, E M; Wenman, W M

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the few prokaryotic organisms known to contain proteins that bear homology to eukaryotic histone H1. Changes in macromolecular conformation of DNA mediated by the histone H1-like protein (Hc1) appear to regulate stage specific differentiation. We have developed a cross-linking immunoprecipitation protocol to examine in vivo protein-DNA interaction by immune precipitating chlamydial Hc1 cross linked to DNA. Our results strongly support the presence of sequence specific binding sites on the chlamydial plasmid and hc1 gene upstream of its open reading frame. The preferential binding sites were mapped to 520 bp BamHI-XhoI and 547 bp BamHI-DraI DNA fragments on the plasmid and hc1 respectively. Comparison of these two DNA sequences using Bestfit program has identified a 24 bp region with >75% identity that is unique to the chlamydial genome. Double-stranded DNA prepared by annealing complementary oligonucleotides corresponding to the conserved 24 bp region bind Hc1, in contrast to control sequences with similar A+T ratios. Further, Hc1 binds to DNA in a strand specific fashion, with preferential binding for only one strand. The site specific affinity to plasmid DNA was also demonstrated by atomic force microscopy data images. Binding was always followed by coiling, shrinking and aggregation of the affected DNA. Very low protein-DNA ratio was required if incubations were carried out in solution. However, if DNA was partially immobilized on mica substrate individual strands with dark foci were still visible even after the addition of excess Hc1. PMID:8760883

  13. Major coat protein and single-stranded DNA-binding protein of filamentous virus Pf3.

    PubMed Central

    Putterman, D G; Casadevall, A; Boyle, P D; Yang, H L; Frangione, B; Day, L A

    1984-01-01

    The region of the Pf3 virus genome encoding its major coat protein and its single-stranded DNA-binding protein is organized somewhat like the corresponding region of the fd (M13, f1) genome. Nevertheless, the major coat protein is unique among the major coat proteins of fd and the other filamentous phages studied in that it lacks a signal sequence and appears to be a direct translation product and in that it has fewer basic amino acid residues than its equivalent of DNA phosphates in the virion. These features are relevant to considerations of both protein insertion into membranes and DNA structure in filamentous viruses. The single-stranded DNA-binding protein also has a sequence that is different from the sequences of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from other filamentous viruses. Images PMID:6422463

  14. The Overlap of Small Molecule and Protein Binding Sites within Families of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Fred P.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are challenging targets for modulation by small molecules. Here, we propose an approach that harnesses the increasing structural coverage of protein complexes to identify small molecules that may target protein interactions. Specifically, we identify ligand and protein binding sites that overlap upon alignment of homologous proteins. Of the 2,619 protein structure families observed to bind proteins, 1,028 also bind small molecules (250–1000 Da), and 197 exhibit a statistically significant (p<0.01) overlap between ligand and protein binding positions. These “bi-functional positions”, which bind both ligands and proteins, are particularly enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan residues, similar to “energetic hotspots” described previously, and are significantly less conserved than mono-functional and solvent exposed positions. Homology transfer identifies ligands whose binding sites overlap at least 20% of the protein interface for 35% of domain–domain and 45% of domain–peptide mediated interactions. The analysis recovered known small-molecule modulators of protein interactions as well as predicted new interaction targets based on the sequence similarity of ligand binding sites. We illustrate the predictive utility of the method by suggesting structural mechanisms for the effects of sanglifehrin A on HIV virion production, bepridil on the cellular entry of anthrax edema factor, and fusicoccin on vertebrate developmental pathways. The results, available at http://pibase.janelia.org, represent a comprehensive collection of structurally characterized modulators of protein interactions, and suggest that homologous structures are a useful resource for the rational design of interaction modulators. PMID:20140189

  15. Phage display screen for peptides that bind Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Joungmok; Cho, June-Haeng; Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of apoptosis associated with human disease, including cancer. Bcl-2 protein has been found to be overexpressed in many cancer cells. Therefore, Bcl-2 protein is a potential diagnostic target for cancer detection. In the present study, the authors have identified several Bcl-2 binding peptides with high affinity (picomolar range) from a 5-round M13 phage display library screening. These peptides can be used to develop novel diagnostic probes or potent inhibitors with diverse polyvalencies.

  16. Observation of Protein Structural Vibrational Mode Sensitivity to Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Katherine; Xu, Mengyang; Snell, Edward; Markelz, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    We report the first measurements of the dependence of large-scale protein intramolecular vibrational modes on ligand binding. These collective vibrational modes in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1) are of great interest due to their predicted relation to protein function. Our technique, Crystals Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), allows for room temperature, table-top measurements of the optically active intramolecular modes. CATM measurements have revealed surprisingly narrowband features. CATM measurements are performed on single crystals of chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) as well as CEWL bound to tri-N-acetylglucosamine (CEWL-3NAG) inhibitor. We find narrow band resonances that dramatically shift with binding. Quasiharmonic calculations are performed on CEWL and CEWL-3NAG proteins with CHARMM using normal mode analysis. The expected CATM response of the crystals is then calculated by summing over all protein orientations within the unit cell. We will compare the CATM measurements with the calculated results and discuss the changes which arise with protein-ligand binding. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI 2 grant DBI2959989.

  17. Resolving protein structure-function-binding site relationships from a binding site similarity network perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-03-25

    Functional annotation is seldom straightforward with complexities arising due to functional divergence in protein families or functional convergence between non-homologous protein families, leading to mis-annotations. An enzyme may contain multiple domains and not all domains may be involved in a given function, adding to the complexity in function annotation. To address this, we use binding site information from bound cognate ligands and catalytic residues, since it can help in resolving fold-function relationships at a finer level and with higher confidence. A comprehensive database of 2,020 fold-function-binding site relationships has been systematically generated. A network-based approach is employed to capture the complexity in these relationships, from which different types of associations are deciphered, that identify versatile protein folds performing diverse functions, same function associated with multiple folds and one-to-one relationships. Binding site similarity networks integrated with fold, function and ligand similarity information are generated to understand the depth of these relationships. Apart from the observed continuity in the functional site space, network properties of these revealed versatile families with topologically different or dissimilar binding sites and structural families that perform very similar functions. As a case study, subtle changes in the active site of a set of evolutionarily related superfamilies are studied using these networks. Tracing of such similarities in evolutionarily related proteins provide clues into the transition and evolution of protein functions. Insights from this study will be helpful in accurate and reliable functional annotations of uncharacterized proteins, poly-pharmacology and designing enzymes with new functional capabilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14216.001 PMID:27474797

  19. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-07-30

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 inte