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Sample records for 14-3-3 proteins play

  1. 14-3-3 proteins in plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Robatzek, Silke

    2015-05-01

    14-3-3 proteins define a eukaryotic-specific protein family with a general role in signal transduction. Primarily, 14-3-3 proteins act as phosphosensors, binding phosphorylated client proteins and modulating their functions. Since phosphorylation regulates a plethora of different physiological responses in plants, 14-3-3 proteins play roles in multiple signaling pathways, including those controlling metabolism, hormone signaling, cell division, and responses to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Increasing evidence supports a prominent role of 14-3-3 proteins in regulating plant immunity against pathogens at various levels. In this review, potential links between 14-3-3 function and the regulation of plant-pathogen interactions are discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in response to pathogen perception, interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and defense-related proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins as targets of pathogen effectors.

  2. 14-3-3 proteins play a role in the cell cycle by shielding cdt2 from ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ashraf; Wu, David; Lee, Nicholas; Shibata, Etsuko; Dutta, Anindya

    2014-11-01

    Cdt2 is the substrate recognition adaptor of CRL4(Cdt2) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and plays a pivotal role in the cell cycle by mediating the proteasomal degradation of Cdt1 (DNA replication licensing factor), p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] inhibitor), and Set8 (histone methyltransferase) in S phase. Cdt2 itself is attenuated by SCF(FbxO11)-mediated proteasomal degradation. Here, we report that 14-3-3 adaptor proteins interact with Cdt2 phosphorylated at threonine 464 (T464) and shield it from polyubiquitination and consequent proteasomal degradation. Depletion of 14-3-3 proteins promotes the interaction of FbxO11 with Cdt2. Overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins shields Cdt2 that has a phospho-mimicking mutation (T464D [change of T to D at position 464]) but not Cdt2(T464A) from ubiquitination. Furthermore, the delay of the cell cycle in the G2/M phase and decrease in cell proliferation seen upon depletion of 14-3-3γ is partly due to the accumulation of the CRL4(Cdt2) substrate, Set8 methyltransferase. Therefore, the stabilization of Cdt2 is an important function of 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle progression.

  3. 14-3-3 Proteins Play a Role in the Cell Cycle by Shielding Cdt2 from Ubiquitin-Mediated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Ashraf; Wu, David; Lee, Nicholas; Shibata, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Cdt2 is the substrate recognition adaptor of CRL4Cdt2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and plays a pivotal role in the cell cycle by mediating the proteasomal degradation of Cdt1 (DNA replication licensing factor), p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase [CDK] inhibitor), and Set8 (histone methyltransferase) in S phase. Cdt2 itself is attenuated by SCFFbxO11-mediated proteasomal degradation. Here, we report that 14-3-3 adaptor proteins interact with Cdt2 phosphorylated at threonine 464 (T464) and shield it from polyubiquitination and consequent proteasomal degradation. Depletion of 14-3-3 proteins promotes the interaction of FbxO11 with Cdt2. Overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins shields Cdt2 that has a phospho-mimicking mutation (T464D [change of T to D at position 464]) but not Cdt2(T464A) from ubiquitination. Furthermore, the delay of the cell cycle in the G2/M phase and decrease in cell proliferation seen upon depletion of 14-3-3γ is partly due to the accumulation of the CRL4Cdt2 substrate, Set8 methyltransferase. Therefore, the stabilization of Cdt2 is an important function of 14-3-3 proteins in cell cycle progression. PMID:25154416

  4. 14-3-3 proteins and plant development.

    PubMed

    Fulgosi, Hrvoje; Soll, Jürgen; de Faria Maraschin, Simone; Korthout, Henrie A A J; Wang, Mei; Testerink, Christa

    2002-12-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of ubiquitous regulatory molecules which have been found in virtually every eukaryotic organism and tissue. Discovered 34 years ago, 14-3-3 proteins have first been studied in mammalian nervous tissues, but in the past decade their indispensable role in various plant regulatory and metabolic pathways has been increasingly established. We now know that 14-3-3 members regulate fundamental processes of nitrogen assimilation and carbon assimilation, play an auxiliary role in regulation of starch synthesis, ATP production, peroxide detoxification, and participate in modulation of several other important biochemical pathways. Plant development and seed germination appear also to be under control of factors whose interaction with 14-3-3 molecules is crucial for their activation. Located within the nucleus, 14-3-3 isoforms are constituents of transcription factor complexes and interact with components of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression machinery. In addition, in animal cells they participate in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking and molecular sequestration. Cytoplasmic 14-3-3 members form a guidance complex with chloroplast destined preproteins and facilitate their import into these photosynthetic organelles. Recently, several 14-3-3s have been identified within chloroplasts where they could be involved in targeting and insertion of thylakoid proteins. The identification of 14-3-3 isoform specificity, and in particular the elucidation of the signal transduction mechanisms connecting 14-3-3 members with physiological responses, are central and developing topics of current research in this field.

  5. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  6. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-21

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.

  7. 14-3-3 Proteins SGF14c and SGF14l Play Critical Roles during Soybean Nodulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Osman; Wu, Xia; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Libault, Marc; Neece, David J.; Oh, Man-Ho; Berg, R. Howard; Stacey, Gary; Taylor, Christopher G.; Huber, Steven C.; Clough, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean (Glycine max) genome contains 18 members of the 14-3-3 protein family, but little is known about their association with specific phenotypes. Here, we report that the Glyma0529080 Soybean G-box Factor 14-3-3c (SGF14c) and Glyma08g12220 (SGF14l) genes, encoding 14-3-3 proteins, appear to play essential roles in soybean nodulation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western-immunoblot analyses showed that SGF14c mRNA and protein levels were specifically increased in abundance in nodulated soybean roots 10, 12, 16, and 20 d after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To investigate the role of SGF14c during soybean nodulation, RNA interference was employed to silence SGF14c expression in soybean roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated root transformation. Due to the paleopolyploid nature of soybean, designing a specific RNA interference sequence that exclusively targeted SGF14c was not possible. Therefore, two highly similar paralogs (SGF14c and SGF14l) that have been shown to function as dimers were silenced. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in the SGF14c/SGF14l-silenced roots, and these roots exhibited reduced numbers of mature nodules. In addition, SGF14c/SGF14l-silenced roots contained large numbers of arrested nodule primordia following B. japonicum inoculation. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed that the host cytoplasm and membranes, except the symbiosome membrane, were severely degraded in the failed nodules. Altogether, transcriptomic, proteomic, and cytological data suggest a critical role of one or both of these 14-3-3 proteins in early development stages of soybean nodules. PMID:23060368

  8. 14-3-3 Proteins in Guard Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cotelle, Valérie; Leonhardt, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells are specialized cells located at the leaf surface delimiting pores which control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. To optimize the CO2 uptake necessary for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss, guard cells integrate environmental signals to adjust stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is regulated by movements of the guard cells driven by variations in their volume and turgor. As guard cells perceive and transduce a wide array of environmental cues, they provide an ideal system to elucidate early events of plant signaling. Reversible protein phosphorylation events are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal movements. However, in some cases, phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to achieve complete protein regulation, but is necessary to mediate the binding of interactors that modulate protein function. Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as multiple isoforms in eukaryotes and have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about 14-3-3 roles in the regulation of their binding partners in guard cells: receptors, ion pumps, channels, protein kinases, and some of their substrates. Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal movements in response to abiotic or biotic stresses.

  9. Eimeria tenella: 14-3-3 protein interacts with telomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Gong, Pengtao; Cheng, Baiqi; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Guocai; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-10-01

    Telomerase, consisting of telomerase RNA and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is responsible for the maintenance of the end of linear chromosomes. TERT, as the catalytic subunit of telomerase, plays a critical role in telomerase activity. Researches indicate TERT-associated proteins participate in the regulation of telomerase assembly, posttranslational modification, localization, and enzymatic function. Here, the telomerase RNA-binding domain of Eimeria tenella TERT (EtTRBD) was cloned into pGBKT7 and performed as the bait. α-Galactosidase assay showed that the bait plasmid did not activate Gal4 reporter gene. Further, we isolated an EtTRBD-associated protein, 14-3-3, by yeast two-hybrid screening using the constructed bait plasmid. To confirm the interaction, EtTRBD and 14-3-3 were expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. Pull-down assays by purified proteins demonstrated a direct bind between EtTRBD and 14-3-3. Co-immunoprecipitation techniques successfully validated that 14-3-3 interacted with EtTRBD in 293T cells. The protein-protein interaction provides a starting point for more in-depth studies on telomerase and telomere regulation in E. tenella.

  10. 14-3-3 proteins: a historic overview.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Alastair

    2006-06-01

    This chapter includes a historic overview of 14-3-3 proteins with an emphasis on the differences between potentially cancer-relevant isoforms on the genomic, protein and functional level. The focus will therefore be on mammalian 14-3-3s although many important developments in the field have involved Drosophila 14-3-3 proteins for example and the cross-fertilisation from parallel studies on plant 14-3-3 should not be underestimated. In the major part of this review I will attempt to focus on some novel data and aspects of 14-3-3 structure and function, in particular regulation of 14-3-3 isoforms by oncogene-related protein kinase phosphorylation and aspects of 14-3-3 research with which newcomers to the field may be less familiar.

  11. 14-3-3 proteins as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Meyerkord, Cheryl L.; Du, Yuhong; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian

    2011-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-binding proteins dynamically regulates the activity of client proteins in various signaling pathways that control diverse physiological and pathological processes. In response to environmental cues, 14-3-3 proteins orchestrate the highly regulated flow of signals through complex networks of molecular interactions to achieve well-controlled physiological outputs, such as cell proliferation or differentiation. Accumulating evidence now supports the concept that either an abnormal state of 14-3-3 protein expression, or dysregulation of 14-3-3/client protein interactions, contributes to the development of a large number of human diseases. In particular, clinical investigations in the field of oncology have demonstrated a correlation between upregulated 14-3-3 levels and poor survival of cancer patients. These studies highlight the rapid emergence of 14-3-3 proteins as a novel class of molecular target for potential therapeutic intervention. The current status of 14-3-3 modulator discovery is discussed. PMID:21983031

  12. 14-3-3 Proteins are Regulators of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are implicated in the regulation of proteins involved in a variety of signaling pathways. 14-3-3-dependent protein regulation occurs through phosphorylation-dependent binding that results, in many cases, in the release of survival signals in cells. Autophagy is a cell digestion process that contributes to overcoming nutrient deprivation and is initiated under stress conditions. However, whether autophagy is a cell survival or cell death mechanism remains under discussion and may depend on context. Nevertheless, autophagy is a cellular process that determines cell fate and is tightly regulated by different signaling pathways, some of which, for example MAPK, PI3K and mTOR, are tightly regulated by 14-3-3 proteins. It is therefore important to understand the role of 14-3-3 protein in modulating the autophagic process. Within this context, direct binding of 14-3-3 to mTOR regulatory proteins, such as TSC2 and PRAS40, connects 14-3-3 with autophagy regulatory processes. In addition, 14-3-3 binding to human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34), a class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3KC3), indicates the involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in regulating autophagosome formation. hVps34 is involved in vesicle trafficking processes such as autophagy, and its activation is needed for initiation of autophagy. Chromatography and overlay techniques suggest that hVps34 directly interacts with 14-3-3 proteins under physiological conditions, thereby maintaining hVps34 in an inactive state. In contrast, nutrient starvation promotes dissociation of the 14-3-3–hVps34 complex, thereby enhancing hVps34 lipid kinase activity. Thus, 14-3-3 proteins are regulators of autophagy through regulating key components of the autophagic machinery. This review summarizes the role of 14-3-3 protein in the control of target proteins involved in regulating the master switches of autophagy. PMID:24710529

  13. Molecular characterization of a novel 14-3-3 protein gene (Hb14-3-3c) from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Ping; Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Tian, Wei-Min; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The cDNA encoding a 14-3-3 protein, designated as Hb14-3-3c, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. Hb14-3-3c was 1,269 bp long containing a 795 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 264 amino acids, flanked by a 146 bp 5'UTR and a 328 bp 3' UTR. The predicted molecular mass of Hb14-3-3c is 29.67 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 4.52 and the deduced protein showed high similarity to the 14-3-3 protein from other plant species. Expression analysis revealed more significant accumulation of Hb14-3-3c transcripts in latex than in leaves, buds and flowers. The transcription of Hb14-3-3c in latex was induced by jasmonate and ethephon. Overproduction of recombinant Hb14-3-3c protein gave the Escherichia coli cells more tolerance on Co(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Through yeast two-hybrid screening, 11 interaction partners of the Hb14-3-3c, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, stress-related responses, defence etc., were identified in rubber tree latex. Taking these data together, it is proposed that the Hb14-3-3c may participate in regulation of rubber biosynthesis. Thus, the results of this study provide novel insights into the 14-3-3 signaling related to rubber biosynthesis, stress-related responses in rubber tree. PMID:21947841

  14. Increased 14-3-3 phosphorylation observed in Parkinson's disease reduces neuroprotective potential of 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Slone, Sunny Rae; Lavalley, Nicholas; McFerrin, Michael; Wang, Bing; Yacoubian, Talene Alene

    2015-07-01

    14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of cell survival. We have previously demonstrated that 14-3-3 levels are decreased in an alpha-synuclein (αsyn) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that overexpression of certain 14-3-3 isoforms is protective in several PD models. Here we examine whether changes in 14-3-3 phosphorylation may contribute to the neurodegenerative process in PD. We examine three key 14-3-3 phosphorylation sites that normally regulate 14-3-3 function, including serine 58 (S58), serine 184 (S184), and serine/threonine 232 (S/T232), in several models of PD and in human PD brain. We observed that an increase in S232 phosphorylation is observed in rotenone-treated neuroblastoma cells, in cells overexpressing αsyn, and in human PD brains. Alterations in S58 phosphorylation were less consistent in these models, and we did not observe any phosphorylation changes at S184. Phosphorylation at S232 induced by rotenone is reduced by casein kinase inhibitors, and is not dependent on αsyn. Mutation of the S232 site affected 14-3-3θ's neuroprotective effects against rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), with the S232D mutant lacking any protective effect compared to wildtype or S232A 14-3-3θ. The S232D mutant partially reduced the ability of 14-3-3θ to inhibit Bax activation in response to rotenone. Based on these findings, we propose that phosphorylation of 14-3-3s at serine 232 contributes to the neurodegenerative process in PD. PMID:25862939

  15. Interaction network of the 14-3-3 protein in the ancient protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis.

    PubMed

    Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Sayadi, Ahmed; Crescenzi, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2012-05-01

    14-3-3s are phosphoserine/phosphotreonine binding proteins that play pivotal roles as regulators of multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. The flagellated protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, the causing agent of giardiasis, is a valuable simplified eukaryotic model. A single 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3) is expressed in Giardia, and it is directly involved in the differentiation of the parasite into cyst. To define the overall functions of g14-3-3, the protein interactome has been investigated. A transgenic G. duodenalis strain was engineered to express a FLAG-tagged g14-3-3 under its own promoter. Affinity chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis have been used to purify and identify FLAG-g14-3-3-associated proteins from trophozoites and encysting parasites. A total of 314 putative g14-3-3 interaction partners were identified, including proteins involved in several pathways. Some interactions seemed to be peculiar of one specific stage, while others were shared among the different stages. Furthermore, the interaction of g14-3-3 with the giardial homologue of the CDC7 protein kinase (gCDC7) was characterized, leading to the identification of a multiprotein complex containing not only g14-3-3 and gCDC7 but also a newly identified and highly divergent homologue of DBF4, the putative regulatory subunit of gCDC7. The relevance of g14-3-3 interactions in G. duodenalis biology was discussed.

  16. Structural Modulation of Phosducin by Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Rezabkova, Lenka; Kacirova, Miroslava; Sulc, Miroslav; Herman, Petr; Vecer, Jaroslav; Stepanek, Miroslav; Obsilova, Veronika; Obsil, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Phosducin (Pdc), a highly conserved phosphoprotein, plays an important role in the regulation of G protein signaling, transcriptional control, and modulation of blood pressure. Pdc is negatively regulated by phosphorylation followed by binding to the 14-3-3 protein, whose role is still unclear. To gain insight into the role of 14-3-3 in the regulation of Pdc function, we studied structural changes of Pdc induced by phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein binding using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our data show that the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of Pdc at Ser-54 and Ser-73 affects the structure of the whole Pdc molecule. Complex formation with 14-3-3 reduces the flexibility of both the N- and C-terminal domains of phosphorylated Pdc, as determined by time-resolved tryptophan and dansyl fluorescence. Therefore, our data suggest that phosphorylated Pdc undergoes a conformational change when binding to 14-3-3. These changes involve the Gtβγ binding surface within the N-terminal domain of Pdc, and thus could explain the inhibitory effect of 14-3-3 on Pdc function. PMID:23199924

  17. Up-regulated 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins in prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia: effect of psychotropic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Gabilondo, Ane M; García-Sevilla, Jesús A; La Harpe, Romano; Morentín, Benito; Meana, J Javier

    2015-02-01

    14-3-3 is a family of conserved regulatory proteins that bind to a multitude of functionally diverse signalling proteins. Various genetic studies and gene expression and proteomic analyses have involved 14-3-3 proteins in schizophrenia (SZ). On the other hand, studies about the status of these proteins in major depressive disorder (MD) are still missing. Immunoreactivity values of cytosolic 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins were evaluated by Western blot in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ; n=22), subjects with major depressive disorder (MD; n=21) and age-, gender- and postmortem delay-matched control subjects (n=52). The modulation of 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins by psychotropic medication was also assessed. The analysis of both proteins in SZ subjects with respect to matched control subjects showed increased 14-3-3β (Δ=33±10%, p<0.05) and 14-3-3ζ (Δ=29±6%, p<0.05) immunoreactivity in antipsychotic-free but not in antipsychotic-treated SZ subjects. Immunoreactivity values of 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ were not altered in MD subjects. These results show the specific up-regulation of 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins in PFC of SZ subjects and suggest a possible down-regulation of both proteins by antipsychotic treatment.

  18. Up-regulated 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins in prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia: effect of psychotropic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Gabilondo, Ane M; García-Sevilla, Jesús A; La Harpe, Romano; Morentín, Benito; Meana, J Javier

    2015-02-01

    14-3-3 is a family of conserved regulatory proteins that bind to a multitude of functionally diverse signalling proteins. Various genetic studies and gene expression and proteomic analyses have involved 14-3-3 proteins in schizophrenia (SZ). On the other hand, studies about the status of these proteins in major depressive disorder (MD) are still missing. Immunoreactivity values of cytosolic 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins were evaluated by Western blot in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ; n=22), subjects with major depressive disorder (MD; n=21) and age-, gender- and postmortem delay-matched control subjects (n=52). The modulation of 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins by psychotropic medication was also assessed. The analysis of both proteins in SZ subjects with respect to matched control subjects showed increased 14-3-3β (Δ=33±10%, p<0.05) and 14-3-3ζ (Δ=29±6%, p<0.05) immunoreactivity in antipsychotic-free but not in antipsychotic-treated SZ subjects. Immunoreactivity values of 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ were not altered in MD subjects. These results show the specific up-regulation of 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ proteins in PFC of SZ subjects and suggest a possible down-regulation of both proteins by antipsychotic treatment. PMID:25549848

  19. Alternations of 14-3-3 θ and β protein levels in brain during experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Memos, Nikolaos; Kataki, Agapi; Chatziganni, Emmy; Nikolopoulou, Marilena; Skoulakis, Euthimios; Consoulas, Christos; Zografos, George; Konstadoulakis, Manousos

    2011-09-01

    The 14-3-3 family members play a crucial role in the determination of cell fate, exerting their antiapoptotic activity through directly interfering with the critical function of the mitochondrial core proapoptotic machinery. Dimerization of 14-3-3 is vital for the interaction with many of its client proteins and is regulated by phosphorylation. In a previous study, we observed time-dependent neuronal apoptosis during sepsis. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to evaluate the expression of 14-3-3 θ and β isoforms in septic brain and their association with apoptosis. Sepsis was induced by a CLP model in Wistar rats that were sacrificed at predefined time points. Flow cytometric analysis showed a sepsis-induced, time-dependent alteration of 14-3-3 θ and β isoforms in both Neun(+) and GFAP(+) cells. 14-3-3 θ was linearly correlated with apoptosis, and stratified analysis for alive and apoptotic neuronal cells demonstrated a gradual down-regulation of θ isoform in alive neurons and astrocytes. The phospho-P38 (pP38) MAP kinase levels were altered in a time-dependent manner during sepsis, presenting a peak at 6 hr post-CLP. A significant correlation between the two isoforms of 14-3-3 was observed in septic rats, with the θ isoform predominant at all time points. The hippocampus, Purkinje cells, and glia-like cells showed intense immunohistochemical reactivity for 14-3-3 θ isoform, whereas the choroid plexus showed constantly increased β isoform expression. Our results showed that sepsis alters the expression of both 14-3-3 θ and β isoforms in a time-, cell-, and topography-dependent manner. PMID:21618583

  20. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2015-01-01

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation. PMID:26083935

  1. The role of the 14-3-3 protein family in health, disease, and drug development.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2016-02-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate intracellular signaling pathways, such as signal transduction, protein trafficking, cell cycle, and apoptosis. In addition to the ubiquitous roles of 14-3-3 isoforms, unique tissue-specific functions are also described for each isoform. Owing to their role in regulating cell cycle, protein trafficking, and steroidogenesis, 14-3-3 proteins are prevalent in human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and reproductive disorders, and, therefore, serve as valuable drug targets. In this review, we summarize the role of 14-3-3 proteins in normal and disease states, with a focus on 14-3-3γ and ɛ. We also discuss drug compounds targeting 14-3-3 proteins and their potential therapeutic uses. PMID:26456530

  2. 14-3-3 proteins regulate Tctp–Rheb interaction for organ growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thao Phuong; Vuong, Linh Thuong; Kim, Ah-Ram; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 family proteins regulate multiple signalling pathways. Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. Here we provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate two interacting components of Tor signalling in Drosophila, translationally controlled tumour protein (Tctp) and Rheb GTPase. Single knockdown of 14-3-3ɛ or 14-3-3ζ isoform does not show obvious defects in organ development but causes synergistic genetic interaction with Tctp and Rheb to impair tissue growth. 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with Tctp and Rheb. Knockdown of both 14-3-3 isoforms abolishes the binding between Tctp and Rheb, disrupting organ development. Depletion of 14-3-3s also reduces the level of phosphorylated S6 kinase, phosphorylated Thor/4E-BP and cyclin E (CycE). Growth defects from knockdown of 14-3-3 and Tctp are suppressed by CycE overexpression. This study suggests a novel mechanism of Tor regulation mediated by 14-3-3 interaction with Tctp and Rheb. PMID:27151460

  3. Dynamic imaging of interaction between protein 14-3-3 and Bid in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tongsheng; Xing, Da; Wang, Jinjun

    2006-02-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are known to sequester certain pro-apoptotic members of this family. BH3- interacting domain death agonist (Bid) may contribute to tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)-induced neuronal death, although regulation by 14-3-3 has not been reported. In this study we examined whether 14-3-3 proteins interact with Bid/tBid during TNF-α-induced cell death. The TNF-αtriggered Bid cleavage and tBid translocated to mitochondria. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells were co-transfected with both CFP-Bid and 14-3-3-YFP plasmids, and the dynamical interaction between the Bid/tBid and 14-3-3 were performed on laser confocal fluorescence microscope in single living cell during TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis. The Bid distribute equally only in the cytoplasm of healthy cells, and the 14-3-3 protein distribute not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of healthy cells. Our data showed that the tBid aggregate, but the 14-3-3 protein does not aggregate as the tBid, and the 14-3-3 protein separate from the aggregated tBid, implying that the 14-3-3 proteins do not interact with the aggregated tBid after TNF-αtreatment.

  4. Hyperglycemia decreases expression of 14-3-3 proteins in an animal model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seong-Jun; Sung, Jin-Hee; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-07-28

    Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder and a major risk factor for stroke. Stroke severity is worse in patients with diabetes compared to the non-diabetic population. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved acidic proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in cells and tissues. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes including metabolic pathways, signal transduction, protein trafficking, protein synthesis, and cell cycle control. This study investigated 14-3-3 proteins expression in the cerebral cortex of animals with diabetes, cerebral ischemic injury and a combination of both diabetes and cerebral ischemic injury. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kg) in adult male rats. After 4 weeks of treatment, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed for the induction of focal cerebral ischemia and cerebral cortex tissue was collected 24h after MCAO. We confirmed that diabetes increases infarct volume following MCAO compared to non-diabetic animals. In diabetic animals with MCAO injury, reduction of 14-3-3 β/α, 14-3-3 ζ/δ, 14-3-3 γ, and 14-3-3 ε isoforms was detected. The expression of these proteins was significantly decreased in diabetic animals with MCAO injury compared to diabetic-only and MCAO-only animals. Moreover, Western blot analysis ascertained the decreased expression of 14-3-3 family proteins in diabetic animals with MCAO injury, including β/α, ζ/δ, γ, ε, τ, and η isoforms. These results show the changes of 14-3-3 proteins expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals with MCAO injury. Thus, these findings suggest that decreases in 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins under the presence of diabetes following MCAO. PMID:27177727

  5. 14-3-3 Protein Masks the DNA Binding Interface of Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXO4*

    PubMed Central

    Silhan, Jan; Vacha, Petr; Strnadova, Pavla; Vecer, Jaroslav; Herman, Petr; Sulc, Miroslav; Teisinger, Jan; Obsilova, Veronika; Obsil, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The role of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of FOXO forkhead transcription factors is at least 2-fold. First, the 14-3-3 binding inhibits the interaction between the FOXO and the target DNA. Second, the 14-3-3 proteins prevent nuclear reimport of FOXO factors by masking their nuclear localization signal. The exact mechanisms of these processes are still unclear, mainly due to the lack of structural data. In this work, we used fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of the 14-3-3 protein-dependent inhibition of FOXO4 DNA-binding properties. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements revealed that the 14-3-3 binding affects fluorescence properties of 5-(((acetylamino)ethyl)amino) naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid moiety attached at four sites within the forkhead domain of FOXO4 that represent important parts of the DNA binding interface. Observed changes in 5-(((acetylamino)ethyl)amino) naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid fluorescence strongly suggest physical contacts between the 14-3-3 protein and labeled parts of the FOXO4 DNA binding interface. The 14-3-3 protein binding, however, does not cause any dramatic conformational change of FOXO4 as documented by the results of tryptophan fluorescence experiments. To build a realistic model of the FOXO4·14-3-3 complex, we measured six distances between 14-3-3 and FOXO4 using Förster resonance energy transfer time-resolved fluorescence experiments. The model of the complex suggests that the forkhead domain of FOXO4 is docked within the central channel of the 14-3-3 protein dimer, consistent with our hypothesis that 14-3-3 masks the DNA binding interface of FOXO4. PMID:19416966

  6. Identification of a redox-modulatory interaction between selenoprotein W and 14-3-3 protein.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeong Ha; Ko, Kwan Young; Lee, Jea Hwang; Park, Ki Jun; Jang, Jun Ki; Kim, Ick Young

    2016-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) contains a selenocysteine (Sec, U) in a conserved CXXU motif corresponding to the CXXC redox motif of thioredoxin, suggesting a putative redox function of SelW. We have previously reported that the binding of 14-3-3 protein to its target proteins, including CDC25B, Rictor and TAZ, is inhibited by the interaction of 14-3-3 protein with SelW. However, the binding mechanism is unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the binding site of SelW to understand the regulatory mechanism of the interaction between SelW and 14-3-3 and its biological effects. Phosphorylated Ser(pS) or Thr(pT) residues in RSXpSXP or RXXXp(S/T)XP motifs are well-known common 14-3-3-binding sites, but Thr41, Ser59, and T69 of SelW, which are computationally predicted to serve are phosphorylation sites, were neither phosphorylation sites nor sites involved in the interaction. A mutant SelW in which Sec13 is changed to Ser (U13S) was unable to interact with 14-3-3 protein and thus did not inhibit the interaction of 14-3-3 to other target proteins. However, other Cys mutants of SelW(C10S, C33S and C37S) normally interacted with 14-3-3 protein. The interaction of SelW to 14-3-3 protein was enhanced by diamide or H2O2 and decreased by dithiothreitol (DTT). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the Sec of SelW is involved in its interaction with 14-3-3 protein and that this interaction is increased under oxidative stress conditions. Thus, SelW may have a regulatory function in redox cell signaling by interacting with 14-3-3 protein. PMID:26474786

  7. Suppression of death-associated protein kinase 2 by interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Keizo; Ota, Reina; Matsuda, Shinya; Isshiki, Kinuka; Inoue, Masahiro; Tsuji, Akihiko

    2015-08-14

    Death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase, induces apoptosis. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in this process are unknown. Using a proteomic approach, we identified 14-3-3 proteins as novel DAPK2-interacting proteins. The 14-3-3 family has the ability to bind to phosphorylated proteins via recognition of three conserved amino acid motifs (mode 1-3 motifs), and DAPK2 contains the mode 3 motif ((pS/pT)X1-2-COOH). The interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with DAPK2 was dependent on the phosphorylation of Thr(369), and effectively suppressed DAPK2 kinase activity and DAPK2-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we revealed that the 14-3-3 binding site Thr(369) of DAPK2 was phosphorylated by the survival kinase Akt. Our findings suggest that DAPK2-induced apoptosis is negatively regulated by Akt and 14-3-3 proteins.

  8. Dual binding of 14-3-3 protein regulates Arabidopsis nitrate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Chih; Roeper, Juliane; Schwarz, Guenter; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin

    2015-03-01

    14-3-3 proteins represent a family of ubiquitous eukaryotic proteins involved in numerous signal transduction processes and metabolic pathways. One important 14-3-3 target in higher plants is nitrate reductase (NR), whose activity is regulated by different physiological conditions. Intra-molecular electron transfer in NR is inhibited following 14-3-3 binding to a conserved phospho-serine motif located in hinge 1, a surface exposed loop between the catalytic molybdenum and central heme domain. Here we describe a novel 14-3-3 binding site within the NR N-terminus, an acidic motif conserved in NRs of higher plants, which significantly contributes to 14-3-3-mediated inhibition of NR. Deletion or mutation of the N-terminal acidic motif resulted in a significant loss of 14-3-3 mediated inhibition of Ser534 phosphorylated NR-Mo-heme (residues 1-625), a previously established model of NR regulation. Co-sedimentation and crosslinking studies with NR peptides comprising each of the two binding motifs demonstrated direct binding of either peptide to 14-3-3. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy disclosed high-affinity binding of 14-3-3ω to the well-known phospho-hinge site and low-affinity binding to the N-terminal acidic motif. A binding groove-deficient 14-3-3ω variant retained interaction to the acidic motif, but lost binding to the phospho-hinge motif. To our knowledge, NR is the first enzyme that harbors two independent 14-3-3 binding sites with different affinities, which both need to be occupied by 14-3-3ω to confer full inhibition of NR activity under physiological conditions. PMID:25578809

  9. 14-3-3β protein expression in eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasite endemic in the Southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Humans are incidentally infected either by eating uncooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables containing the living third-stage larvae. The 14-3-3β protein is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuronal damage during the development of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In addition, increased 14-3-3β protein is also found in CSF from patients with a variety of neurological disorders. The goal of this study is to determine the roles of serum/CSF14-3-3β protein in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Methods In a cohort study among nine Thai laborers with eosinophilic meningitis due to eating raw snails (Pomacea canaliculata), we examined the CSF weekly while patients were still hospitalized and followed up the serum for 6 months. The levels of 14-3-3β protein in CSF were analyzed by western blot and an in-house 14-3-3β enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurement was established and tested in an animal model of eosinophilic meningitis. Results The elevated 14-3-3β level was detected in the CSF from eight out of nine (81%) patients After 2 weeks of treatment, all patients showed a declined level or cleared of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF. By developing an in-house ELISA for measurement of 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the serum 14-3-3β level was significantly increased in patients during initial visit. . This finding was consistent to the animal experiment result in which there was severe blood brain barrier damage three weeks after infection and increased 14-3-3β protein expression in the CSF and serum by western blot and in house ELISA. After treatment, the serum 14-3-3β level in meningitis patients was rapidly returned to normal threshold. There was a correlation between initial CSF 14-3-3β level with severity of headache (r = 0.692, p = 0.039), CSF pleocytosis (r = 0.807, p = 0.009) and eosinophilia (r = 0

  10. 14-3-3 protein is a regulator of the mitochondrial and chloroplast ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Bunney, Tom D.; van Walraven, Hendrika S.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial and chloroplast ATP synthases are key enzymes in plant metabolism, providing cells with ATP, the universal energy currency. ATP synthases use a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to drive synthesis of ATP. The enzyme complexes function as miniature rotary engines, ensuring energy coupling with very high efficiency. Although our understanding of the structure and functioning of the synthase has made enormous progress in recent years, our understanding of regulatory mechanisms is still rather preliminary. Here we report a role for 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of ATP synthases. These 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-binding proteins that regulate a wide range of enzymes in plants, animals, and yeast. Recently, the presence of 14-3-3 proteins in chloroplasts was illustrated, and we show here that plant mitochondria harbor 14-3-3s within the inner mitochondrial-membrane compartment. There, the 14-3-3 proteins were found to be associated with the ATP synthases, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, through direct interaction with the F1 β-subunit. The activity of the ATP synthases in both organelles is drastically reduced by recombinant 14-3-3. The rapid reduction in chloroplast ATPase activity during dark adaptation was prevented by a phosphopeptide containing the 14-3-3 interaction motif, demonstrating a role for endogenous 14-3-3 in the down-regulation of the CFoF1 activity. We conclude that regulation of the ATP synthases by 14-3-3 represents a mechanism for plant adaptation to environmental changes such as light/dark transitions, anoxia in roots, and fluctuations in nutrient supply. PMID:11274449

  11. Molecular tweezers modulate 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Bier, David; Rose, Rolf; Bravo-Rodriguez, Kenny; Bartel, Maria; Ramirez-Anguita, Juan Manuel; Dutt, Som; Wilch, Constanze; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Schrader, Thomas; Ottmann, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has recently emerged as a promising way to modulate protein functions, but devising molecules that will interact with a protein in the desired manner is difficult as many competing interactions exist in a biological environment (with solvents, salts or different sites for the target biomolecule). We now show that lysine-specific molecular tweezers bind to a 14-3-3 adapter protein and modulate its interaction with partner proteins. The tweezers inhibit binding between the 14-3-3 protein and two partner proteins--a phosphorylated (C-Raf) protein and an unphosphorylated one (ExoS)--in a concentration-dependent manner. Protein crystallography shows that this effect arises from the binding of the tweezers to a single surface-exposed lysine (Lys214) of the 14-3-3 protein in the proximity of its central channel, which normally binds the partner proteins. A combination of structural analysis and computer simulations provides rules for the tweezers' binding preferences, thus allowing us to predict their influence on this type of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23422566

  12. Proteomic profiling of tandem affinity purified 14-3-3 protein complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ing-Feng; Curran, Amy; Woolsey, Rebekah; Quilici, David; Cushman, John C; Mittler, Ron; Harmon, Alice; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2009-06-01

    In eukaryotes, 14-3-3 dimers regulate hundreds of functionally diverse proteins (clients), typically in phosphorylation-dependent interactions. To uncover new clients, 14-3-3 omega (At1g78300) from Arabidopsis was engineered with a "tandem affinity purification" tag and expressed in transgenic plants. Purified complexes were analyzed by tandem MS. Results indicate that 14-3-3 omega can dimerize with at least 10 of the 12 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in Arabidopsis. The identification here of 121 putative clients provides support for in vivo 14-3-3 interactions with a diverse array of proteins, including those involved in: (i) Ion transport, such as a K(+) channel (GORK), a Cl(-) channel (CLCg), Ca(2+) channels belonging to the glutamate receptor family (1.2, 2.1, 2.9, 3.4, 3.7); (ii) hormone signaling, such as ACC synthase (isoforms ACS-6, -7 and -8 involved in ethylene synthesis) and the brassinolide receptors BRI1 and BAK1; (iii) transcription, such as 7 WRKY family transcription factors; (iv) metabolism, such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase; and (v) lipid signaling, such as phospholipase D (beta and gamma). More than 80% (101) of these putative clients represent previously unidentified 14-3-3 interactors. These results raise the number of putative 14-3-3 clients identified in plants to over 300.

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 protein interactions regulate CFTR biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiubin; Da Paula, Ana Carina; Bozóky, Zoltán; Zhang, Hui; Bertrand, Carol A; Peters, Kathryn W; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2012-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-regulated chloride channel whose phosphorylation controls anion secretion across epithelial cell apical membranes. We examined the hypothesis that cAMP/PKA stimulation regulates CFTR biogenesis posttranslationally, based on predicted 14-3-3 binding motifs within CFTR and forskolin-induced CFTR expression. The 14-3-3β, γ, and ε isoforms were expressed in airway cells and interacted with CFTR in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Forskolin stimulation (15 min) increased 14-3-3β and ε binding to immature and mature CFTR (bands B and C), and 14-3-3 overexpression increased CFTR bands B and C and cell surface band C. In pulse-chase experiments, 14-3-3β increased the synthesis of immature CFTR, reduced its degradation rate, and increased conversion of immature to mature CFTR. Conversely, 14-3-3β knockdown decreased CFTR B and C bands (70 and 55%) and elicited parallel reductions in cell surface CFTR and forskolin-stimulated anion efflux. In vitro, 14-3-3β interacted with the CFTR regulatory region, and by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, this interaction occurred at known PKA phosphorylated sites. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, forskolin stimulated the CFTR/14-3-3β interaction while reducing CFTR's interaction with coat protein complex 1 (COP1). Thus 14-3-3 binding to phosphorylated CFTR augments its biogenesis by reducing retrograde retrieval of CFTR to the endoplasmic reticulum. This mechanism permits cAMP/PKA stimulation to make more CFTR available for anion secretion.

  14. Posttranscriptional regulation of 14-3-3ζ by RNA-binding protein HuR modulating intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding.

    PubMed

    Hansraj, Natasha Z; Xiao, Lan; Wu, Jing; Chen, Gang; Turner, Douglas J; Wang, Jian-Ying; Rao, Jaladanki N

    2016-07-01

    The 14-3-3ζ is a member of the family of 14-3-3 proteins and participates in many aspects of cellular processes, but its regulation and involvement in gut mucosal homeostasis remain unknown. Here, we report that 14-3-3ζ expression is tightly regulated at the posttranscription level by RNA-binding protein HuR and plays an important role in early intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding. The 14-3-3ζ was highly expressed in the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract and in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the 14-3-3ζ mRNA was bound to HuR, and this association enhanced 14-3-3ζ translation without effect on its mRNA content. Conditional target deletion of HuR in IECs decreased the level of 14-3-3ζ protein in the intestinal mucosa. Silencing 14-3-3ζ by transfection with specific siRNA targeting the 14-3-3ζ mRNA suppressed intestinal epithelial restitution as indicated by a decrease in IEC migration after wounding, whereas ectopic overexpression of the wild-type 14-3-3ζ promoted cell migration. These results indicate that HuR induces 14-3-3ζ translation via interaction with its 3' UTR and that 14-3-3ζ is necessary for stimulation of IEC migration after wounding. PMID:27401462

  15. Posttranscriptional regulation of 14-3-3ζ by RNA-binding protein HuR modulating intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding.

    PubMed

    Hansraj, Natasha Z; Xiao, Lan; Wu, Jing; Chen, Gang; Turner, Douglas J; Wang, Jian-Ying; Rao, Jaladanki N

    2016-07-01

    The 14-3-3ζ is a member of the family of 14-3-3 proteins and participates in many aspects of cellular processes, but its regulation and involvement in gut mucosal homeostasis remain unknown. Here, we report that 14-3-3ζ expression is tightly regulated at the posttranscription level by RNA-binding protein HuR and plays an important role in early intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding. The 14-3-3ζ was highly expressed in the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract and in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the 14-3-3ζ mRNA was bound to HuR, and this association enhanced 14-3-3ζ translation without effect on its mRNA content. Conditional target deletion of HuR in IECs decreased the level of 14-3-3ζ protein in the intestinal mucosa. Silencing 14-3-3ζ by transfection with specific siRNA targeting the 14-3-3ζ mRNA suppressed intestinal epithelial restitution as indicated by a decrease in IEC migration after wounding, whereas ectopic overexpression of the wild-type 14-3-3ζ promoted cell migration. These results indicate that HuR induces 14-3-3ζ translation via interaction with its 3' UTR and that 14-3-3ζ is necessary for stimulation of IEC migration after wounding.

  16. Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 Protein Test of the Spinal Fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... JAKOB DISEASE: ACCURACY OF THE 14-3-3 PROTEIN TEST OF THE SPINAL FLUID This information sheet ... help you understand how the 14-3-3 protein test helps in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ( ...

  17. 14-3-3 protein binds to the low molecular weight neurofilament (NFL) mRNA 3' UTR.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wei-Wen; Volkening, Kathryn; Leystra-Lantz, Cheryl; Jaffe, Howard; Strong, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported that altered stability of low molecular weight neurofilament (NFL) mRNA in lumbar spinal cord homogenates in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with altered expression of trans-acting 3' UTR mRNA binding proteins. We have identified two hexanucleotide motifs as the main cis elements and, using LC/MS/MS of peptide digests of NFL 3' UTR interacting proteins from human spinal cord, observed that 14-3-3 proteins interact with these motifs. 14-3-3 beta, zeta, tau, gamma, and eta isoforms were found to be expressed in human spinal cord. Each isoform was expressed in vitro and shown to interact with NFL 3' UTR mRNA. Mutation of one or both motifs resulted in decreased 14-3-3 interaction, changes in predicted mRNA structure or alteration in stability of the mRNA. These data show a novel interaction for 14-3-3 with NFL mRNA, and suggests that 14-3-3 may play a role in regulating NFL mRNA stability.

  18. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26717241

  19. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26717241

  20. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  1. Polycations Globally Enhance Binding of 14-3-3 omega to Target Proteins in Spinach Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The binding of 14-3-3' to phosphorylated NR (pNR) is stimulated by cations such as Mg2+ or spermine, and decreased by 5'-AMP. In order to determine whether binding to other cellular proteins is affected similarly, Far-Western overlays of extracts prepared from light- or dark-treated spinach (Spinac...

  2. Regulation of the Regulators: Post-Translational Modifications, Subcellular, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Plant 14-3-3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rashaun S.; Swatek, Kirby N.; Thelen, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind to and modulate the activity of phosphorylated proteins that regulate a variety of metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Multiple 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in most organisms and display redundancy in both sequence and function. Plants contain the largest number of 14-3-3 isoforms. For example, Arabidopsis thaliana contains thirteen 14-3-3 genes, each of which is expressed. Interest in the plant 14-3-3 field has swelled over the past decade, largely due to the vast number of possibilities for 14-3-3 metabolic regulation. As the field progresses, it is essential to understand these proteins' activities at both the spatiotemporal and subcellular levels. This review summarizes current knowledge of 14-3-3 proteins in plants, including 14-3-3 interactions, regulatory functions, isoform specificity, and post-translational modifications. We begin with a historical overview and structural analysis of 14-3-3 proteins, which describes the basic principles of 14-3-3 function, and then discuss interactions and regulatory effects of plant 14-3-3 proteins in specific tissues and subcellular compartments. We conclude with a summary of 14-3-3 phosphorylation and current knowledge of the functional effects of this modification in plants. PMID:27242818

  3. Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis Ubiquitin Ligase ATL31 Is Critical for Plant Carbon/Nitrogen Nutrient Balance Response and Controls the Stability of 14-3-3 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shigetaka; Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Aoyama, Shoki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligase plays a fundamental role in regulating multiple cellular events in eukaryotes by fine-tuning the stability and activity of specific target proteins. We have previously shown that ubiquitin ligase ATL31 regulates plant growth in response to nutrient balance between carbon and nitrogen (C/N) in Arabidopsis. Subsequent study demonstrated that ATL31 targets 14-3-3 proteins for ubiquitination and modulates the protein abundance in response to C/N-nutrient status. However, the underlying mechanism for the targeting of ATL31 to 14-3-3 proteins remains unclear. Here, we show that ATL31 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified Thr209, Ser247, Ser270, and Ser303 as putative 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 by motif analysis. Mutation of these Ser/Thr residues to Ala in ATL31 inhibited the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Additionally, we identified in vivo phosphorylation of Thr209 and Ser247 on ATL31 by MS analysis. A peptide competition assay showed that the application of synthetic phospho-Thr209 peptide, but not the corresponding unphosphorylated peptide, suppresses the interaction between ATL31 and 14-3-3 proteins. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing mutated ATL31, which could not bind to 14-3-3 proteins, showed accumulation of 14-3-3 proteins and growth arrest in disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions similar to wild-type plants, although overexpression of intact ATL31 resulted in repression of 14-3-3 accumulation and tolerance to the conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that the physiological role of phosphorylation at 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 is to modulate the binding ability and stability of 14-3-3 proteins to control plant C/N-nutrient response. PMID:24722992

  4. Discovery and structural characterization of a small molecule 14-3-3 protein-protein interaction inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Du, Yuhong; Horton, John R.; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Lou, Bin; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe; Zhang, Lixin; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Fu, Haian

    2011-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphoserine/threonine-recognition proteins engage multiple nodes in signaling networks that control diverse physiological and pathophysiological functions and have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for such diseases as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, small molecule modulators of 14-3-3 are much needed agents for chemical biology investigations and therapeutic development. To analyze 14-3-3 function and modulate its activity, we conducted a chemical screen and identified 4-[(2Z)-2-[4-formyl-6-methyl-5-oxo-3-(phosphonatooxymethyl)pyridin-2-ylidene]hydrazinyl]benzoate as a 14-3-3 inhibitor, which we termed FOBISIN (FOurteen-three-three BInding Small molecule INhibitor) 101. FOBISIN101 effectively blocked the binding of 14-3-3 with Raf-1 and proline-rich AKT substrate, 40 kDa and neutralized the ability of 14-3-3 to activate exoenzyme S ADP-ribosyltransferase. To provide a mechanistic basis for 14-3-3 inhibition, the crystal structure of 14-3-3ζ in complex with FOBISIN101 was solved. Unexpectedly, the double bond linking the pyridoxal-phosphate and benzoate moieties was reduced by X-rays to create a covalent linkage of the pyridoxal-phosphate moiety to lysine 120 in the binding groove of 14-3-3, leading to persistent 14-3-3 inactivation. We suggest that FOBISIN101-like molecules could be developed as an entirely unique class of 14-3-3 inhibitors, which may serve as radiation-triggered therapeutic agents for the treatment of 14-3-3-mediated diseases, such as cancer. PMID:21908710

  5. Unraveling 14-3-3 proteins in C4 panicoids with emphasis on model plant Setaria italica reveals phosphorylation-dependent subcellular localization of RS splicing factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karunesh; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are a large multigenic family of regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are reported to play significant role in both development and response to stress stimuli. Therefore, considering their importance, genome-wide analyses have been performed in many plants including Arabidopsis, rice and soybean. But, till date, no comprehensive investigation has been conducted in any C4 panicoid crops. In view of this, the present study was performed to identify 8, 5 and 26 potential 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet (Si14-3-3), sorghum (Sb14-3-3) and maize (Zm14-3-3), respectively. In silico characterization revealed large variations in their gene structures; segmental and tandem duplications have played a major role in expansion of these genes in foxtail millet and maize. Gene ontology annotation showed the participation of 14-3-3 proteins in diverse biological processes and molecular functions, and in silico expression profiling indicated their higher expression in all the investigated tissues. Comparative mapping was performed to derive the orthologous relationships between 14-3-3 genes of foxtail millet and other Poaceae members, which showed a higher, as well as similar percentage of orthology among these crops. Expression profiling of Si14-3-3 genes during different time-points of abiotic stress and hormonal treatments showed a differential expression pattern of these genes, and sub-cellular localization studies revealed the site of action of Si14-3-3 proteins within the cells. Further downstream characterization indicated the interaction of Si14-3-3 with a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling phosphoprotein (SiRSZ21A) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and this demonstrates that Si14-3-3 might regulate the splicing events by binding with phosphorylated SiRSZ21A. Taken together, the present study is a comprehensive analysis of 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet, sorghum and maize, which provides

  6. Unraveling 14-3-3 Proteins in C4 Panicoids with Emphasis on Model Plant Setaria italica Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent Subcellular Localization of RS Splicing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Karunesh; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are a large multigenic family of regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are reported to play significant role in both development and response to stress stimuli. Therefore, considering their importance, genome-wide analyses have been performed in many plants including Arabidopsis, rice and soybean. But, till date, no comprehensive investigation has been conducted in any C4 panicoid crops. In view of this, the present study was performed to identify 8, 5 and 26 potential 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet (Si14-3-3), sorghum (Sb14-3-3) and maize (Zm14-3-3), respectively. In silico characterization revealed large variations in their gene structures; segmental and tandem duplications have played a major role in expansion of these genes in foxtail millet and maize. Gene ontology annotation showed the participation of 14-3-3 proteins in diverse biological processes and molecular functions, and in silico expression profiling indicated their higher expression in all the investigated tissues. Comparative mapping was performed to derive the orthologous relationships between 14-3-3 genes of foxtail millet and other Poaceae members, which showed a higher, as well as similar percentage of orthology among these crops. Expression profiling of Si14-3-3 genes during different time-points of abiotic stress and hormonal treatments showed a differential expression pattern of these genes, and sub-cellular localization studies revealed the site of action of Si14-3-3 proteins within the cells. Further downstream characterization indicated the interaction of Si14-3-3 with a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling phosphoprotein (SiRSZ21A) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and this demonstrates that Si14-3-3 might regulate the splicing events by binding with phosphorylated SiRSZ21A. Taken together, the present study is a comprehensive analysis of 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet, sorghum and maize, which provides

  7. The Crystal Structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the Apo Form: When Protein Post-Translational Modifications Make the Difference

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Annarita; di Marino, Daniele; Bertuccini, Lucia; Via, Allegra; Pozio, Edoardo; Camerini, Serena; Ilari, Andrea; Lalle, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3. PMID:24658679

  8. Ablation of the 14-3-3gamma Protein Results in Neuronal Migration Delay and Morphological Defects in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Wachi, Tomoka; Cornell, Brett; Marshall, Courtney; Zhukarev, Vladimir; Baas, Peter W; Toyo-oka, Kazuhito

    2016-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously-expressed and multifunctional proteins. There are seven isoforms in mammals with a high level of homology, suggesting potential functional redundancy. We previously found that two of seven isoforms, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3zeta, are important for brain development, in particular, radial migration of pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. In this work, we analyzed the function of another isoform, the protein 14-3-3gamma, with respect to neuronal migration in the developing cortex. We found that in utero 14-3-3gamma-deficiency resulted in delays in neuronal migration as well as morphological defects. Migrating neurons deficient in 14-3-3gamma displayed a thicker leading process stem, and the basal ends of neurons were not able to reach the boundary between the cortical plate and the marginal zone. Consistent with the results obtained from in utero electroporation, time-lapse live imaging of brain slices revealed that the ablation of the 14-3-3gamma proteins in pyramidal neurons slowed down their migration. In addition, the 14-3-3gamma deficient neurons showed morphological abnormalities, including increased multipolar neurons with a thicker leading processes stem during migration. These results indicate that the 14-3-3gamma proteins play an important role in radial migration by regulating the morphology of migrating neurons in the cerebral cortex. The findings underscore the pathological phenotypes of brain development associated with the disruption of different 14-3-3 proteins and will advance the preclinical data regarding disorders caused by neuronal migration defects.

  9. 14-3-3 proteins: Macro-regulators with great potential for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Shaohong; Liu, Bin

    2016-08-12

    14-3-3 proteins (14-3-3s) are highly conserved regulatory proteins that are uniquely eukaryotic, and deeply involved in protein-protein interactions that mediate diverse signaling pathways. In plants, 14-3-3s have been validated to regulate many biological processes, such as metabolism, light and hormone signaling, cell-cycle control and protein trafficking. Recent years we have also witnessed an increasing number of reports describing the functions of 14-3-3s in plant stress responses through interactions with key proteins in both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review, we highlight the advances that have been made in investigating the roles of 14-3-3s in plant abiotic stress tolerance. These advances provide a framework for our understanding of how signals are integrated to perceive and respond to the abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27233603

  10. Differential interaction and aggregation of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms with 14-3-3{zeta} protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sadik, Golam; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kato, Kiyoko; Yanagi, Kentaro; Kudo, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2009-05-22

    Tau isoforms, 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat tau (4R), are differentially involved in neuronal development and in several tauopathies. 14-3-3 protein binds to tau and 14-3-3/tau association has been found both in the development and in tauopathies. To understand the role of 14-3-3 in the differential regulation of tau isoforms, we have performed studies on the interaction and aggregation of 3R-tau and 4R-tau, either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated, with 14-3-3{zeta}. We show by surface plasmon resonance studies that the interaction between unphosphorylated 3R-tau and 14-3-3{zeta} is {approx}3-folds higher than that between unphosphorylated 4R-tau and 14-3-3{zeta}. Phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase A (PKA) increases the affinity of both 3R- and 4R-tau for 14-3-3{zeta} to a similar level. An in vitro aggregation assay employing both transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the aggregation of unphosphorylated 4R-tau to be significantly higher than that of unphosphorylated 3R-tau following the induction of 14-3-3{zeta}. The filaments formed from 3R- and 4R-tau were almost similar in morphology. In contrast, the aggregation of both 3R- and 4R-tau was reduced to a similar low level after phosphorylation with PKA. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3{zeta} exhibits a similar role for tau isoforms after PKA-phosphorylation, but a differential role for unphosphorylated tau. The significant aggregation of 4R-tau by 14-3-3{zeta} suggests that 14-3-3 may act as an inducer in the generation of 4R-tau-predominant neurofibrillary tangles in tauopathies.

  11. Validation of 14-3-3 Protein as a Marker in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Matthias; Ebert, Elisabeth; Stoeck, Katharina; Karch, André; Collins, Steven; Calero, Miguel; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Golanska, Ewa; Baldeiras, Ines; Satoh, Katsuya; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Ladogana, Anna; Skinningsrud, Anders; Hammarin, Anna-Lena; Mitrova, Eva; Llorens, Franc; Kim, Yong Sun; Green, Alison; Zerr, Inga

    2016-05-01

    At present, the testing of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard biomarker test in suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) diagnosis. Increasing 14-3-3 test referrals in CJD reference laboratories in the last years have led to an urgent need to improve established 14-3-3 test methods. The main result of our study was the validation of a commercially available 14-3-3 ELISA next to the commonly used Western blot method as a high-throughput screening test. Hereby, 14-3-3 protein expression was quantitatively analyzed in CSF of 231 sCJD and 2035 control patients. We obtained excellent sensitivity/specificity values of 88 and 96% that are comparable to the established Western blot method. Since standard protocols and preanalytical sample handling have become more important in routine diagnostic, we investigated in a further step the reproducibility and stability of 14-3-3 as a biomarker for human prion diseases. Ring trial data from 2009 to 2013 revealed an increase of Fleiss' kappa from 0.51 to 0.68 indicating an improving reliability of 14-3-3 protein detection. The stability of 14-3-3 protein under short-term and long-term storage conditions at various temperatures and after repeated freezing/thawing cycles was confirmed. Contamination of CSF samples with blood appears likely to be an important factor at a concentration of more than 2500 erythrocytes/μL. Hemolysis of erythrocytes with significant release of 14-3-3 protein started after 2 days at room temperature. We first define clear standards for the sample handling, short- and long-term storage of CSF samples as well as the handling of blood- contaminated samples which may result in artificially elevated CSF levels of 14-3-3.

  12. Site-specific regulatory interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase and 14-3-3 proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toroser, D.; Athwal, G. S.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We report an Mg2+-dependent interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) and endogenous 14-3-3 proteins, as evidenced by co-elution during gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation. The content of 14-3-3s associated with an SPS immunoprecipitate was inversely related to activity, and was specifically reduced when tissue was pretreated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, suggesting metabolite control in vivo. A synthetic phosphopeptide based on Ser-229 was shown by surface plasmon resonance to bind a recombinant plant 14-3-3, and addition of the phosphorylated SPS-229 peptide was found to stimulate the SPS activity of an SPS:14-3-3 complex. Taken together, the results suggest a regulatory interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with Ser-229 of SPS.

  13. Binding of 14-3-3 reader proteins to phosphorylated DNMT1 facilitates aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya; Deepti, Kanneganti; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Dai, Nan; Sagum, Cari; Black, Karynne; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Bedford, Mark T.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for maintenance methylation. Phosphorylation of Ser143 (pSer143) stabilizes DNMT1 during DNA replication. Here, we show 14-3-3 is a reader protein of DNMT1pSer143. In mammalian cells 14-3-3 colocalizes and binds DNMT1pSer143 post-DNA replication. The level of DNMT1pSer143 increased with overexpression of 14-3-3 and decreased by its depletion. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins with DNMT1pSer143 resulted in inhibition of DNA methylation activity in vitro. In addition, overexpression of 14-3-3 in NIH3T3 cells led to decrease in DNMT1 specific activity resulting in hypomethylation of the genome that was rescued by transfection of DNMT1. Genes representing cell migration, mobility, proliferation and focal adhesion pathway were hypomethylated and overexpressed. Furthermore, overexpression of 14-3-3 also resulted in enhanced cell invasion. Analysis of TCGA breast cancer patient data showed significant correlation for DNA hypomethylation and reduced patient survival with increased 14-3-3 expressions. Therefore, we suggest that 14-3-3 is a crucial reader of DNMT1pSer143 that regulates DNA methylation and altered gene expression that contributes to cell invasion. PMID:26553800

  14. Cofilin regulator 14-3-3zeta is an evolutionarily conserved protein required for phagocytosis and microbial resistance.

    PubMed

    Ulvila, Johanna; Vanha-aho, Leena-Maija; Kleino, Anni; Vähä-Mäkilä, Mari; Vuoksio, Milka; Eskelinen, Sinikka; Hultmark, Dan; Kocks, Christine; Hallman, Mikko; Parikka, Mataleena; Rämet, Mika

    2011-05-01

    Phagocytosis is an ancient cellular process that plays an important role in host defense. In Drosophila melanogaster phagocytic, macrophage-like hemocytes recognize and ingest microbes. We performed an RNAi-based in vitro screen in the Drosophila hemocyte cell line S2 and identified Abi, cpa, cofilin regulator 14-3-3ζ, tlk, CG2765, and CG15609 as mediators of bacterial phagocytosis. Of these identified genes, 14-3-3ζ had an evolutionarily conserved role in phagocytosis: bacterial phagocytosis was compromised when 14-3-3ζ was targeted with RNAi in primary Drosophila hemocytes and when the orthologous genes Ywhab and Ywhaz were silenced in zebrafish and mouse RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. In Drosophila and zebrafish infection models, 14-3-3ζ was required for resistance against Staphylococcus aureus. We conclude that 14-3-3ζ is essential for phagocytosis and microbial resistance in insects and vertebrates. PMID:21208897

  15. Evolution of signal multiplexing by 14-3-3-binding 2R-ohnologue protein families in the vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tinti, Michele; Johnson, Catherine; Toth, Rachel; Ferrier, David E. K.; MacKintosh, Carol

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate cellular responses to stimuli by docking onto pairs of phosphorylated residues on target proteins. The present study shows that the human 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteome is highly enriched in 2R-ohnologues, which are proteins in families of two to four members that were generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication at the origin of the vertebrates. We identify 2R-ohnologue families whose members share a ‘lynchpin’, defined as a 14-3-3-binding phosphosite that is conserved across members of a given family, and aligns with a Ser/Thr residue in pro-orthologues from the invertebrate chordates. For example, the human receptor expression enhancing protein (REEP) 1–4 family has the commonest type of lynchpin motif in current datasets, with a phosphorylatable serine in the –2 position relative to the 14-3-3-binding phosphosite. In contrast, the second 14-3-3-binding sites of REEPs 1–4 differ and are phosphorylated by different kinases, and hence the REEPs display different affinities for 14-3-3 dimers. We suggest a conceptual model for intracellular regulation involving protein families whose evolution into signal multiplexing systems was facilitated by 14-3-3 dimer binding to lynchpins, which gave freedom for other regulatory sites to evolve. While increased signalling complexity was needed for vertebrate life, these systems also generate vulnerability to genetic disorders. PMID:22870394

  16. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) 14-3-3 proteins participate in regulation of fibre initiation and elongation by modulating brassinosteroid signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Li, Mo; Wei, Xin-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Jie; Li, Bing-Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibre is an important natural raw material for textile industry in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism of fibre development is important for the development of future cotton varieties with superior fibre quality. In this study, overexpression of Gh14-3-3L in cotton promoted fibre elongation, leading to an increase in mature fibre length. In contrast, suppression of expression of Gh14-3-3L, Gh14-3-3e and Gh14-3-3h in cotton slowed down fibre initiation and elongation. As a result, the mature fibres of the Gh14-3-3 RNAi transgenic plants were significantly shorter than those of wild type. This 'short fibre' phenotype of the 14-3-3 RNAi cotton could be partially rescued by application of 2,4-epibrassinolide (BL). Expression levels of the BR-related and fibre-related genes were altered in the Gh14-3-3 transgenic fibres. Furthermore, we identified Gh14-3-3 interacting proteins (including GhBZR1) in cotton. Site mutation assay revealed that Ser163 in GhBZR1 and Lys51/56/53 in Gh14-3-3L/e/h were required for Gh14-3-3-GhBZR1 interaction. Nuclear localization of GhBZR1 protein was induced by BR, and phosphorylation of GhBZR1 by GhBIN2 kinase was helpful for its binding to Gh14-3-3 proteins. Additionally, 14-3-3-regulated GhBZR1 protein may directly bind to GhXTH1 and GhEXP promoters to regulate gene expression for responding rapid fibre elongation. These results suggested that Gh14-3-3 proteins may be involved in regulating fibre initiation and elongation through their interacting with GhBZR1 to modulate BR signalling. Thus, our study provides the candidate intrinsic genes for improving fibre yield and quality by genetic manipulation.

  17. Proteomic analysis of media from lung cancer cells reveals role of 14-3-3 proteins in cachexia

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Julie B.; Moylan, Jennifer S.; Horrell, Erin M. W.; Andrade, Francisco H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: At the time of diagnosis, 60% of lung cancer patients present with cachexia, a severe wasting syndrome that increases morbidity and mortality. Tumors secrete multiple factors that contribute to cachectic muscle wasting, and not all of these factors have been identified. We used Orbitrap electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify novel cachexia-inducing candidates in media conditioned with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LCM). Results: One-hundred and 58 proteins were confirmed in three biological replicates. Thirty-three were identified as secreted proteins, including 14-3-3 proteins, which are highly conserved adaptor proteins known to have over 200 binding partners. We confirmed the presence of extracellular 14-3-3 proteins in LCM via western blot and discovered that LCM contained less 14-3-3 content than media conditioned with C2C12 myotubes. Using a neutralizing antibody, we depleted extracellular 14-3-3 proteins in myotube culture medium, which resulted in diminished myosin content. We identified the proposed receptor for 14-3-3 proteins, CD13, in differentiated C2C12 myotubes and found that inhibiting CD13 via Bestatin also resulted in diminished myosin content. Conclusions: Our novel findings show that extracellular 14-3-3 proteins may act as previously unidentified myokines and may signal via CD13 to help maintain muscle mass. PMID:25972815

  18. Identification of 14-3-3 Proteins Phosphopeptide-Binding Specificity Using an Affinity-Based Computational Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Tang, Jijun; Guo, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a highly conserved family of homodimeric and heterodimeric molecules, expressed in all eukaryotic cells. In human cells, this family consists of seven distinct but highly homologous 14-3-3 isoforms. 14-3-3σ is the only isoform directly linked to cancer in epithelial cells, which is regulated by major tumor suppressor genes. For each 14-3-3 isoform, we have 1,000 peptide motifs with experimental binding affinity values. In this paper, we present a novel method for identifying peptide motifs binding to 14-3-3σ isoform. First, we propose a sampling criteria to build a predictor for each new peptide sequence. Then, we select nine physicochemical properties of amino acids to describe each peptide motif. We also use auto-cross covariance to extract correlative properties of amino acids in any two positions. Finally, we consider elastic net to predict affinity values of peptide motifs, based on ridge regression and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Our method tests on the 1,000 known peptide motifs binding to seven 14-3-3 isoforms. On the 14-3-3σ isoform, our method has overall pearson-product-moment correlation coefficient (PCC) and root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 0.84 and 252.31 for N-terminal sublibrary, and 0.77 and 269.13 for C-terminal sublibrary. We predict affinity values of 16,000 peptide sequences and relative binding ability across six permutated positions similar with experimental values. We identify phosphopeptides that preferentially bind to 14-3-3σ over other isoforms. Several positions on peptide motifs are in the same amino acid category with experimental substrate specificity of phosphopeptides binding to 14-3-3σ. Our method is fast and reliable and is a general computational method that can be used in peptide-protein binding identification in proteomics research. PMID:26828594

  19. Functions of OsBZR1 and 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signaling in rice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming-Yi; Zhang, Li-Ying; Gampala, Srinivas S.; Zhu, Sheng-Wei; Song, Wen-Yuan; Chong, Kang; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) are essential growth hormones found throughout the plant kingdom. BR bind to the receptor kinase BRI1 on the cell surface to activate a signal transduction pathway that regulates nuclear gene expression and plant growth. To understand the downstream BR signaling mechanism in rice, we studied the function of OsBZR1 using reverse genetic approaches and identified OsBZR1-interacting proteins. Suppressing OsBZR1 expression by RNAi resulted in dwarfism, erect leaves, reduced BR sensitivity, and altered BR-responsive gene expression in transgenic rice plants, demonstrating an essential role of OsBZR1 in BR responses in rice. Moreover, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified 14-3-3 proteins as OsBZR1-interacting proteins. Mutation of a putative 14-3-3-binding site of OsBZR1 abolished its interaction with the 14-3-3 proteins in yeast and in vivo. Such mutant OsBZR1 proteins suppressed the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis bri1–5 mutant and showed an increased nuclear distribution compared with the wild-type protein, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins directly inhibit OsBZR1 function at least in part by reducing its nuclear localization. These results demonstrate a conserved function of OsBZR1 and an important role of 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in rice. PMID:17699623

  20. CSF Tau proteins reduce misdiagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease suspected cases with inconclusive 14-3-3 result.

    PubMed

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein supports sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob (sCJD) diagnosis, but often leads to weak-positive results and lacks standardization. In this study, we explored the added diagnostic value of Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in sCJD diagnosis, particularly in the cases with inconclusive 14-3-3 result. 95 definite sCJD and 287 patients without prion disease (non-CJD) were included in this study. CSF samples were collected in routine clinical diagnosis and analysed for 14-3-3 detection by Western blot (WB). CSF t-Tau and p-Tau were quantified by commercial ELISA kits and PRNP and APOE genotyping assessed by PCR-RFLP. In a regression analysis of the whole cohort, 14-3-3 protein revealed an overall accuracy of 82 % (sensitivity = 96.7 %; specificity = 75.6 %) for sCJD. Regarding 14-3-3 clear positive results, we observed no added value either of t-Tau alone or p-Tau/t-Tau ratio in the model. On the other hand, considering 14-3-3 weak-positive cases, t-Tau protein increased the overall accuracy of 14-3-3 alone from 91 to 94 % and specificity from 74 to 93 % (p < 0.05), with no sensitivity improvement. However, inclusion of p-Tau/t-Tau ratio did not significantly improve the first model (p = 0.0595). Globally, t-Tau protein allowed a further discrimination of 65 % within 14-3-3 inconclusive results. Furthermore, PRNP MV genotype showed a trend to decrease 14-3-3 sensitivity (p = 0.051), but such effect was not seen on t-Tau protein. In light of these results, we suggest that t-Tau protein assay is of significant importance as a second marker in identifying 14-3-3 false-positive results among sCJD probable cases.

  1. CSF Tau proteins reduce misdiagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease suspected cases with inconclusive 14-3-3 result.

    PubMed

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein supports sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob (sCJD) diagnosis, but often leads to weak-positive results and lacks standardization. In this study, we explored the added diagnostic value of Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in sCJD diagnosis, particularly in the cases with inconclusive 14-3-3 result. 95 definite sCJD and 287 patients without prion disease (non-CJD) were included in this study. CSF samples were collected in routine clinical diagnosis and analysed for 14-3-3 detection by Western blot (WB). CSF t-Tau and p-Tau were quantified by commercial ELISA kits and PRNP and APOE genotyping assessed by PCR-RFLP. In a regression analysis of the whole cohort, 14-3-3 protein revealed an overall accuracy of 82 % (sensitivity = 96.7 %; specificity = 75.6 %) for sCJD. Regarding 14-3-3 clear positive results, we observed no added value either of t-Tau alone or p-Tau/t-Tau ratio in the model. On the other hand, considering 14-3-3 weak-positive cases, t-Tau protein increased the overall accuracy of 14-3-3 alone from 91 to 94 % and specificity from 74 to 93 % (p < 0.05), with no sensitivity improvement. However, inclusion of p-Tau/t-Tau ratio did not significantly improve the first model (p = 0.0595). Globally, t-Tau protein allowed a further discrimination of 65 % within 14-3-3 inconclusive results. Furthermore, PRNP MV genotype showed a trend to decrease 14-3-3 sensitivity (p = 0.051), but such effect was not seen on t-Tau protein. In light of these results, we suggest that t-Tau protein assay is of significant importance as a second marker in identifying 14-3-3 false-positive results among sCJD probable cases. PMID:27357003

  2. Regulation of presynaptic anchoring of the scaffold protein Bassoon by phosphorylation-dependent interaction with 14-3-3 adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Markus S; Stellmacher, Anne; Romorini, Stefano; Marini, Claudia; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Altrock, Wilko D; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Fejtova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The proper organization of the presynaptic cytomatrix at the active zone is essential for reliable neurotransmitter release from neurons. Despite of the virtual stability of this tightly interconnected proteinaceous network it becomes increasingly clear that regulated dynamic changes of its composition play an important role in the processes of synaptic plasticity. Bassoon, a core component of the presynaptic cytomatrix, is a key player in structural organization and functional regulation of presynaptic release sites. It is one of the most highly phosphorylated synaptic proteins. Nevertheless, to date our knowledge about functions mediated by any one of the identified phosphorylation sites of Bassoon is sparse. In this study, we have identified an interaction of Bassoon with the small adaptor protein 14-3-3, which depends on phosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding motif of Bassoon. In vitro phosphorylation assays indicate that phosphorylation of the critical Ser-2845 residue of Bassoon can be mediated by a member of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase family. Elimination of Ser-2845 from the 14-3-3 binding motif results in a significant decrease of Bassoon's molecular exchange rates at synapses of living rat neurons. We propose that the phosphorylation-induced 14-3-3 binding to Bassoon modulates its anchoring to the presynaptic cytomatrix. This regulation mechanism might participate in molecular and structural presynaptic remodeling during synaptic plasticity.

  3. Modulation of GluK2a subunit-containing kainate receptors by 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changcheng; Qiao, Haifa; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yuying; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yong

    2013-08-23

    Kainate receptors (KARs) are one of the ionotropic glutamate receptors that mediate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with characteristically slow kinetics. Although mechanisms for the slow kinetics of KAR-EPSCs are not totally understood, recent evidence has implicated a regulatory role of KAR-associated proteins. Here, we report that decay kinetics of GluK2a-containing receptors is modulated by closely associated 14-3-3 proteins. 14-3-3 binding requires PKC-dependent phosphorylation of serine residues localized in the carboxyl tail of the GluK2a subunit. In transfected cells, 14-3-3 binding to GluK2a slows desensitization kinetics of both homomeric GluK2a and heteromeric GluK2a/GluK5 receptors. Moreover, KAR-EPSCs at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses decay significantly faster in the 14-3-3 functional knock-out mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins are an important regulator of GluK2a-containing KARs and may contribute to the slow decay kinetics of native KAR-EPSCs. PMID:23861400

  4. Revealing the binding modes and the unbinding of 14-3-3σ proteins and inhibitors by computational methods.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guodong; Cao, Zanxia; Xu, Shicai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The 14-3-3σ proteins are a family of ubiquitous conserved eukaryotic regulatory molecules involved in the regulation of mitogenic signal transduction, apoptotic cell death, and cell cycle control. A lot of small-molecule inhibitors have been identified for 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In this work, we carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method to study the binding mechanism between a 14-3-3σ protein and its eight inhibitors. The ranking order of our calculated binding free energies is in agreement with the experimental results. We found that the binding free energies are mainly from interactions between the phosphate group of the inhibitors and the hydrophilic residues. To improve the binding free energy of Rx group, we designed the inhibitor R9 with group R9 = 4-hydroxypheny. However, we also found that the binding free energy of inhibitor R9 is smaller than that of inhibitor R1. By further using the steer molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, we identified a new hydrogen bond between the inhibitor R8 and residue Arg64 in the pulling paths. The information obtained from this study may be valuable for future rational design of novel inhibitors, and provide better structural understanding of inhibitor binding to 14-3-3σ proteins. PMID:26568041

  5. Protein phosphatases 1 and 2A promote Raf-1 activation by regulating 14-3-3 interactions.

    PubMed

    Jaumot, M; Hancock, J F

    2001-07-01

    Raf-1 activation is a complex process which involves plasma membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions. We now show that PP1 and PP2A serine-threonine phosphatases also have a positive role in Ras dependent Raf-1 activation. General serine-threonine phosphatase inhibitors such sodium fluoride, or ss-glycerophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate, or specific PP1 and PP2A inhibitors including microcystin-LR, protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor I(1) or protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 all abrogate H-Ras and K-Ras dependent Raf-1 activation in vitro. A critical Raf-1 target residue for PP1 and PP2A is S259. Serine phosphatase inhibitors block the dephosphorylation of S259, which accompanies Raf-1 activation, and Ras dependent activation of mutant Raf259A is relatively resistant to serine phosphatase inhibitors. Sucrose gradient analysis demonstrates that serine phosphatase inhibition increases the total amount of 14-3-3 and Raf-1 associated with the plasma membrane and significantly alters the distribution of 14-3-3 and Raf-1 across different plasma membrane microdomains. These observations suggest that dephosphorylation of S259 is a critical early step in Ras dependent Raf-1 activation which facilitates 14-3-3 displacement. Inhibition of PP1 and PP2A therefore causes plasma membrane accumulation of Raf-1/14-3-3 complexes which cannot be activated.

  6. Alternative application of Tau protein in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis: Improvement for weakly positive 14-3-3 protein in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Jeongmin; Park, Jun Sun; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Lee, Sol Moe; An, SeongSoo A; Lee, Myung Koo; Ju, Young Ran

    2015-01-01

    The 14-3-3 protein has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). However, weakly positive 14-3-3 leads to false positive results and an incorrect diagnosis. We attempted to use quantitative data for tau protein to provide an accurate diagnosis based on weak 14-3-3 protein. Sixty-two patients with sCJD, including pathologically confirmed, clinically definite, and probable cases, and 89 non-CJD patients were investigated based on a Korean population. Among them, 20 sCJD and 14 non-CJD showed weakly positive 14-3-3. The total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein levels were measured by ELISA, and the p-tau to t-tau ratio (p/t ratio) was calculated. The combined use of the 14-3-3 protein assay, t-tau levels, and p/t ratio improved the specificity of diagnosis compared with the use of the 14-3-3 protein assay alone (47% for 14-3-3 alone; 85.94% for 14-3-3 combined with t-tau; 90.62% for 14-3-3 combined with the p/t ratio). In addition, 18 of 20 sCJD and 12 of 14 non-CJD who were weakly positive for 14-3-3 were positive for the p/t ratio and negative for the p/t ratio, respectively. When used in combination with the 14-3-3 protein, the tau protein is useful as a biomarker for the precise diagnosis of sCJD. PMID:26507666

  7. Alternative application of Tau protein in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis: Improvement for weakly positive 14-3-3 protein in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jae Wook; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Jeongmin; Park, Jun Sun; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Lee, Sol Moe; An, SeongSoo A; Lee, Myung Koo; Ju, Young Ran

    2015-10-28

    The 14-3-3 protein has been used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). However, weakly positive 14-3-3 leads to false positive results and an incorrect diagnosis. We attempted to use quantitative data for tau protein to provide an accurate diagnosis based on weak 14-3-3 protein. Sixty-two patients with sCJD, including pathologically confirmed, clinically definite, and probable cases, and 89 non-CJD patients were investigated based on a Korean population. Among them, 20 sCJD and 14 non-CJD showed weakly positive 14-3-3. The total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein levels were measured by ELISA, and the p-tau to t-tau ratio (p/t ratio) was calculated. The combined use of the 14-3-3 protein assay, t-tau levels, and p/t ratio improved the specificity of diagnosis compared with the use of the 14-3-3 protein assay alone (47% for 14-3-3 alone; 85.94% for 14-3-3 combined with t-tau; 90.62% for 14-3-3 combined with the p/t ratio). In addition, 18 of 20 sCJD and 12 of 14 non-CJD who were weakly positive for 14-3-3 were positive for the p/t ratio and negative for the p/t ratio, respectively. When used in combination with the 14-3-3 protein, the tau protein is useful as a biomarker for the precise diagnosis of sCJD.

  8. Protein kinase B (AKT) regulates SYK activity and shuttling through 14-3-3 and importin 7.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Nore, Beston F; Gustafsson, Manuela O; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-09-01

    The Protein kinase B (AKT) regulates a plethora of intracellular signaling proteins to fine-tune signaling of multiple pathways. Here, we found that following B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase SYK and the adaptor BLNK, the AKT/PKB enzyme strongly induced BLNK (>100-fold) and SYK (>100-fold) serine/threonine phosphorylation (pS/pT). Increased phosphorylation promoted 14-3-3 binding to BLNK (37-fold) and SYK (2.5-fold) in a pS/pT-concentration dependent manner. We also demonstrated that the AKT inhibitor MK2206 reduced pS/pT of both BLNK (3-fold) and SYK (2.5-fold). Notably, the AKT phosphatase, PHLPP2 maintained the activating phosphorylation of BLNK at Y84 and increased protein stability (8.5-fold). In addition, 14-3-3 was required for the regulation SYK's interaction with BLNK and attenuated SYK binding to Importin 7 (5-fold), thereby perturbing shuttling to the nucleus. Moreover, 14-3-3 proteins also sustained tyrosine phosphorylation of SYK and BLNK. Furthermore, substitution of S295 or S297 for alanine abrogated SYK's binding to Importin 7. SYK with S295A or S297A replacements showed intense pY525/526 phosphorylation, and BLNK pY84 phosphorylation correlated with the SYK pY525/526 phosphorylation level. Conversely, the corresponding mutations to aspartic acid in SYK reduced pY525/526 phosphorylation. Collectively, these and previous results suggest that AKT and 14-3-3 proteins down-regulate the activity of several BCR-associated components, including BTK, BLNK and SYK and also inhibit SYK's interaction with Importin 7. PMID:27381982

  9. Dexamethasone downregulated the expression of CSF 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Bi-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. A previous study demonstrated that the 14-3-3β protein is a neuropathological marker in monitoring neuronal damage in meningitis. Steroids are commonly used in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection. However, the mechanism by which steroids act in eosinophilic meningitis is unknown. We hypothesized that the beneficial effect of steroids on eosinophilic meningitis is partially mediated by the down-regulation of 14-3-3β protein expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal study, we determined the dynamic changes of 14-3-3β protein in mice with eosinophilic meningitis. The 14-3-3β protein in serum and CSF was increased in week 2 and 3 after infections. Dexamethasone administration significantly decreased the amounts of CSF 14-3-3β protein. By developing an in-house ELISA to measure 14-3-3β protein, it was found that the amounts of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF and serum increased over a three-week period after infection. There was a remarkable reduction of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF after 2 weeks of dexamethasone treatment. In conclusion, the administration of corticosteroids in mice with eosinophilic meningitis decreased the expression of 14-3-3β protein in the CSF.

  10. The epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 protein is a component of the prion protein amyloid deposits of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    PubMed

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Giaccone, Giorgio; Limido, Lucia; Mangieri, Michela; Suardi, Silvia; Puoti, Gianfranco; Morbin, Michela; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2007-02-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved, ubiquitous molecules involved in a variety of biologic events, such as transduction pathway modulation, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Seven isoforms have been identified that are abundant in the brain, preferentially localized in neurons. Remarkable increases in 14-3-3 are seen in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and it has been found in pathologic inclusions of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, the zeta isoform has been detected in prion protein (PrP) amyloid deposits of CJD patients. To further investigate the cerebral distribution of 14-3-3 in prion-related encephalopathies, we carried out an immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis of brain tissue from patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and sporadic, familial and acquired forms of CJD, using specific antibodies against the seven 14-3-3 isoforms. The study showed a strong immunoreactivity of PrP amyloid plaques of GSS patients for the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform, but not for the other isoforms. The epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 was not found in PrP deposits of CJD. These results indicate that the epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 is a component of PrP amyloid deposits of GSS and suggest that this is the sole 14-3-3 isoform specifically involved in the neuropathologic changes associated with this disorder.

  11. Vpr Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Binds to 14-3-3 Proteins and Facilitates Complex Formation with Cdc25C: Implications for Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige; Gragerov, Alexander; Valentin, Antonio; Tsopanomihalou, Maria; Ilyina-Gragerova, Galina; Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca; Chrousos, George P.; Pavlakis, George N.

    2005-01-01

    Vpr and selected mutants were used in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen to identify cellular interactors. We found Vpr interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, a family regulating a multitude of proteins in the cell. Vpr mutant R80A, which is inactive in cell cycle arrest, did not interact with 14-3-3. 14-3-3 proteins regulate the G2/M transition by inactivating Cdc25C phosphatase via binding to the phosphorylated serine residue at position 216 of Cdc25C. 14-3-3 overexpression in human cells synergized with Vpr in the arrest of cell cycle. Vpr did not arrest efficiently cells not expressing 14-3-3σ. This indicated that a full complement of 14-3-3 proteins is necessary for optimal Vpr function on the cell cycle. Mutational analysis showed that the C-terminal portion of Vpr, known to harbor its cell cycle-arresting activity, bound directly to the C-terminal part of 14-3-3, outside of its phosphopeptide-binding pocket. Vpr expression shifted localization of the mutant Cdc25C S216A to the cytoplasm, indicating that Vpr promotes the association of 14-3-3 and Cdc25C, independently of the presence of serine 216. Immunoprecipitations of cell extracts indicated the presence of triple complexes (Vpr/14-3-3/Cdc25C). These results indicate that Vpr promotes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase by facilitating association of 14-3-3 and Cdc25C independently of the latter's phosphorylation status. PMID:15708996

  12. Structural Basis for the 14-3-3 Protein-dependent Inhibition of the Regulator of G Protein Signaling 3 (RGS3) Function*

    PubMed Central

    Rezabkova, Lenka; Man, Petr; Novak, Petr; Herman, Petr; Vecer, Jaroslav; Obsilova, Veronika; Obsil, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins function as GTPase-activating proteins for the α-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. The function of certain RGS proteins is negatively regulated by 14-3-3 proteins, a family of highly conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotes. In this study, we provide a structural mechanism for 14-3-3-dependent inhibition of RGS3-Gα interaction. We have used small angle x-ray scattering, hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics, and Förster resonance energy transfer measurements to determine the low-resolution solution structure of the 14-3-3ζ·RGS3 complex. The structure shows the RGS domain of RGS3 bound to the 14-3-3ζ dimer in an as-yet-unrecognized manner interacting with less conserved regions on the outer surface of the 14-3-3 dimer outside its central channel. Our results suggest that the 14-3-3 protein binding affects the structure of the Gα interaction portion of RGS3 as well as sterically blocks the interaction between the RGS domain and the Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. PMID:22027839

  13. Transcription variants of the prostate-specific PrLZ gene and their interaction with 14-3-3 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruoxiang; He, Hui; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xu, Jianchun; Marshall, Fray F.; Zhau, Haiyen; Chung, Leland W.K.; Fu, Haian; He, Dalin

    2009-11-20

    We have reported isolation and characterization of the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated PrLZ gene abnormally expressed in prostate cancer. PrLZ is a potential biomarker for prostate cancer and a candidate oncogene promoting cell proliferation and survival in prostate cancer cells. A full delineation of the PrLZ gene and its gene products may provide clues to the mechanisms regulating its expression and function. In this report, we identified three additional exons in the PrLZ gene and recognized five transcript variants from alternative splicing that could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Structural comparison demonstrated that the PrLZ proteins are highly conserved among species. PrLZ contains multiple potential sites for interaction with other proteins. We used mammalian two-hybrid assays to demonstrate that PrLZ isoforms interact with 14-3-3 proteins, and multiple sites in the PrLZ may be involved in the interaction. Alternative splicing may contribute to abnormally enhanced PrLZ levels in prostate cancer, and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins may be a mechanism by which PrLZ promotes cell proliferation and survival during prostate cancer development and progression. This information is a valuable addition to the investigation of the oncogenic properties of the PrLZ gene.

  14. Spinach 14-3-3 protein interacts with the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and nitrate reductase in response to excess nitrate stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huini; Zhao, Xiuling; Guo, Chuanlong; Chen, Limei; Li, Kunzhi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the function of 14-3-3 protein in response to excess nitrate stress, a 14-3-3 protein, designated as So14-3-3, was isolated from spinach. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that So14-3-3 belongs to non-ε group of 14-3-3 superfamily. Real time-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that So14-3-3 was induced by excess nitrate stress in spinach roots and leaves. After nitrate treatment, the phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase and nitrate reductase (NR) increased and decreased respectively. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) suggested that the interaction of So14-3-3 with the phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase enhanced, but reduced with phosphorylated NR in spinach roots after nitrate treatment. Besides, 5 proteins interacted with So14-3-3 were found by Co-IP and LC-MS/MS analysis. So14-3-3 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced tolerance to nitrate treatment at the germination and young seedlings stage. The transgenic plants showed longer root length, lower malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, protein carbonyl contents, relatively higher soluble sugar and protein contents, than the WT plants after nitrate treatment. The phosphorylation levels of H(+)-ATPase in transgenic plants were higher than the WT plants after nitrate treatment, whereas NR were lower. Additionally, in transgenic plants, the interaction of So14-3-3 with phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase and NR increased and decreased more than the WT plants under nitrate stress, leading to higher H(+)-ATPase and NR activities in transgenic plants. These data suggested that So14-3-3 might be involved in nitrate stress response by interacting with H(+)-ATPase and NR. PMID:27161584

  15. A Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o participates in stomatal and root hair development and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Mingzhe; Chen, Chao; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Xuedong; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Qingyue; Jia, Bowei; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.

  16. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, T; Fuglsang, A T; Olsson, A; Brüntrup, I M; Collinge, D B; Volkmann, D; Sommarin, M; Palmgren, M G; Larsson, C

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase isolated from fusicoccin-treated maize shoots was copurified with the 14-3-3 protein (as determined by protein gel blotting), and the H(+)-ATPase was recovered in an activated state. In the absence of fusicoccin treatment, H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein were well separated, and the H(+)-ATPase was recovered in a nonactivated form. Trypsin treatment removed the 10-kD C-terminal region from the H(+)-ATPase as well as the 14-3-3 protein. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we could show a direct interaction between Arabidopsis 14-3-3 GF14-phi and the last 98 C-terminal amino acids of the Arabidopsis AHA2 plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase. PMID:9368417

  17. Association of 14-3-3 Proteins to β1-Adrenergic Receptors Modulates Kv11.1 K+ Channel Activity in Recombinant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tutor, Antonio S.; Delpón, Eva; Caballero, Ricardo; Gómez, Ricardo; Núñez, Lucía; Vaquero, Miguel; Tamargo, Juan; Penela, Petronila

    2006-01-01

    We identify a new mechanism for the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR)-mediated regulation of human ether-a-go-go–related gene (HERG) potassium channel (Kv11.1). We find that the previously reported modulatory interaction between Kv11.1 channels and 14-3-3ε proteins is competed by wild type β1AR by means of a novel interaction between this receptor and 14-3-3ε. The association between β1AR and 14-3-3ε is increased by agonist stimulation in both transfected cells and heart tissue and requires cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. The β1AR/14-3-3ε association is direct, since it can be recapitulated using purified 14-3-3ε and β1AR fusion proteins and is abolished in cells expressing β1AR phosphorylation–deficient mutants. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies of the effects of isoproterenol on Kv11.1 currents recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp demonstrated that β1AR phosphorylation–deficient mutants do not recruit 14-3-3ε away from Kv11.1 and display a markedly altered agonist-mediated modulation of Kv11.1 currents compared with wild-type β1AR, increasing instead of inhibiting current amplitudes. Interestingly, such differential modulation is not observed in the presence of 14-3-3 inhibitors. Our results suggest that the dynamic association of 14-3-3 proteins to both β1AR and Kv11.1 channels is involved in the adrenergic modulation of this critical regulator of cardiac repolarization and refractoriness. PMID:16914520

  18. Evolution of the 14-3-3 protein family: does the large number of isoforms in multicellular organisms reflect functional specificity?

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, M; Sehnke, P; Ferl, R J; Sommarin, M; Larsson, C

    2000-11-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of eukaryotic proteins that are key regulators of a large number of processes ranging from mitosis to apoptosis. 14-3-3s function as dimers and bind to particular motifs in their target proteins. To date, 14-3-3s have been implicated in regulation or stabilization of more than 35 different proteins. This number is probably only a fraction of the number of proteins that 14-3-3s bind to, as reports of new target proteins have become more frequent. An examination of 14-3-3 entries in the public databases reveals 153 isoforms, including alleloforms, reported in 48 different species. The number of isoforms range from 2, in the unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to 12 in the multicellular organism Arabidopsis thaliana. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that there are four major evolutionary lineages: Viridiplantae (plants), Fungi, Alveolata, and Metazoa (animals). A close examination of the aligned amino acid sequences identifies conserved amino acid residues and regions of importance for monomer stabilization, dimer formation, target protein binding, and the nuclear export function. Given the fact that 53% of the protein is conserved, including all amino acid residues in the target binding groove of the 14-3-3 monomer, one might expect little to no isoform specificity for target protein binding. However, using surface plasmon resonance we show that there are large differences in affinity between nine 14-3-3 isoforms of A. thaliana and a target peptide representing a novel binding motif present in the C terminus of the plant plasma membrane H(+)ATPase. Thus, our data suggest that one reason for the large number of isoforms found in multicellular organisms is isoform-specific functions. PMID:11080367

  19. Dual role for 14-3-3 proteins and ABF transcription factors in gibberellic acid and abscisic acid signalling in barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Schoonheim, Peter J; Costa Pereira, Daniel D A; De Boer, Albertus H

    2009-05-01

    The balance of gibberellins [gibberellic acid (GA)] and abscisic acid (ABA) is a determining factor during transition of embryogenesis and seed germination. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3 proteins are important in ABA signalling in barley aleurone cells. Using 14-3-3 RNAi constructs in the barley aleurone transient expression system, we demonstrate here that silencing of each 14-3-3 isoform suppresses GA induction of the alpha-amylase gene. 14-3-3 Proteins interact with ABA-responsive element (ABRE) binding factors HvABF1, 2 and 3, and here we show that these transcription factors also interact with the ABA-responsive kinase PKABA1, a kinase that mediates cross-talk between the GA and ABA pathway. ABF1 and ABF2 have a function in both signalling pathways as: (1) ectopic expression of wild-type ABF1 and mutant ABF2, lacking the 14-3-3 interaction domain, transactivates the ABA inducible HVA1 gene; and (2) GA induction of the alpha-amylase gene is repressed by ectopic expression of wild-type ABF1 and 2. Mutant ABF1 and 2 were still effective repressors of GA signalling. In summary, our data provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins and members of the ABF transcription factor family have a regulatory function in the GA pathway and suggest that PKABA1 and ABF transcription factors are cross-talk intermediates in ABA and GA signalling.

  20. Interaction of Ubinuclein-1, a nuclear and adhesion junction protein, with the 14-3-3 epsilon protein in epithelial cells: implication of the PKA pathway.

    PubMed

    Conti, Audrey; Sueur, Charlotte; Lupo, Julien; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique

    2013-03-01

    Ubinuclein-1 is a NACos (Nuclear and Adhesion junction Complex components) protein which shuttles between the nucleus and tight junctions, but its function in the latter is not understood. Here, by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis, we show that Ubinuclein-1 interacts with the 14-3-3ɛ protein both in HT29 colon cells, and AGS gastric cells. This interaction is mediated by an Ubinuclein-1 phosphoserine motif. We show that the arginine residues (R56, R60 and R132) which form the 14-3-3ɛ ligand binding site are responsible for the binding of 14-3-3ɛ to phosphorylated Ubinuclein-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vitro Ubinuclein-1 can be directly phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This in vitro phosphorylation allows binding of wildtype 14-3-3ɛ. Moreover, treatment of the cells with inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, KT5720 or H89, modifies the subcellular localization of Ubinuclein-1. Indeed, KT5720 and H89 greatly increase the staining of Ubinuclein-1 at the tight junctions in AGS gastric cells. In the presence of the kinase inhibitor KT5720, the amount of Ubinuclein-1 in the NP40 insoluble fraction is increased, together with actin. Moreover, treatment of the cells with KT5720 or H89 induces the concentration of Ubinuclein-1 at tricellular intersections of MDCK cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel cell signaling trafficking by Ubinuclein-1 via association with 14-3-3ɛ following Ubinuclein-1 phosphorylation by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A.

  1. Nuclear localization and interaction of RolB with plant 14-3-3 proteins correlates with induction of adventitious roots by the oncogene rolB.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Chiho; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Yamashita, Ichiro; Machida, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobukazu

    2004-04-01

    The rooting-locus gene B (rolB) on the T-DNA of the root-inducing (Ri) plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for the induction of transformed adventitious roots, although the root induction mechanism is unknown. We report here that the RolB protein of pRi1724 (1724RolB) is associated with Nicotianatabacum14-3-3-like protein omegaII (Nt14-3-3 omegaII) in tobacco bright yellow (BY)-2 cells. Nt14-3-3 omegaII directly interacts with 1724RolB protein. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused 1724RolB is localized to the nucleus. GFP-fused mutant 1724RolB proteins having a deletion or amino acid substitution are unable to interact with Nt14-3-3 omegaII and also show impaired nuclear localization. Moreover, these 1724RolB mutants show decreased capacity for adventitious root induction. These results suggest that adventitious root induction by 1724RolB protein correlates with its interaction with Nt14-3-3 omegaII and the nuclear localization of 1724RolB protein. PMID:15078329

  2. Phosphorylation of Thr-948 at the C terminus of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase creates a binding site for the regulatory 14-3-3 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Svennelid, F; Olsson, A; Piotrowski, M; Rosenquist, M; Ottman, C; Larsson, C; Oecking, C; Sommarin, M

    1999-01-01

    The plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is activated by the binding of 14-3-3 protein to the C-terminal region of the enzyme, thus forming an H(+)-ATPase-14-3-3 complex that can be stabilized by the fungal toxin fusicoccin. A novel 14-3-3 binding motif, QQXYpT(948)V, at the C terminus of the H(+)-ATPase is identified and characterized, and the protein kinase activity in the plasma membrane fraction that phosphorylates this threonine residue in the H(+)-ATPase is identified. A synthetic peptide that corresponds to the C-terminal 16 amino acids of the H(+)-ATPase and that is phosphorylated on Thr-948 prevents the in vitro activation of the H(+)-ATPase that is obtained in the presence of recombinant 14-3-3 and fusicoccin. Furthermore, binding of 14-3-3 to the H(+)-ATPase in the absence of fusicoccin is absolutely dependent on the phosphorylation of Thr-948, whereas binding of 14-3-3 in the presence of fusicoccin occurs independently of phosphorylation but still involves the C-terminal motif YTV. Finally, by complementing yeast that lacks its endogenous H(+)-ATPase with wild-type and mutant forms of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia H(+)-ATPase isoform PMA2, we provide physiological evidence for the importance of the phosphothreonine motif in 14-3-3 binding and, hence, in the activation of the H(+)-ATPase in vivo. Indeed, replacing Thr-948 in the plant H(+)-ATPase with alanine is lethal because this mutant fails to functionally replace the yeast H(+)-ATPase. Considering the importance of the motif QQXYpTV for 14-3-3 binding and yeast growth, this motif should be of vital importance for regulating H(+)-ATPase activity in the plant and thus for plant growth. PMID:10590165

  3. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems. PMID:27195976

  4. Controllability of protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networks: Participation of the hub 14-3-3 protein family.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marina; Flores, Gabriel; Bustos, Diego M

    2016-05-19

    Posttranslational regulation of protein function is an ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Here, we analyzed biological properties of nodes and edges of a human protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based network, especially of those nodes critical for the network controllability. We found that the minimal number of critical nodes needed to control the whole network is 29%, which is considerably lower compared to other real networks. These critical nodes are more regulated by posttranslational modifications and contain more binding domains to these modifications than other kinds of nodes in the network, suggesting an intra-group fast regulation. Also, when we analyzed the edges characteristics that connect critical and non-critical nodes, we found that the former are enriched in domain-to-eukaryotic linear motif interactions, whereas the later are enriched in domain-domain interactions. Our findings suggest a possible structure for protein-protein interaction networks with a densely interconnected and self-regulated central core, composed of critical nodes with a high participation in the controllability of the full network, and less regulated peripheral nodes. Our study offers a deeper understanding of complex network control and bridges the controllability theorems for complex networks and biological protein-protein interaction phosphorylation-based networked systems.

  5. 14-3-3 isoforms bind directly exon B of the 5′-UTR of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Noutsios, Georgios T.; Ghattas, Paul; Bennett, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Human surfactant protein (SP) A (SP-A), an innate immunity molecule, is encoded by two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The 5′-untranslated splice variant of SP-A2 (ABD), but not SP-A1 (AD), contains exon B (eB). eB is an enhancer for transcription and translation and contains cis-regulatory elements. Specific trans-acting factors, including 14-3-3, bind eB. The 14-3-3 protein family contains seven isoforms that have been found by mass spectrometry in eB electromobility shift assays (Noutsios et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304: L722–L735, 2013). We used four different approaches to investigate whether 14-3-3 isoforms bind directly to eB. 1) eB RNA pulldown assays showed that 14-3-3 isoforms specifically bind eB. 2) RNA electromobility shift assay complexes were formed using purified 14-3-3 isoforms β, γ, ε, η, σ, and τ, but not isoform ζ, with wild-type eB RNA. 3 and 4) RNA affinity chromatography assays and surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that 14-3-3 isoforms β, γ, ε, η, σ, and τ, but not isoform ζ, specifically and directly bind eB. Inhibition of 14-3-3 isoforms γ, ε, η, and τ/θ with shRNAs in NCI-H441 cells resulted in downregulation of SP-A2 levels but did not affect SP-A1 levels. However, inhibition of 14-3-3 isoform σ was correlated with lower levels of SP-A1 and SP-A2. Inhibition of 14-3-3 isoform ζ/δ, which does not bind eB, had no effect on expression levels of SP-A1 and SP-A2. In conclusion, the 14-3-3 protein family affects differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 by binding directly to SP-A2 5′-UTR mRNA. PMID:26001776

  6. Characterization of 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in the Echinococcus granulosus pathogenic larval stage.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Aline; Vargas, Daiani M; Monteiro, Karina M; Meneghetti, Bruna V; Dutra, Cristine S; Paredes, Rodolfo; Galanti, Norbel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2015-04-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family of eukaryotic regulators was studied in Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease. These proteins mediate important cellular processes in eukaryotes and are expected to play important roles in parasite biology. Six isoforms of E. granulosus 14-3-3 genes and proteins (Eg14-3-3.1-6) were analyzed, and their phylogenetic relationships were established with bona fide 14-3-3 orthologous proteins from eukaryotic species. Eg14-3-3 isoforms with previous evidence of expression (Eg14-3-3.1-4) in E. granulosus pathogenic larval stage (metacestode) were cloned, and recombinant proteins were used for functional studies. These protein isoforms were detected in different components of E. granulosus metacestode, including interface components with the host. The roles that are played by Eg14-3-3 proteins in parasite biology were inferred from the repertoires of interacting proteins with each isoform, as assessed by gel overlay, cross-linking, and affinity chromatography assays. A total of 95 Eg14-3-3 protein ligands were identified by mass spectrometry. Eg14-3-3 isoforms have shared partners (44 proteins), indicating some overlapping functions; however, they also bind exclusive partners (51 proteins), suggesting Eg14-3-3 functional specialization. These ligand repertoires indicate the involvement of Eg14-3-3 proteins in multiple biochemical pathways in the E. granulosus metacestode and note some degree of isoform specialization. PMID:25748451

  7. Characterization of 14-3-3 isoforms expressed in the Echinococcus granulosus pathogenic larval stage.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Aline; Vargas, Daiani M; Monteiro, Karina M; Meneghetti, Bruna V; Dutra, Cristine S; Paredes, Rodolfo; Galanti, Norbel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2015-04-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family of eukaryotic regulators was studied in Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease. These proteins mediate important cellular processes in eukaryotes and are expected to play important roles in parasite biology. Six isoforms of E. granulosus 14-3-3 genes and proteins (Eg14-3-3.1-6) were analyzed, and their phylogenetic relationships were established with bona fide 14-3-3 orthologous proteins from eukaryotic species. Eg14-3-3 isoforms with previous evidence of expression (Eg14-3-3.1-4) in E. granulosus pathogenic larval stage (metacestode) were cloned, and recombinant proteins were used for functional studies. These protein isoforms were detected in different components of E. granulosus metacestode, including interface components with the host. The roles that are played by Eg14-3-3 proteins in parasite biology were inferred from the repertoires of interacting proteins with each isoform, as assessed by gel overlay, cross-linking, and affinity chromatography assays. A total of 95 Eg14-3-3 protein ligands were identified by mass spectrometry. Eg14-3-3 isoforms have shared partners (44 proteins), indicating some overlapping functions; however, they also bind exclusive partners (51 proteins), suggesting Eg14-3-3 functional specialization. These ligand repertoires indicate the involvement of Eg14-3-3 proteins in multiple biochemical pathways in the E. granulosus metacestode and note some degree of isoform specialization.

  8. Tomato 14-3-3 protein TFT7 interacts with a MAP kinase kinase to regulate immunity-associated programmed cell death mediated by diverse disease resistance proteins.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Sik; Martin, Gregory B

    2011-04-22

    Programmed cell death (PCD) associated with immunity is triggered when a plant disease resistance (R) protein recognizes a corresponding pathogen virulence protein. In tomato, detection by the host Pto kinase of the Pseudomonas syringae proteins AvrPto or AvrPtoB causes localized PCD. Previously, we reported that both MAPKKKα (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase) and the tomato 14-3-3 protein 7 (TFT7) positively regulate Pto-mediated PCD in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, in contrast to MAPKKKα, TFT7 is required for PCD mediated by four other R proteins. Here we investigate why TFT7 is required for PCD induced by diverse R proteins in plants. We discovered that a MAPKK, SlMKK2, which acts downstream of SlMAPKKKα, also interacts with TFT7 in plant cells. Gene silencing experiments revealed that the orthologous genes of both SlMKK2 and TFT7 in N. benthamiana are required for PCD mediated by the same set of R proteins. SlMKK2 and its orthologs contain a 14-3-3 binding site in their N terminus, and Thr(33) in this site is required for interaction with TFT7 in vivo. Like the structurally similar human 14-3-3ε protein, TFT7 forms a homodimer in vivo. Because TFT7 interacts with both SlMAPKKKα and SlMKK2 and also forms a homodimer, we propose that TFT7 may coordinately recruit these client proteins for efficient signal transfer, leading to PCD induction. PMID:21378171

  9. Induction of androgen formation in the male by a TAT-VDAC1 fusion peptide blocking 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor and mitochondrial VDAC1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-10-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production.

  10. Protein Kinase CK2 Interacts at the Neuromuscular Synapse with Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7 Proteins and Phosphorylates the Latter Two*

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Dustin; Straubinger, Marion; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CK2 associates with and phosphorylates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thereby preventing fragmentation of the NMJs (Cheusova, T., Khan, M. A., Schubert, S. W., Gavin, A. C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H. R., and Hashemolhosseini, S. (2006) Genes Dev. 20, 1800–1816). Here, we asked whether CK2 interacts with other proteins involved in processes at the NMJ, which would be consistent with the previous observation that CK2 appears enriched at the NMJ. We identified the following proteins to interact with protein kinase CK2: (a) the α and β subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with weak interaction, (b) dishevelled (Dsh), and (c) another four proteins, Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7, with strong interaction. CK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3γ at serine residue 235 and Dok-7 at several serine residues but does not phosphorylate Rapsyn or Rac1. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Dok-7 mutants aggregated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes with significantly higher frequency than wild type Dok-7. Additionally, we mapped the interacting epitopes of all four binding partners to CK2 and thereby gained insights into the potential role of the CK2/Rapsyn interaction. PMID:26198629

  11. Protein kinase CK2 interacts at the neuromuscular synapse with Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7 proteins and phosphorylates the latter two.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Dustin; Straubinger, Marion; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2015-09-11

    Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CK2 associates with and phosphorylates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thereby preventing fragmentation of the NMJs (Cheusova, T., Khan, M. A., Schubert, S. W., Gavin, A. C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H. R., and Hashemolhosseini, S. (2006) Genes Dev. 20, 1800-1816). Here, we asked whether CK2 interacts with other proteins involved in processes at the NMJ, which would be consistent with the previous observation that CK2 appears enriched at the NMJ. We identified the following proteins to interact with protein kinase CK2: (a) the α and β subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with weak interaction, (b) dishevelled (Dsh), and (c) another four proteins, Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7, with strong interaction. CK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3γ at serine residue 235 and Dok-7 at several serine residues but does not phosphorylate Rapsyn or Rac1. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Dok-7 mutants aggregated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes with significantly higher frequency than wild type Dok-7. Additionally, we mapped the interacting epitopes of all four binding partners to CK2 and thereby gained insights into the potential role of the CK2/Rapsyn interaction.

  12. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Uhna; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Link, Andrew J.; Blakely, Randy D.; E-mail: andy.blakely@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-08-05

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH{sub 2}-terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking.

  13. A rare case of rapidly progressive dementia with elevated RT-QuIC and negative 14-3-3 and tau proteins.

    PubMed

    Trikamji, Bhavesh; Hamlin, Clive; Baldwin, Kelly J

    2016-05-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is characterized by rapidly progressing dementia with death usually occurring within 6 months. There is no verified disease-specific pre-mortem diagnostic test besides brain biopsy. We describe a 66 y old previously high functioning male who presented with a 5 month history of rapidly progressive dementia. Neurological examination revealed a score of 19/30 on MOCA testing. An extensive workup into various causes of dementia including electroencephalography and imaging studies was unremarkable. The cerebrospinal fluid was sent to National Prion Disease Center and it revealed elevated RT-QuIC levels with negative 14-3-3 and T tau proteins. Based on literature review, our case is one of few living subjects with elevated RT-QuIC levels and negative 14-3-3 and tau proteins. PMID:27249661

  14. Structure-Function Analysis of PPP1R3D, a Protein Phosphatase 1 Targeting Subunit, Reveals a Binding Motif for 14-3-3 Proteins which Regulates its Glycogenic Properties.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Villena, Carla; Sanz, Pascual; Garcia-Gimeno, Maria Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is one of the major protein phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. It plays a key role in regulating glycogen synthesis, by dephosphorylating crucial enzymes involved in glycogen homeostasis such as glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP). To play this role, PP1 binds to specific glycogen targeting subunits that, on one hand recognize the substrates to be dephosphorylated and on the other hand recruit PP1 to glycogen particles. In this work we have analyzed the functionality of the different protein binding domains of one of these glycogen targeting subunits, namely PPP1R3D (R6) and studied how binding properties of different domains affect its glycogenic properties. We have found that the PP1 binding domain of R6 comprises a conserved RVXF motif (R102VRF) located at the N-terminus of the protein. We have also identified a region located at the C-terminus of R6 (W267DNND) that is involved in binding to the PP1 glycogenic substrates. Our results indicate that although binding to PP1 and glycogenic substrates are independent processes, impairment of any of them results in lack of glycogenic activity of R6. In addition, we have characterized a novel site of regulation in R6 that is involved in binding to 14-3-3 proteins (RARS74LP). We present evidence indicating that when binding of R6 to 14-3-3 proteins is prevented, R6 displays hyper-glycogenic activity although is rapidly degraded by the lysosomal pathway. These results define binding to 14-3-3 proteins as an additional pathway in the control of the glycogenic properties of R6.

  15. 14-3-3 proteins regulate a cell-intrinsic switch from sonic hedgehog-mediated commissural axon attraction to repulsion after midline crossing.

    PubMed

    Yam, Patricia T; Kent, Christopher B; Morin, Steves; Farmer, W Todd; Alchini, Ricardo; Lepelletier, Léa; Colman, David R; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Fournier, Alyson E; Charron, Frédéric

    2012-11-21

    Axons must switch responsiveness to guidance cues during development for correct pathfinding. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) attracts spinal cord commissural axons ventrally toward the floorplate. We show that after crossing the floorplate, commissural axons switch their response to Shh from attraction to repulsion, so that they are repelled anteriorly by a posterior-high/anterior-low Shh gradient along the longitudinal axis. This switch is recapitulated in vitro with dissociated commissural neurons as they age, indicating that the switch is intrinsic and time dependent. 14-3-3 protein inhibition converted Shh-mediated repulsion of aged dissociated neurons to attraction and prevented the correct anterior turn of postcrossing commissural axons in vivo, an effect mediated through PKA. Conversely, overexpression of 14-3-3 proteins was sufficient to drive the switch from Shh-mediated attraction to repulsion both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we identify a 14-3-3 protein-dependent mechanism for a cell-intrinsic temporal switch in the polarity of axon turning responses.

  16. The EFF-1A Cytoplasmic Domain Influences Hypodermal Cell Fusions in C. elegans But Is Not Dependent on 14-3-3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shinn-Thomas, Jessica H.; del Campo, Jacob J.; Wang, Jianjun; Mohler, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of clear recent viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. One of these, EFF-1, is necessary for most cell fusions in Caenorhabditis elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Bioinformatic analysis of the EFF-1A isoform’s predicted cytoplasmic domain (endodomain) previously revealed two motifs that have high probabilities of interacting with 14-3-3 proteins when phosphorylated. Mutation of predicted phosphorylation sites within these motifs caused measurable loss of eff-1 gene function in cell fusion in vivo. Moreover, a human 14-3-3 isoform bound to EFF-1::GFP in vitro. We hypothesized that the two 14-3-3 proteins in C. elegans, PAR-5 and FTT-2, may regulate either localization or fusion-inducing activity of EFF-1. Methodology/Principal Findings Timing of fusion events was slightly but significantly delayed in animals unable to produce full-length EFF-1A. Yet, mutagenesis and live imaging showed that phosphoserines in putative 14-3-3 binding sites are not essential for EFF-1::GFP accumulation at the membrane contact between fusion partner cells. Moreover, although the EFF-1A endodomain was required for normal rates of eff-1-dependent epidermal cell fusions, reduced levels of FTT-2 and PAR-5 did not visibly affect the function of wild-type EFF-1 in the hypodermis. Conclusions/Significance Deletion of the EFF-1A endodomain noticeably affects the timing of hypodermal cell fusions in vivo. However

  17. An Analysis of CAF-1-interacting Proteins Reveals Dynamic and Direct Interactions with the KU Complex and 14-3-3 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Maarten; Myers, Michael P.; Stillman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    CAF-1 is essential in human cells for the de novo deposition of histones H3 and H4 at the DNA replication fork. Depletion of CAF-1 from various cell lines causes replication fork arrest, activation of the intra-S phase checkpoint, and global defects in chromatin structure. CAF-1 is also involved in coordinating inheritance of states of gene expression and in chromatin assembly following DNA repair. In this study, we generated cell lines expressing RNAi-resistant versions of CAF-1 and showed that the N-terminal 296 amino acids are dispensable for essential CAF-1 function in vivo. N-terminally truncated CAF-1 p150 was deficient in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding, reinforcing the existence of two PCNA binding sites in human CAF-1, but the defect in PCNA binding had no effect on the recruitment of CAF-1 to chromatin after DNA damage or to resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Tandem affinity purification of CAF-1-interacting proteins under mild conditions revealed that CAF-1 was directly associated with the KU70/80 complex, part of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, and the phosphoserine/threonine-binding protein 14-3-3 ζ. CAF-1 was a substrate for DNA-dependent protein kinase, and the 14-3-3 interaction in vitro is dependent on DNA-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation. These results highlight that CAF-1 has prominent interactions with the DNA repair machinery but that the N terminus is dispensable for the role of CAF-1 in DNA replication- and repair-coupled chromatin assembly. PMID:21209461

  18. Regulation of the Yeast Hxt6 Hexose Transporter by the Rod1 α-Arrestin, the Snf1 Protein Kinase, and the Bmh2 14-3-3 Protein.

    PubMed

    Llopis-Torregrosa, Vicent; Ferri-Blázquez, Alba; Adam-Artigues, Anna; Deffontaines, Emilie; van Heusden, G Paul H; Yenush, Lynne

    2016-07-15

    Cell viability requires adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in this process, because it provides a mechanism to remove transport proteins from the membrane. Arrestin-related trafficking proteins are important regulators of the endocytic pathway in yeast, facilitating selective ubiquitylation of target proteins by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rsp5. Specifically, Rod1 (Art4) has been reported to regulate the endocytosis of both the Hxt1, Hxt3, and Hxt6 glucose transporters and the Jen1 lactate transporter. Also, the AMP kinase homologue, Snf1, and 14-3-3 proteins have been shown to regulate Jen1 via Rod1. Here, we further characterized the role of Rod1, Snf1, and 14-3-3 in the signal transduction route involved in the endocytic regulation of the Hxt6 high affinity glucose transporter by showing that Snf1 interacts specifically with Rod1 and Rog3 (Art7), that the interaction between the Bmh2 and several arrestin-related trafficking proteins may be modulated by carbon source, and that both the 14-3-3 protein Bmh2 and the Snf1 regulatory domain interact with the arrestin-like domain containing the N-terminal half of Rod1 (amino acids 1-395). Finally, using both co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we demonstrated the interaction of Rod1 with Hxt6 and showed that the localization of the Rod1-Hxt6 complex at the plasma membrane is affected by carbon source and is reduced upon overexpression of SNF1 and BMH2. PMID:27261460

  19. Involvement of 14-3-3 protein GRF9 in root growth and response under polyethylene glycol-induced water stress.

    PubMed

    He, Yuchi; Wu, Jingjing; Lv, Bing; Li, Jia; Gao, Zhiping; Xu, Weifeng; Baluška, František; Shi, Weiming; Shaw, Pang Chui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate a wide array of targets via direct protein-protein interactions. In this study, the role of a 14-3-3 protein, GRF9, in plant response to water stress was investigated. Arabidopsis wild-type, GRF9-deficient mutant (grf9), and GRF9-overexpressing (OE) plants were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce mild water stress. OE plant showed better whole-plant growth and root growth than the wild type under normal or water stress conditions while the grf9 mutant showed worse growth. In OE plants, GRF9 favours the allocation of shoot carbon to roots. In addition, GRF9 enhanced proton extrusion, mainly in the root elongation zone and root hair zone, and maintained root growth under mild water stress. Grafting among the wild type, OE, and grf9 plants showed that when OE plants were used as the scion and GRF9 was overexpressed in the shoot, it enhanced sucrose transport into the root, and when OE plants were used as rootstock and GRF9 was overexpressed in the root, it caused more release of protons into the root surface under water stress. Taken together, the results suggest that under PEG-induced water stress, GRF9 is involved in allocating more carbon from the shoot to the root and enhancing proton secretion in the root growing zone, and this process is important for root response to mild water stress.

  20. Involvement of 14-3-3 protein GRF9 in root growth and response under polyethylene glycol-induced water stress

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuchi; Wu, Jingjing; Lv, Bing; Li, Jia; Gao, Zhiping; Xu, Weifeng; Baluška, František; Shi, Weiming; Shaw, Pang Chui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate a wide array of targets via direct protein–protein interactions. In this study, the role of a 14-3-3 protein, GRF9, in plant response to water stress was investigated. Arabidopsis wild-type, GRF9-deficient mutant (grf9), and GRF9-overexpressing (OE) plants were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce mild water stress. OE plant showed better whole-plant growth and root growth than the wild type under normal or water stress conditions while the grf9 mutant showed worse growth. In OE plants, GRF9 favours the allocation of shoot carbon to roots. In addition, GRF9 enhanced proton extrusion, mainly in the root elongation zone and root hair zone, and maintained root growth under mild water stress. Grafting among the wild type, OE, and grf9 plants showed that when OE plants were used as the scion and GRF9 was overexpressed in the shoot, it enhanced sucrose transport into the root, and when OE plants were used as rootstock and GRF9 was overexpressed in the root, it caused more release of protons into the root surface under water stress. Taken together, the results suggest that under PEG-induced water stress, GRF9 is involved in allocating more carbon from the shoot to the root and enhancing proton secretion in the root growing zone, and this process is important for root response to mild water stress. PMID:25873671

  1. Positive 14-3-3 and tau proteins in a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease case and a brief perspective of prion diseases in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Corral-Prado, Raúl Heli

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare neurodegenerative disorders occurring worldwide and affecting both humans and animals. Herein, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Cali, Colombia. Besides neurological examination, 14-3-3 and tau proteins were valuable tools supporting the diagnosis. We also present a brief perspective of the prion diseases reported in Colombia to date. Although the incidence of prion diseases is unknown in Colombia, our literature review revealed that one case of scrapie in 1981 and 29 human sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been documented and published in our country. PMID:27622622

  2. Positive 14-3-3 and tau proteins in a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease case and a brief perspective of prion diseases in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Corral-Prado, Raúl Heli

    2016-02-24

    Prion diseases are rare neurodegenerative disorders occurring worldwide and affecting both humans and animals. Herein, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Cali, Colombia. Besides neurological examination, 14-3-3 and tau proteins were valuable tools supporting the diagnosis. We also present a brief perspective of the prion diseases reported in Colombia to date. Although the incidence of prion diseases is unknown in Colombia, our literature review revealed that one case of scrapie in 1981 and 29 human sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been documented and published in our country.

  3. Echinococcus multilocularis laminated-layer components and the E14t 14-3-3 recombinant protein decrease NO production by activated rat macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Andrade, M Amparo; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Espinoza, Elsa; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; Gottstein, Bruno; Muro, Antonio

    2004-05-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus cause alveolar and cystic (unilocular) echinococcosis, respectively, in humans and animals. It is known that these parasites can affect, among other molecules, nitric oxide (NO) production by periparasitic host cells. Nevertheless, detailed dissection of parasite components specifically affecting cell NO production has not been done to date. We compare the effect of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis defined metacestode structural (laminated-layer associated) and metabolic (14-3-3 protein, potentially related with E. multilocularis metacestode tumor-like growth) components on the NO production by rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. Our results showed that none of these antigens could stimulate macrophage NO production in vitro. However, a reversed effect of some Echinococcus antigens on NO in vitro production was found when cells were previously exposed to LPS stimulation. This inhibitory effect was found when E. multilocularis laminated-layer (LL) or cyst wall (CW) soluble components from both species were used. Pre-stimulation of cells with LPS also resulted in a strong, dose-dependent reduction of NO and iNOS mRNA production after incubation of cells with the E14t protein. Thus, the E. multilocularis 14-3-3 protein appears to be one of the components accounting for the suppressive effect of the CW and LL metacestode extracts.

  4. A calcium and free fatty acid-modulated protein kinase as putative effector of the fusicoccin 14-3-3 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoeven, P C; Siderius, M; Korthout, H A; Drabkin, A V; de Boer, A H

    1996-01-01

    A protein kinase that is activated by calcium and cis-unsaturated fatty acids has been characterized from oat (Avena sativa L.) root plasma membranes. The kinase phosphorylates a synthetic peptide with a motif (-R-T-L-S-) that can be phosphorylated by both protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK)-type kinases. Calphostin C and chelerythrine, two PKC inhibitors, completely inhibited the kinase activity with values of inhibitor concentration for 50% inhibition of 0.7 and 30 microns, respectively. At low Ca2+ concentrations cis-unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and oleic acid) stimulated the kinase activity almost 10-fold. The two inhibitors of the kinase, calphostin C and chelerythrin, strongly reduced the fusicoccin (FC)-induced H+ extrusion, and the activators of the kinase, the cis-unsaturated fatty acids, prevented [3H]FC binding to the FC 14-3-3 receptor. CDPK antibodies cross-reacted with a 43-kD band in the plasma membrane and in a purified FC receptor fraction. A polypeptide with the same apparent molecular mass was recognized by a synthetic peptide that has a sequence homologous to the annexin-like domain from barely 14-3-3. The possibility of the involvement of a kinase, with properties from both CDPK and PKC, and a phospholipase A2 in the FC Signal transduction pathway is discussed. PMID:8754686

  5. 14-3-3-Pred: improved methods to predict 14-3-3-binding phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Fábio; Tinti, Michele; Murugesan, Gavuthami; Berrett, Emily; Stafford, Margaret; Toth, Rachel; Cole, Christian; MacKintosh, Carol; Barton, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The 14-3-3 family of phosphoprotein-binding proteins regulates many cellular processes by docking onto pairs of phosphorylated Ser and Thr residues in a constellation of intracellular targets. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop new prediction methods that use an updated set of 14-3-3-binding motifs for the identification of new 14-3-3 targets and to prioritize the downstream analysis of >2000 potential interactors identified in high-throughput experiments. Results: Here, a comprehensive set of 14-3-3-binding targets from the literature was used to develop 14-3-3-binding phosphosite predictors. Position-specific scoring matrix, support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) classification methods were trained to discriminate experimentally determined 14-3-3-binding motifs from non-binding phosphopeptides. ANN, position-specific scoring matrix and SVM methods showed best performance for a motif window spanning from −6 to +4 around the binding phosphosite, achieving Matthews correlation coefficient of up to 0.60. Blind prediction showed that all three methods outperform two popular 14-3-3-binding site predictors, Scansite and ELM. The new methods were used for prediction of 14-3-3-binding phosphosites in the human proteome. Experimental analysis of high-scoring predictions in the FAM122A and FAM122B proteins confirms the predictions and suggests the new 14-3-3-predictors will be generally useful. Availability and implementation: A standalone prediction web server is available at http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/1433pred. Human candidate 14-3-3-binding phosphosites were integrated in ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome database. Contact: cmackintosh@dundee.ac.uk or gjbarton@dundee.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25735772

  6. 14-3-3σ Gene Loss Leads to Activation of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Due to the Stabilization of c-Jun Protein.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Kumarkrishna; Chaudhary, Neelam; Gurjar, Mansa; D'Souza, Roseline; Limzerwala, Jazeel; Maddika, Subbareddy; Dalal, Sorab N

    2016-07-29

    Loss of 14-3-3σ has been observed in multiple tumor types; however, the mechanisms by which 14-3-3σ loss leads to tumor progression are not understood. The experiments in this report demonstrate that loss of 14-3-3σ leads to a decrease in the expression of epithelial markers and an increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers, which is indicative of an induction of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT was accompanied by an increase in migration and invasion in the 14-3-3σ(-/-) cells. 14-3-3σ(-/-) cells show increased stabilization of c-Jun, resulting in an increase in the expression of the EMT transcription factor slug. 14-3-3σ induces the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Jun in an FBW7-dependent manner. c-Jun ubiquitination is dependent on the presence of an intact nuclear export pathway as c-Jun is stabilized and localized to the nucleus in the presence of a nuclear export inhibitor. Furthermore, the absence of 14-3-3σ leads to the nuclear accumulation and stabilization of c-Jun, suggesting that 14-3-3σ regulates the subcellular localization of c-Jun. Our results have identified a novel mechanism by which 14-3-3σ maintains the epithelial phenotype by inhibiting EMT and suggest that this property of 14-3-3σ might contribute to its function as a tumor suppressor gene.

  7. 14-3-3σ Gene Loss Leads to Activation of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Due to the Stabilization of c-Jun Protein.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Kumarkrishna; Chaudhary, Neelam; Gurjar, Mansa; D'Souza, Roseline; Limzerwala, Jazeel; Maddika, Subbareddy; Dalal, Sorab N

    2016-07-29

    Loss of 14-3-3σ has been observed in multiple tumor types; however, the mechanisms by which 14-3-3σ loss leads to tumor progression are not understood. The experiments in this report demonstrate that loss of 14-3-3σ leads to a decrease in the expression of epithelial markers and an increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers, which is indicative of an induction of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT was accompanied by an increase in migration and invasion in the 14-3-3σ(-/-) cells. 14-3-3σ(-/-) cells show increased stabilization of c-Jun, resulting in an increase in the expression of the EMT transcription factor slug. 14-3-3σ induces the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Jun in an FBW7-dependent manner. c-Jun ubiquitination is dependent on the presence of an intact nuclear export pathway as c-Jun is stabilized and localized to the nucleus in the presence of a nuclear export inhibitor. Furthermore, the absence of 14-3-3σ leads to the nuclear accumulation and stabilization of c-Jun, suggesting that 14-3-3σ regulates the subcellular localization of c-Jun. Our results have identified a novel mechanism by which 14-3-3σ maintains the epithelial phenotype by inhibiting EMT and suggest that this property of 14-3-3σ might contribute to its function as a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:27261462

  8. The Tomato 14-3-3 protein TFT4 modulates H+ efflux, basipetal auxin transport, and the PKS5-J3 pathway in the root growth response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weifeng; Jia, Liguo; Shi, Weiming; Baluska, Frantisek; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    Alkaline stress is a common environmental stress, in particular in salinized soils. Plant roots respond to a variety of soil stresses by regulating their growth, but the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged in the alkaline stress response (ASR) is not yet understood. Previous studies show that PIN-FORMED2, an auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) efflux transporter, PKS5, a protein kinase, and DNAJ HOMOLOG3 (J3), a chaperone, play key roles in root H(+) secretion by regulating plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases directly or by targeting 14-3-3 proteins. Here, we investigated the expression of all 14-3-3 gene family members (TOMATO 14-3-3 PROTEIN1 [TFT1]-TFT12) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under ASR, showing the involvement of four of them, TFT1, TFT4, TFT6, and TFT7. When these genes were separately introduced into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and overexpressed, only the growth of TFT4 overexpressors was significantly enhanced when compared with the wild type under stress. H(+) efflux and the activity of PM H(+)-ATPase were significantly enhanced in the root tips of TFT4 overexpressors. Microarray analysis and pharmacological examination of the overexpressor and mutant plants revealed that overexpression of TFT4 maintains primary root elongation by modulating PM H(+)-ATPase-mediated H(+) efflux and basipetal IAA transport in root tips under alkaline stress. TFT4 further plays important roles in the PKS5-J3 signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates that TFT4 acts as a regulator in the integration of H(+) efflux, basipetal IAA transport, and the PKS5-J3 pathway in the ASR of roots and coordinates root apex responses to alkaline stress for the maintenance of primary root elongation. PMID:24134886

  9. Specific interactions with TBP and TFIIB in vitro suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may participate in the regulation of transcription when part of a DNA binding complex.

    PubMed

    Pan, S; Sehnke, P C; Ferl, R J; Gurley, W B

    1999-08-01

    The 14-3-3 family of multifunctional proteins is highly conserved among animals, plants, and yeast. Several studies have shown that these proteins are associated with a G-box DNA binding complex and are present in the nucleus in several plant and animal species. In this study, 14-3-3 proteins are shown to bind the TATA box binding protein (TBP), transcription factor IIB (TFIIB), and the human TBP-associated factor hTAF(II)32 in vitro but not hTAF(II)55. The interactions with TBP and TFIIB were highly specific, requiring amino acid residues in the box 1 domain of the 14-3-3 protein. These interactions do not require formation of the 14-3-3 dimer and are not dependent on known 14-3-3 recognition motifs containing phosphoserine. The 14-3-3-TFIIB interaction appears to occur within the same domain of TFIIB that binds the human herpes simplex virus transcriptional activator VP16, because VP16 and 14-3-3 were able to compete for interaction with TFIIB in vitro. In a plant transient expression system, 14-3-3 was able to activate GAL4-dependent beta-glucuronidase reporter gene expression at low levels when translationally fused with the GAL4 DNA binding domain. The in vitro binding with general transcription factors TBP and TFIIB together with its nuclear location provide evidence supporting a role for 14-3-3 proteins as transcriptional activators or coactivators when part of a DNA binding complex. PMID:10449590

  10. Spatial coordination of chloroplast and plasma membrane activities in Chara cells and its disruption through inactivation of 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, A A; van den Wijngaard, P W J; de Boer, A H

    2005-01-01

    In Chara corallina cells exposed to continuous light, external pH (pH(o)) and photosystem II (PSII) photochemical yield show correlated banding patterns. Photosynthetic activity is low in cell regions producing alkaline zones and high in the acid regions. We addressed the question whether (and how) photosynthetic activity and plasma membrane (PM) H+-pumping and H+-conductance are coupled in the different bands. First, PM H+-pump activity was stimulated with fusicoccin. This resulted in a more acidic pH in the acid bands without disturbing the correlation of photosynthetic electron transport and H+ fluxes across the PM. Next, H+-pump activity was reduced through microinjection of a phosphorylated peptide matching the canonical 14-3-3 binding motif RSTpSTP in the acid cell region. Microinjection induced a rapid (~5 min) rise in pH(o) by ca. 1.0 unit near the injection site, whereas the injection of the non-phosphorylated peptide had no effect. This pH rise confirms the supposed inhibition of the H+-pump upon the detachment of 14-3-3 proteins from the H+-ATPase. However, the PSII yield in the cell regions corresponding to the new alkaline peak remained high, which violated the normal inverse relations between the pH(o) and PSII photochemical yield. We conclude that the injection of the competitive inhibitor of the H+-ATPase disrupts the balanced operation of PM H+-transport and photosynthetic electron flow and promotes electron flow through alternative pathways.

  11. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tonika; Thomas, Lisa M; White, Clayton A; Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit) and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit) and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung). 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198) or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR). 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA) in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  12. Influence of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 14-3-3 and gp43 proteins on the induction of apoptosis in A549 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Julhiany de Fátima da; Vicentim, Juliana; Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar de; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Andreotti, Patrícia Ferrari; Silva, Juliana Leal Monteiro da; Soares, Christiane Pienna; Benard, Gil; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-06-01

    The fungal strain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis remains viable inside of epithelial cells and can induce apoptosis in this population. However, until now, the molecules that participate in this process remained unknown. Thus, this study evaluated the contribution of two P. brasiliensis molecules, the 14-3-3 and glycoprotein of 43 kDa proteins, which had been previously described as extracellular matrix adhesins and apoptosis inductors in human pneumocytes. Accordingly, epithelial cells were treated with these molecules for different periods of time and the expression of the apoptosis regulating-proteins Bak, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and caspases were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results demonstrated that treatment with these molecules induces apoptosis signalling in pulmonary epithelial cells, showing the same pattern of programmed cell-death as that observed during infection with P. brasiliensis. Thus, we could conclude that P. brasiliensis uses these molecules as virulence factors that participate not only in the fungal adhesion process to host cells, but also in other important cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis. PMID:26038961

  13. Influence of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 14-3-3 and gp43 proteins on the induction of apoptosis in A549 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Vicentim, Juliana; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Andreotti, Patrícia Ferrari; da Silva, Juliana Leal Monteiro; Soares, Christiane Pienna; Benard, Gil; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    The fungal strain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis remains viable inside of epithelial cells and can induce apoptosis in this population. However, until now, the molecules that participate in this process remained unknown. Thus, this study evaluated the contribution of two P. brasiliensis molecules, the 14-3-3 and glycoprotein of 43 kDa proteins, which had been previously described as extracellular matrix adhesins and apoptosis inductors in human pneumocytes. Accordingly, epithelial cells were treated with these molecules for different periods of time and the expression of the apoptosis regulating-proteins Bak, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and caspases were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results demonstrated that treatment with these molecules induces apoptosis signalling in pulmonary epithelial cells, showing the same pattern of programmed cell-death as that observed during infection with P. brasiliensis. Thus, we could conclude that P. brasiliensis uses these molecules as virulence factors that participate not only in the fungal adhesion process to host cells, but also in other important cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis. PMID:26038961

  14. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  15. Dual phosphorylation of Btk by Akt/protein kinase b provides docking for 14-3-3ζ, regulates shuttling, and attenuates both tonic and induced signaling in B cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Nore, Beston F; Hussain, Alamdar; Gustafsson, Manuela O; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Smith, C I Edvard

    2013-08-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is crucial for B-lymphocyte activation and development. Mutations in the Btk gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mice. Using tandem mass spectrometry, 14-3-3ζ was identified as a new binding partner and negative regulator of Btk in both B-cell lines and primary B lymphocytes. The activated serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylated Btk on two sites prior to 14-3-3ζ binding. The interaction sites were mapped to phosphoserine pS51 in the pleckstrin homology domain and phosphothreonine pT495 in the kinase domain. The double-alanine, S51A/T495A, replacement mutant failed to bind 14-3-3ζ, while phosphomimetic aspartate substitutions, S51D/T495D, caused enhanced interaction. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor LY294002 abrogated S51/T495 phosphorylation and binding. A newly characterized 14-3-3 inhibitor, BV02, reduced binding, as did the Btk inhibitor PCI-32765 (ibrutinib). Interestingly, in the presence of BV02, phosphorylation of Btk, phospholipase Cγ2, and NF-κB increased strongly, suggesting that 14-3-3 also regulates B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated tonic signaling. Furthermore, downregulation of 14-3-3ζ elevated nuclear translocation of Btk. The loss-of-function mutant S51A/T495A showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Conversely, the gain-of-function mutant S51D/T495D exhibited intense tyrosine phosphorylation, associated with Btk ubiquitination and degradation, likely contributing to the termination of BCR signaling. Collectively, this suggests that Btk could become an important new candidate for the general study of 14-3-3-mediated regulation.

  16. 14-3-3ζ coordinates adipogenesis of visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Gareth E.; Albrecht, Tobias; Piske, Micah; Sarai, Karnjit; Lee, Jason T. C; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Sinha, Sunita; Guthridge, Mark A.; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Lopez, Angel F.; Clee, Susanne M.; Nislow, Corey; Johnson, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The proteins that coordinate complex adipogenic transcriptional networks are poorly understood. 14-3-3ζ is a molecular adaptor protein that regulates insulin signalling and transcription factor networks. Here we report that 14-3-3ζ-knockout mice are strikingly lean from birth with specific reductions in visceral fat depots. Conversely, transgenic 14-3-3ζ overexpression potentiates obesity, without exacerbating metabolic complications. Only the 14-3-3ζ isoform is essential for adipogenesis based on isoform-specific RNAi. Mechanistic studies show that 14-3-3ζ depletion promotes autophagy-dependent degradation of C/EBP-δ, preventing induction of the master adipogenic factors, Pparγ and C/EBP-α. Transcriptomic data indicate that 14-3-3ζ acts upstream of hedgehog signalling-dependent upregulation of Cdkn1b/p27Kip1. Indeed, concomitant knockdown of p27Kip1 or Gli3 rescues the early block in adipogenesis induced by 14-3-3ζ knockdown in vitro. Adipocyte precursors in 14-3-3ζKO embryos also appear to have greater Gli3 and p27Kip1 abundance. Together, our in vivo and in vitro findings demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ is a critical upstream driver of adipogenesis. PMID:26220403

  17. Characterization of the Interactome of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Reveals the Hyper Variable Region as a Binding Platform for Association with 14-3-3 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yihong; Wu, Weining; Gao, Jiming; Smith, Nikki; Burkard, Christine; Xia, Dong; Zhang, Minxia; Wang, Chengbao; Archibald, Alan; Digard, Paul; Zhou, En-Min; Hiscox, Julian A

    2016-05-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry worldwide and hence global food security, exacerbated by a newly emerged highly pathogenic (HP-PRRSV) strain from China. PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) is a multifunctional polypeptide with strain-dependent influences on pathogenicity. A number of discrete functional regions have been identified on the protein. Quantitative label free proteomics was used to identify cellular binding partners of nsp2 expressed by HP-PRRSV. This allowed the identification of potential cellular interacting partners and the discrimination of nonspecific interactions. The interactome data were further investigated and validated using biological replicates and also compared with nsp2 from a low pathogenic (LP) strain of PRRSV. Validation included both forward and reverse pulldowns and confocal microscopy. The data indicated that nsp2 interacted with a number of cellular proteins including 14-3-3, CD2AP, and other components of cellular aggresomes. The hyper-variable region of nsp2 protein was identified as a binding platform for association with 14-3-3 proteins. PMID:26709850

  18. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD.

  19. Characteristics of Korean patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid: Preliminary study of the Korean Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease active surveillance program

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Sung; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Jang, Jae-Won; Ju, Young-Ran; Kim, SuYeon; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Kim, SangYun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although Korea had a national surveillance system for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), it was mainly dependent on attending physician's reports. Thus, little prospective data about the epidemiology, characteristics, and final diagnoses of suspected patients were available. We have established a nationwide network for the active surveillance of patients with suspected CJD. When the requested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples tested positive for 14-3-3 protein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the corresponding patients and followed them until their final diagnoses were confirmed. A total of 218 samples were requested for CSF assays from May 2010 to August 2012, and 106 (48.6%) were positive for 14-3-3 protein. In 89 patients with complete clinical data, 38 (42.7%) were diagnosed with probable CJD and the estimated annual occurrence of CJD was 16.3 persons-per-year. The most common diagnoses of the remainder were central nervous system infection and any-cause encephalopathy. Non-CJD subjects showed worse initial consciousness levels than CJD patients. This preliminary study showed that the number of reported cases of CJD and the true positivity rates of CSF 14-3-3 protein assays were both low in Korea. An active surveillance system is urgently needed to provide the latest nationwide epidemiological data of CJD. PMID:25996401

  20. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  1. Exon B of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA, alone or within its surrounding sequences, interacts with 14-3-3; role of cis-elements and secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Noutsios, Georgios T.; Silveyra, Patricia; Bhatti, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Human surfactant protein A, an innate immunity molecule, is encoded by two genes: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The 5′ untranslated (5′UTR) splice variant of SP-A2 (ABD), but not of SP-A1 (AD), contains exon B (eB), which is an enhancer for transcription and translation. We investigated whether eB contains cis-regulatory elements that bind trans-acting factors in a sequence-specific manner as well as the role of the eB mRNA secondary structure. Binding of cytoplasmic NCI-H441 proteins to wild-type eB, eB mutant, AD, and ABD 5′UTR mRNAs were studied by RNA electromobility shift assays (REMSAs). The bound proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy and specific antibodies (Abs). We found that 1) proteins bind eB mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, with two cis-elements identified within eB to be important; 2) eB secondary structure is necessary for binding; 3) mass spectroscopy and specific Abs in REMSAs identified 14-3-3 proteins to bind (directly or indirectly) eB and the natural SP-A2 (ABD) splice variant but not the SP-A1 (AD) splice variant; 4) other ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, and translation factors, are also present in the eB mRNA-protein complex; 5) knockdown of 14-3-3 β/α isoform resulted in a downregulation of SP-A2 expression. In conclusion, proteins including the 14-3-3 family bind two cis-elements within eB of hSP-A2 mRNA in a sequence- and secondary structure-specific manner. Differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 is mediated by the 14-3-3 protein family as well as by a number of other proteins that bind UTRs with or without eB mRNA. PMID:23525782

  2. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 Protein RARE COLD INDUCIBLE 1A Links Low-Temperature Response and Ethylene Biosynthesis to Regulate Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Rafael; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Mar Castellano, M.; Angosto, Trinidad; Alonso, José M.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Salinas, Julio

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the expression of 14-3-3 genes reacts to various adverse environmental conditions, including cold, high salt, and drought. Although these results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins have the potential to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, their role in such responses remains poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the RARE COLD INDUCIBLE 1A (RCI1A) gene encodes the 14-3-3 psi isoform. Here, we present genetic and molecular evidence implicating RCI1A in the response to low temperature. Our results demonstrate that RCI1A functions as a negative regulator of constitutive freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana by controlling cold-induced gene expression. Interestingly, this control is partially performed through an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway involving physical interaction with different ACC SYNTHASE (ACS) isoforms and a decreased ACS stability. We show that, consequently, RCI1A restrains ET biosynthesis, contributing to establish adequate levels of this hormone in Arabidopsis under both standard and low-temperature conditions. We further show that these levels are required to promote proper cold-induced gene expression and freezing tolerance before and after cold acclimation. All these data indicate that RCI1A connects the low-temperature response with ET biosynthesis to modulate constitutive freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in Arabidopsis. PMID:25122152

  3. Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Maitreyi; Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J.; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia

    2015-01-01

    Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. Here we show how 14-3-3 protein Rad24 associates with Cdc42 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, limiting Gef1 availability to promote Cdc42 activation. Phosphorylation of Gef1 by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 promotes Gef1 binding to Rad24. Loss of Rad24–Gef1 interaction increases Gef1 protein localization and Cdc42 activation at the cell tips and reduces the anticorrelation of active Cdc42 oscillations. Increased Cdc42 activation promotes precocious bipolar growth activation, bypassing the normal requirement for an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and for microtubule-dependent polarity landmark Tea4-PP1. Further, increased Cdc42 activation by Gef1 widens cell diameter and alters tip curvature, countering the effects of Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Rga4. The respective levels of Gef1 and Rga4 proteins at the membrane define dynamically the growing area at each cell tip. Our findings show how the 14-3-3 protein Rad24 modulates the availability of Cdc42 GEF Gef1, a homologue of mammalian Cdc42 GEF DNMBP/TUBA, to spatially control Cdc42 GTPase activity and promote cell polarization and cell shape emergence. PMID:26246599

  4. Tomato 14-3-3 protein 7 (TFT7) positively regulates immunity-associated programmed cell death by enhancing accumulation and signaling ability of MAPKKKalpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is triggered when Pto, a serine-threonine protein kinase recognizes either the AvrPto or AvrPtoB effector from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. This PCD requires MAPKKKalpha as a positive regulator in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. To examine how PCD-eliciting activi...

  5. Identification of a functional splice variant of 14-3-3E1 in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. The presence of 14-3-3 isoforms and the diversity of cellular processes regulated by 14-3-3 isoforms suggest functional specificity of the isoforms. In this study, we report the identification and charact...

  6. Identification of 14-3-3 Family in Common Bean and Their Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruihua; Jiang, Xiaotong; Jin, Donghao; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta; Bian, Shaomin; Li, Xuyan

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3s are a class of conserved regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, which play important roles in a variety of cellular processes including response to diverse stresses. Although much has been learned about 14-3-3s in several plant species, it remains unknown in common bean. In this study, 9 common bean 14-3-3s (PvGF14s) were identified by exhaustive data mining against the publicly available common bean genomic database. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that each predicted PvGF14 was clustered with two GmSGF14 paralogs from soybean. Both epsilon-like and non-epsilon classes of PvGF14s were found in common bean, and the PvGF14s belonging to each class exhibited similar gene structure. Among 9 PvGF14s, only 8 are transcribed in common bean. Expression patterns of PvGF14s varied depending on tissue type, developmental stage and exposure of plants to stress. A protein-protein interaction study revealed that PvGF14a forms dimer with itself and with other PvGF14 isoforms. This study provides a first comprehensive look at common bean 14-3-3 proteins, a family of proteins with diverse functions in many cellular processes, especially in response to stresses.

  7. Identification of 14-3-3 Family in Common Bean and Their Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta; Bian, Shaomin; Li, Xuyan

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3s are a class of conserved regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, which play important roles in a variety of cellular processes including response to diverse stresses. Although much has been learned about 14-3-3s in several plant species, it remains unknown in common bean. In this study, 9 common bean 14-3-3s (PvGF14s) were identified by exhaustive data mining against the publicly available common bean genomic database. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that each predicted PvGF14 was clustered with two GmSGF14 paralogs from soybean. Both epsilon-like and non-epsilon classes of PvGF14s were found in common bean, and the PvGF14s belonging to each class exhibited similar gene structure. Among 9 PvGF14s, only 8 are transcribed in common bean. Expression patterns of PvGF14s varied depending on tissue type, developmental stage and exposure of plants to stress. A protein-protein interaction study revealed that PvGF14a forms dimer with itself and with other PvGF14 isoforms. This study provides a first comprehensive look at common bean 14-3-3 proteins, a family of proteins with diverse functions in many cellular processes, especially in response to stresses. PMID:26599110

  8. Royal Jelly-Mediated Prolongevity and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Possibly Modulated by the Interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cook, Lauren F; Grasso, Lindsay M; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that royal jelly (RJ) and its related substances may have antiaging properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain elusive. We report that the effects of RJ and enzyme-treated RJ (eRJ) on life span and health span in Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) are modulated by the sophisticated interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 proteins. Dietary supplementation with RJ or eRJ increased C. elegans life span in a dose-dependent manner. The RJ and eRJ consumption increased the tolerance of C elegans to oxidative stress, ultraviolet irradiation, and heat shock stress. Our genetic analyses showed that RJ/eRJ-mediated life-span extension requires insulin/IGF-1 signaling and the activities of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and FTT-2, a 14-3-3 protein. Earlier studies reported that DAF-16/FOXO, SIR-2.1/SIRT1, FTT-2, and HCF-1 have extensive interplays in worms and mammals. Our present findings suggest that RJ/eRJ-mediated promotion of longevity and stress resistance in C elegans is dependent on these conserved interplays. From an evolutionary point of view, this study not only provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of RJ's action on health span promotion in C elegans, but also has imperative implications in using RJ/eRJ as nutraceuticals to delay aging and age-related disorders.

  9. Akt Phosphorylates Connexin43 on Ser373, a “Mode-1” Binding Site for 14-3-3

    PubMed Central

    PARK, DARREN J.; WALLICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; MARTYN, KENDRA D.; LAU, ALAN F.; JIN, CHENGSHI; WARN-CRAMER, BONNIE J.

    2009-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is a membrane-spanning protein that forms channels that bridge the gap between adjacent cells and this allows for the intercellular exchange of information. Cx43 is regulated by phosphorylation and by interacting proteins. “Mode-1” interaction with 14-3-3 requires phosphorylation of Ser373 on Cx43 (Park et al. 2006). Akt phosphorylates and targets a number of proteins to interactions with 14-3-3. Here we demonstrate that Akt phosphorylates Cx43 on Ser373 and Ser369; antibodies recognizing Akt-phosphorylated sites or phospho-Ser “mode-1” 14-3-3-binding sites recognize a protein from EGF-treated cells that migrates as Cx43, and GST-14-3-3 binds to Cx43 phosphorylated endogenously in EGF-treated cells. Confocal microscopy supports the co-localization of Cx43 with Akt and with 14-3-3 at the outer edges of gap junctional plaques. These data suggest that Akt could target Cx43 to an interaction with 14-3-3 that may play a role in the forward trafficking of Cx43 multimers and/or their incorporation into existing gap junctional plaques. PMID:18163231

  10. 14-3-3ε and ζ Regulate Neurogenesis and Differentiation of Neuronal Progenitor Cells in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wachi, Tomoka; Hunt, Robert F.; Baraban, Scott C.; Taya, Shinichiro; Ramshaw, Hayley; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Schwarz, Quenten P.; Lopez, Angel F.

    2014-01-01

    During brain development, neural progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate into neural precursors. These neural precursors migrate along the radial glial processes and localize at their final destination in the cortex. Numerous reports have revealed that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many neuronal activities, although their functions in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, using 14-3-3ε/ζ double knock-out mice, we found that 14-3-3 proteins are important for proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the cortex, resulting in neuronal migration defects and seizures. 14-3-3 deficiency resulted in the increase of δ-catenin and the decrease of β-catenin and αN-catenin. 14-3-3 proteins regulated neuronal differentiation into neurons via direct interactions with phosphorylated δ-catenin to promote F-actin formation through a catenin/Rho GTPase/Limk1/cofilin signaling pathway. Conversely, neuronal migration defects seen in the double knock-out mice were restored by phosphomimic Ndel1 mutants, but not δ-catenin. Our findings provide new evidence that 14-3-3 proteins play important roles in neurogenesis and neuronal migration via the regulation of distinct signaling cascades. PMID:25186760

  11. Genetic variations of 14-3-3E1 isoform in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly conserved family of 14-3-3 proteins functions in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. The presence of 14-3-3 isoforms and the diversity of cellular processes regulated by 14-3-3 isoforms suggest functional specificity of the isoforms. Several studies have observed diffe...

  12. Molecular and biochemical mining of heat-shock and 14-3-3 proteins in drug-induced protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus and the detection of a candidate gene for anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Pan, D; Das, S; Bera, A K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S; De, S; Rana, T; Das, S K; Suryanaryana, V V; Deb, J; Bhattacharya, D

    2011-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a disease that affects both humans and animals. In humans the disease is treated by surgery with a supplementary option of chemotherapy with a benzimidazole compound. During the present study heat-shock protein 60 (HSP 60) was identified as one of the most frequently expressed biomolecules by E. granulosus after albendazole treatment. Data were correlated with 14-3-3 protein signature, and overexpression of this molecule after albendazole induction was an indicator of cell survival and signal transduction during in vitro maintenance of E. granulosus for up to 72 h. This observation was further correlated with a uniform expression pattern of a housekeeping gene (actin II). Out of three β-tubulin gene isoforms of E. granulosus, β-tubulin gene isoform 2 showed a conserved point mutation indicative of benzimidazole resistance.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of 14-3-3 Gene Family in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fengxia; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yuli; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Background In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are encoded by a large multigene family and are involved in signaling pathways to regulate plant development and protection from stress. Although twelve Populus 14-3-3s were identified based on the Populus trichocarpa genome V1.1 in a previous study, no systematic analysis including genome organization, gene structure, duplication relationship, evolutionary analysis and expression compendium has been conducted in Populus based on the latest P. trichocarpa genome V3.0. Principal Findings Here, a comprehensive analysis of Populus 14-3-3 family is presented. Two new 14-3-3 genes were identified based on the latest P. trichocarpa genome. In P. trichocarpa, fourteen 14-3-3 genes were grouped into ε and non-ε group. Exon-intron organizations of Populus 14-3-3s are highly conserved within the same group. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection plays a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of Populus 14-3-3 family. Protein conformational analysis indicated that Populus 14-3-3 consists of a bundle of nine α-helices (α1-α9); the first four are essential for formation of the dimer, while α3, α5, α7, and α9 form a conserved peptide-binding groove. In addition, α1, α3, α5, α7, and α9 were evolving at a lower rate, while α2, α4, and α6 were evolving at a relatively faster rate. Microarray analyses showed that most Populus 14-3-3s are differentially expressed across tissues and upon exposure to various stresses. Conclusions The gene structures and their coding protein structures of Populus 14-3-3s are highly conserved among group members, suggesting that members of the same group might also have conserved functions. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses showed that most Populus 14-3-3s were differentially expressed in various tissues and were induced by various stresses. Our investigation provided a better understanding of the complexity of the 14-3-3 gene family in poplars. PMID:25867623

  14. 14-3-3 in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Swain, Mamuni; Willard, Belinda; Scholtz, Jaclyn; Svensson, Lars G.; Roselli, Eric E.; Pettersson, Gosta; Johnston, Douglas R.; Soltesz, Edward G.; Yamashita, Michifumi; Stuehr, Dennis; Daly, Thomas M.; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Large vessel vasculitides (LVV) are a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by injury to and anatomic modifications of large vessels, including the aorta and its branch vessels. Disease etiology is unknown. This study was undertaken to identify antigen targets within affected vessel walls in aortic root, ascending aorta, and aortic arch surgical specimens from patients with LVV, including giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, and isolated focal aortitis. Methods Thoracic aortic aneurysm specimens and autologous blood were acquired from consenting patients who underwent aorta reconstruction procedures. Aorta proteins were extracted from both patients with LVV and age-, race-, and sex-matched disease controls with noninflammatory aneurysms. A total of 108 serum samples from patients with LVV, matched controls, and controls with antinuclear antibodies, different forms of vasculitis, or sepsis were tested. Results Evaluation of 108 serum samples and 22 aortic tissue specimens showed that 78% of patients with LVV produced antibodies to 14-3-3 proteins in the aortic wall (93.7% specificity), whereas controls were less likely to do so (6.7% produced antibodies). LVV patient sera contained autoantibody sufficient to immunoprecipitate 14-3-3 protein(s) from aortic lysates. Three of 7 isoforms of 14-3-3 were found to be up-regulated in aorta specimens from patients with LVV, and 2 isoforms (ε and ζ) were found to be antigenic in LVV. Conclusion This is the first study to use sterile, snap-frozen thoracic aorta biopsy specimens to identify autoantigens in LVV. Our findings indicate that 78% of patients with LVV have antibody reactivity to 14-3-3 protein(s). The precise role of these antibodies and 14-3-3 proteins in LVV pathogenesis deserves further study. PMID:25917817

  15. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  16. The role of 14-3-3{beta} in transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor {alpha} and its involvement in proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoonseo; Kim, Hyungjin; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Ko, Jesang

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} 14-3-3{beta} interacts with ER{alpha} and the interaction is Akt-dependent. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} regulates the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha} in a ligand-dependent manner. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases expressions of ER{alpha} target genes. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The estrogen receptor (ER) functions as a transcription factor that mediates the effects of estrogen. ER{alpha}, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of breast cancer, is activated by estrogen binding, leading to receptor phosphorylation, dimerization, and recruitment of co-activators and chaperons to the estrogen-bound receptor complex. The 14-3-3 proteins bind to target proteins via phosphorylation and influence many cellular events by altering their subcellular localization or acting as a chaperone. However, regulation of ER{alpha} expression and transactivation by the 14-3-3 proteins has not been reported. We demonstrate that 14-3-3{beta} functions as a positive regulator of ER{alpha} through a direct protein-protein interaction in an estrogen-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of 14-3-3{beta} stimulated ER{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Enhanced ER{alpha} transcriptional activity due to 14-3-3{beta} increased the expressions of the endogenous ER{alpha} target genes, leading to proliferation of breast cancer cells. We suggest that 14-3-3{beta} has oncogenic potential in breast cancer via binding to ER{alpha} and activation of the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha}.

  17. Tar DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), 14-3-3 proteins and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) interact to modulate NFL mRNA stability. Implications for altered RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Volkening, Kathryn; Leystra-Lantz, Cheryl; Yang, Wenchang; Jaffee, Howard; Strong, Michael J

    2009-12-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in association with neurofilament (NF) aggregate formation. This process is accompanied by an alteration in the stoichiometry of NF subunit protein expression such that the steady state levels of the low molecular weight NF (NFL) mRNA levels are selectively suppressed. We have previously shown that each of TDP-43, 14-3-3 and mutant SOD1 can function as NFL mRNA 3'UTR binding proteins that directly affect the stability of NFL transcripts. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of TDP-43 with the NFL mRNA 3' UTR involves ribonucleotide (UG) motifs present on stem loops of the 3'UTR as well as the RRM1 and RRM2 motifs of TDP-43. Ex vivo, TDP-43, 14-3-3 and SOD1 proteins interact to modulate NFL mRNA stability, although in vivo, only TDP-43 and either mutant or wild-type SOD1 co-localize in ALS motor neurons. TDP-43 was observed to co-localize to RNA transport granules (Staufen immunoreactive) in both control and ALS spinal motor neurons. In contrast, both stress granules (TIA-1 immunoreactive) and processing bodies (P-bodies; XRN-1 immunoreactive) were more prevalent in ALS motor neurons than in controls and demonstrated strong co-localization with TDP-43. Using RNA-IP-PCR, we further demonstrate that NFL mRNA is preferentially sequestered to both stress granules and P-bodies in ALS. These data suggest that NFL mRNA processing is fundamentally altered in ALS spinal motor neurons to favour compartmentalization within both stress granules and P-bodies, and that TDP-43 plays a fundamental role in this process.

  18. 14-3-3 phosphoprotein interaction networks - does isoform diversity present functional interaction specification?

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Denison, Fiona C; Schultz, Eric R; Zupanska, Agata K; Ferl, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins have emerged as major phosphoprotein interaction proteins and thereby constitute a key node in the Arabidopsis Interactome Map, a node through which a large number of important signals pass. Throughout their history of discovery and description, the 14-3-3s have been described as protein families and there has been some evidence that the different 14-3-3 family members within any organism might carry isoform-specific functions. However, there has also been evidence for redundancy of 14-3-3 function, suggesting that the perceived 14-3-3 diversity may be the accumulation of neutral mutations over evolutionary time and as some 14-3-3 genes develop tissue or organ-specific expression. This situation has led to a currently unresolved question - does 14-3-3 isoform sequence diversity indicate functional diversity at the biochemical or cellular level? We discuss here some of the key observations on both sides of the resulting debate, and present a set of contrastable observations to address the theory functional diversity does exist among 14-3-3 isoforms. The resulting model suggests strongly that there are indeed functional specificities in the 14-3-3s of Arabidopsis. The model further suggests that 14-3-3 diversity and specificity should enter into the discussion of 14-3-3 roles in signal transduction and be directly approached in 14-3-3 experimentation. It is hoped that future studies involving 14-3-3s will continue to address specificity in experimental design and analysis. PMID:22934100

  19. Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    van Kleeff, P. J. M.; Jaspert, N.; Li, K. W.; Rauch, S.; Oecking, C.; de Boer, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

  20. An obligatory heterodimer of 14-3-3beta and 14-3-3epsilon is required for aldosterone regulation of the epithelial sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiubin; Butterworth, Michael B; Peters, Kathryn W; Walker, William H; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2008-10-10

    Increased distal nephron sodium absorption in response to aldosterone involves Nedd4-2 phosphorylation, which blocks its ability to ubiquitylate ENaC and increases apical membrane channel density by reducing its endocytosis. Our prior work (Liang, X., Peters, K. W., Butterworth, M. B., and Frizzell, R. A. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 16323-16332) showed that aldosterone selectively increased 14-3-3 protein isoform expression and that the association of 14-3-3beta with phospho-Nedd4-2 was required for sodium transport stimulation. The knockdown of 14-3-3beta alone nearly eliminated the response to aldosterone, despite the expression of other 14-3-3 isoforms in cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells. To further examine this marked effect of 14-3-3beta knockdown, we evaluated the hypothesis that phospho-Nedd4-2 binding prefers a heterodimer composed of two different 14-3-3 isoforms. We tested this concept in polarized CCD cells using RNA interference and assays of sodium transport and of the interaction of Nedd4-2 with 14-3-3epsilon, a second aldosterone-induced isoform. As observed previously for 14-3-3beta knockdown, small interfering RNA-induced reduction of 14-3-3epsilon markedly attenuated aldosterone-stimulated ENaC expression and sodium transport and increased the interaction of Nedd4-2 with ENaC toward prealdosterone levels. After aldosterone induction, 14-3-3beta and 14-3-3epsilon were quantitatively co-immunoprecipitated from CCD cell lysates, and the association of both isoforms with Nedd4-2 increased. Finally, the knockdown of either 14-3-3beta or 14-3-3epsilon reduced the association of Nedd4-2 with the other isoform. We conclude that the two aldosterone-induced 14-3-3 isoforms, beta and epsilon, interact with phospho-Nedd4-2 as an obligatory heterodimer, blocking its interaction with ENaC and thereby increasing apical ENaC density and sodium transport. PMID:18687683

  1. 14-3-3s are Potential Biomarkers for HIV-related Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Diana; Skoulakis, Efthimios M.; Acevedo, Summer F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, it has become evident that 14-3-3 proteins are essential for primary cell functions. These proteins are abundant throughout the body, including the central nervous system (CNS) and interact with other proteins in both cell cycle and apoptotic pathways. Examination of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in humans, suggest that 14-3-3s including 14-3-3ε (YWHAE), are upregulated in several neurological diseases and loss or duplication of the YWHAE gene leads to Miller-Dieker Syndrome (MDS). The goal of this review is to examine the utility of 14-3-3s as a marker of Human Immune deficiency virus (HIV)-dependent neurodegeneration, and also as a tool to track disease progression. To that end we describe mechanisms implicating 14-3-3s in neurological diseases and summarize evidence of its interactions with HIV accessory and co-receptor proteins. PMID:22811265

  2. Functional identification of a novel 14-3-3 epsilon splicing variant suggests dimerization is not necessary for 14-3-3 epsilon to inhibit UV-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dingding; Ye, Guangming; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Cong; Yang, Xianmei; Wan, Bo; Pan, Yuanwang; Yu, Long

    2010-05-28

    14-3-3 proteins function as a dimer and have been identified to involve in diverse signaling pathways. Here we reported the identification of a novel splicing variant of human 14-3-3 epsilon (14-3-3 epsilon sv), which is derived from a novel exon 1' insertion. The insertion contains a stop codon and leads to a truncated splicing variant of 14-3-3 epsilon. The splicing variant is translated from the exon 2 and results in the deletion of an N-terminal {alpha}-helix which is crucial for the dimerization. Therefore, the 14-3-3 epsilon sv could not form a dimer with 14-3-3 zeta. However, after UV irradiation 14-3-3 epsilon sv could also support cell survival, suggesting monomer of 14-3-3 epsilon is sufficient to protect cell from apoptosis.

  3. ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome

    PubMed Central

    Tinti, Michele; Madeira, Fábio; Murugesan, Gavuthami; Hoxhaj, Gerta; Toth, Rachel; MacKintosh, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The dimeric 14-3-3 proteins dock onto pairs of phosphorylated Ser and Thr residues on hundreds of proteins, and thereby regulate many events in mammalian cells. To facilitate global analyses of these interactions, we developed a web resource named ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome, which integrates multiple data sets on 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteins. ANIA also pinpoints candidate 14-3-3-binding phosphosites using predictor algorithms, assisted by our recent discovery that the human 14-3-3-interactome is highly enriched in 2R-ohnologues. 2R-ohnologues are proteins in families of two to four, generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication at the origin of the vertebrate animals. ANIA identifies candidate ‘lynchpins’, which are 14-3-3-binding phosphosites that are conserved across members of a given 2R-ohnologue protein family. Other features of ANIA include a link to the catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer database to find cancer polymorphisms that map to 14-3-3-binding phosphosites, which would be expected to interfere with 14-3-3 interactions. We used ANIA to map known and candidate 14-3-3-binding enzymes within the 2R-ohnologue complement of the human kinome. Our projections indicate that 14-3-3s dock onto many more human kinases than has been realized. Guided by ANIA, PAK4, 6 and 7 (p21-activated kinases 4, 6 and 7) were experimentally validated as a 2R-ohnologue family of 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteins. PAK4 binding to 14-3-3 is stimulated by phorbol ester, and involves the ‘lynchpin’ site phosphoSer99 and a major contribution from Ser181. In contrast, PAK6 and PAK7 display strong phorbol ester-independent binding to 14-3-3, with Ser113 critical for the interaction with PAK6. These data point to differential 14-3-3 regulation of PAKs in control of cell morphology. Database URL: https://ania-1433.lifesci.dundee.ac.uk/prediction/webserver/index.py PMID:24501395

  4. ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Michele; Madeira, Fábio; Murugesan, Gavuthami; Hoxhaj, Gerta; Toth, Rachel; Mackintosh, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The dimeric 14-3-3 proteins dock onto pairs of phosphorylated Ser and Thr residues on hundreds of proteins, and thereby regulate many events in mammalian cells. To facilitate global analyses of these interactions, we developed a web resource named ANIA: ANnotation and Integrated Analysis of the 14-3-3 interactome, which integrates multiple data sets on 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteins. ANIA also pinpoints candidate 14-3-3-binding phosphosites using predictor algorithms, assisted by our recent discovery that the human 14-3-3-interactome is highly enriched in 2R-ohnologues. 2R-ohnologues are proteins in families of two to four, generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication at the origin of the vertebrate animals. ANIA identifies candidate 'lynchpins', which are 14-3-3-binding phosphosites that are conserved across members of a given 2R-ohnologue protein family. Other features of ANIA include a link to the catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer database to find cancer polymorphisms that map to 14-3-3-binding phosphosites, which would be expected to interfere with 14-3-3 interactions. We used ANIA to map known and candidate 14-3-3-binding enzymes within the 2R-ohnologue complement of the human kinome. Our projections indicate that 14-3-3s dock onto many more human kinases than has been realized. Guided by ANIA, PAK4, 6 and 7 (p21-activated kinases 4, 6 and 7) were experimentally validated as a 2R-ohnologue family of 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteins. PAK4 binding to 14-3-3 is stimulated by phorbol ester, and involves the 'lynchpin' site phosphoSer99 and a major contribution from Ser181. In contrast, PAK6 and PAK7 display strong phorbol ester-independent binding to 14-3-3, with Ser113 critical for the interaction with PAK6. These data point to differential 14-3-3 regulation of PAKs in control of cell morphology. Database URL: https://ania-1433.lifesci.dundee.ac.uk/prediction/webserver/index.py.

  5. Clinical implication of 14-3-3 epsilon expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Sâmia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Chammas, Roger; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate for the first time the protein and mRNA expression of 14-3-3ε in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: 14-3-3ε protein expression was determined by western blotting, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in gastric tumors and their matched non-neoplastic gastric tissue samples. RESULTS: Authors observed a significant reduction of 14-3-3ε protein expression in gastric cancer (GC) samples compared to their matched non-neoplastic tissue. Reduced levels of 14-3-3ε were also associated with diffuse-type GC and early-onset of this pathology. Our data suggest that reduced 14-3-3ε may have a role in gastric carcinogenesis process. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that the reduced 14-3-3ε expression in GC and investigation of 14-3-3ε interaction partners may help to elucidate the carcinogenesis process. PMID:22509086

  6. 14-3-3ζ Interacts with Stat3 and Regulates Its Constitutive Activation in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3ζ, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3ζ interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3ζ interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3ζ interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3ζ/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3ζ protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3ζ is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3ζ binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3ζ serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

  7. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; Silva, Julhiany de Fátima ds; Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar de; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  8. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  9. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Nefla, Meriam; Sudre, Laure; Denat, Guillaume; Priam, Sabrina; Andre-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Berenbaum, Francis; Jacques, Claire

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N, APN) in the chondrocyte response to 14-3-3ε. After identifying CD13 in chondrocytes, we knocked down CD13 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and blocking antibodies in articular chondrocytes. 14-3-3ε-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 was significantly reduced with CD13 knockdown, which suggests that it has a crucial role in 14-3-3ε signal transduction. Aminopeptidase N activity was identified in chondrocytes, but the activity was unchanged after stimulation with 14-3-3ε. Direct interaction between CD13 and 14-3-3ε was then demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Using labeled 14-3-3ε, we also found that 14-3-3ε binds to the surface of chondrocytes in a manner that is dependent on CD13. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ε might directly bind to CD13, which transmits its signal in chondrocytes to induce a catabolic phenotype similar to that observed in osteoarthritis. The 14-3-3ε–CD13 interaction could be a new therapeutic target in osteoarthritis. PMID:26208633

  10. Visualization and Biochemical Analyses of the Emerging Mammalian 14-3-3-Phosphoproteome*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Tinti, Michele; Wood, Nicola T.; Campbell, David G.; Toth, Rachel; Dubois, Fanny; Geraghty, Kathryn M.; Wong, Barry H. C.; Brown, Laura J.; Tyler, Jennifer; Gernez, Aurélie; Chen, Shuai; Synowsky, Silvia; MacKintosh, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Hundreds of candidate 14-3-3-binding (phospho)proteins have been reported in publications that describe one interaction at a time, as well as high-throughput 14-3-3-affinity and mass spectrometry-based studies. Here, we transcribed these data into a common format, deposited the collated data from low-throughput studies in MINT (http://mint.bio.uniroma2.it/mint), and compared the low- and high-throughput data in VisANT graphs that are easy to analyze and extend. Exploring the graphs prompted questions about technical and biological specificity, which were addressed experimentally, resulting in identification of phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding sites in the mitochondrial import sequence of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme (ISCU), cytoplasmic domains of the mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), and endoplasmic reticulum-tethered receptor expression-enhancing protein 4 (REEP4), RNA regulator SMAUG2, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, namely debrin-like protein (DBNL) and kinesin light chain (KLC) isoforms. Therefore, 14-3-3s undergo physiological interactions with proteins that are destined for diverse subcellular locations. Graphing and validating interactions underpins efforts to use 14-3-3-phosphoproteomics to identify mechanisms and biomarkers for signaling pathways in health and disease. PMID:21725060

  11. 14-3-3σ regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by modulating Yap1 cellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Sumitha A.T.; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Xue, Lei; Dean, Douglas C.; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2015-01-01

    The homozygous repeated epilation (Er/Er) mouse mutant of the gene encoding 14-3-3σ displays an epidermal phenotype characterized by hyperproliferative keratinocytes and undifferentiated epidermis. Heterozygous Er/+ mice develop spontaneous skin tumors and are highly sensitive to tumor-promoting DMBA/TPA induction. The molecular mechanisms underlying 14-3-3σ regulation of epidermal proliferation, differentiation, and tumor formation have not been well elucidated. In the present study, we found that Er/Er keratinocytes failed to sequester Yap1 in the cytoplasm, leading to its nuclear localization during epidermal development in vivo and under differentiation-inducing culture conditions in vitro. In addition, enhanced Yap1 nuclear localization was also evident in DMBA/TPA-induced tumors from Er/+ skin. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown of Yap1 expression in Er/Er keratinocytes inhibited their proliferation, suggesting that YAP1 functions as a downstream effector of 14-3-3σ controlling epidermal proliferation. We then demonstrated that keratinocytes express all seven 14-3-3 protein isoforms, some of which form heterodimers with 14-3-3σ, either full-length WT or the mutant form found in Er/Er mice. However Er 14-3-3σ does not interact with Yap1, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. We conclude that Er 14-3-3σ disrupts the interaction between 14-3-3 and Yap1, thus fails to block Yap1 nuclear transcriptional function, causing continued progenitor expansion and inhibition of differentiation in Er/Er epidermis. PMID:25668240

  12. 14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Han; Ou, Wen-Bin; Mariño-Enriquez, Adrian; Zhu, Meijun; Mayeda, Mark; Wang, Yuexiang; Guo, Xiangqian; Brunner, Alayne L.; Amant, Frédéric; French, Christopher A.; West, Robert B.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Gilks, C. Blake; Yaffe, Michael B.; Prentice, Leah M.; McPherson, Andrew; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; van de Rijn, Matt; Huntsman, David G.; Dal Cin, Paola; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Nucci, Marisa R.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed regulators of various cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and altered 14-3-3 expression is associated with development and progression of cancer. We report a transforming 14-3-3 oncoprotein, which we identified through conventional cytogenetics and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis as a highly recurrent genetic mechanism in a clinically aggressive form of uterine sarcoma: high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). The 14-3-3 oncoprotein results from a t(10;17) genomic rearrangement, leading to fusion between 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) and either of two nearly identical FAM22 family members (FAM22A or FAM22B). Expression of YWHAE–FAM22 fusion oncoproteins was demonstrated by immunoblot in t(10;17)-bearing frozen tumor and cell line samples. YWHAE–FAM22 fusion gene knockdowns were performed with shRNAs and siRNAs targeting various FAM22A exons in an t(10;17)-bearing ESS cell line (ESS1): Fusion protein expression was inhibited, with corresponding reduction in cell growth and migration. YWHAE–FAM22 maintains a structurally and functionally intact 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) protein-binding domain, which is directed to the nucleus by a FAM22 nuclear localization sequence. In contrast to classic ESS, harboring JAZF1 genetic fusions, YWHAE–FAM22 ESS display high-grade histologic features, a distinct gene-expression profile, and a more aggressive clinical course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of YWHAE–FAM22A/B genetic rearrangement for high-grade ESS, with no fusions detected in other uterine and nonuterine mesenchymal tumors (55 tumor types, n = 827). These discoveries reveal diagnostically and therapeutically relevant models for characterizing aberrant 14-3-3 oncogenic functions. PMID:22223660

  13. Interactome analysis of the six cotton 14-3-3s that are preferentially expressed in fibres and involved in cell elongation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ze-Ting; Zhou, Ying; Li, Yang; Shao, Su-Qiang; Li, Bing-Ying; Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Xue-Bao

    2010-01-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 family regulate a divergent set of signalling pathways in all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, several cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from a cotton fibre cDNA library. The Gh14-3-3 genes share high sequence homology at the nucleotide level in the coding region and at the amino acid level. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of these Gh14-3-3 genes is developmentally regulated in fibres, and reached their peak at the stage of rapid cell elongation of fibre development. Furthermore, overexpression of Gh14-3-3a, Gh14-3-3e, and Gh14-3-3L in fission yeast promoted atypical longitudinal growth of the host cells. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the interaction between cotton 14-3-3 proteins is isoform selective. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, 38 novel interaction partners of the six 14-3-3 proteins (Gh14-3-3a, Gh14-3-3e, Gh14-3-3f, Gh14-3-3g, Gh14-3-3h, and Gh14-3-3L), which are involved in plant development, metabolism, signalling transduction, and other cellular processes, were identified in cotton fibres. Taking these data together, it is proposed that the Gh14-3-3 proteins may participate in regulation of fibre cell elongation. Thus, the results of this study provide novel insights into the 14-3-3 signalling related to fibre development of cotton. PMID:20519337

  14. 14-3-3, an integrator of cell mechanics and cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Douglas N

    2010-11-01

    One of the goals of understanding cytokinesis is to uncover the molecular regulation of the cellular mechanical properties that drive cell shape change. Such regulatory pathways are likely to be used at multiple stages of a cell's life, but are highly featured during cell division. Recently, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 (encoded by a single gene in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum) serves to integrate key cytoskeletal components-microtubules, Rac and myosin II-to control cell mechanics and cytokinesis. As 14-3-3 proteins are frequently altered in a variety of human tumors, we extend these observations to suggest possible additional roles for how 14-3-3 proteins may contribute to tumorigenesis. PMID:21686271

  15. Dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and bax during TNF-α-induced apoptosis in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuejuan; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng

    2006-09-01

    Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but redistributes to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c in response to apoptotic stimuli. Cytoplasmic protein 14-3-3zeta binds to Bax and, upon apoptotic stimulation, releases Bax by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, the direct interaction of the cytoplasmic 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells has not been observed. In present study, to monitor the dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells in real time during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), DsRed-14-3-3zeta plasmid is constructed. By cotransfecting DsRed- 14-3-3zeta and GFP-Bax plasmids into human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1), we observe the dynamic interaction between Bax and 14-3-3zeta using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique on laser scanning confocal microscope. The results show that 14-3-3zeta remains in the cytoplasm but GFP-Bax translocates to mitochondria completely after TNF-α stimulation. These results reveal that 14-3-3zeta binds directly to Bax in healthy cells, and that 14-3-3zeta negatively regulates Bax translocation to mitochondria during TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

  16. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445-6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ. PMID:27548710

  17. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445–6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ. PMID:27548710

  18. Comparative analysis of the 14-3-3 gene and its expression in Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes.

    PubMed

    Siles-Lucas, M; Nunes, C P; Zaha, A

    2001-03-01

    It was suggested that the unlimited proliferative capacity of the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode may be related to overproduction of the 14-3-3 protein. As is known, the proliferative capacities of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestodes are very different. By comparing the expression levels of the 14-3-3 gene between in vitro-obtained E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestodes, we were able to provide experimental evidence of the potential relation between 14-3-3 over-expression and tumour-like growth in E. multilocularis metacestodes. RT-PCR and Northern blot experiments indicated that 14-3-3 expression level is about 4-fold higher in the E. multilocularis metacestode. This differential expression was confirmed both by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry experiments, which allowed detection of the protein in the cyst wall from E. multilocularis but not in the cyst wall from E. granulosus. The alignment of the Echinococcus 14-3-3 cDNA sequence with known 14-3-3 isoforms from other organisms, grouped the parasite sequence into the tumour growth-related isoforms. The known relation between over-expression of some 14-3-3 isoforms and tumour-related processes, together with the present results, suggest that the Echinococcus 14-3-3 protein could be one of the molecules responsible for the differences between E. granulosus and E. multilocularis metacestode growth behaviour.

  19. Expression of 14-3-3 transcript isoforms in response to ethanol exposure and their regulation by miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Divya Elizabeth; Larsen, Kaitlyn; Janeczek, Paulina; Lewohl, Joanne M

    2016-09-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved molecular chaperones involved in the regulation of a number of key cellular functions including metabolism, stress response, protein trafficking, cell-cycle control, signal transduction, transcription, apoptosis and neurotransmission. 14-3-3 proteins have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Recent studies have also shown that 14-3-3s are differentially expressed in the frontal cortex of human alcoholics suggesting a potential role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders. Here we measured the expression of 14-3-3 transcripts in HEK293T cells in response to chronic ethanol treatment. Five of the seven transcripts (14-3-3β, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3ζ, 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3θ) were significantly down-regulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for a five day period with these changes persisting even after withdrawal from ethanol treatment. One transcript, 14-3-3σ, was significantly up-regulated following chronic ethanol exposure and 14-3-3η showed no differences in expression in the same treatment model. The pattern of expression changes is similar to those seen in the frontal cortex of human alcoholics. To investigate the role of miRNAs in mediating the expression changes we measured the expression of the 14-3-3 transcripts following transfection with miR-203, miR-144 and miR-7 mimics. Although these miRNAs had predicted target sites in the 3'untranslated region of each 14-3-3 isoform, only miR-203 resulted in a down-regulation of 14-3-3θ transcript. In addition, the expression of 14-3-3γ was upregulated following transfection with miR-7 and miR-144 mimics. MiRNA regulation of these isoforms following alcohol exposure may lead to alterations in neurotransmission, the balance between cell survival and cell death, as well as changing the rewarding effects of alcohol. PMID:27370936

  20. Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Promotes the Pro-survival Activity of 14-3-3ζ via Deacetylation of Lysines within the 14-3-3ζ Binding Pocket*

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, Jeffrey B.; Heppler, Lisa N.; Banks, Courtney J.; Weerasekara, Vajira K.; Whited, Matthew D.; Piccolo, Stephen R.; Johnson, William E.; Thompson, J. Will; Andersen, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    The phospho-binding protein 14-3-3ζ acts as a signaling hub controlling a network of interacting partners and oncogenic pathways. We show here that lysines within the 14-3-3ζ binding pocket and protein-protein interface can be modified by acetylation. The positive charge on two of these lysines, Lys49 and Lys120, is critical for coordinating 14-3-3ζ-phosphoprotein interactions. Through screening, we identified HDAC6 as the Lys49/Lys120 deacetylase. Inhibition of HDAC6 blocks 14-3-3ζ interactions with two well described interacting partners, Bad and AS160, which triggers their dephosphorylation at Ser112 and Thr642, respectively. Expression of an acetylation-refractory K49R/K120R mutant of 14-3-3ζ rescues both the HDAC6 inhibitor-induced loss of interaction and Ser112/Thr642 phosphorylation. Furthermore, expression of the K49R/K120R mutant of 14-3-3ζ inhibits the cytotoxicity of HDAC6 inhibition. These data demonstrate a novel role for HDAC6 in controlling 14-3-3ζ binding activity. PMID:25770209

  1. Phosphorylation-related modification at the dimer interface of 14-3-3ω dramatically alters monomer interaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Denison, Fiona C; Gökirmak, Tufan; Ferl, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are generally believed to function as dimers in a broad range of eukaryotic signaling pathways. The consequences of altering dimer stability are not fully understood. Phosphorylation at Ser58 in the dimer interface of mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms has been reported to destabilise dimers. An equivalent residue, Ser62, is present across most Arabidopsis isoforms but the effects of phosphorylation have not been studied in plants. Here, we assessed the effects of phosphorylation at the dimer interface of Arabidopsis 14-3-3ω. Protein kinase A phosphorylated 14-3-3ω at Ser62 and also at a previously unreported residue, Ser67, resulting in a monomer-sized band on native-PAGE. Phosphorylation at Ser62 alone, or with additional Ser67 phosphorylation, was investigated using phosphomimetic versions of 14-3-3ω. In electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses, these mutants showed mobilities intermediate between dimers and monomers. Mobility was increased by detergents, by reducing protein concentration, or by increasing pH or temperature. Urea gradient gels showed complex structural transitions associated with alterations of dimer stability, including a previously unreported 14-3-3 aggregation phenomenon. Overall, our analyses showed that dimer interface modifications such as phosphorylation reduce dimer stability, dramatically affecting the monomer-dimer equilibrium and denaturation trajectory. These findings may have dramatic implications for 14-3-3 structure and function in vivo.

  2. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnostic accuracy is improved by a new CSF ELISA 14-3-3γ assay.

    PubMed

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-05-13

    Protein 14-3-3 is a reliable marker of rapid neuronal damage, specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Its detection is usually performed by Western Blot (WB), prone to methodological issues. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a recently developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay for 14-3-3γ, in comparison with WB and other neurodegeneration markers. CSF samples from 145 patients with suspicion of prion disease, later classified as definite sCJD (n=72) or Non-prion diseases (Non-CJD; n=73) comprised our population. 14-3-3 protein was determined by WB and ELISA. Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were also evaluated. Apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) and prionic protein gene (PRNP) genotyping was assessed. ELISA 14-3-3γ levels were significantly increased in sCJD compared to Non-CJD patients (p<0.001), showing very good accuracy (AUC=0.982; sensitivity=97%; specificity=94%), and matching WB results in 81% of all cases. It strongly correlated with t-Tau and p-Tau (p<0.0001), showing slightly higher specificity (14-3-3 WB - 63%; Tau - 90%; p-Tau/t-Tau ratio - 88%). From WB inconclusive results (n=44), ELISA 14-3-3γ correctly classified 41 patients. Additionally, logistic regression analysis selected ELISA 14-3-3γ as the best single predictive marker for sCJD (overall accuracy=93%). ApoE and PRNP genotypes did not influence ELISA 14-3-3γ levels. Despite specificity for 14-3-3γ isoform, ELISA results not only match WB evaluation but also help discrimination of inconclusive results. Our results therefore reinforce this assay as a single screening test, allowing higher sample throughput and unequivocal results. PMID:26940479

  3. 14-3-3ζ regulates the mitochondrial respiratory reserve linked to platelet phosphatidylserine exposure and procoagulant function

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M.; Darbousset, Roxane; Cranmer, Susan L.; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Orive, Stephanie L.; Sturgeon, Sharelle; Yuan, Yuping; Yao, Yu; Krycer, James R.; Woodcock, Joanna; Maclean, Jessica; Pitson, Stuart; Zheng, Zhaohua; Henstridge, Darren C.; van der Wal, Dianne; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Berndt, Michael C.; Andrews, Robert K.; James, David E.; Lopez, Angel F.; Jackson, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of adaptor proteins regulate diverse cellular functions including cell proliferation, metabolism, adhesion and apoptosis. Platelets express numerous 14-3-3 isoforms, including 14-3-3ζ, which has previously been implicated in regulating GPIbα function. Here we show an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating arterial thrombosis. Interestingly, this thrombosis defect is not related to alterations in von Willebrand factor (VWF)–GPIb adhesive function or platelet activation, but instead associated with reduced platelet phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and procoagulant function. Decreased PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient platelets is associated with more sustained levels of metabolic ATP and increased mitochondrial respiratory reserve, independent of alterations in cytosolic calcium flux. Reduced platelet PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice does not increase bleeding risk, but results in decreased thrombin generation and protection from pulmonary embolism, leading to prolonged survival. Our studies define an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating platelet bioenergetics, leading to decreased platelet PS exposure and procoagulant function. PMID:27670677

  4. Transcriptional increase and misexpression of 14-3-3 epsilon in sea urchin embryos exposed to UV-B

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Roberta; Zito, Francesca; Costa, Caterina; Bonaventura, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family are involved in many important cellular events, including stress response, survival and apoptosis. Genes of the 14-3-3 family are conserved from plants to humans, and some members are responsive to UV radiation. Here, we report the isolation of the complete cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, referred to as Pl14-3-3ε, and the phylogenetic relationship with other homologues described in different phyla. Pl14-3-3ε mRNA levels were measured by QPCR during development and found to increase from the mesenchyme blastula to the prism stage. In response to UV-B (312 nm) exposure, early stage embryos collected 2 h later showed a 2.3-fold (at 400 J/m2) and a 2.7-fold (at 800 J/m2) increase in Pl14-3-3ε transcript levels compared with controls. The spatial expression of Pl14-3-3ε mRNA, detected by whole mount in situ hybridization in both control and UV-B exposed embryos, harvested at late developmental stages, showed transcripts to be located in the archenteron of gastrula stage and widely distributed in all germ layers, respectively. The Pl14-3-3ε mRNA delocalization parallels the failure in archenteron elongation observed morphologically, as well as the lack of specific endoderm markers, investigated by indirect immuno-fluorescence on whole mount embryos. Results confirm the involvement of 14-3-3ε in the stress response elicited by UV-B and demonstrate, for the first time, its contribution at the transcriptional level in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:20607471

  5. 14-3-3ζ up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in hepatocellular carcinoma via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-кB signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yufu; Lv, Pengfei; Sun, Zhongyi; Han, Lei; Luo, Bichao; Zhou, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3ζ protein, a member of 14-3-3 family, plays important roles in multiple cellular processes. Our previous study showed that 14-3-3ζ could bind to regulate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is induced by hypoxia and a crucial factor for induction of tumor metastasis. Moreover, we also have confirmed the response of 14-3-3ζ to hypoxia in our unpublished data as well. Thus, in the present study, we attempted to reveal that whether the regulation effect of 14-3-3ζ on HIF-1α functioned in a similar pattern as hypoxia. Stable regulation of 14-3-3ζ in human HCC cell line SMMC-772 and HCC-LM3 was achieved. The regulation of 14-3-3ζ on HIF-1α mRNA transcription was evaluated by luciferase activity assay and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The effect of 14-3-3ζ on the production of HIF-1α and pathways determining HIF-1α’s response to hypoxia was assessed using western blotting assay. Our results showed that regulation of 14-3-3ζ expression influenced the activity of HIF-1α, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB). Blocking of these pathways using indicated inhibitors revealed that 14-3-3ζ enhanced the production of HIF-1α via the activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-кB pathway, which was identical to hypoxia induced HIF-1α expression. For the first time, our study described the key role of 14-3-3ζ in the HIF-1α production in HCC cells. And the molecule exerted its function on HIF-1α both by directly binding to it and via PI3K/Akt/NF-кB signal transduction pathway. PMID:26884855

  6. Intracellular Generation of a Diterpene-Peptide Conjugate that Inhibits 14-3-3-Mediated Interactions.

    PubMed

    Parvatkar, Prakash; Kato, Nobuo; Uesugi, Motonari; Sato, Shin-Ichi; Ohkanda, Junko

    2015-12-23

    Synthetic agents that disrupt intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are highly desirable for elucidating signaling networks and developing new therapeutics. However, designing cell-penetrating large molecules equipped with the many functional groups necessary for binding to large interfaces remains challenging. Here, we describe a rational strategy for the intracellular oxime ligation-mediated generation of an amphipathic bivalent inhibitor composed of a peptide and diterpene natural product, fusicoccin, which binds 14-3-3 protein with submicromolar affinity. Our results demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with small module molecules, the aldehyde-containing fusicoccin 1 and the aminooxy-containing peptide 2, generates the corresponding conjugate 3 in cells, resulting in significant cytotoxicity. In contrast, chemically synthesized 3 is not cytotoxic, likely due to its inability to penetrate cells. Compound 3, but not 1 or 2, disrupts endogenous 14-3-3/cRaf interactions, suggesting that cell death is caused by inhibition of 14-3-3 activity. These results suggest that intracellular generation of large-sized molecules may serve as a new approach for modulating PPIs.

  7. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Kim, Sun-Am; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Yu Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform. PMID:27556493

  8. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Kim, Sun-Am; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Yu Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform. PMID:27556493

  9. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Ying; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  10. 14-3-3-dependent inhibition of the deubiquitinating activity of UBPY and its cancellation in the M phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Emi; Kitamura, Naomi; Komada, Masayuki

    2007-10-01

    The deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY, also known as USP8, regulates cargo sorting and membrane traffic at early endosomes. Here we demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of the UBPY catalytic activity. We identified 14-3-3 {epsilon}, {gamma}, and {zeta} as UBPY-binding proteins using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The 14-3-3 binding of UBPY was inhibited by mutating the consensus 14-3-3-binding motif RSYS{sup 680}SP, by phosphatase treatment, and by competition with the Ser{sup 680}-phosphorylated RSYS{sup 680}SP peptide. Metabolic labeling with [{sup 32}P]orthophosphate and immunoblotting using antibody against the phosphorylated 14-3-3-binding motif showed that Ser{sup 680} is a major phosphorylation site in UBPY. These results indicated that 14-3-3s bind to the region surrounding Ser{sup 680} in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The mutation at Ser{sup 680} led to enhanced ubiquitin isopeptidase activity of UBPY toward poly-ubiquitin chains and a cellular substrate, epidermal growth factor receptor, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, addition of 14-3-3{epsilon} inhibited the UBPY activity in vitro. Finally, UBPY was dephosphorylated at Ser{sup 680} and dissociated from 14-3-3s in the M phase, resulting in enhanced activity of UBPY during cell division. We conclude that UBPY is catalytically inhibited in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by 14-3-3s during the interphase, and this regulation is cancelled in the M phase.

  11. Proteomic Identification of 14-3-3ζ as an Adapter for IGF-1 and Akt/GSK-3β Signaling and Survival of Renal Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Lalit P.; Jiang, Yan; Cheng, Davis W.

    2007-01-01

    the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the adapter protein 14-3-3ζ may play an important role in IGF-1 signaling and survival of mesangial cells in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:17200689

  12. The Peripheral Binding of 14-3-3γ to Membranes Involves Isoform-Specific Histidine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Ming; Halskau, Øyvind; Baumann, Anne; Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Costas, Miguel; Underhaug, Jarl; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Martinez, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian 14-3-3 protein scaffolds include seven conserved isoforms that bind numerous phosphorylated protein partners and regulate many cellular processes. Some 14-3-3-isoforms, notably γ, have elevated affinity for membranes, which might contribute to modulate the subcellular localization of the partners and substantiate the importance of investigating molecular mechanisms of membrane interaction. By applying surface plasmon resonance we here show that the binding to phospholipid bilayers is stimulated when 14-3-3γ is complexed with its partner, a peptide corresponding to the Ser19-phosphorylated N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, membrane interaction is dependent on salts of kosmotropic ions, which also stabilize 14-3-3γ. Electrostatic analysis of available crystal structures of γ and of the non-membrane-binding ζ-isoform, complemented with molecular dynamics simulations, indicate that the electrostatic potential distribution of phosphopeptide-bound 14-3-3γ is optimal for interaction with the membrane through amphipathic helices at the N-terminal dimerization region. In addition, His158, and especially His195, both specific to 14-3-3γ and located at the convex lateral side, appeared to be pivotal for the ligand induced membrane interaction, as corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis. The participation of these histidine residues might be associated to their increased protonation upon membrane binding. Overall, these results reveal membrane-targeting motifs and give insights on mechanisms that furnish the 14-3-3γ scaffold with the capacity for tuned shuffling from soluble to membrane-bound states. PMID:23189152

  13. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C.; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon) and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks < 0.45) compared to ε protein isoforms (Ks > 0.48), suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1–5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14 genes indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses. PMID:26858736

  14. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C; Bisht, Naveen C

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon) and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks < 0.45) compared to ε protein isoforms (Ks > 0.48), suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1-5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14 genes indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses.

  15. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C; Bisht, Naveen C

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon) and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks < 0.45) compared to ε protein isoforms (Ks > 0.48), suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1-5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14 genes indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses. PMID:26858736

  16. Melatonin synthesis: 14-3-3-dependent activation and inhibition of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mediated by phosphoserine-205.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Surajit; Weller, Joan L; Ho, Anthony; Chemineau, Philippe; Malpaux, Benoit; Klein, David C

    2005-01-25

    The nocturnal increase in circulating melatonin in vertebrates is regulated by the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin pathway (serotonin --> N-acetylserotonin --> melatonin). Large changes in activity are linked to cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of AANAT T31. Phosphorylation of T31 promotes binding of AANAT to the dimeric 14-3-3 protein, which activates AANAT by increasing arylalkylamine affinity. In the current study, a putative second AANAT cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, S205, was found to be approximately 55% phosphorylated at night, when T31 is approximately 40% phosphorylated. These findings indicate that ovine AANAT is dual-phosphorylated. Moreover, light exposure at night decreases T31 and S205 phosphorylation, consistent with a regulatory role of both sites. AANAT peptides containing either T31 or S205 associate with 14-3-3zeta in a phosphorylation-dependent manner; binding through phosphorylated (p)T31 is stronger than that through pS205, consistent with the location of only pT31 in a mode I binding motif, one of two recognized high-affinity 14-3-3-binding motifs AANAT protein binds to 14-3-3zeta through pT31 or pS205. Two-site binding lowers the Km for arylalkylamine substrate to approximately 30 microM. In contrast, single-site pS205 binding increases the Km to approximately 1,200 microM. Accordingly, the switch from dual to single pS205 binding of AANAT to 14-3-3 changes the Km for substrates by approximately 40-fold. pS205 seems to be part of a previously unrecognized 14-3-3-binding motif-pS/pT (X1-2)-COOH, referred to here as mode III.

  17. 14-3-3 isoforms are induced by aldosterone and participate in its regulation of epithelial sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiubin; Peters, Kathryn W; Butterworth, Michael B; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2006-06-16

    Aldosterone increases sodium absorption across renal collecting duct cells primarily by increasing the apical membrane expression of ENaC, the sodium entry channel. Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase, tags ENaC with ubiquitin for internalization and degradation, but when it is phosphorylated by the aldosterone-induced kinase, SGK1, Nedd4-2 is inhibited and apical ENaC density and sodium absorption increase. We evaluated the hypothesis that 14-3-3 proteins participate in the aldosterone-mediated regulation of ENaC by associating with phosphorylated Nedd4-2. Mouse cortical collecting duct (mCCD) epithelia cultured on filters expressed several 14-3-3 isoforms; this study focused on an isoform whose expression was induced 3-fold by aldosterone, 14-3-3beta. In polarized mCCD epithelia, aldosterone elicited significant, time-dependent increases in the expression of alpha-ENaC, SGK1, phospho-Nedd4-2, and 14-3-3beta without altering total Nedd4-2. Aldosterone decreased the interaction of alpha-ENaC with Nedd4-2, and with similar kinetics increased the association of 14-3-3beta with phospho-Nedd4-2. Short interfering RNA-induced knockdown of 14-3-3beta blunted the aldosterone-induced increase in alpha-ENaC expression, returned alpha-ENaC-Nedd4-2 binding toward prealdosterone levels, and blocked the aldosterone-stimulated increase in transepithelial sodium transport. Incubation of cell extracts with a selective phospho-Nedd4-2 antibody blocked the aldosterone-induced association of 14-3-3beta with Nedd4-2, implicating SGK1 phosphorylation at Ser-328 as the primary site of 14-3-3beta binding. Our studies show that aldosterone increases the expression of 14-3-3beta, which interacts with phospho-Nedd4-2 to block its interaction with ENaC, thus enhancing sodium absorption by increasing apical membrane ENaC density. PMID:16613846

  18. Keratin 23, a novel DPC4/Smad4 target gene which binds 14-3-3ε

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inactivating mutations of SMAD4 are frequent in metastatic colorectal carcinomas. In previous analyses, we were able to show that restoration of Smad4 expression in Smad4-deficient SW480 human colon carcinoma cells was adequate to suppress tumorigenicity and invasive potential, whereas in vitro cell growth was not affected. Using this cellular model system, we searched for new Smad4 targets comparing nuclear subproteomes derived from Smad4 re-expressing and Smad4 negative SW480 cells. Methods High resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis was applied to identify novel Smad4 targets in the nuclear subproteome of Smad4 re-expressing SW480 cells. The identified candidate protein Keratin 23 was further characterized by tandem affinity purification. Immunoprecipitation, subfractionation and immunolocalization studies in combination with RNAi were used to validate the Keratin 23-14-3-3ε interaction. Results We identified keratins 8 and 18, heat shock proteins 60 and 70, plectin 1, as well as 14-3-3ε and γ as novel proteins present in the KRT23-interacting complex. Co-immunoprecipitation and subfractionation analyses as well as immunolocalization studies in our Smad4-SW480 model cells provided further evidence that KRT23 associates with 14-3-3ε and that Smad4 dependent KRT23 up-regulation induces a shift of the 14-3-3ε protein from a nuclear to a cytoplasmic localization. Conclusion Based on our findings we propose a new regulatory circuitry involving Smad4 dependent up-regulation of KRT23 (directly or indirectly) which in turn modulates the interaction between KRT23 and 14-3-3ε leading to a cytoplasmic sequestration of 14-3-3ε. This cytoplasmic KRT23-14-3-3 interaction may alter the functional status of the well described 14-3-3 scaffold protein, known to regulate key cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle control, and apoptosis and may thus be a previously unappreciated facet of the Smad4 tumor suppressive circuitry. PMID

  19. Characterization and small-molecule stabilization of the multisite tandem binding between 14-3-3 and the R domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Stevers, Loes M; Lam, Chan V; Leysen, Seppe F R; Meijer, Femke A; van Scheppingen, Daphne S; de Vries, Rens M J M; Carlile, Graeme W; Milroy, Lech G; Thomas, David Y; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a fatal genetic disease, most frequently caused by the retention of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The binding of the 14-3-3 protein to the CFTR regulatory (R) domain has been found to enhance CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane. To define the mechanism of action of this protein-protein interaction, we have examined the interaction in vitro. The disordered multiphosphorylated R domain contains nine different 14-3-3 binding motifs. Furthermore, the 14-3-3 protein forms a dimer containing two amphipathic grooves that can potentially bind these phosphorylated motifs. This results in a number of possible binding mechanisms between these two proteins. Using multiple biochemical assays and crystal structures, we show that the interaction between them is governed by two binding sites: The key binding site of CFTR (pS768) occupies one groove of the 14-3-3 dimer, and a weaker, secondary binding site occupies the other binding groove. We show that fusicoccin-A, a natural-product tool compound used in studies of 14-3-3 biology, can stabilize the interaction between 14-3-3 and CFTR by selectively interacting with a secondary binding motif of CFTR (pS753). The stabilization of this interaction stimulates the trafficking of mutant CFTR to the plasma membrane. This definition of the druggability of the 14-3-3-CFTR interface might offer an approach for cystic fibrosis therapeutics. PMID:26888287

  20. Characterization and small-molecule stabilization of the multisite tandem binding between 14-3-3 and the R domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Stevers, Loes M; Lam, Chan V; Leysen, Seppe F R; Meijer, Femke A; van Scheppingen, Daphne S; de Vries, Rens M J M; Carlile, Graeme W; Milroy, Lech G; Thomas, David Y; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a fatal genetic disease, most frequently caused by the retention of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The binding of the 14-3-3 protein to the CFTR regulatory (R) domain has been found to enhance CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane. To define the mechanism of action of this protein-protein interaction, we have examined the interaction in vitro. The disordered multiphosphorylated R domain contains nine different 14-3-3 binding motifs. Furthermore, the 14-3-3 protein forms a dimer containing two amphipathic grooves that can potentially bind these phosphorylated motifs. This results in a number of possible binding mechanisms between these two proteins. Using multiple biochemical assays and crystal structures, we show that the interaction between them is governed by two binding sites: The key binding site of CFTR (pS768) occupies one groove of the 14-3-3 dimer, and a weaker, secondary binding site occupies the other binding groove. We show that fusicoccin-A, a natural-product tool compound used in studies of 14-3-3 biology, can stabilize the interaction between 14-3-3 and CFTR by selectively interacting with a secondary binding motif of CFTR (pS753). The stabilization of this interaction stimulates the trafficking of mutant CFTR to the plasma membrane. This definition of the druggability of the 14-3-3-CFTR interface might offer an approach for cystic fibrosis therapeutics.

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of YWHAZ, the Gene Encoding 14-3-3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Kasinski, Andrea; Dong, Xueyuan; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Boss, Jeremy; Fu, Haian

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of oncogenic 14-3-3 proteins is correlated with poor survival of cancer patients. While the underlying mechanism of the abnormal expression in tumors remains elusive for the six oncogenic 14-3-3 isoforms; the potential involvement of a transcriptional component has been suggested. Unfortunately, little experimental data has been reported to support this hypothesis. In this study we describe the genetic structure of YWHAZ, the gene encoding 14-3-3ζ, including the identification of previously unreported transcript variants. In total, five transcript variants were revealed and their expressions confirmed in a panel of cell lines. Expressed sequence tag (EST) database mining and in vitro rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) confirmed that one variant, 1c, represents >80% of the expressed transcripts, which is also the most efficiently translated. An analysis of the proximal promoter of this variant revealed a functional Cyclic-AMP Response Element (CRE). Factors that bound to the CRE element were recognized through fractionation and subsequent EMSAs. This analysis identified CREB and ATF-1 as the trans-interacting factors. Cell-based assays confirm that ATF-1, and to a lesser extent CREB, bind the endogenous YWHAZ promoter especially under TNF-α stimulating conditions. In support of a role of ATF-1 in the regulation of YWHAZ, silencing of ATF-1 resulted in a marked reduction in two of the five YWHAZ transcripts. These data suggest a novel mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of a major pro-survival gene, YWHAZ, by ATF-1. PMID:24690670

  2. Drosophila 14-3-3ε has a crucial role in anti-microbial peptide secretion and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Shandala, Tetyana; Woodcock, Joanna M; Ng, Yeap; Biggs, Lisa; Skoulakis, Efthimios M C; Brooks, Doug A; Lopez, Angel F

    2011-07-01

    The secretion of anti-microbial peptides is recognised as an essential step in innate immunity, but there is limited knowledge of the molecular mechanism controlling the release of these effectors from immune response cells. Here, we report that Drosophila 14-3-3ε mutants exhibit reduced survival when infected with either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria, indicating a functional role for 14-3-3ε in innate immunity. In 14-3-3ε mutants, there was a reduced release of the anti-microbial peptide Drosomycin into the haemolymph, which correlated with an accumulation of Drosomycin-containing vesicles near the plasma membrane of cells isolated from immune response tissues. Drosomycin appeared to be delivered towards the plasma membrane in Rab4- and Rab11-positive vesicles and smaller Rab11-positive vesicles. RNAi silencing of Rab11 and Rab4 significantly blocked the anterograde delivery of Drosomycin from the perinuclear region to the plasma membrane. However, in 14-3-3ε mutants there was an accumulation of small Rab11-positive vesicles near the plasma membrane. This vesicular phenotype was similar to that observed in response to the depletion of the vesicular Syntaxin protein Syx1a. In wild-type Drosophila immune tissue, 14-3-3ε was detected adjacent to Rab11, and partially overlapping with Syx1a, on vesicles near the plasma membrane. We conclude that 14-3-3ε is required for Rab11-positive vesicle function, which in turn enables antimicrobial peptide secretion during an innate immune response.

  3. IFNγ-induced suppression of β-catenin signaling: evidence for roles of Akt and 14.3.3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Porfirio; Kamekura, Ryuta; Quirós, Miguel; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Hamilton, Ross W.; Kolegraff, Keli N.; Koch, Stefan; Candelario, Aurora; Romo-Parra, Hector; Laur, Oskar; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Denning, Timothy L.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ ) influences intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis in a biphasic manner by acutely stimulating proliferation that is followed by sustained inhibition of proliferation despite continued mucosal injury. β-Catenin activation has been classically associated with increased IEC proliferation. However, we observed that IFNγ inhibits IEC proliferation despite sustained activation of Akt/β-catenin signaling. Here we show that inhibition of Akt/β-catenin–mediated cell proliferation by IFNγ is associated with the formation of a protein complex containing phosphorylated β-catenin 552 (pβ-cat552) and 14.3.3ζ. Akt1 served as a bimodal switch that promotes or inhibits β-catenin transactivation in response to IFNγ stimulation. IFNγ initially promotes β-catenin transactivation through Akt-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of β-catenin to promote its association with 14.3.3ζ. Augmented β-catenin transactivation leads to increased Akt1 protein levels, and active Akt1 accumulates in the nucleus, where it phosphorylates 14.3.3ζ to translocate 14.3.3ζ/β-catenin from the nucleus, thereby inhibiting β-catenin transactivation and IEC proliferation. These results outline a dual function of Akt1 that suppresses IEC proliferation during intestinal inflammation. PMID:25079689

  4. Interactions of c-Raf-1 with phosphatidylserine and 14-3-3.

    PubMed

    McPherson, R A; Harding, A; Roy, S; Lane, A; Hancock, J F

    1999-07-01

    Activation of Raf-1 occurs at the plasma membrane. We recently showed that 14-3-3 must be complexed with Raf-1 for efficient recruitment to the plasma membrane and activation by Ras, but that 14-3-3 is completely displaced from Raf-1 following plasma membrane binding. We show here that the Raf-1 zinc finger is not absolutely required for 14-3-3 binding but is required to stabilize the interaction between Raf-1 and 14-3-3. Incubation of Raf-1 with phosphatidylserine, an inner plasma membrane phospholipid, results in removal of 14-3-3 and an increase in Raf-1 kinase activity, whereas removal of 14-3-3 from Raf-1 using specific phosphopeptides substantially reduces Raf-1 basal kinase activity. Displacement of 14-3-3 from activated Raf-1 by phosphopeptides has no effect on kinase activity if Raf-1 is first removed from solution, but completely eradicates kinase activity of soluble activated Raf-1. These results suggest a mechanism for the removal of 14-3-3 from Raf-1 at the plasma membrane and show that removal of 14-3-3 from Raf-1 has markedly different effects depending on experimental conditions.

  5. 14-3-3ζ deficient mice in the BALB/c background display behavioural and anatomical defects associated with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangjun; Jaehne, Emily J.; Greenberg, Zarina; McCarthy, Peter; Saleh, Eiman; Parish, Clare L.; Camera, Daria; Heng, Julian; Haas, Matilda; Baune, Bernhard T.; Ratnayake, Udani; Buuse, Maarten van den; Lopez, Angel F.; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Schwarz, Quenten

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing and expression analyses implicate 14-3-3ζ as a genetic risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In support of this notion, we recently found that 14-3-3ζ−/− mice in the Sv/129 background display schizophrenia-like defects. As epistatic interactions play a significant role in disease pathogenesis we generated a new congenic strain in the BALB/c background to determine the impact of genetic interactions on the 14-3-3ζ−/− phenotype. In addition to replicating defects such as aberrant mossy fibre connectivity and impaired spatial memory, our analysis of 14-3-3ζ−/− BALB/c mice identified enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced synaptic density and ectopically positioned pyramidal neurons in all subfields of the hippocampus. In contrast to our previous analyses, 14-3-3ζ−/− BALB/c mice lacked locomotor hyperactivity that was underscored by normal levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine signalling. Taken together, our results demonstrate that dysfunction of 14-3-3ζ gives rise to many of the pathological hallmarks associated with the human condition. 14-3-3ζ-deficient BALB/c mice therefore provide a novel model to address the underlying biology of structural defects affecting the hippocampus and ventricle, and cognitive defects such as hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. PMID:26207352

  6. 14-3-3γ Prevents Centrosome Amplification and Neoplastic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Sehgal, Lalit; Bose, Arunabha; Gulvady, Anushree; Senapati, Parijat; Thorat, Rahul; Basu, Srikanta; Bhatt, Khyati; Hosing, Amol S.; Balyan, Renu; Borde, Lalit; Kundu, Tapas K.; Dalal, Sorab N.

    2016-01-01

    More than 80% of malignant tumors show centrosome amplification and clustering. Centrosome amplification results from aberrations in the centrosome duplication cycle, which is strictly coordinated with DNA-replication-cycle. However, the relationship between cell-cycle regulators and centrosome duplicating factors is not well understood. This report demonstrates that 14-3-3γ localizes to the centrosome and 14-3-3γ loss leads to centrosome amplification. Loss of 14-3-3γ results in the phosphorylation of NPM1 at Thr-199, causing early centriole disjunction and centrosome hyper-duplication. The centrosome amplification led to aneuploidy and increased tumor formation in mice. Importantly, an increase in passage of the 14-3-3γ-knockdown cells led to an increase in the number of cells containing clustered centrosomes leading to the generation of pseudo-bipolar spindles. The increase in pseudo-bipolar spindles was reversed and an increase in the number of multi-polar spindles was observed upon expression of a constitutively active 14-3-3-binding-defective-mutant of cdc25C (S216A) in the 14-3-3γ knockdown cells. The increase in multi-polar spindle formation was associated with decreased cell viability and a decrease in tumor growth. Our findings uncover the molecular basis of regulation of centrosome duplication by 14-3-3γ and inhibition of tumor growth by premature activation of the mitotic program and the disruption of centrosome clustering. PMID:27253419

  7. The cell cycle regulator 14-3-3σ opposes and reverses cancer metabolic reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Phan, Liem; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Samudio, Ismael; Parreno, Kenneth; Huang, Yaling; Tseng, Chieh; Vu, Thuy; Gully, Chris; Su, Chun-Hui; Wang, Edward; Chen, Jian; Choi, Hyun-Ho; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Shin, Ji-Hyun; Shiang, Christine; Grabiner, Brian; Blonska, Marzenna; Skerl, Stephen; Shao, Yiping; Cody, Dianna; Delacerda, Jorge; Kingsley, Charles; Webb, Douglas; Carlock, Colin; Zhou, Zhongguo; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Lee, Jaehyuk; Elliott, Andrew; Ramirez, Marc; Bankson, Jim; Hazle, John; Wang, Yongxing; Li, Lei; Weng, Shaofan; Rizk, Nibal; Wen, Yu Ye; Lin, Xin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Huamin; Zhang, Aijun; Xia, Xuefeng; Wu, Yun; Habra, Mouhammed; Yang, Wei; Pusztai, Lajos; Yeung, Sai-Ching; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism controlling this tumour metabolic shift remains not fully understood. Here we show that 14-3-3σ regulates cancer metabolic reprogramming and protects cells from tumorigenic transformation. 14-3-3σ opposes tumour-promoting metabolic programmes by enhancing c-Myc poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. 14-3-3σ demonstrates the suppressive impact on cancer glycolysis, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and other major metabolic processes of tumours. Importantly, 14-3-3σ expression levels predict overall and recurrence-free survival rates, tumour glucose uptake and metabolic gene expression in breast cancer patients. Thus, these results highlight that 14-3-3σ is an important regulator of tumour metabolism, and loss of 14-3-3σ expression is critical for cancer metabolic reprogramming. We anticipate that pharmacologically elevating the function of 14-3-3σ in tumours could be a promising direction for targeted anticancer metabolism therapy development in future. PMID:26179207

  8. The cell cycle regulator 14-3-3σ opposes and reverses cancer metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Liem; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Samudio, Ismael; Parreno, Kenneth; Huang, Yaling; Tseng, Chieh; Vu, Thuy; Gully, Chris; Su, Chun-Hui; Wang, Edward; Chen, Jian; Choi, Hyun-Ho; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Shin, Ji-Hyun; Shiang, Christine; Grabiner, Brian; Blonska, Marzenna; Skerl, Stephen; Shao, Yiping; Cody, Dianna; Delacerda, Jorge; Kingsley, Charles; Webb, Douglas; Carlock, Colin; Zhou, Zhongguo; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Lee, Jaehyuk; Elliott, Andrew; Ramirez, Marc; Bankson, Jim; Hazle, John; Wang, Yongxing; Li, Lei; Weng, Shaofan; Rizk, Nibal; Wen, Yu Ye; Lin, Xin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Huamin; Zhang, Aijun; Xia, Xuefeng; Wu, Yun; Habra, Mouhammed; Yang, Wei; Pusztai, Lajos; Yeung, Sai-Ching; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Extensive reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism controlling this tumour metabolic shift remains not fully understood. Here we show that 14-3-3σ regulates cancer metabolic reprogramming and protects cells from tumourigenic transformation. 14-3-3σ opposes tumour-promoting metabolic programs by enhancing c-Myc poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. 14-3-3σ demonstrates the suppressive impact on cancer glycolysis, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and other major metabolic processes of tumours. Importantly, 14-3-3σ expression levels predict overall and recurrence-free survival rates, tumour glucose uptake and metabolic gene expression in breast cancer patients. Thus, these results highlight that 14-3-3σ is an important regulator of tumour metabolism, and loss of 14-3-3σ expression is critical for cancer metabolic reprogramming. We anticipate that pharmacologically elevating the function of 14-3-3σ in tumours could be a promising direction for targeted anti-cancer metabolism therapy development in future. PMID:26179207

  9. 14-3-3 gene family in hybrid poplar and its involvement in tree defence against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, G; Luckevich, M D; Cloutier, M; Séguin, A

    2001-06-01

    In ongoing investigations of the role of the signal transduction pathway in tree-pathogen interactions, four complete and two partial 14-3-3 cDNAs have been isolated which are members of a gene family. Comparisons of DNA sequences reveal a high degree of identity among the cDNAs, and, in some cases, higher than 75% sequence similarity with previously published sequences. Sequence analysis at the amino acid level uncovered potential phosphorylation sites, some of which were identical among the proteins, and some of which varied. Treatment of trees with chitosan, jasmonates or by wounding of leaves, caused increases in the levels of 14-3-3 mRNA transcripts. Since jasmonates and chitosan are signal transducers of defence reactions in plants, these results suggest a possible role for 14-3-3 proteins in the pathogen defence response of deciduous trees. Effects of elicitors on transcription of the pal gene were also monitored. Pal is a well-characterized, pathogen response-related gene.

  10. Impaired Binding of 14-3-3 to C-RAF in Noonan Syndrome Suggests New Approaches in Diseases with Increased Ras Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Molzan, Manuela; Schumacher, Benjamin; Ottmann, Corinna; Baljuls, Angela; Polzien, Lisa; Weyand, Michael; Thiel, Philipp; Rose, Rolf; Rose, Micheline; Kuhenne, Philipp; Kaiser, Markus; Rapp, Ulf R.; Kuhlmann, Jürgen; Ottmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Ras-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-RAF-MAPK) pathway is overactive in many cancers and in some developmental disorders. In one of those disorders, namely, Noonan syndrome, nine activating C-RAF mutations cluster around Ser259, a regulatory site for inhibition by 14-3-3 proteins. We show that these mutations impair binding of 14-3-3 proteins to C-RAF and alter its subcellular localization by promoting Ras-mediated plasma membrane recruitment of C-RAF. By presenting biophysical binding data, the 14-3-3/C-RAFpS259 crystal structure, and cellular analyses, we indicate a mechanistic link between a well-described human developmental disorder and the impairment of a 14-3-3/target protein interaction. As a broader implication of these findings, modulating the C-RAFSer259/14-3-3 protein-protein interaction with a stabilizing small molecule may yield a novel potential approach for treatment of diseases resulting from an overactive Ras-RAF-MAPK pathway. PMID:20679480

  11. Characterization and small-molecule stabilization of the multisite tandem binding between 14-3-3 and the R domain of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Stevers, Loes M.; Lam, Chan V.; Leysen, Seppe F. R.; Meijer, Femke A.; van Scheppingen, Daphne S.; de Vries, Rens M. J. M.; Carlile, Graeme W.; Milroy, Lech G.; Thomas, David Y.; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a fatal genetic disease, most frequently caused by the retention of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The binding of the 14-3-3 protein to the CFTR regulatory (R) domain has been found to enhance CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane. To define the mechanism of action of this protein–protein interaction, we have examined the interaction in vitro. The disordered multiphosphorylated R domain contains nine different 14-3-3 binding motifs. Furthermore, the 14-3-3 protein forms a dimer containing two amphipathic grooves that can potentially bind these phosphorylated motifs. This results in a number of possible binding mechanisms between these two proteins. Using multiple biochemical assays and crystal structures, we show that the interaction between them is governed by two binding sites: The key binding site of CFTR (pS768) occupies one groove of the 14-3-3 dimer, and a weaker, secondary binding site occupies the other binding groove. We show that fusicoccin-A, a natural-product tool compound used in studies of 14-3-3 biology, can stabilize the interaction between 14-3-3 and CFTR by selectively interacting with a secondary binding motif of CFTR (pS753). The stabilization of this interaction stimulates the trafficking of mutant CFTR to the plasma membrane. This definition of the druggability of the 14-3-3–CFTR interface might offer an approach for cystic fibrosis therapeutics. PMID:26888287

  12. 14-3-3γ regulates cell viability and milk fat synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-induced dairy cow mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LIXIN; ZHANG, LI; LIN, YE; BIAN, YANJIE; GAO, XUEJUN; QU, BO; LI, QINGZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that 14-3-3γ overexpression was able to inhibit the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. However, the association between 14-3-3γ overexpression and milk fat synthesis in LPS-induced DCMECs remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of 14-3-3γ on cell viability and milk fat synthesis in LPS-induced DCMECs. The results of the MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase activity assay demonstrated that 14-3-3γ overexpression was able to attenuate LPS-induced cytotoxicity in DCMECs, and increase the viability of the cells. In addition, the results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggested that mRNA expression levels of genes associated with milk fat synthesis, including sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG), cluster of differentiation 36, acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid binding protein-3, were significantly upregulated in cells overexpressing the 14-3-3γ protein. In addition, as compared with the LPS-treated group, the activities of FAS and ACC were significantly increased. Furthermore, western blotting demonstrated that 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the protein expression levels of phosphorylated SREBP1 and PPARG. These results suggested that high levels of 14-3-3γ protein were able to attenuate LPS-induced cell damage and promote milk fat synthesis in LPS-induced DCMECs by increasing the cell viability and upregulating the expression levels of transcription factors associated with milk fat synthesis. PMID:27073437

  13. Overexpression of 14-3-3z promotes tau phosphorylation at Ser262 and accelerates proteosomal degradation of synaptophysin in rat primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Hamid Y; Han, Dong; MacDonald, Ryen; Paudel, Hemant K

    2013-01-01

    b-Amyloid peptide accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and synapse loss are characteristic neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau hyperphosphorylation is suggested to inhibit the association of tau with microtubules, making microtubules unstable and causing neurodegeneration. The mechanism of tau phosphorylation in AD brain, therefore, is of considerable significance. Although PHF-tau is phosphorylated at over 40 Ser/Thr sites, Ser(262) phosphorylation was shown to mediate b-amyloid neurotoxicity and formation of toxic tau lesions in the brain. In vitro, PKA is one of the kinases that phosphorylates tau at Ser(262), but the mechanism by which it phosphorylates tau in AD brain is not very clear. 14-3-3z is associated with neurofibrillary tangles and is upregulated in AD brain. In this study, we show that 14-3-3z promotes tau phosphorylation at Ser(262) by PKA in differentiating neurons. When overexpressed in rat hippocampal primary neurons, 14-3-3z causes an increase in Ser(262) phosphorylation, a decrease in the amount of microtubule-bound tau, a reduction in the amount of polymerized microtubules, as well as microtubule instability. More importantly, the level of pre-synaptic protein synaptophysin was significantly reduced. Downregulation of synaptophysin in 14-3-3z overexpressing neurons was mitigated by inhibiting the proteosome, indicating that 14-3-3z promotes proteosomal degradation of synaptophysin. When 14-3-3z overexpressing neurons were treated with the microtubule stabilizing drug taxol, tau Ser(262) phosphorylation decreased and synaptophysin level was restored. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of 14-3-3z accelerates proteosomal turnover of synaptophysin by promoting the destabilization of microtubules. Synaptophysin is involved in synapse formation and neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that 14-3-3z may cause synaptic pathology by reducing synaptophysin levels in the brains of patients suffering from AD. PMID

  14. Oxidative damage of 14-3-3 zeta and gamma isoforms in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Santpere, G; Puig, B; Ferrer, I

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies have shown oxidative damage resulting from amyloid Abeta exposure to cultured cells and in murine models. A target of oxidation is 14-3-3 which comprises a group of proteins involved in kinase activation and chaperone activity. The present study shows glycoxidative damage, as revealed with mono and bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, followed by in-gel digestion and mass spectrometry, in the frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a neurodegenerative disease with deposition of Abeta in cerebral blood vessels and in diffuse plaques unaccompanied by intraneuronal hyper-phosphorylated tau deposition. malondialdehyde-lysine (MDA-Lys)-, but not 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-immunoreactive adducts, and N-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL), but not N-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-products, were present in 14-3-3 involving zeta and gamma isoforms in both AD and CAA. These findings demonstrate that 14-3-3 glyco- and lipoxidation occurs in AD and CAA, probably as a direct consequence of Abeta deposition.

  15. 14-3-3 regulates the nuclear import of class IIa histone deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Tomonori G.; Miyazaki, Masaya; Hoshino, Hideto; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Yoshida, Minoru

    2008-12-19

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) form complexes with a class of transcriptional repressors in the nucleus. While screening for compounds that could block the association of HDAC4 with the BTB domain-containing transcriptional repressor Bach2, we discovered that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced the cytoplasmic retention of HDAC4 mutants lacking a nuclear export signal (NES). Although PMA treatment and PKD overexpression has been proposed to facilitate the nuclear export of class IIa HDACs by creating 14-3-3 binding sites containing phosphoserines, our experiments using HDAC mutants demonstrated that PMA greatly reduces nuclear import. PMA treatment repressed the NLS activity in a manner dependent on 14-3-3 binding. These results suggest that nuclear HDAC4 is not tethered in the nucleus, but instead shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation-induced 14-3-3 binding biases the balance of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling toward the cytoplasm by inhibiting nuclear import.

  16. Ustilago maydis Rho1 and 14-3-3 homologues participate in pathways controlling cell separation and cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cau D; Yu, Zhanyang; Sandrock, Björn; Bölker, Michael; Gold, Scott E; Perlin, Michael H

    2009-07-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 and Rho-GTPase families are functionally conserved eukaryotic proteins that participate in many important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, malignant transformation, stress response, and apoptosis. However, the exact role(s) of these proteins in these processes is not entirely understood. Using the fungal maize pathogen, Ustilago maydis, we were able to demonstrate a functional connection between Pdc1 and Rho1, the U. maydis homologues of 14-3-3epsilon and Rho1, respectively. Our experiments suggest that Pdc1 regulates viability, cytokinesis, chromosome condensation, and vacuole formation. Similarly, U. maydis Rho1 is also involved in these three essential processes and exerts an additional function during mating and filamentation. Intriguingly, yeast two-hybrid and epistasis experiments suggest that both Pdc1 and Rho1 could be constituents of the same regulatory cascade(s) controlling cell growth and filamentation in U. maydis. Overexpression of rho1 ameliorated the defects of cells depleted for Pdc1. Furthermore, we found that another small G protein, Rac1, was a suppressor of lethality for both Pdc1 and Rho1. In addition, deletion of cla4, encoding a Rac1 effector kinase, could also rescue cells with Pdc1 depleted. Inferring from these data, we propose a model for Rho1 and Pdc1 functions in U. maydis.

  17. Identification of 14-3-3β Gene as a Novel miR-152 Target Using a Proteome-based Approach*

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski-Bergner, Simon; Stehle, Franziska; Gonschorek, Evamaria; Kalich, Jana; Schulz, Kristin; Huettelmaier, Stefan; Braun, Juliane; Seliger, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that miR-152 overexpression down-regulates the nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule HLA-G in human tumors thereby contributing to their immune surveillance. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the protein expression profile of HLA-G+, miR-152low cells, and their miR-152-overexpressing (miRhigh) counterparts was compared leading to the identification of 24 differentially expressed proteins. These were categorized according to their function and localization demonstrating for most of them an important role in the initiation and progression of tumors. The novel miR-152 target 14-3-3 protein β/α/YWHAB (14-3-3β) is down-regulated upon miR-152 overexpression, although its overexpression was often found in tumors of distinct origin. The miR-152-mediated reduction of the 14-3-3β expression was accompanied by an up-regulation of BAX protein expression resulting in a pro-apoptotic phenotype. In contrast, the reconstitution of 14-3-3β expression in miR-152high cells increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 gene, enhances the proliferative activity in the presence of the cytostatic drug paclitaxel, and causes resistance to apoptosis induced by this drug. By correlating clinical microarray data with the patients' outcome, a link between 14-3-3β and HLA-G expression was found, which could be associated with poor prognosis and overall survival of patients with tumors. Because miR-152 controls both the expression of 14-3-3β and HLA-G, it exerts a dual role in tumor cells by both altering the immunogenicity and the tumorigenicity. PMID:25228695

  18. Molecular Modeling of Differentially Phosphorylated Serine 10 and Acetylated lysine 9/14 of Histone H3 Regulates their Interactions with 14-3-3ζ, MSK1, and MKP1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajit K.; Mansukh, Abhilasha; Varma, Ashok; Gadewal, Nikhil; Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Histone modifications occur in precise patterns, with several modifications known to affect the binding of proteins. These interactions affect the chromatin structure, gene regulation, and cell cycle events. The dual modifications on the H3 tail, serine10 phosphorylation, and lysine14 acetylation (H3Ser10PLys14Ac) are reported to be crucial for interaction with 14-3-3ζ. However, the mechanism by which H3Ser10P along with neighboring site-specific acetylation(s) is targeted by its regulatory proteins, including kinase and phosphatase, is not fully understood. We carried out molecular modeling studies to understand the interaction of 14-3-3ζ, and its regulatory proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1), and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) with phosphorylated H3Ser10 alone or in combination with acetylated H3Lys9 and Lys14. In silico molecular association studies suggested that acetylated Lys14 and phosphorylated Ser10 of H3 shows the highest binding affinity towards 14-3-3ζ. In addition, acetylation of H3Lys9 along with Ser10PLys14Ac favors the interaction of the phosphatase, MKP1, for dephosphorylation of H3Ser10P. Further, MAP kinase, MSK1 phosphorylates the unmodified H3Ser10 containing N-terminal tail with maximum affinity compared to the N-terminal tail with H3Lys9AcLys14Ac. The data clearly suggest that opposing enzymatic activity of MSK1 and MKP1 corroborates with non-acetylated and acetylated, H3Lys9Lys14, respectively. Our in silico data highlights that site-specific phosphorylation (H3Ser10P) and acetylation (H3Lys9 and H3Lys14) of H3 are essential for the interaction with their regulatory proteins (MKP1, MSK1, and 14-3-3ζ) and plays a major role in the regulation of chromatin structure. PMID:24027420

  19. 14-3-3 zeta down-regulates p53 in mammary epithelial cells and confers luminal filling.

    PubMed

    Danes, Christopher G; Wyszomierski, Shannon L; Lu, Jing; Neal, Christopher L; Yang, Wentao; Yu, Dihua

    2008-03-15

    Recent progress in diagnostic tools allows many breast cancers to be detected at an early preinvasive stage. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular basis of early breast cancer progression is essential. Previously, we discovered that 14-3-3 zeta is overexpressed in >40% of advanced breast cancers, and this overexpression predicts poor patient survival. Here, we examined at what stage of breast disease 14-3-3 zeta overexpression occurs, and we found that increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta begins at atypical ductal hyperplasia, an early stage of breast disease. To determine whether 14-3-3 zeta overexpression is a decisive early event in breast cancer, we overexpressed 14-3-3 zeta in MCF10A cells and examined its effect in a three-dimensional culture model. We discovered that 14-3-3 zeta overexpression severely disrupted the acini architecture resulting in luminal filling. Proper lumen formation is a result of anoikis, apoptosis due to detachment from the basement membrane. We found that 14-3-3 zeta overexpression conferred resistance to anoikis. Additionally, 14-3-3 zeta overexpression in MCF10A cells and in mammary epithelial cells (MEC) from 14-3-3 zeta transgenic mice reduced expression of p53, which is known to mediate anoikis. Mechanistically, 14-3-3 zeta induced hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway which led to phosphorylation and translocation of the MDM2 E3 ligase resulting in increased p53 degradation. Ectopic expression of p53 restored luminal apoptosis in 14-3-3 zeta-overexpressing MCF10A acini in three-dimensional cultures. These data suggest that 14-3-3 zeta overexpression is a critical event in early breast disease, and down-regulation of p53 is one of the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 zeta alters MEC acini structure and increases the risk of breast cancer.

  20. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Bie, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  1. Brainstem deficiency of the 14-3-3 regulator of serotonin synthesis: a proteomics analysis in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broadbelt, Kevin G; Rivera, Keith D; Paterson, David S; Duncan, Jhodie R; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Paulo, Joao A; Stapels, Martha D; Borenstein, Natalia S; Belliveau, Richard A; Haas, Elisabeth A; Stanley, Christina; Krous, Henry F; Steen, Hanno; Kinney, Hannah C

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brainstem responses to homeostatic challenges during sleep may result in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Previously we reported a deficiency of serotonin (5-HT) and its key biosynthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), in SIDS infants in the medullary 5-HT system that modulates homeostatic responses during sleep. Yet, the underlying basis of the TPH2 and 5-HT deficiency is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that proteomics would uncover previously unrecognized abnormal levels of proteins related to TPH2 and 5-HT regulation in SIDS cases compared with controls, which could provide novel insight into the basis of their deficiency. We first performed a discovery proteomic analysis of the gigantocellularis of the medullary 5-HT system in the same data set with deficiencies of TPH2 and 5-HT levels. Analysis in 6 SIDS cases and 4 controls revealed a 42-75% reduction in abundance in 5 of the 6 isoforms identified of the 14-3-3 signal transduction family, which is known to influence TPH2 activity (p < 0.07). These findings were corroborated in an additional SIDS and control sample using an orthogonal MS(E)-based quantitative proteomic strategy. To confirm these proteomics results in a larger data set (38 SIDS, 11 controls), we applied Western blot analysis in the gigantocellularis and found that 4/7 14-3-3 isoforms identified were significantly reduced in SIDS cases (p ≤ 0.02), with a 43% reduction in all 14-3-3 isoforms combined (p < 0.001). Abnormalities in 5-HT and TPH2 levels and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were associated with the 14-3-3 deficits in the same SIDS cases. These data suggest a potential molecular defect in SIDS related to TPH2 regulation, as 14-3-3 is critical in this process. PMID:21976671

  2. Brainstem Deficiency of the 14-3-3 Regulator of Serotonin Synthesis: A Proteomics Analysis in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Rivera, Keith D.; Paterson, David S.; Duncan, Jhodie R.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Paulo, Joao A.; Stapels, Martha D.; Borenstein, Natalia S.; Belliveau, Richard A.; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Stanley, Christina; Krous, Henry F.; Steen, Hanno; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired brainstem responses to homeostatic challenges during sleep may result in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Previously we reported a deficiency of serotonin (5-HT) and its key biosynthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), in SIDS infants in the medullary 5-HT system that modulates homeostatic responses during sleep. Yet, the underlying basis of the TPH2 and 5-HT deficiency is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that proteomics would uncover previously unrecognized abnormal levels of proteins related to TPH2 and 5-HT regulation in SIDS cases compared with controls, which could provide novel insight into the basis of their deficiency. We first performed a discovery proteomic analysis of the gigantocellularis of the medullary 5-HT system in the same data set with deficiencies of TPH2 and 5-HT levels. Analysis in 6 SIDS cases and 4 controls revealed a 42–75% reduction in abundance in 5 of the 6 isoforms identified of the 14-3-3 signal transduction family, which is known to influence TPH2 activity (p < 0.07). These findings were corroborated in an additional SIDS and control sample using an orthogonal MSE-based quantitative proteomic strategy. To confirm these proteomics results in a larger data set (38 SIDS, 11 controls), we applied Western blot analysis in the gigantocellularis and found that 4/7 14-3-3 isoforms identified were significantly reduced in SIDS cases (p ≤ 0.02), with a 43% reduction in all 14-3-3 isoforms combined (p < 0.001). Abnormalities in 5-HT and TPH2 levels and 5-HT1A receptor binding were associated with the 14-3-3 deficits in the same SIDS cases. These data suggest a potential molecular defect in SIDS related to TPH2 regulation, as 14-3-3 is critical in this process. PMID:21976671

  3. 14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Lin, Ye; Liu, Lili; Bian, Yanjie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR

  4. Molecular Characterization of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon L. Reveals High Evolutionary Conservation and Diverse Responses to Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Xu, Yuxing; Yuan, Linlin; Bian, Yanwei; Wang, Lihui; Zhen, Shoumin; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 gene family identified in all eukaryotic organisms is involved in a wide range of biological processes, particularly in resistance to various abiotic stresses. Here, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characterization, phylogenetics, and responses to various abiotic stresses of the 14-3-3 gene family in Brachypodium distachyon L. A total of seven 14-3-3 genes from B. distachyon and 120 from five main lineages among 12 species were identified, which were divided into five well-conserved subfamilies. The molecular structure analysis showed that the plant 14-3-3 gene family is highly evolutionarily conserved, although certain divergence had occurred in different subfamilies. The duplication event investigation revealed that segmental duplication seemed to be the predominant form by which the 14-3-3 gene family had expanded. Moreover, seven critical amino acids were detected, which may contribute to functional divergence. Expression profiling analysis showed that BdGF14 genes were abundantly expressed in the roots, but showed low expression in the meristems. All seven BdGF14 genes showed significant expression changes under various abiotic stresses, including heavy metal, phytohormone, osmotic, and temperature stresses, which might play important roles in responses to multiple abiotic stresses mainly through participating in ABA-dependent signaling and reactive oxygen species-mediated MAPK cascade signaling pathways. In particular, BdGF14 genes generally showed upregulated expression in response to multiple stresses of high temperature, heavy metal, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA), but downregulated expression under H2O2, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Meanwhile, dynamic transcriptional expression analysis of BdGF14 genes under longer treatments with heavy metals (Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) and phytohormone (ABA) and recovery revealed two main expression trends in both roots and leaves: up

  5. Molecular Characterization of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon L. Reveals High Evolutionary Conservation and Diverse Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Xu, Yuxing; Yuan, Linlin; Bian, Yanwei; Wang, Lihui; Zhen, Shoumin; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 gene family identified in all eukaryotic organisms is involved in a wide range of biological processes, particularly in resistance to various abiotic stresses. Here, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characterization, phylogenetics, and responses to various abiotic stresses of the 14-3-3 gene family in Brachypodium distachyon L. A total of seven 14-3-3 genes from B. distachyon and 120 from five main lineages among 12 species were identified, which were divided into five well-conserved subfamilies. The molecular structure analysis showed that the plant 14-3-3 gene family is highly evolutionarily conserved, although certain divergence had occurred in different subfamilies. The duplication event investigation revealed that segmental duplication seemed to be the predominant form by which the 14-3-3 gene family had expanded. Moreover, seven critical amino acids were detected, which may contribute to functional divergence. Expression profiling analysis showed that BdGF14 genes were abundantly expressed in the roots, but showed low expression in the meristems. All seven BdGF14 genes showed significant expression changes under various abiotic stresses, including heavy metal, phytohormone, osmotic, and temperature stresses, which might play important roles in responses to multiple abiotic stresses mainly through participating in ABA-dependent signaling and reactive oxygen species-mediated MAPK cascade signaling pathways. In particular, BdGF14 genes generally showed upregulated expression in response to multiple stresses of high temperature, heavy metal, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA), but downregulated expression under H2O2, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Meanwhile, dynamic transcriptional expression analysis of BdGF14 genes under longer treatments with heavy metals (Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, and Zn2+) and phytohormone (ABA) and recovery revealed two main expression trends in both roots and leaves: up-down and up

  6. In-vivo administration of clozapine affects behaviour but does not reverse dendritic spine deficits in the 14-3-3ζ KO mouse model of schizophrenia-like disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Ramshaw, Hayley; Xu, Xiangjun; Saleh, Eiman; Clark, Scott R; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Lopez, Angel; Schwarz, Quenten; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-11-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia, which has been shown to reverse behavioural and dendritic spine deficits in mice. It has recently been shown that deficiency of 14-3-3ζ has an association with schizophrenia, and that a mouse model lacking this protein displays several schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. To test the effect of clozapine in this mouse model, 14-3-3ζ KO mice were administered clozapine (5mg/kg) for two weeks prior to being analysed in a test battery of cognition, anxiety, and despair (depression-like) behaviours. Following behavioural testing brain samples were collected for analysis of specific anatomical defects and dendritic spine formation. We found that clozapine reduced despair behaviour of 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the forced swim test (FST) and altered the behaviour of wild types and 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the Y-maze task. In contrast, clozapine had no effects on hippocampal laminar defects or decreased dendritic spine density observed in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Our results suggest that clozapine may have beneficial effects on clinical behaviours associated with deficiencies in the 14-3-3ζ molecular pathway, despite having no effects on morphological defects. These findings may provide mechanistic insight to the action of this drug.

  7. p38- and MK2-dependent signalling promotes stress-induced centriolar satellite remodelling via 14-3-3-dependent sequestration of CEP131/AZI1

    PubMed Central

    Tollenaere, Maxim A. X.; Villumsen, Bine H.; Blasius, Melanie; Nielsen, Julie C.; Wagner, Sebastian A.; Bartek, Jiri; Beli, Petra; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites (CS) are small granular structures that cluster in the vicinity of centrosomes. CS are highly susceptible to stress stimuli, triggering abrupt displacement of key CS factors. Here we discover a linear p38-MK2-14-3-3 signalling pathway that specifically targets CEP131 to trigger CS remodelling after cell stress. We identify CEP131 as a substrate of the p38 effector kinase MK2 and pinpoint S47 and S78 as critical MK2 phosphorylation sites in CEP131. Ultraviolet-induced phosphorylation of these residues generates direct binding sites for 14-3-3 proteins, which sequester CEP131 in the cytoplasm to block formation of new CS, thereby leading to rapid depletion of these structures. Mutating S47 and S78 in CEP131 is sufficient to abolish stress-induced CS reorganization, demonstrating that CEP131 is the key regulatory target of MK2 and 14-3-3 in these structures. Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism underlying dynamic CS remodelling to modulate centrosome functions on cell stress. PMID:26616734

  8. Adjudin disrupts spermatogenesis via the action of some unlikely partners: Eps8, Arp2/3 complex, drebrin E, PAR6 and 14-3-3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C Yan; Lie, Pearl Py; Wong, Elissa Wp; Mruk, Dolores D; Silvestrini, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    expression of PAR6 (partitioning defective protein 6) and 14-3-3 (also known as PAR5) considerably at the apical ES, disrupting the homeostasis of endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking, which in turn leads to an increase in protein endocytosis. The net result of these changes destabilizes cell adhesion and induces degeneration of the apical ES, causing premature release of spermatids, mimicking spermiation.

  9. 14-3-3σ confers cisplatin resistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via regulating DNA repair molecules.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kin Tak; Choi, Mei Yuk; Wang, Hector K; Fung, Eva Y M; Lam, Ho Yu; Tan, Winnie; Tung, Lai Nar; Tong, Daniel K H; Sun, Raymond W Y; Lee, Nikki P; Law, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant type of esophageal cancer in Asia. Cisplatin is commonly used in chemoradiation for unresectable ESCC patients. However, the treatment efficacy is diminished in patients with established cisplatin resistance. To understand the mechanism leading to the development of cisplatin resistance in ESCC, we compared the proteomes from a cisplatin-resistant HKESC-2R cell line with its parental-sensitive counterpart HKESC-2 to identify key molecule involved in this process. Mass spectrometry analysis detected 14-3-3σ as the most abundant molecule expressed exclusively in HKESC-2R cells, while western blot result further validated it to be highly expressed in HKESC-2R cells when compared to HKESC-2 cells. Ectopic expression of 14-3-3σ increased cisplatin resistance in HKESC-2 cells, while its suppression sensitized SLMT-1 cells to cisplatin. Among the molecules involved in drug detoxification, drug transportation, and DNA repair, the examined DNA repair molecules HMGB1 and XPA were found to be highly expressed in HKESC-2R cells with high 14-3-3σ expression. Subsequent manipulation of 14-3-3σ by both overexpression and knockdown approaches concurrently altered the expression of HMGB1 and XPA. 14-3-3σ, HMGB1, and XPA were preferentially expressed in cisplatin-resistant SLMT-1 cells when compared to those more sensitive to cisplatin. In ESCC patients with poor response to cisplatin-based chemoradiation, their pre-treatment tumors expressed higher expression of HMGB1 than those with response to such treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that 14-3-3σ induces cisplatin resistance in ESCC cells and that 14-3-3σ-mediated cisplatin resistance involves DNA repair molecules HMGB1 and XPA. Results from this study provide evidences for further work in researching the potential use of 14-3-3σ and DNA repair molecules HMGB1 and XPA as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ESCC.

  10. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  11. Suppression of 14-3-3γ-mediated surface expression of ANO1 inhibits cancer progression of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Jae Kwang; Bae, Yeonju; Lee, Bok-Soon; Kim, Eunju; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Ryoo, Kanghyun; Yoo, Jiyun; Kim, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gwan-Su; Lee, Seok-Geun; Lee, C. Justin; Kang, Sang Soo; Hwang, Eun Mi; Park, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening. The surface expression of ANO1 was enhanced by 14-3-3γ, and the Thr9 residue of ANO1 was critical for its interaction with 14-3-3γ. Gene silencing of 14-3-3γ and/or ANO1 demonstrated that suppression of ANO1 surface expression inhibited migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. These findings provide novel therapeutic implications for glioblastomas, which are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27212225

  12. Wig-1 regulates cell cycle arrest and cell death through the p53 targets FAS and 14-3-3σ

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, C; Xu, L-D; Vilborg, A; Lui, W-O; Wiman, K G

    2014-01-01

    Wig-1, also known as ZMAT3, is a p53 target gene that encodes an RNA-binding zinc-finger protein involved in the regulation of mRNA stability through binding to AU-rich elements (AREs). We have used microarray analysis to identify novel Wig-1 target mRNAs. We identified 2447 transcripts with >fourfold differential expression between Wig-1 and control small interfering (si)RNA-treated HCT116 cells. Several p53 target genes were among the deregulated transcripts. We found that Wig-1 regulates FAS and 14-3-3σ mRNA independently of p53. We show that Wig-1 binds to FAS mRNA 3′-UTR and decreases its stability through an ARE in the 3′-UTR. Depletion of Wig-1 was associated with increased cell death and reduced cell cycle arrest upon DNA damage. Our results suggest a role of Wig-1 as a survival factor that directs the p53 stress response toward cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis through the regulation of FAS and 14-3-3σ mRNA levels. PMID:24469038

  13. Proteomic screening for Rho-kinase substrates by combining kinase and phosphatase inhibitors with 14-3-3ζ affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Nakayama, Masanori; Amano, Mutsuki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA is a molecular switch in various extracellular signals. Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK, a major effector of RhoA, regulates diverse cellular functions by phosphorylating cytoskeletal proteins, endocytic proteins, and polarity proteins. More than twenty Rho-kinase substrates have been reported, but the known substrates do not fully explain the Rho-kinase functions. Herein, we describe the comprehensive screening for Rho-kinase substrates by treating HeLa cells with Rho-kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. The cell lysates containing the phosphorylated substrates were then subjected to affinity chromatography using beads coated with 14-3-3 protein, which interacts with proteins containing phosphorylated serine or threonine residues, to enrich the phosphorylated proteins. The identities of the molecules and phosphorylation sites were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after tryptic digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment. The phosphorylated proteins whose phosphopeptide ion peaks were suppressed by treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor were regarded as candidate substrates. We identified 121 proteins as candidate substrates. We also identified phosphorylation sites in Partitioning defective 3 homolog (Par-3) at Ser143 and Ser144. We found that Rho-kinase phosphorylated Par-3 at Ser144 both in vitro and in vivo. The method used in this study would be applicable and useful to identify novel substrates of other kinases.

  14. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  15. Selective 14-3-3γ induction quenches p-β-catenin Ser37/Bax-enhanced cell death in cerebral cortical neurons during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lai, X J; Ye, S Q; Zheng, L; Li, L; Liu, Q R; Yu, S B; Pang, Y; Jin, S; Li, Q; Yu, A C H; Chen, X Q

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-induced cell death is a major cause of disability or death after stroke. Identifying the key intrinsic protective mechanisms induced by ischemia is critical for the development of effective stroke treatment. Here, we reported that 14-3-3γ was a selective ischemia-inducible survival factor in cerebral cortical neurons reducing cell death by downregulating Bax depend direct 14-3-3γ/p-β-catenin Ser37 interactions in the nucleus. 14-3-3γ, but not other 14-3-3 isoforms, was upregulated in primary cerebral cortical neurons upon oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) as measured by quantitative PCR, western blot and fluorescent immunostaining. The selective induction of 14-3-3γ in cortical neurons by OGD was verified by the in vivo ischemic stroke model. Knocking down 14-3-3γ alone or inhibiting 14-3-3/client interactions was sufficient to induce cell death in normal cultured neurons and exacerbate OGD-induced neuronal death. Ectopic overexpression of 14-3-3γ significantly reduced OGD-induced cell death in cultured neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer demonstrated that endogenous 14-3-3γ bound directly to more p-β-catenin Ser37 but not p-Bad, p-Ask-1, p-p53 and Bax. During OGD, p-β-catenin Ser37 but not p-β-catenin Ser45 was increased prominently, which correlated with Bax elevation in cortical neurons. OGD promoted the entry of 14-3-3γ into the nuclei, in correlation with the increase of nuclear p-β-catenin Ser37 in neurons. Overexpression of 14-3-3γ significantly reduced Bax expression, whereas knockdown of 14-3-3γ increased Bax in cortical neurons. Abolishing β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser37 (S37A) significantly reduced Bax and cell death in neurons upon OGD. Finally, 14-3-3γ overexpression completely suppressed β-catenin-enhanced Bax and cell death in neurons upon OGD. Based on these data, we propose that the 14-3-3γ/p-β-catenin Ser37/Bax axis determines cell survival or death of neurons during ischemia

  16. A Negative Regulatory Mechanism Involving 14-3-3ζ Limits Signaling Downstream of ROCK to Regulate Tissue Stiffness in Epidermal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kular, Jasreen; Scheer, Kaitlin G; Pyne, Natasha T; Allam, Amr H; Pollard, Anthony N; Magenau, Astrid; Wright, Rebecca L; Kolesnikoff, Natasha; Moretti, Paul A; Wullkopf, Lena; Stomski, Frank C; Cowin, Allison J; Woodcock, Joanna M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Pitson, Stuart M; Timpson, Paul; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Lopez, Angel F; Samuel, Michael S

    2015-12-21

    ROCK signaling causes epidermal hyper-proliferation by increasing ECM production, elevating dermal stiffness, and enhancing Fak-mediated mechano-transduction signaling. Elevated dermal stiffness in turn causes ROCK activation, establishing mechano-reciprocity, a positive feedback loop that can promote tumors. We have identified a negative feedback mechanism that limits excessive ROCK signaling during wound healing and is lost in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Signal flux through ROCK was selectively tuned down by increased levels of 14-3-3ζ, which interacted with Mypt1, a ROCK signaling antagonist. In 14-3-3ζ(-/-) mice, unrestrained ROCK signaling at wound margins elevated ECM production and reduced ECM remodeling, increasing dermal stiffness and causing rapid wound healing. Conversely, 14-3-3ζ deficiency enhanced cutaneous SCC size. Significantly, inhibiting 14-3-3ζ with a novel pharmacological agent accelerated wound healing 2-fold. Patient samples of chronic non-healing wounds overexpressed 14-3-3ζ, while cutaneous SCCs had reduced 14-3-3ζ. These results reveal a novel 14-3-3ζ-dependent mechanism that negatively regulates mechano-reciprocity, suggesting new therapeutic opportunities.

  17. A Negative Regulatory Mechanism Involving 14-3-3ζ Limits Signaling Downstream of ROCK to Regulate Tissue Stiffness in Epidermal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kular, Jasreen; Scheer, Kaitlin G; Pyne, Natasha T; Allam, Amr H; Pollard, Anthony N; Magenau, Astrid; Wright, Rebecca L; Kolesnikoff, Natasha; Moretti, Paul A; Wullkopf, Lena; Stomski, Frank C; Cowin, Allison J; Woodcock, Joanna M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Pitson, Stuart M; Timpson, Paul; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Lopez, Angel F; Samuel, Michael S

    2015-12-21

    ROCK signaling causes epidermal hyper-proliferation by increasing ECM production, elevating dermal stiffness, and enhancing Fak-mediated mechano-transduction signaling. Elevated dermal stiffness in turn causes ROCK activation, establishing mechano-reciprocity, a positive feedback loop that can promote tumors. We have identified a negative feedback mechanism that limits excessive ROCK signaling during wound healing and is lost in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Signal flux through ROCK was selectively tuned down by increased levels of 14-3-3ζ, which interacted with Mypt1, a ROCK signaling antagonist. In 14-3-3ζ(-/-) mice, unrestrained ROCK signaling at wound margins elevated ECM production and reduced ECM remodeling, increasing dermal stiffness and causing rapid wound healing. Conversely, 14-3-3ζ deficiency enhanced cutaneous SCC size. Significantly, inhibiting 14-3-3ζ with a novel pharmacological agent accelerated wound healing 2-fold. Patient samples of chronic non-healing wounds overexpressed 14-3-3ζ, while cutaneous SCCs had reduced 14-3-3ζ. These results reveal a novel 14-3-3ζ-dependent mechanism that negatively regulates mechano-reciprocity, suggesting new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26702834

  18. PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Plk1–Ser99 promotes association with 14-3-3γ and is required for metaphase–anaphase transition

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kousuke; Goto, Hidemasa; Izawa, Ichiro; Kiyono, Tohru; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Elowe, Sabine; Nigg, Erich A; Inagaki, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) controls multiple aspects of mitosis and is activated through its phosphorylation at Thr210. Here we identify Ser99 on Plk1 as a novel mitosis-specific phosphorylation site, which operates independently of Plk1–Thr210 phosphorylation. Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation creates a docking site for 14-3-3γ, and this interaction stimulates the catalytic activity of Plk1. Knockdown of 14-3-3γ or replacement of wild-type (WT) Plk1 by a Ser99-phospho-blocking mutant leads to a prometaphase/metaphase-like arrest due to the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt significantly reduces the level of Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation and delays metaphase to anaphase transition. Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation requires not only Akt activity but also protein(s) associated with Plk1 in a mitosis-specific manner. Therefore, mitotic Plk1 activity is regulated not only by Plk1–Thr210 phosphorylation, but also by Plk1 binding to 14-3-3γ following Plk1–Ser99 phosphorylation downstream of the PI3K–Akt signalling pathway. This novel Plk1 activation pathway controls proper progression from metaphase to anaphase. PMID:23695676

  19. Epstein-Barr virus Rta-mediated transactivation of p21 and 14-3-3σ arrests cells at the G1/S transition by reducing cyclin E/CDK2 activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Yen; Hsieh, Min-Jie; Chen, Chu-Ying; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chen, Jen-Yang; Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Lin, Su-Fang; Hsu, Tsuey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Many herpesviral immediate-early proteins promote their robust lytic phase replications by hijacking the cell cycle machinery. Previously, lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was found to be concurrent with host cell cycle arrest. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of EBV immediate-early protein Rta in HEp-2 cells resulted in increased G1/S population, hypophosphorylation of pRb and decreased incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. In addition, EBV Rta transcriptionally upregulates the expressions of p21 and 14-3-3σ in HEp-2 cells, 293 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma TW01 cells. Although p21 and 14-3-3σ are known targets for p53, Rta-mediated p21 and 14-3-3σ transactivation can be detected in the absence of p53. In addition, results from luciferase reporter assays indicated that direct binding of Rta to either promoter sequences is not required for activation. On the other hand, a special class of Sp1-responsive elements was involved in Rta-mediated transcriptional activation on both promoters. Finally, Rta-induced p21 expression diminished the activity of CDK2/cyclin E complex, and, Rta-induced 14-3-3σ expression sequestered CDK1 and CDK2 in the cytoplasm. Based on these results, we hypothesize that through the disruption of CDK1 and CDK2 activities, EBV Rta might contribute to cell cycle arrest in EBV-infected epithelial cells during viral reactivation. PMID:21918011

  20. A Biotin Switch-Based Proteomics Approach Identifies 14-3-3ζ as a Target of Sirt1 in the Metabolic Regulation of Caspase-2

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Joshua L.; Thompson, J. Will; Lindblom, Kelly R.; Johnson, Erika S.; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Lilley, Lauren R.; Freel, Christopher D.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Kornbluth, Sally

    2011-01-01

    While lysine acetylation in the nucleus is well characterized, comparatively little is known about its significance in cytoplasmic signaling. Here we show that inhibition of the Sirt1 deacetylase, which is primarily cytoplasmic in cancer cell lines, sensitizes these cells to caspase-2-dependent death. To identify relevant Sirt1 substrates, we developed a novel proteomics strategy, enabling the identification of a range of putative substrates, including 14-3-3ζ, a known direct regulator of caspase-2. We show here that inhibition of Sirtuin activity accelerates caspase activation and overrides caspase-2 suppression by nutrient abundance. Furthermore, 14-3-3ζ is acetylated prior to caspase activation, and supplementation of Xenopus egg extract with glucose-6-phosphate, which promotes caspase-2/14-3-3ζ binding, enhances 14-3-3ζ-directed Sirtuin activity. Conversely, inhibiting Sirtuin activity promotes 14-3-3ζ dissociation from caspase-2 in both egg extract and human cell lines. These data reveal a role for Sirt1 in modulating apoptotic sensitivity, in response to metabolic changes, by antagonizing 14-3-3ζ acetylation. PMID:21884983

  1. Computerized video time lapse study of cell cycle delay and arrest, mitotic catastrophe, apoptosis and clonogenic survival in irradiated 14-3-3sigma and CDKN1A (p21) knockout cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kenneth; Teele, Noella; Dewey, Michael W; Albright, Norman; Dewey, William C

    2004-09-01

    Computerized video time lapse (CVTL) microscopy was used to observe cellular events induced by ionizing radiation (10-12 Gy) in nonclonogenic cells of the wild-type HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell line and its three isogenic derivative lines in which p21 (CDKN1A), 14-3-3sigma or both checkpoint genes (double-knockout) had been knocked out. Cells that fused after mitosis or failed to complete mitosis were classified together as cells that underwent mitotic catastrophe. Seventeen percent of the wild-type cells and 34-47% of the knockout cells underwent mitotic catastrophe to enter generation 1 with a 4N content of DNA, i.e., the same DNA content as irradiated cells arrested in G(2) at the end of generation 0. Radiation caused a transient division delay in generation 0 before the cells divided or underwent mitotic catastrophe. Compared with the division delay for wild-type cells that express CDKN1A and 14-3-3sigma, knocking out CDKN1A reduced the delay the most for cells irradiated in G(1) (from approximately 15 h to approximately 3- 5 h), while knocking out 14-3-3sigma reduced the delay the most for cells irradiated in late S and G(2) (from approximately 18 h to approximately 3-4 h). However, 27% of wild-type cells and 17% of 14-3-3sigma(-/-) cells were arrested at 96 h in generation 0 compared with less than 1% for CDKN1A(-/-) and double-knockout cells. Thus expression of CDKN1A is necessary for the prolonged delay or arrest in generation 0. Furthermore, CDKN1A plays a crucial role in generation 1, greatly inhibiting progression into subsequent generations of both diploid cells and polyploid cells produced by mitotic catastrophe. Thus, in CDKN1A-deficient cell lines, a series of mitotic catastrophe events occurred to produce highly polyploid progeny during generations 3 and 4. Most importantly, the polyploid progeny produced by mitotic catastrophe events did not die sooner than the progeny of dividing cells. Death was identified as loss of cell movement, i

  2. Upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase a by 14-3-3ζ leads to increased glycolysis critical for breast cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Zhang, Chenyu; Zhang, Qingling; Sahin, Ozgur; Wang, Hai; Xu, Jia; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Li, Ping; Hung, Mien-Chie; Behbod, Fariba; Yu, Dihua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Elevated glycolysis in cancer cells switches the cellular metabolic flux to produce more biological building blocks, thereby sustaining rapid proliferation. Recently, new evidence has emerged that metabolic dysregulation may occur at early-stages of neoplasia and critically contribute to cancer initiation. Here, our bioinformatics analysis of microarray data from early-stages breast neoplastic lesions revealed that 14-3-3ζ expression is strongly correlated with the expression of canonical glycolytic genes, particularly lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Experimentally, increasing 14-3-3ζ expression in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) up-regulated LDHA expression, elevated glycolytic activity, and promoted early transformation. Knockdown of LDHA in the 14-3-3ζ-overexpressing hMECs significantly reduced glycolytic activity and inhibited transformation. Mechanistically, 14-3-3ζ overexpression activates the MEK-ERK-CREB axis, which subsequently up-regulates LDHA. In vivo, inhibiting the activated the MEK/ERK pathway in 14-3-3ζ-overexpressing hMEC-derived MCF10DCIS.COM lesions led to effective inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, targeting the MEK/ERK pathway could be an effective strategy for intervention of 14-3-3ζ-overexpressing early breast lesions. Together, our data demonstrate that overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in early stage pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells may trigger an elevated glycolysis and transcriptionally up-regulating LDHA, thereby contributes to human breast cancer initiation. PMID:27150057

  3. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and Histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrated that Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS. PMID:25757804

  4. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Goodman, Steven D

    2015-06-01

    Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrate that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS.

  5. Induction of AID-targeting adaptor 14-3-3γ is mediated by NF-κB-dependent recruitment of CFP1 to the 5′-CpG-3′-rich 14-3-3γ promoter and is sustained by E2A

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Thach; Pone, Egest J.; Li, Guideng; Lam, Tonika S.; Moehlman, J’aime; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) crucially diversifies antibody biological effectors functions. 14-3-3γ specifically binds to the 5′-AGCT-3′ repeats in the IgH locus switch (S) regions. By directly interacting with the C-terminal region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), 14-3-3γ targets this enzyme to S regions to mediate CSR. Here, we showed that 14-3-3γ was expressed in germinal center B cells in vivo and induced in B cells by T-dependent and T-independent primary CSR-inducing stimuli in vitro in humans and mice. Induction of 14-3-3γ was rapid, peaking within 3 h of stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sustained over the course of AID and CSR induction. It was dependent on recruitment of NF-κB to the 14-3-3γ gene promoter. The NF-κB recruitment enhanced the occupancy of the CpG island within the 14-3-3γ promoter by CFP1, a component of the COMPASS histone methyltransferase complex, and promoter-specific enrichment of histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), which is indicative of open chromatin state and marks transcription-competent promoters. NF-κB also potentiated the binding of B cell lineage-specific factor E2A to an E-box motif located immediately downstream of the two closely-spaced transcription start sites (TSSs) for sustained 14-3-3γ expression and CSR induction. Thus, 14-3-3γ induction in CSR is enabled by the CFP1-mediated H3K4me3 enrichment in the promoter, dependent on NF-κB and sustained by E2A. PMID:23851690

  6. Induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-targeting adaptor 14-3-3γ is mediated by NF-κB-dependent recruitment of CFP1 to the 5'-CpG-3'-rich 14-3-3γ promoter and is sustained by E2A.

    PubMed

    Mai, Thach; Pone, Egest J; Li, Guideng; Lam, Tonika S; Moehlman, J'aime; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-08-15

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) crucially diversifies Ab biologic effector functions. 14-3-3γ specifically binds to the 5'-AGCT-3' repeats in the IgH locus switch (S) regions. By interacting directly with the C-terminal region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), 14-3-3γ targets this enzyme to S regions to mediate CSR. In this study, we showed that 14-3-3γ was expressed in germinal center B cells in vivo and induced in B cells by T-dependent and T-independent primary CSR-inducing stimuli in vitro in humans and mice. Induction of 14-3-3γ was rapid, peaking within 3 h of stimulation by LPSs, and sustained over the course of AID and CSR induction. It was dependent on recruitment of NF-κB to the 14-3-3γ gene promoter. The NF-κB recruitment enhanced the occupancy of the CpG island within the 14-3-3γ promoter by CFP1, a component of the COMPASS histone methyltransferase complex, and promoter-specific enrichment of histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), which is indicative of open chromatin state and marks transcription-competent promoters. NF-κB also potentiated the binding of B cell lineage-specific factor E2A to an E-box motif located immediately downstream of the two closely-spaced transcription start sites for sustained 14-3-3γ expression and CSR induction. Thus, 14-3-3γ induction in CSR is enabled by the CFP1-mediated H3K4me3 enrichment in the promoter, dependent on NF-κB and sustained by E2A.

  7. Identification of candidate genes for psychosis in rat models, and possible association between schizophrenia and the 14-3-3eta gene.

    PubMed

    Wong, A H C; Macciardi, F; Klempan, T; Kawczynski, W; Barr, C L; Lakatoo, S; Wong, M; Buckle, C; Trakalo, J; Boffa, E; Oak, J; Azevedo, M-H; Dourado, A; Coelho, I; Macedo, A; Vicente, A; Valente, J; Ferreira, C P; Pato, M T; Pato, C N; Kennedy, J L; Van Tol, H H M

    2003-02-01

    Although the genetic contribution to schizophrenia is substantial, positive findings in whole-genome linkage scans have not been consistently replicated. We analyzed gene expression in various rat conditions to identify novel candidate genes for schizophrenia. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH), with polyA mRNA from temporal and frontal cortex of rats, was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Expression of mRNA was compared between adult Lewis and Fischer 344 (F344) rats, adult and postnatal day 6 (d6) F344, and adult F344 treated with haloperidol or control vehicle. These groups were chosen because each highlights a particular aspect of schizophrenia: differences in strain vulnerability to behavioral analogs of psychosis; factors that may relate to disease onset in relation to CNS development; and improvement of symptoms by haloperidol. The 14-3-3 gene family, as represented by 14-3-3gamma and 14-3-3zeta isoforms in the SSH study, and SNAP-25 were among the candidate genes. Genetic association between schizophrenia and the 14-3-3eta gene, positioned close to a genomic locus implicated in schizophrenia, and SNAP-25 genes was analyzed in 168 schizophrenia probands and their families. These findings address three different genes in the 14-3-3 family. We find a significant association with schizophrenia for two polymorphisms in the 14-3-3eta gene: a 7 bp variable number of tandem repeats in the 5' noncoding region (P=0.036, 1 df), and a 3' untranslated region SNP (753G/A) that is an RFLP visualized with Ava II (P=0.028). There was no significant genetic association with SNAP-25. The candidate genes identified may be of functional importance in the etiology, pathophysiology or treatment response of schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms. This is to our knowledge the first report of a significant association between the 14-3-3eta-chain gene and schizophrenia in a family-based sample, strengthening prior association reports in case-control studies and

  8. FUNCTIONAL INTERACTOMICS: DETERMINING THE ROLES PLAYED BY MEMBERS OF THE POPULAR BIOMASS PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTOME

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Eric; Brunner, Amy; Helm, Richard

    2015-07-31

    Proteins are molecular machines that are required for nearly all biological functions based on interactions with other molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, other low molecular weight molecules, nucleic acids and other proteins. Here we map protein-protein interactions relevant to biomass production by focusing on proteins coexpressed in poplar xylem, the site of the majority of lignocellulose synthesis and hence biomass accumulation in poplar. Work proposed here will yield novel biological and bioinformatic resources that can benefit a variety of ongoing and future projects focusing on plant biomass/cell wall biology. The protein-protein interaction map that results from these studies will comprise an advanced view of protein-protein interactions in a model biomass tissue. Results will be made available to the biomass research community to serve as tools for developing new strategies for altering biomass quality and quantity.

  9. Proteomic pathway analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder implicates 14-3-3 signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, and glucose metabolism: potential roles in GABAergic interneuron pathology.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Föcking, Melanie; Cotter, David R

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathological changes of the hippocampus have been associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent work has particularly implicated hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying structural and cellular hippocampal pathology remain poorly understood. We used data from comprehensive difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) investigations of postmortem human hippocampus of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, covering the acidic (isoelectric point (pI) between pH4 and 7) and, separately, the basic (pI between pH6 and 11) sub-proteome, for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of implicated protein networks and pathways. Comparing disease and control cases, we identified 58 unique differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and 70 differentially expressed proteins in bipolar disorder, using mass spectrometry. IPA implicated, most prominently, 14-3-3 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in schizophrenia, and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in bipolar disorder. Both disorders were characterized by alterations of proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and protein-endocytosis, -trafficking, -degradation, and -ubiquitination. These findings are interpreted with a focus on GABAergic interneuron pathology in the hippocampus.

  10. The FAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Giardia duodenalis: an unconventional enzyme that interacts with the g14-3-3 and it is a target of the antitumoral compound NBDHEX

    PubMed Central

    Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Finelli, Renata; Sferra, Gabriella; Müller, Joachim; Ricci, Giorgio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide parasite causing giardiasis, an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. Metabolism in G. duodenalis has a limited complexity thus making metabolic enzymes ideal targets for drug development. However, only few metabolic pathways (i.e., carbohydrates) have been described so far. Recently, the parasite homolog of the mitochondrial-like glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gG3PD) has been identified among the interactors of the g14-3-3 protein. G3PD is involved in glycolysis, electron transport, glycerophospholipids metabolism, and hyperosmotic stress response, and is emerging as promising target in tumor treatment. In this work, we demonstrate that gG3PD is a functional flavoenzyme able to convert glycerol-3-phosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and that its activity and the intracellular glycerol level increase during encystation. Taking advantage of co-immunoprecipitation assays and deletion mutants, we provide evidence that gG3PD and g14-3-3 interact at the trophozoite stage, the intracellular localization of gG3PD is stage dependent and it partially co-localizes with mitosomes during cyst development. Finally, we demonstrate that the gG3PD activity is affected by the antitumoral compound 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol, that results more effective in vitro at killing G. duodenalis trophozoites than the reference drug metronidazole. Overall, our results highlight the involvement of gG3PD in processes crucial for the parasite survival thus proposing this enzyme as target for novel antigiardial interventions. PMID:26082764

  11. Zinc can play chaperone-like and inhibitor roles during import of mitochondrial small Tim proteins.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce; Ang, Swee Kim; Yan, Guanhua; Lu, Hui

    2009-03-13

    Zinc is an essential cofactor required for the function of approximately 8% of the yeast and 10% of the human proteome. All of the "small Tim" proteins of the mitochondrial intermembrane space contain a strictly conserved "twin CX(3)C" zinc finger motif, which can bind zinc ions in the Cys-reduced form. We have shown previously that although disulfide bond formation is essential for the function of these proteins in mitochondria, only reduced proteins can be imported into mitochondria (Lu, H., Allen, S., Wardleworth, L., Savory, P., and Tokatlidis, K. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 18952-18958 and Morgan, B., and Lu, H. (2008) Biochem. J. 411, 115-122). However, the role of zinc during the import of these proteins is unclear. This study shows that the function of zinc is complex. It can play a thiol stabilizer role preventing oxidative folding of the small Tim proteins and maintaining the proteins in an import-competent form. On the other hand, zinc-bound forms cannot be imported into mitochondria efficiently. Furthermore, our results show that zinc is a powerful inhibitor of Erv1, an essential component of the import pathway used by the small Tim proteins. We propose that zinc plays a chaperone-like role in the cytosol during biogenesis of the small Tim proteins and that the proteins are imported into mitochondria through the apo-forms.

  12. Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Protein Plays Important Roles in Regulating Cell Adhesion, Morphology, Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei Kuen; Liang, Yong Jia; Chan, John Yeuk Hon; Wong, Sing Wan; Chen, Elve; Yao, Yao; Gan, Jingyi; Xiao, Lihai; Leung, Hin Cheung; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Wang, Hua; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML−/−) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative proteomics, total protein were extracted from PML−/− and PML+/+ MEFs, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels and the differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Nine proteins (PML, NDRG1, CACYBP, CFL1, RSU1, TRIO, CTRO, ANXA4 and UBE2M) were determined to be down-regulated in PML−/− MEFs. In contrast, ten proteins (CIAPIN1, FAM50A, SUMO2 HSPB1 NSFL1C, PCBP2, YWHAG, STMN1, TPD52L2 and PDAP1) were found up-regulated. Many of these differentially expressed proteins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, morphology and cytokinesis. The protein profiles explain why PML−/− and PML+/+ MEFs were morphologically different. In addition, we demonstrated PML−/− MEFs were less adhesive, proliferated more extensively and migrated significantly slower than PML+/+ MEFs. NDRG1, a protein that was down-regulated in PML−/− MEFs, was selected for further investigation. We determined that silencing NDRG1expression in PML+/+ MEFs increased cell proliferation and inhibited PML expression. Since NDRG expression was suppressed in PML−/− MEFs, this may explain why these cells proliferate more extensively than PML+/+ MEFs. Furthermore, silencing NDRG1expression also impaired TGF-β1 signaling by inhibiting SMAD3 phosphorylation. PMID:23555679

  13. Protein Oxidation in Aging: Does It Play a Role in Aging Progression?

    PubMed Central

    Reeg, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A constant accumulation of oxidized proteins takes place during aging. Oxidation of proteins leads to a partial unfolding and, therefore, to aggregation. Protein aggregates impair the activity of cellular proteolytic systems (proteasomes, lysosomes), resulting in further accumulation of oxidized proteins. In addition, the accumulation of highly crosslinked protein aggregates leads to further oxidant formation, damage to macromolecules, and, finally, to apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, protein oxidation seems to play a role in the development of various age-related diseases, for example, neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Advances: The highly oxidized lipofuscin accumulates during aging. Lipofuscin formation might cause impaired lysosomal and proteasomal degradation, metal ion accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Critical Issues: It is still unclear to which extent protein oxidation is involved in the progression of aging and in the development of some age-related diseases. Future Directions: An extensive knowledge of the effects of protein oxidation on the aging process and its contribution to the development of age-related diseases could enable further strategies to reduce age-related impairments. Strategies aimed at lowering aggregate formation might be a straightforward intervention to reduce age-related malfunctions of organs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 239–255. PMID:25178482

  14. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-03-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of approx. =72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation.

  15. The Nonstructural Proteins of Nipah Virus Play a Key Role in Pathogenicity in Experimentally Infected Animals

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Guillaume, Vanessa; Sato, Hiroki; Fujita, Kentaro; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Ikeda, Fusako; Omi, Mio; Muto-Terao, Yuri; Wild, T. Fabian; Kai, Chieko

    2010-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W). It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V−), rNiV(C−), and rNiV(W−), respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V−) and rNiV(C−) were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V−), rNiV(C−) and rNiV(W−) suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V−) and rNiV(C−) but not the rNiV(W−) virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo. PMID:20856799

  16. Mitochondrial OXA Translocase Plays a Major Role in Biogenesis of Inner-Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Sebastian B; Höpker, Jan; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schütze, Conny; Schrempp, Sandra G; Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Horvath, Susanne E; Frazier, Ann E; Gebert, Natalia; van der Laan, Martin; Bohnert, Maria; Warscheid, Bettina; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils

    2016-05-10

    The mitochondrial inner membrane harbors three protein translocases. Presequence translocase and carrier translocase are essential for importing nuclear-encoded proteins. The oxidase assembly (OXA) translocase is required for exporting mitochondrial-encoded proteins; however, different views exist about its relevance for nuclear-encoded proteins. We report that OXA plays a dual role in the biogenesis of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins. First, a systematic analysis of OXA-deficient mitochondria led to an unexpected expansion of the spectrum of OXA substrates imported via the presequence pathway. Second, biogenesis of numerous metabolite carriers depends on OXA, although they are not imported by the presequence pathway. We show that OXA is crucial for the biogenesis of the Tim18-Sdh3 module of the carrier translocase. The export translocase OXA is thus required for the import of metabolite carriers by promoting assembly of the carrier translocase. We conclude that OXA is of central importance for the biogenesis of the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  17. Mitochondrial OXA Translocase Plays a Major Role in Biogenesis of Inner-Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Sebastian B; Höpker, Jan; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schütze, Conny; Schrempp, Sandra G; Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Horvath, Susanne E; Frazier, Ann E; Gebert, Natalia; van der Laan, Martin; Bohnert, Maria; Warscheid, Bettina; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils

    2016-05-10

    The mitochondrial inner membrane harbors three protein translocases. Presequence translocase and carrier translocase are essential for importing nuclear-encoded proteins. The oxidase assembly (OXA) translocase is required for exporting mitochondrial-encoded proteins; however, different views exist about its relevance for nuclear-encoded proteins. We report that OXA plays a dual role in the biogenesis of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins. First, a systematic analysis of OXA-deficient mitochondria led to an unexpected expansion of the spectrum of OXA substrates imported via the presequence pathway. Second, biogenesis of numerous metabolite carriers depends on OXA, although they are not imported by the presequence pathway. We show that OXA is crucial for the biogenesis of the Tim18-Sdh3 module of the carrier translocase. The export translocase OXA is thus required for the import of metabolite carriers by promoting assembly of the carrier translocase. We conclude that OXA is of central importance for the biogenesis of the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:27166948

  18. The Salmonella effector protein SifA plays a dual role in virulence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weidong; Moest, Thomas; Zhao, Yaya; Guilhon, Aude-Agnès; Buffat, Christophe; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Méresse, Stéphane

    2015-08-13

    The virulence of Salmonella relies on the expression of effector proteins that the bacterium injects inside infected cells. Salmonella enters eukaryotic cells and resides in a vacuolar compartment on which a number of effector proteins such as SifA are found. SifA plays an essential role in Salmonella virulence. It is made of two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain of SifA interacts with the host protein SKIP. This interaction regulates vacuolar membrane dynamics. The C-terminal has a fold similar to other bacterial effector domains having a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. Although SifA interacts with RhoA, it does not stimulate the dissociation of GDP and the activation of this GTPase. Hence it remains unknown whether the C-terminal domain contributes to the function of SifA in virulence. We used a model of SKIP knockout mice to show that this protein mediates the host susceptibility to salmonellosis and to establish that SifA also contributes to Salmonella virulence independently of its interaction with SKIP. We establish that the C-terminal domain of SifA mediates this SKIP-independent contribution. Moreover, we show that the two domains of SifA are functionally linked and participate to the same signalling cascade that supports Salmonella virulence.

  19. The Salmonella effector protein SifA plays a dual role in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weidong; Moest, Thomas; Zhao, Yaya; Guilhon, Aude-Agnès; Buffat, Christophe; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Méresse, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The virulence of Salmonella relies on the expression of effector proteins that the bacterium injects inside infected cells. Salmonella enters eukaryotic cells and resides in a vacuolar compartment on which a number of effector proteins such as SifA are found. SifA plays an essential role in Salmonella virulence. It is made of two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain of SifA interacts with the host protein SKIP. This interaction regulates vacuolar membrane dynamics. The C-terminal has a fold similar to other bacterial effector domains having a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. Although SifA interacts with RhoA, it does not stimulate the dissociation of GDP and the activation of this GTPase. Hence it remains unknown whether the C-terminal domain contributes to the function of SifA in virulence. We used a model of SKIP knockout mice to show that this protein mediates the host susceptibility to salmonellosis and to establish that SifA also contributes to Salmonella virulence independently of its interaction with SKIP. We establish that the C-terminal domain of SifA mediates this SKIP-independent contribution. Moreover, we show that the two domains of SifA are functionally linked and participate to the same signalling cascade that supports Salmonella virulence. PMID:26268777

  20. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  1. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  2. Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Plays a Major Role in Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Saumyaa; Pujanauski, Lindsey; Colino, Jesus; Flora, Michael; Torres, Raul M; Tuomanen, Elaine; Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-05-01

    Intact, inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae [including the unencapsulated S. pneumoniae, serotype 2 strain (R36A)] markedly inhibits the humoral immune response to coimmunized heterologous proteins, a property not observed with several other intact Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we determined the nature of this immunosuppressive property. Because phosphorylcholine (PC), a major haptenic component of teichoic acid in the S. pneumoniae cell wall, and lipoteichoic acid in the S. pneumoniae membrane were previously reported to be immunosuppressive when derived from filarial parasites, we determined whether R36A lacking PC (R36A(pc-)) was inhibitory. Indeed, although R36A(pc-) exhibited a markedly reduced level of inhibition of the IgG response to coimmunized chicken OVA (cOVA), no inhibition was observed when using several other distinct PC-expressing bacteria or a soluble, protein-PC conjugate. Further, treatment of R36A with periodate, which selectively destroys PC residues, had no effect on R36A-mediated inhibition. Because R36A(pc-) also lacks choline-binding proteins (CBPs) that require PC for cell wall attachment, and because treatment of R36A with trypsin eliminated its inhibitory activity, we incubated R36A in choline chloride, which selectively strips CBPs from its surface. R36A lacking CBPs lost most of its inhibitory property, whereas the supernatant of choline chloride-treated R36A, containing CBPs, was markedly inhibitory. Coimmunization studies using cOVA and various S. pneumoniae mutants, each genetically deficient in one of the CBPs, demonstrated that only S. pneumoniae lacking the CBP pneumococcal surface protein A lost its ability to inhibit the IgG anti-cOVA response. These results strongly suggest that PspA plays a major role in mediating the immunosuppressive property of S. pneumoniae.

  3. Membrane associated protein flotillin-2 in Litopenaeus vannamei plays a role in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Guo, Guangran; Liu, Rongdiao; Wang, Chuanqi; Xu, Xun; Ruan, Lingwei

    2016-07-01

    Flotillin-2, an important protein of vesicular endocytosis, plays an essential role in a large number of cellular processes, including viruses and pathogen infection. In the present study, a flotillin-2 homolog in Litopenaeus vannamei, designed as Lvflotillin-2, was cloned and characterized. To analyze the putative role of Lvflotillin-2 during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, real-time quantitative PCR was performed. The result showed that the transcriptional level of Lvflotillin-2 was up-regulated significantly after virus challenge. Furthermore, upon WSSV stimulation, Lvflotillin-2 in shrimp cells could translocate from the plasma membrane to intracellular compartments, and unexpectedly, also into nucleus. Additionally, depletion of Lvflotillin-2 inhibited WSSV gene ie1 transcription. It suggested that Lvflotillin-2 could be hijacked by WSSV. These observations indicated that Lvflotillin-2 was involved in WSSV infection, and presented here should be useful for gaining insight into shrimp immunity and WSSV pathogenesis.

  4. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 plays an important role in normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-06-10

    Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

  5. The PICALM protein plays a key role in iron homeostasis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Scotland, Paula B; Heath, Jessica L; Conway, Amanda E; Porter, Natasha B; Armstrong, Michael B; Walker, Jennifer A; Klebig, Mitchell L; Lavau, Catherine P; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly (PICALM) protein associates with the plasma membrane, binds clathrin, and plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies have recently linked the PICALM locus to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Inactivating and hypomorphic Picalm mutations in mice cause different degrees of severity of anemia, abnormal iron metabolism, growth retardation and shortened lifespan. To understand PICALM's function, we studied the consequences of PICALM overexpression and characterized PICALM-deficient cells derived from mutant fit1 mice. Our results identify a role for PICALM in transferrin receptor (TfR) internalization and demonstrate that the C-terminal PICALM residues are critical for its association with clathrin and for the inhibitory effect of PICALM overexpression on TfR internalization. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that are deficient in PICALM display several characteristics of iron deficiency (increased surface TfR expression, decreased intracellular iron levels, and reduced cellular proliferation), all of which are rescued by retroviral PICALM expression. The proliferation defect of cells that lack PICALM results, at least in part, from insufficient iron uptake, since it can be corrected by iron supplementation. Moreover, PICALM-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to iron chelation. Taken together, these data reveal that PICALM plays a critical role in iron homeostasis, and offer new perspectives into the pathogenesis of PICALM-associated diseases.

  6. IκB kinase-induced interaction of TPL-2 kinase with 14-3-3 is essential for Toll-like receptor activation of ERK-1 and -2 MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Brender, Christine; Martin, Stephen R; Janzen, Julia; Kjaer, Sven; Smerdon, Stephen J; Ley, Steven C

    2014-06-10

    The MEK-1/2 kinase TPL-2 is critical for Toll-like receptor activation of the ERK-1/2 MAP kinase pathway during inflammatory responses, but it can transform cells following C-terminal truncation. IκB kinase (IKK) complex phosphorylation of the TPL-2 C terminus regulates full-length TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2 by a mechanism that has remained obscure. Here, we show that TPL-2 Ser-400 phosphorylation by IKK and TPL-2 Ser-443 autophosphorylation cooperated to trigger TPL-2 association with 14-3-3. Recruitment of 14-3-3 to the phosphorylated C terminus stimulated TPL-2 MEK-1 kinase activity, which was essential for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2. The binding of 14-3-3 to TPL-2 was also indispensible for lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor by macrophages, which is regulated by TPL-2 independently of ERK-1/2 activation. Our data identify a key step in the activation of TPL-2 signaling and provide a mechanistic insight into how C-terminal deletion triggers the oncogenic potential of TPL-2 by rendering its kinase activity independent of 14-3-3 binding.

  7. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  8. ING2 (inhibitor of growth protein-2) plays a crucial role in preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Juanjuan; Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing

    2016-02-01

    ING2 (inhibitor of growth protein-2) is a member of the ING-gene family and participates in diverse cellular processes involving tumor suppression, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence. As a subunit of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex co-repressor complex, ING2 binds to H3K4me3 to regulate chromatin modification and gene expression. Additionally, ING2 recruits histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity for gene repression, which is independent of the HDAC class I or II pathway. However, the physiological function of ING2 in mouse preimplantation embryo development has not yet been characterized previously. The expression, localization and function of ING2 during preimplantation development were investigated in this study. We showed increasing expression of ING2 within the nucleus from the 4-cell embryo stage onwards; and that down-regulation of ING2 expression by endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA (esiRNA) microinjection results in developmental arrest during the morula to blastocyst transition. Embryonic cells microinjected with ING2-specific esiRNA exhibited decreased blastulation rate compared to the negative control. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism indicated that down-regulation of ING2 significantly increased expression of p21, whilst decreasing expression of HDAC1. These results suggest that ING2 may play a crucial role in the process of preimplantation embryo development through chromatin regulation.

  9. GPR55, a G-Protein Coupled Receptor for Lysophosphatidylinositol, Plays a Role in Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P.; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior. PMID:23565223

  10. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  11. Endocytosis plays a critical role in proteolytic processing of the Hendra virus fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Meulendyke, Kelly Ann; Wurth, Mark Allen; McCann, Richard O; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2005-10-01

    The Hendra virus fusion (F) protein is synthesized as a precursor protein, F(0), which is proteolytically processed to the mature form, F(1) + F(2). Unlike the case for the majority of paramyxovirus F proteins, the processing event is furin independent, does not require the addition of exogenous proteases, is not affected by reductions in intracellular Ca(2+), and is strongly affected by conditions that raise the intracellular pH (C. T. Pager, M. A. Wurth, and R. E. Dutch, J. Virol. 78:9154-9163, 2004). The Hendra virus F protein cytoplasmic tail contains a consensus motif for endocytosis, YXXPhi. To analyze the potential role of endocytosis in the processing and membrane fusion promotion of the Hendra virus F protein, mutation of tyrosine 525 to alanine (Hendra virus F Y525A) or phenylalanine (Hendra virus F Y525F) was performed. The rate of endocytosis of Hendra virus F Y525A was significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type (wt) F protein, confirming the functional importance of the endocytosis motif. An intermediate level of endocytosis was observed for Hendra virus F Y525F. Surprisingly, dramatic reductions in the rate of proteolytic processing were observed for Hendra virus F Y525A, although initial transport to the cell surface was not affected. The levels of surface expression for both Hendra virus F Y525A and Hendra virus F Y525F were higher than that of the wt protein, and these mutants displayed enhanced syncytium formation. These results suggest that endocytosis is critically important for Hendra virus F protein cleavage, representing a new paradigm for proteolytic processing of paramyxovirus F proteins.

  12. Rha1, an Arabidopsis Rab5 homolog, plays a critical role in the vacuolar trafficking of soluble cargo proteins.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Ju; Kim, Eol Sun; Zhao, Min; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Yong-Woo; Lee, Yong Jik; Hillmer, Stefan; Sohn, Uik; Jiang, Liwen; Hwang, Inhwan

    2003-05-01

    Rab proteins are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP binding proteins and play important roles in various intracellular trafficking steps. We investigated the role of Rha1, an Arabidopsis Rab5 homolog, in intracellular trafficking in Arabidopsis protoplasts. In the presence of a dominant-negative mutant of Rha1, soluble vacuolar cargo proteins such as sporamin:green fluorescent protein (Spo:GFP) and Arabidopsis aleurain like protein:GFP are not delivered to the central vacuole; instead, they accumulate as a diffuse or punctate staining pattern within the cell. Spo:GFP at the punctate stains observed in the presence of hemagglutinin:Rha1[S24N] is colocalized with endogenous vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR(At-1)), which is known to localize primarily to the prevacuolar compartment, whereas Spo:GFP in the diffuse pattern is associated with tonoplasts. Furthermore, expression of Rha1[S24N] causes the secretion of a portion of the vacuolar proteins into medium. However, the inhibitory effect of Rha1[S24N] on vacuolar trafficking is relieved partially by coexpressed wild-type Rha1. Based on these results, we propose that Rha1 plays a critical role in the trafficking of soluble cargoes from the prevacuolar compartment to the central vacuole.

  13. ClpB N-terminal domain plays a regulatory role in protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Rina; Farber, Patrick; Velyvis, Algirdas; Rennella, Enrico; Latham, Michael P.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2015-01-01

    ClpB/Hsp100 is an ATP-dependent disaggregase that solubilizes and reactivates protein aggregates in cooperation with the DnaK/Hsp70 chaperone system. The ClpB–substrate interaction is mediated by conserved tyrosine residues located in flexible loops in nucleotide-binding domain-1 that extend into the ClpB central pore. In addition to the tyrosines, the ClpB N-terminal domain (NTD) was suggested to provide a second substrate-binding site; however, the manner in which the NTD recognizes and binds substrate proteins has remained elusive. Herein, we present an NMR spectroscopy study to structurally characterize the NTD–substrate interaction. We show that the NTD includes a substrate-binding groove that specifically recognizes exposed hydrophobic stretches in unfolded or aggregated client proteins. Using an optimized segmental labeling technique in combination with methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR, the interaction of client proteins with both the NTD and the pore-loop tyrosines in the 580-kDa ClpB hexamer has been characterized. Unlike contacts with the tyrosines, the NTD–substrate interaction is independent of the ClpB nucleotide state and protein conformational changes that result from ATP hydrolysis. The NTD interaction destabilizes client proteins, priming them for subsequent unfolding and translocation. Mutations in the NTD substrate-binding groove are shown to have a dramatic effect on protein translocation through the ClpB central pore, suggesting that, before their interaction with substrates, the NTDs block the translocation channel. Together, our findings provide both a detailed characterization of the NTD–substrate complex and insight into the functional regulatory role of the ClpB NTD in protein disaggregation. PMID:26621746

  14. Botrytis cinerea Protein O-Mannosyltransferases Play Critical Roles in Morphogenesis, Growth, and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    González, Mario; Brito, Nélida; Frías, Marcos; González, Celedonio

    2013-01-01

    Protein O-glycosylation is crucial in determining the structure and function of numerous secreted and membrane-bound proteins. In fungi, this process begins with the addition of a mannose residue by protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs) in the lumen side of the ER membrane. We have generated mutants of the three Botrytis cinerea pmt genes to study their role in the virulence of this wide-range plant pathogen. B. cinerea PMTs, especially PMT2, are critical for the stability of the cell wall and are necessary for sporulation and for the generation of the extracellular matrix. PMTs are also individually required for full virulence in a variety of hosts, with a special role in the penetration of intact plant leaves. The most significant case is that of grapevine leaves, whose penetration requires the three functional PMTs. Furthermore, PMT2 also contributes significantly to fungal adherence on grapevine and tobacco leaves. Analysis of extracellular and membrane proteins showed significant changes in the pattern of protein secretion and glycosylation by the pmt mutants, and allowed the identification of new protein substrates putatively glycosylated by specific PMTs. Since plants do no possess these enzymes, PMTs constitute a promising target in the development of novel control strategies against B. cinerea. PMID:23762450

  15. Nonstructural Protein NP1 of Human Bocavirus 1 Plays a Critical Role in the Expression of Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Cheng, Fang; Shen, Weiran; Engelhardt, John F.; Yan, Ziying

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel chimeric parvoviral vector, rAAV2/HBoV1, in which the recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) genome is pseudopackaged by the human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) capsid, has been shown to be highly efficient in gene delivery to human airway epithelia (Z. Yan et al., Mol Ther 21:2181–2194, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2013.92). In this vector production system, we used an HBoV1 packaging plasmid, pHBoV1NSCap, that harbors HBoV1 nonstructural protein (NS) and capsid protein (Cap) genes. In order to simplify this packaging plasmid, we investigated the involvement of the HBoV1 NS proteins in capsid protein expression. We found that NP1, a small NS protein encoded by the middle open reading frame, is required for the expression of the viral capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, and VP3). We also found that the other NS proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3, and NS4) are not required for the expression of VP proteins. We performed systematic analyses of the HBoV1 mRNAs transcribed from the pHBoV1NSCap packaging plasmid and its derivatives in HEK 293 cells. Mechanistically, we found that NP1 is required for both the splicing and the read-through of the proximal polyadenylation site of the HBoV1 precursor mRNA, essential functions for the maturation of capsid protein-encoding mRNA. Thus, our study provides a unique example of how a small viral nonstructural protein facilitates the multifaceted regulation of capsid gene expression. IMPORTANCE A novel chimeric parvoviral vector, rAAV2/HBoV1, expressing a full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, is capable of correcting CFTR-dependent chloride transport in cystic fibrosis human airway epithelium. Previously, an HBoV1 nonstructural and capsid protein-expressing plasmid, pHBoV1NSCap, was used to package the rAAV2/HBoV1 vector, but yields remained low. In this study, we demonstrated that the nonstructural protein NP1 is required for the expression of capsid proteins. However, we found that the

  16. Cooperative hydration effect causes thermal unfolding of proteins and water activity plays a key role in protein stability in solutions.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Osato; Dozen, Michiko; Hirota, Kaede

    2016-08-01

    The protein unfolding process observed in a narrow temperature range was clearly explained by evaluating the small difference in the enthalpy of hydrogen-bonding between amino acid residues and the hydration of amino acid residue separately. In aqueous solutions, the effect of cosolute on the protein stability is primarily dependent on water activity, aw, the role of which has been long neglected in the literature. The effect of aw on protein stability works as a power law so that a small change in aw is amplified substantially through the cooperative hydration effect. In the present approach, the role of hydrophobic interaction stands behind. This affects protein stability indirectly through the change in solution structure caused by the existence of cosolute.

  17. Cooperative hydration effect causes thermal unfolding of proteins and water activity plays a key role in protein stability in solutions.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Osato; Dozen, Michiko; Hirota, Kaede

    2016-08-01

    The protein unfolding process observed in a narrow temperature range was clearly explained by evaluating the small difference in the enthalpy of hydrogen-bonding between amino acid residues and the hydration of amino acid residue separately. In aqueous solutions, the effect of cosolute on the protein stability is primarily dependent on water activity, aw, the role of which has been long neglected in the literature. The effect of aw on protein stability works as a power law so that a small change in aw is amplified substantially through the cooperative hydration effect. In the present approach, the role of hydrophobic interaction stands behind. This affects protein stability indirectly through the change in solution structure caused by the existence of cosolute. PMID:26896315

  18. PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sizhou; Li, Qian; Alberts, Ian; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-03-01

    The human protein kinase X gene (PRKX) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are both c-AMP-dependent serine/threonine protein kinases within the protein kinase AGC subgroup. Of all the protein kinases in this group, PRKX is the least studied. PRKX has been isolated from patients with chondrodysplasia punctate and is involved in numerous processes, including sexual differentiation and fertilization, normal kidney development and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), blood maturation, neural development, and angiogenesis in vitro. Although the role of PRKX in development and disease has been reported recently, the underlying mechanism of PRKX activity is largely unknown. In addition, based on the expression pattern of PRKX and the extensive role of PKA in disease and development, PRKX might have additional crucial functions that have not been addressed in the literature. In this review, we summarize the characteristics and developmental functions of PRKX that have been reported by recent studies. In particular, we elucidate the structural and functional differences between PRKX and PKA, as well as the possible roles of PRKX in development and related diseases. Finally, we propose future studies that could lead to important discoveries of more PRKX functions and the underlying mechanisms involved. PMID:26252946

  19. Association of the Astrovirus Structural Protein VP90 with Membranes Plays a Role in Virus Morphogenesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Ernesto; Aguirre-Crespo, Gabriela; Zavala, Guadalupe; Arias, Carlos F.

    2007-01-01

    VP90, the capsid polyprotein precursor of human astrovirus Yuc8, is assembled into viral particles, and its processing at the carboxy terminus by cellular caspases, to yield VP70, has been correlated with the cell release of the virus. Here, we characterized the effect of the VP90-VP70 processing on the properties of these proteins, as well as on their intracellular distribution. VP90 was found in membrane-enriched fractions (mVP90), as well as in fractions enriched in cytosolic proteins (cVP90), while VP70 was found exclusively in the latter fractions. Upon trypsin activation, infectivity was detected in all VP90-containing fractions, confirming that both mVP90 and cVP90 are able to assemble into particles; however, the two forms of VP90 showed differential sensitivities to trypsin, especially at their carboxy termini, which in the case of mVP90 was shown to remain membrane associated after protease digestion. Structural protein oligomers were detected in purified VP70-containing viruses, as well as in membrane-enriched fractions, but they were less evident in cytosolic fractions. Ultrastructural studies of infected cells revealed different types of viral particles, some of which appeared to be associated with membranes. By immunoelectron microscopy, structural proteins were shown to form virus particles in clusters and to associate with the edges of vesicles induced during infection, which also appear to contain subviral particles inside. Nonstructural proteins and viral RNA colocalized with mVP90, but not with cVP90, suggesting that mVP90 might represent the form of the protein that is initially assembled into particles, at the sites where the virus genome is being replicated. PMID:17652389

  20. Onion yellow phytoplasma P38 protein plays a role in adhesion to the hosts.

    PubMed

    Neriya, Yutaro; Maejima, Kensaku; Nijo, Takamichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Yusa, Akira; Himeno, Misako; Netsu, Osamu; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2014-12-01

    Adhesins are microbial surface proteins that mediate the adherence of microbial pathogens to host cell surfaces. In Mollicutes, several adhesins have been reported in mycoplasmas and spiroplasmas. Adhesins P40 of Mycoplasma agalactiae and P89 of Spiroplasma citri contain a conserved amino acid sequence known as the Mollicutes adhesin motif (MAM), whose function in the host cell adhesion remains unclear. Here, we show that phytoplasmas, which are plant-pathogenic mollicutes transmitted by insect vectors, possess an adhesion-containing MAM that was identified in a putative membrane protein, PAM289 (P38), of the 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris,' OY strain. P38 homologs and their MAMs were highly conserved in related phytoplasma strains. While P38 protein was expressed in OY-infected insect and plant hosts, binding assays showed that P38 interacts with insect extract, and weakly with plant extract. Interestingly, the interaction of P38 with the insect extract depended on MAM. These results suggest that P38 is a phytoplasma adhesin that interacts with the hosts. In addition, the MAM of adhesins is important for the interaction between P38 protein and hosts.

  1. Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat protein SOAR1 plays a critical role in abscisic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Chao; Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Lu, Yan-Fen; Wu, Fu-Qing; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Feng, Xiu-Jing; Portoles Comeras, Sergi; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A dominant suppressor of the ABAR overexpressor, soar1-1D, from CHLH/ABAR [coding for Mg-chelatase H subunit/putative abscisic acid (ABA) receptor (ABAR)] overexpression lines was screened to explore the mechanism of the ABAR-mediated ABA signalling. The SOAR1 gene encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein which localizes to both the cytosol and nucleus. Down-regulation of SOAR1 strongly enhances, but up-regulation of SOAR1 almost completely impairs, ABA responses, revealing that SOAR1 is a critical, negative, regulator of ABA signalling. Further genetic evidence supports that SOAR1 functions downstream of ABAR and probably upstream of an ABA-responsive transcription factor ABI5. Changes in the SOAR1 expression alter expression of a subset of ABA-responsive genes including ABI5. These findings provide important information to elucidate further the functional mechanism of PPR proteins and the complicated ABA signalling network. PMID:25005137

  2. Septate Junction Proteins Play Essential Roles in Morphogenesis Throughout Embryonic Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sonia; Ward, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood–brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them. Here we examined embryos with mutations in nine different core SJ genes and found that all nine result in defects in embryonic development as early as germ band retraction, with the most penetrant defect observed in head involution. SJ genes are also required for cell shape changes and cell rearrangements that drive the elongation of the salivary gland during midembryogenesis. Interestingly, these developmental events occur at a time prior to the formation of the occluding junction, when SJ proteins localize along the lateral membrane and have not yet coalesced into the region of the SJ. Together, these observations reveal an underappreciated role for a large group of SJ genes in essential developmental events during embryogenesis, and suggest that the function of these proteins in facilitating cell shape changes and rearrangements is independent of their role in the occluding junction. PMID:27261004

  3. The Methionine-aromatic Motif Plays a Unique Role in Stabilizing Protein Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Christopher C.; Cembran, Alessandro; Perlmutter, Jason D.; Lewis, Andrew K.; Labello, Nicholas P.; Gao, Jiali; Sachs, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    Of the 20 amino acids, the precise function of methionine (Met) remains among the least well understood. To establish a determining characteristic of methionine that fundamentally differentiates it from purely hydrophobic residues, we have used in vitro cellular experiments, molecular simulations, quantum calculations, and a bioinformatics screen of the Protein Data Bank. We show that approximately one-third of all known protein structures contain an energetically stabilizing Met-aromatic motif and, remarkably, that greater than 10,000 structures contain this motif more than 10 times. Critically, we show that as compared with a purely hydrophobic interaction, the Met-aromatic motif yields an additional stabilization of 1–1.5 kcal/mol. To highlight its importance and to dissect the energetic underpinnings of this motif, we have studied two clinically relevant TNF ligand-receptor complexes, namely TRAIL-DR5 and LTα-TNFR1. In both cases, we show that the motif is necessary for high affinity ligand binding as well as function. Additionally, we highlight previously overlooked instances of the motif in several disease-related Met mutations. Our results strongly suggest that the Met-aromatic motif should be exploited in the rational design of therapeutics targeting a range of proteins. PMID:22859300

  4. The Not4 E3 Ligase and CCR4 Deadenylase Play Distinct Roles in Protein Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Halter, David; Collart, Martine A.; Panasenko, Olesya O.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells control their proteome by regulating protein production and protein clearance. Protein production is determined to a large extent by mRNA levels, whereas protein degradation depends mostly upon the proteasome. Dysfunction of the proteasome leads to the accumulation of non-functional proteins that can aggregate, be toxic for the cell, and, in extreme cases, lead to cell death. mRNA levels are controlled by their rates of synthesis and degradation. Recent evidence indicates that these rates have oppositely co-evolved to ensure appropriate mRNA levels. This opposite co-evolution has been correlated with the mutations in the Ccr4-Not complex. Consistently, the deadenylation enzymes responsible for the rate-limiting step in eukaryotic mRNA degradation, Caf1 and Ccr4, are subunits of the Ccr4-Not complex. Another subunit of this complex is a RING E3 ligase, Not4. It is essential for cellular protein solubility and has been proposed to be involved in co-translational quality control. An open question has been whether this role of Not4 resides strictly in the regulation of the deadenylation module of the Ccr4-Not complex. However, Not4 is important for proper assembly of the proteasome, and the Ccr4-Not complex may have multiple functional modules that participate in protein quality control in different ways. In this work we studied how the functions of the Caf1/Ccr4 and Not4 modules are connected. We concluded that Not4 plays a role in protein quality control independently of the Ccr4 deadenylase, and that it is involved in clearance of aberrant proteins at least in part via the proteasome. PMID:24465968

  5. Cockayne syndrome group B protein (CSB) plays a general role in chromatin maintenance and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Bailey, Arnold D.; Weiner, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder with progeroid features. Although the genes responsible for CS have been implicated in a variety of DNA repair- and transcription-related pathways, the nature of the molecular defect in CS remains mysterious. Using expression microarrays and a unique method for comparative expression analysis called L2L, we sought to define this defect in cells lacking a functional CS group B (CSB) protein, the SWI/SNF-like ATPase responsible for most cases of CS. Remarkably, many of the genes regulated by CSB are also affected by inhibitors of histone deacetylase and DNA methylation, as well as by defects in poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase function and RNA polymerase II elongation. Moreover, consistent with these microarray expression data, CSB-null cells are sensitive to inhibitors of histone deacetylase or poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. Our data indicate a general role for CSB protein in maintenance and remodeling of chromatin structure and suggest that CS is a disease of transcriptional deregulation caused by misexpression of growth-suppressive, inflammatory, and proapoptotic pathways. PMID:16772382

  6. IRE1/bZIP60-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Plays Distinct Roles in Plant Immunity and Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Francisca; Boatwright, Jon Lucas; Moreno, Ignacio; Jordan, Melissa R.; Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica; Dong, Xinnian

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA). However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR), whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm)-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent functions in

  7. Gravity Plays an Important Role in Muscle Development and the Differentiation of Contractile Protein Phenotype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4

  8. Inner nuclear envelope protein SUN1 plays a prominent role in mammalian mRNA export

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear export of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can be roughly classified into two forms: bulk and specific export, involving an nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)-dependent pathway and chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent pathway, respectively. SUN proteins constitute the inner nuclear envelope component of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Here, we show that mammalian cells require SUN1 for efficient nuclear mRNP export. The results indicate that both SUN1 and SUN2 interact with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) F/H and hnRNP K/J. SUN1 depletion inhibits the mRNP export, with accumulations of both hnRNPs and poly(A)+RNA in the nucleus. Leptomycin B treatment indicates that SUN1 functions in mammalian mRNA export involving the NXF1-dependent pathway. SUN1 mediates mRNA export through its association with mRNP complexes via a direct interaction with NXF1. Additionally, SUN1 associates with the NPC through a direct interaction with Nup153, a nuclear pore component involved in mRNA export. Taken together, our results reveal that the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN1 has additional functions aside from being a central component of the LINC complex and that it is an integral component of the mammalian mRNA export pathway suggesting a model whereby SUN1 recruits NXF1-containing mRNP onto the nuclear envelope and hands it over to Nup153. PMID:26476453

  9. The Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm-associated protein plays a role in adherence to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brossard, Kari A; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant source of nosocomial infections worldwide. This bacterium has the ability to survive and persist on multiple abiotic surfaces in health care facilities, and once a focus has been established, this opportunistic pathogen is difficult to eradicate. This paper demonstrates that the A. baumannii biofilm-associated protein (Bap) is necessary for mature biofilm formation on medically relevant surfaces, including polypropylene, polystyrene, and titanium. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of biofilms show that Bap is required for three-dimensional tower structure and water channel formation. In conjunction with persistence on abiotic surfaces, adherence to eukaryotic cells is an important step in bacterial colonization resulting in infection of the host. We have described Bap as the surface structure involved in adherence of A. baumannii to both normal human bronchial epithelial cells and normal human neonatal keratinocytes. However, Bap is not involved in internalization of the bacterium in these two cell lines. Furthermore, this study shows that the presence of Bap increases the bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity. The results of this study are pertinent, as the data lead to a better understanding of the role of Bap in biofilm formation on medical surfaces and in colonization of the host.

  10. Protein kinase C isoforms play differential roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I; MacKenzie, S J; Vernon, R G; Anderson, N G; Houslay, M D; Kilgour, E

    1998-01-01

    In this study we first established, by immunoblotting with specific antibodies, the temporal changes in cellular levels of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms during differentiation of 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes. Both pre-adipocyte and adipocyte 3T3-F442A cells were found to express PKC-alpha, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta and -mu. However we were unable to detect PKC-beta, -eta or -theta. The same PKC isoform expression profile was found in rat adipocytes. The alpha, delta and gamma isoforms displayed similar temporal patterns of expression during differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells; all increased rapidly, peaking at day 2 of differentiation. Subsequently, the expression of these isoforms decreased, resulting in lower levels in fully differentiated adipocytes than in pre-adipocytes. The expression of PKC-epsilon increased steadily during differentiation, resulting in markedly elevated levels in adipocytes. Although expression of PKC-mu increased during differentiation, this was attributable to prolonged confluence rather than to the differentiation process itself. No change was observed in PKC-zeta levels during adipocyte development. Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were used to deplete selectively the individual PKC subtypes. Each of the ODNs used effectively depleted the specific isoforms to undetectable levels and did not affect expression of the other PKC subtypes. This approach indicated that pre-adipocyte differentiation is not dependent upon PKC-zeta but that PKC-alpha,-delta and -mu each exert an inhibitory influence upon differentiation. Use of anti-sense ODNs to deplete PKC-epsilon and -gamma revealed that pre-adipocyte differentiation is dependent upon each of these isoforms. However, PKC-gamma, but not PKC-epsilon, appeared to be necessary for the clonal expansion of differentiating cells, suggesting that PKC-epsilon is required at a later phase in the differentiation process, when its expression is elevated, for the attainment and maintenance of

  11. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Plays No Regulatory Role in Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Brian; Govindan, Suresh; Lee, Kyounghwan; Zhao, Piming; Han, Renzhi; Runte, K. Elisabeth; Craig, Roger; Palmer, Bradley M.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2013-01-01

    Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) exists in three major isoforms: slow skeletal, fast skeletal, and cardiac. While cardiac MyBP-C (cMyBP-C) expression is restricted to the heart in the adult, it is transiently expressed in neonatal stages of some skeletal muscles. However, it is unclear whether this expression is necessary for the proper development and function of skeletal muscle. Our aim was to determine whether the absence of cMyBP-C alters the structure, function, or MyBP-C isoform expression in adult skeletal muscle using a cMyBP-C null mouse model (cMyBP-C(t/t)). Slow MyBP-C was expressed in both slow and fast skeletal muscles, whereas fast MyBP-C was mostly restricted to fast skeletal muscles. Expression of these isoforms was unaffected in skeletal muscle from cMyBP-C(t/t) mice. Slow and fast skeletal muscles in cMyBP-C(t/t) mice showed no histological or ultrastructural changes in comparison to the wild-type control. In addition, slow muscle twitch, tetanus tension, and susceptibility to injury were all similar to the wild-type controls. Interestingly, fMyBP-C expression was significantly increased in the cMyBP-C(t/t) hearts undergoing severe dilated cardiomyopathy, though this does not seem to prevent dysfunction. Additionally, expression of both slow and fast isoforms was increased in myopathic skeletal muscles. Our data demonstrate that i) MyBP-C isoforms are differentially regulated in both cardiac and skeletal muscles, ii) cMyBP-C is dispensable for the development of skeletal muscle with no functional or structural consequences in the adult myocyte, and iii) skeletal isoforms can transcomplement in the heart in the absence of cMyBP-C. PMID:23936073

  12. The roles played by highly truncated splice variants of G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes greatly increases the total number of receptor isoforms which may be expressed in a cell-dependent and time-dependent manner. This increased diversity of cell signaling options caused by the generation of splice variants is further enhanced by receptor dimerization. When alternative splicing generates highly truncated GPCRs with less than seven transmembrane (TM) domains, the predominant effect in vitro is that of a dominant-negative mutation associated with the retention of the wild-type receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). For constitutively active (agonist-independent) GPCRs, their attenuated expression on the cell surface, and consequent decreased basal activity due to the dominant-negative effect of truncated splice variants, has pathological consequences. Truncated splice variants may conversely offer protection from disease when expression of co-receptors for binding of infectious agents to cells is attenuated due to ER retention of the wild-type co-receptor. In this review, we will see that GPCRs retained in the ER can still be functionally active but also that highly truncated GPCRs may also be functionally active. Although rare, some truncated splice variants still bind ligand and activate cell signaling responses. More importantly, by forming heterodimers with full-length GPCRs, some truncated splice variants also provide opportunities to generate receptor complexes with unique pharmacological properties. So, instead of assuming that highly truncated GPCRs are associated with faulty transcription processes, it is time to reassess their potential benefit to the host organism. PMID:22938630

  13. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating MAPKAPK2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sudo, Tatsuhiko . E-mail: sudo@riken.jp; Kawai, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2005-11-18

    One of three major families of the mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK), p38 as well as JNK, has been shown to transduce extracellular stress stimuli into cellular responses by phospho-relay cascades. Among p38 families, p38{alpha} is a widely characterized isoform and the biological phenomena are explained by its kinase activity regulating functions of its downstream substrates. However, its specific contributions to each phenomenon are yet not fully elucidated. For better understanding of the role of MAPKs, especially p38{alpha}, we utilized newly established mouse fibroblast cell lines originated from a p38{alpha} null mouse, namely, a parental cell line without p38{alpha} gene locus, knockout of p38{alpha} (KOP), Zeosin-resistant (ZKOP), revertant of p38{alpha} (RKOP), and Exip revertant (EKOP). EKOP is smaller in size but grows faster than the others. Although comparable amounts of ERK and JNK are expressed in each cell line, ERK is highly phosphorylated in EKOP even in normal culture conditions. Serum stimulation after serum starvation led to ERK phosphorylation in RKOP and ZKOP, but not in EKOP as much. On the contrary, relative phosphorylation level of JNK to total JNK in response to UV was low in RKOP. And its phosphorylation as well as total JNK is slightly lower in EKOP. RKOP is less sensitive to UV irradiation as judged by the survival rate. Stress response upon UV or sorbitol stimuli, leading to mitogen activate protein kinase activated kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) phosphorylation, was only observed in RKOP. Further experiments reveal that MAPKAPK2 expression is largely suppressed in ZKOP and EKOP. Its expression was recovered by re-introduction of p38{alpha}. The loss of MAPKAPK2 expression accompanied by the defect of p38{alpha} is confirmed in an embryonic extract prepared from p38{alpha} null mice. These data demonstrate that p38 signal pathway is regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by modulation of the expression of its component. Together, we have

  14. Mcp4, a Meiotic Coiled-Coil Protein, Plays a Role in F-Actin Positioning during Schizosaccharomyces pombe Meiosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Saito, Takamune T.; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Some meiosis-specific proteins of Schizosaccharomyces pombe harbor coiled-coil motifs and play essential roles in meiotic progression. Here we describe Mcp4, a novel meiosis-specific protein whose expression is abruptly induced at the horsetail phase and which remains expressed until sporulation is finished. Fluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that Mcp4 alters its subcellular localization during meiosis in a manner that partially resembles the movement of F-actin during meiosis. Mcp4 and F-actin never colocalize; rather, they are located in a side-by-side manner. When forespore membrane formation begins at metaphase II, the Mcp4 signals assemble at the lagging face of the dividing nuclei. At this stage, they are sandwiched between F-actin and the nucleus. Mcp4, in turn, appears to sandwich F-actin with Meu14. In mcp4Δ cells at anaphase II, the F-actin, which is normally dumbbell-shaped, adopts an abnormal balloon shape. Spores of mcp4Δ cells were sensitive to NaCl, although their shape and viability were normal. Taken together, we conclude that Mcp4 plays a role in the accurate positioning of F-actin during S. pombe meiosis. PMID:17435009

  15. Membrane Protein Rim21 Plays a Central Role in Sensing Ambient pH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hayashi; Kihara, Akio

    2012-01-01

    External alkalization activates the Rim101 pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this pathway, three integral membrane proteins, Rim21, Dfg16, and Rim9, are considered to be the components of the pH sensor machinery. However, how these proteins are involved in pH sensing is totally unknown. In this work, we investigated the localization, physical interaction, and interrelationship of Rim21, Dfg16, and Rim9. These proteins were found to form a complex and to localize to the plasma membrane in a patchy and mutually dependent manner. Their cellular level was also mutually dependent. In particular, the Rim21 level was significantly decreased in dfg16Δ and rim9Δ cells. Upon external alkalization, the proteins were internalized and degraded. We also demonstrate that the transient degradation of Rim21 completely suppressed the Rim101 pathway but that the degradation of Dfg16 or Rim9 did not. This finding strongly suggests that Rim21 is the pH sensor protein and that Dfg16 and Rim9 play auxiliary functions through maintaining the level of Rim21 and assisting in its plasma membrane localization. Even without external alkalization, the Rim101 pathway was activated in a Rim21-dependent manner by either protonophore treatment or depletion of phosphatidylserine in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, both of which caused plasma membrane depolarization like the external alkalization. Therefore, plasma membrane depolarization seems to be one of the key signals for the pH sensor molecule Rim21. PMID:23019326

  16. Bacillus subtilis SbcC protein plays an important role in DNA inter-strand cross-link repair

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Judita; Sanchez, Humberto; Tadesse, Serkalem; Kidane, Dawit; Krisnamurthy, Mahalakshmi; Alonso, Juan C; Graumann, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    Background Several distinct pathways for the repair of damaged DNA exist in all cells. DNA modifications are repaired by base excision or nucleotide excision repair, while DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired through direct joining of broken ends (non homologous end joining, NHEJ) or through recombination with the non broken sister chromosome (homologous recombination, HR). Rad50 protein plays an important role in repair of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, and forms a complex with the Mre11 nuclease. The prokaryotic ortholog of Rad50, SbcC, also forms a complex with a nuclease, SbcD, in Escherichia coli, and has been implicated in the removal of hairpin structures that can arise during DNA replication. Ku protein is a component of the NHEJ pathway in pro- and eukaryotic cells. Results A deletion of the sbcC gene rendered Bacillus subtilis cells sensitive to DNA damage caused by Mitomycin C (MMC) or by gamma irradiation. The deletion of the sbcC gene in a recN mutant background increased the sensitivity of the single recN mutant strain. SbcC was also non-epistatic with AddAB (analog of Escherichia coli RecBCD), but epistatic with RecA. A deletion of the ykoV gene encoding the B. subtilis Ku protein in a sbcC mutant strain did not resulted in an increase in sensitivity towards MMC and gamma irradiation, but exacerbated the phenotype of a recN or a recA mutant strain. In exponentially growing cells, SbcC-GFP was present throughout the cells, or as a central focus in rare cases. Upon induction of DNA damage, SbcC formed 1, rarely 2, foci on the nucleoids. Different to RecN protein, which forms repair centers at any location on the nucleoids, SbcC foci mostly co-localized with the DNA polymerase complex. In contrast to this, AddA-GFP or AddB-GFP did not form detectable foci upon addition of MMC. Conclusion Our experiments show that SbcC plays an important role in the repair of DNA inter-strand cross-links (induced by MMC), most likely through HR, and suggest

  17. The Truncated C-terminal RNA Recognition Motif of TDP-43 Protein Plays a Key Role in Forming Proteinaceous Aggregates*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Pan-Hsien; Chiang, Chien-Hao; Liang, Jhe-Ruei; Chen, Yun-Ru; Wang, Shuying; Shen, James C. K.; Yuan, Hanna S.

    2013-01-01

    TDP-43 is the major pathological protein identified in the cellular inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The pathogenic forms of TDP-43 are processed C-terminal fragments containing a truncated RNA-recognition motif (RRM2) and a glycine-rich region. Although extensive studies have focused on this protein, it remains unclear how the dimeric full-length TDP-43 is folded and assembled and how the processed C-terminal fragments are misfolded and aggregated. Here, using size-exclusion chromatography, pulldown assays, and small angle x-ray scattering, we show that the C-terminal-deleted TDP-43 without the glycine-rich tail is sufficient to form a head-to-head homodimer primarily via its N-terminal domain. The truncated RRM2, as well as two β-strands within the RRM2, form fibrils in vitro with a similar amyloid-negative staining property to those of TDP-43 pathogenic fibrils in diseases. In addition to the glycine-rich region, the truncated RRM2, but not the intact RRM2, plays a key role in forming cytoplasmic inclusions in neuronal cells. Our data thus suggest that the process that disrupts the dimeric structure, such as the proteolytic cleavage of TDP-43 within the RRM2 that removes the N-terminal dimerization domain, may produce unassembled truncated RRM2 fragments with abnormally exposed β-strands, which can oligomerize into high-order inclusions. PMID:23372158

  18. Light-induced phosphorylation of a membrane protein plays an early role in signal transduction for phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reymond, P.; Short, T. W.; Briggs, W. R.; Poff, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light is known to cause rapid phosphorylation of a membrane protein in etiolated seedlings of several plant species, a protein that, at least in etiolated pea seedlings and maize coleoptiles, has been shown to be associated with the plasma membrane. The light-driven phosphorylation has been proposed on the basis of correlative evidence to be an early step in the signal transduction chain for phototropism. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant JK224, the sensitivity to blue light for induction of first positive phototropism is known to be 20- to 30-fold lower than in wild type, whereas second positive curvature appears to be normal. While light-induced phosphorylation can be demonstrated in crude membrane preparations from shoots of the mutant, the level of phosphorylation is dramatically lower than in wild type, as is the sensitivity to blue light. Another A. thaliana mutant, JK218, that completely lacks any phototropic responses to up to 2 h of irradiation, shows a normal level of light-induced phosphorylation at saturation. Since its gravitropic sensitivity is normal, it is presumably blocked in some step between photoreception and the confluence of the signal transduction pathways for phototropism and gravitropism. We conclude from mutant JK224 that light-induced phosphorylation plays an early role in the signal transduction chain for phototropism in higher plants.

  19. Light-induced phosphorylation of a membrane protein plays an early role in signal transduction for phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, P; Short, T W; Briggs, W R; Poff, K L

    1992-01-01

    Blue light is known to cause rapid phosphorylation of a membrane protein in etiolated seedlings of several plant species, a protein that, at least in etiolated pea seedlings and maize coleoptiles, has been shown to be associated with the plasma membrane. The light-driven phosphorylation has been proposed on the basis of correlative evidence to be an early step in the signal transduction chain for phototropism. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant JK224, the sensitivity to blue light for induction of first positive phototropism is known to be 20- to 30-fold lower than in wild type, whereas second positive curvature appears to be normal. While light-induced phosphorylation can be demonstrated in crude membrane preparations from shoots of the mutant, the level of phosphorylation is dramatically lower than in wild type, as is the sensitivity to blue light. Another A. thaliana mutant, JK218, that completely lacks any phototropic responses to up to 2 h of irradiation, shows a normal level of light-induced phosphorylation at saturation. Since its gravitropic sensitivity is normal, it is presumably blocked in some step between photoreception and the confluence of the signal transduction pathways for phototropism and gravitropism. We conclude from mutant JK224 that light-induced phosphorylation plays an early role in the signal transduction chain for phototropism in higher plants. Images PMID:11537679

  20. Hemp, an mbt domain-containing protein, plays essential roles in hematopoietic stem cell function and skeletal formation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Hiroaki; Takubo, Keiyo; Oda, Hideaki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Tazaki, Tatsuya; Yamasaki, Norimasa; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Moore, Kateri A.; Honda, Zen-ichiro; Suda, Toshio; Lemischka, Ihor R.

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular pathways governing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development, we screened a fetal liver (FL) HSC cDNA library and identified a unique gene, hematopoietic expressed mammalian polycomb (hemp), encoding a protein with a zinc-finger domain and four malignant brain tumor (mbt) repeats. To investigate its biological role, we generated mice lacking Hemp (hemp−/−). Hemp−/− mice exhibited a variety of skeletal malformations and died soon after birth. In the FL, hemp was preferentially expressed in the HSC and early progenitor cell fractions, and analyses of fetal hematopoiesis revealed that the number of FL mononuclear cells, including HSCs, was reduced markedly in hemp−/− embryos, especially during early development. In addition, colony-forming and competitive repopulation assays demonstrated that the proliferative and reconstitution abilities of hemp−/− FL HSCs were significantly impaired. Microarray analysis revealed alterations in the expression levels of several genes implicated in hematopoietic development and differentiation in hemp−/− FL HSCs. These results demonstrate that Hemp, an mbt-containing protein, plays essential roles in HSC function and skeletal formation. It is also hypothesized that Hemp might be involved in certain congenital diseases, such as Klippel-Feil anomaly. PMID:21252303

  1. Schistosoma japonicum: Tsunagi/Y14 protein plays a critical role in the development of the reproductive organs and eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Wei-Na; Huang, Da-Ke; Jia, Xue-Mei; Gui, Li; Liu, Miao; Shen, Ji-Jia

    2013-10-01

    Tsunagi/Y14 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that is required for the maintenance of oogenesis and the masculinization of the germ-line in many animal models. We speculated that Tsunagi/Y14 might also regulate reproductive organ development in Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum, Sj). Sj Tsunagi/Y14 and control double-stranded RNAs were introduced into schistosomula by electroporation respectively. These transfected schistosomula were cultured in vitro for 1, 3 or 5 days. The mRNA and protein levels of the target gene in the cultured schistosomula were significantly suppressed compared with those of the control group. Furthermore, BALB/c mice were infected with the transfected schistosomula for 6 weeks and were sacrificed to harvest the adult worms. We found that the silencing of Sj Tsunagi/Y14 led to defects in reproductive organs development in both male and female worms. Moreover, it also affected the size, quantity and activity of the eggs in the mice liver. Our findings indicated that Tsunagi/Y14 plays a critical role in the development of reproductive organs and eggs in S. japonicum.

  2. The mitochondrial PPR protein LOVASTATIN INSENSITIVE 1 plays regulatory roles in cytosolic and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis through RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianwei; Kobayashi, Keiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Shogo; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2010-02-01

    Unlike animals, plants synthesize isoprenoids via two pathways, the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Little information is known about the mechanisms that regulate these complex biosynthetic networks over multiple organelles. To understand such regulatory mechanisms of the biosynthesis of isoprenoids in plants, we previously characterized the Arabidopsis mutant, lovastatin insensitive 1 (loi1), which is resistant to lovastatin and clomazone, specific inhibitors of the MVA and MEP pathways, respectively. LOI1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein localized in mitochondria that is thought to have RNA binding ability and function in post-transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. LOI1 belongs to the DYW subclass of PPR proteins, which is hypothesized to be correlated with RNA editing. As a result of analysis of RNA editing of mitochondrial genes in loi1, a defect in RNA editing of three genes, nad4, ccb203 and cox3, was identified in loi1. These genes are related to the respiratory chain. Wild type (WT) treated with some respiration inhibitors mimicked the loi1 phenotype. Interestingly, HMG-CoA reductase activity of WT treated with lovastatin combined with antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III in the respiratory chain, was higher than that of WT treated with only lovastatin, despite the lack of alteration of transcript or protein levels of HMGR. These results suggest that HMGR enzyme activity is regulated through the respiratory cytochrome pathway. Although various mechanisms exist for isoprenoid biosynthesis, our studies demonstrate the novel possibility that mitochondrial respiration plays potentially regulatory roles in isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  3. FmvB: A Francisella tularensis Magnesium-Responsive Outer Membrane Protein that Plays a Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaojun; Ren, Guoping; Gunning, William T.; Weaver, David A.; Kalinoski, Andrea L.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Huntley, Jason F.

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of the lethal disease tularemia. Despite decades of research, little is understood about why F. tularensis is so virulent. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are involved in various virulence processes, including protein secretion, host cell attachment, and intracellular survival. Many pathogenic bacteria require metals for intracellular survival and OMPs often play important roles in metal uptake. Previous studies identified three F. tularensis OMPs that play roles in iron acquisition. In this study, we examined two previously uncharacterized proteins, FTT0267 (named fmvA, for Francisella metal and virulence) and FTT0602c (fmvB), which are homologs of the previously studied F. tularensis iron acquisition genes and are predicted OMPs. To study the potential roles of FmvA and FmvB in metal acquisition and virulence, we first examined fmvA and fmvB expression following pulmonary infection of mice, finding that fmvB was upregulated up to 5-fold during F. tularensis infection of mice. Despite sequence homology to previously-characterized iron-acquisition genes, FmvA and FmvB do not appear to be involved iron uptake, as neither fmvA nor fmvB were upregulated in iron-limiting media and neither ΔfmvA nor ΔfmvB exhibited growth defects in iron limitation. However, when other metals were examined in this study, magnesium-limitation significantly induced fmvB expression, ΔfmvB was found to express significantly higher levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in magnesium-limiting medium, and increased numbers of surface protrusions were observed on ΔfmvB in magnesium-limiting medium, compared to wild-type F. tularensis grown in magnesium-limiting medium. RNA sequencing analysis of ΔfmvB revealed the potential mechanism for increased LPS expression, as LPS synthesis genes kdtA and wbtA were significantly upregulated in ΔfmvB, compared with wild-type F. tularensis. To provide further evidence for the potential role of FmvB in

  4. FmvB: A Francisella tularensis Magnesium-Responsive Outer Membrane Protein that Plays a Role in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Ren, Guoping; Gunning, William T; Weaver, David A; Kalinoski, Andrea L; Khuder, Sadik A; Huntley, Jason F

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of the lethal disease tularemia. Despite decades of research, little is understood about why F. tularensis is so virulent. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are involved in various virulence processes, including protein secretion, host cell attachment, and intracellular survival. Many pathogenic bacteria require metals for intracellular survival and OMPs often play important roles in metal uptake. Previous studies identified three F. tularensis OMPs that play roles in iron acquisition. In this study, we examined two previously uncharacterized proteins, FTT0267 (named fmvA, for Francisella metal and virulence) and FTT0602c (fmvB), which are homologs of the previously studied F. tularensis iron acquisition genes and are predicted OMPs. To study the potential roles of FmvA and FmvB in metal acquisition and virulence, we first examined fmvA and fmvB expression following pulmonary infection of mice, finding that fmvB was upregulated up to 5-fold during F. tularensis infection of mice. Despite sequence homology to previously-characterized iron-acquisition genes, FmvA and FmvB do not appear to be involved iron uptake, as neither fmvA nor fmvB were upregulated in iron-limiting media and neither ΔfmvA nor ΔfmvB exhibited growth defects in iron limitation. However, when other metals were examined in this study, magnesium-limitation significantly induced fmvB expression, ΔfmvB was found to express significantly higher levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in magnesium-limiting medium, and increased numbers of surface protrusions were observed on ΔfmvB in magnesium-limiting medium, compared to wild-type F. tularensis grown in magnesium-limiting medium. RNA sequencing analysis of ΔfmvB revealed the potential mechanism for increased LPS expression, as LPS synthesis genes kdtA and wbtA were significantly upregulated in ΔfmvB, compared with wild-type F. tularensis. To provide further evidence for the potential role of FmvB in

  5. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Renquan; Sun, Xinghui; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated stable transduced HE4 overexpression and knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 was associated with EOC cell adhesion and motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 might have some effects on activation of EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 play an important role in EOC tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed cells were inhibited by HE4 suppression. Mechanistically, impaired EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were observed in cells with HE4 knockdown. The phosphorylation was restored when the knockdown cells were cultured in conditioned medium containing HE4. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenicity showed that HE4 suppression markedly inhibited the growth of tumors. This suggests that expression of HE4 is associated with cancer cell adhesion, migration and tumor growth, which can be related to its effects on the EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of HE4 in EOC progression. The role of HE4 as a target for gene-based therapy might be considered in future studies.

  6. Selenoproteins and heat shock proteins play important roles in immunosuppression in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens with selenium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Chunpeng; Li, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is necessary for the immune system in chicken and mediates its physiological functions through selenoproteins. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are indispensable for maintaining normal cell function and for directing the immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps as well as immune functions in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Two groups of chickens, namely the control and Se-deficient (L group) groups, were reared for 55 days. The chickens were offered a basal diet, which contained 0.15 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the control group and 0.033 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the L group. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps on days 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of Hsps on days 35, 45 and 55, and immune functions were assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 15, 35, and 55. The data showed that the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins, such as Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, GPx1, GPx2, GPx3 GPx4, Sepp1, Selo, Sel-15, Sepx1, Sels, Seli, Selu, Selh, and SPS2, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Hsps (Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and TNF-α was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Our results show that immunosuppression was accompanied by a downregulation of mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and an upregulation of the Hsp mRNA expression levels. Thus, Se deficiency causes defects in the chicken bursa of

  7. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S.; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  8. Drosophila Shep and C. elegans SUP-26 are RNA-binding proteins that play diverse roles in nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Logan T; Sola, Ismail E; Forand, Daniel; Antonacci, Simona; Postovit, Adam J; Mortimer, Nathan T; Killian, Darrell J; Olesnicky, Eugenia C

    2015-11-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gene sup-26 encodes a well-conserved RNA-recognition motif-containing RNA-binding protein (RBP) that functions in dendrite morphogenesis of the PVD sensory neuron. The Drosophila ortholog of sup-26, alan shepard (shep), is expressed throughout the nervous system and has been shown to regulate neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis. Here, we extend these studies to show that sup-26 and shep are required for the development of diverse cell types within the nematode and fly nervous systems during embryonic and larval stages. We ascribe roles for sup-26 in regulating dendrite number and the expression of genes involved in mechanosensation within the nematode peripheral nervous system. We also find that in Drosophila, shep regulates dendrite length and branch order of nociceptive neurons, regulates the organization of neuronal clusters of the peripheral nervous system and the organization of axons within the ventral nerve cord. Taken together, our results suggest that shep/sup-26 orthologs play diverse roles in neural development across animal species. Moreover, we discuss potential roles for shep/sup-26 orthologs in the human nervous system.

  9. The N-terminal Domain of NPC1L1 Protein Binds Cholesterol and Plays Essential Roles in Cholesterol Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Hui; Ge, Liang; Qi, Wei; Zhang, Liqing; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Yang, Maojun; Song, Bao-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a multitransmembrane protein playing a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption. Cholesterol promotes the formation and endocytosis of NPC1L1-flotillin-cholesterol membrane microdomains, which is an early step in cholesterol uptake. How cholesterol is sensed in this step is unknown. Here, we find that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1L1 binds cholesterol. Mutation of residue Leu-216 in NPC1L1-NTD eliminates cholesterol binding, decreases the formation of NPC1L1-flotillin-cholesterol membrane microdomains, and prevents NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake in culture cells and mice livers. NPC1L1-NTD specifically binds cholesterol but not plant sterols, which may account for the selective cholesterol absorption in intestine. Furthermore, 25- or 27-hydroxycholesterol competes with cholesterol to bind NPC1L1-NTD and inhibits the cholesterol induced endocytosis of NPC1L1. Together, these results demonstrate that plasma membrane-localized NPC1L1 binds exogenous cholesterol via its NTD, and facilitates the formation of NPC1L1-flotillin-cholesterol membrane microdomains that are then internalized into cells through the clathrin-AP2 pathway. Our study uncovers the mechanism of cholesterol sensing by NPC1L1 and proposes a mechanism for selective cholesterol absorption. PMID:21602275

  10. Unique N-terminal Arm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP Protein Plays an Unusual Role in Its Regulatory Function*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arijit Kumar; Kumar, Vijjamarri Anil; Sevalkar, Ritesh Rajesh; Bansal, Roohi; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP, a master regulator involved in complex lipid biosynthesis and expression of unknown virulence determinants, is composed of an N-terminal receiver domain and a C-terminal effector domain. The two experimentally characterized PhoP orthologs, from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, display vastly different regulatory capabilities. Here, we demonstrate that the 20-residue-long N-terminal arm unique to M. tuberculosis PhoP plays an essential role in the expanded regulatory capabilities of this important regulator. Although the arm is not required for overall structural stability and/or phosphorylation of the PhoP N-domain, strikingly it is essential for phosphorylation-coupled transcription regulation of target genes. Consistent with this view, arm truncation of PhoP is accompanied by a conformational change of the effector domain, presenting a block in activation subsequent to phosphorylation. These results suggest that presence of the arm, unique to this regulator that shares an otherwise highly conserved domain structure with members of the protein family, contributes to the mechanism of inter-domain interactions. Thus, we propose that the N-terminal arm is an adaptable structural feature of M. tuberculosis PhoP, which evolved to fine-tune regulatory capabilities of the transcription factor in response to the changing physiology of the bacilli within its host. PMID:23963455

  11. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  12. Drosophila Shep and C. elegans SUP-26 are RNA-binding proteins that play diverse roles in nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Logan T; Sola, Ismail E; Forand, Daniel; Antonacci, Simona; Postovit, Adam J; Mortimer, Nathan T; Killian, Darrell J; Olesnicky, Eugenia C

    2015-11-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gene sup-26 encodes a well-conserved RNA-recognition motif-containing RNA-binding protein (RBP) that functions in dendrite morphogenesis of the PVD sensory neuron. The Drosophila ortholog of sup-26, alan shepard (shep), is expressed throughout the nervous system and has been shown to regulate neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis. Here, we extend these studies to show that sup-26 and shep are required for the development of diverse cell types within the nematode and fly nervous systems during embryonic and larval stages. We ascribe roles for sup-26 in regulating dendrite number and the expression of genes involved in mechanosensation within the nematode peripheral nervous system. We also find that in Drosophila, shep regulates dendrite length and branch order of nociceptive neurons, regulates the organization of neuronal clusters of the peripheral nervous system and the organization of axons within the ventral nerve cord. Taken together, our results suggest that shep/sup-26 orthologs play diverse roles in neural development across animal species. Moreover, we discuss potential roles for shep/sup-26 orthologs in the human nervous system. PMID:26271810

  13. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons

    PubMed Central

    Beigneux, Anne P.; Davies, Brandon S. J.; Gin, Peter; Weinstein, Michael M.; Farber, Emily; Qiao, Xin; Peale, Franklin; Bunting, Stuart; Walzem, Rosemary L.; Wong, Jinny S.; Blaner, William S.; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Melford, Kristan; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Shu, Xiao; de Sauvage, Fred; Ryan, Robert O.; Fong, Loren G.; Bensadoun, André; Young, Stephen G.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) along the luminal surface of the capillaries. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates chylomicron processing by LpL has not yet been defined. Here, we show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons. Gpihbp1-deficient mice exhibit a striking accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma, even on a low-fat diet, resulting in milky plasma and plasma triglyceride levels as high as 5,000 mg/dl. Normally, Gpihbp1 is expressed highly in heart and adipose tissue, the same tissues that express high levels of LpL. In these tissues, GPIHBP1 is located on the luminal face of the capillary endothelium. Expression of GPIHBP1 in cultured cells confers the ability to bind both LpL and chylomicrons. These studies strongly suggest that GPIHBP1 is an important platform for the LpL-mediated processing of chylomicrons in capillaries. PMID:17403372

  14. Ankyrin-rich Membrane Spanning Protein Plays a Critical Role in Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sniderhan, Lynn F.; Stout, Angela; Lu, Yuanan; Chao, Moses V.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a key feature of the neurotrophin signaling, has been shown to be critical for neuronal survival under pathologic settings. However, the precise mechanism by which neurotrophins activate NF-κB is not well understood. Here we report that the Ankyrin-rich Membrane Spanning (ARMS/Kidins220) protein, a novel transmembrane substrate of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), plays an important role in NF-κB signaling elicited by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Accordingly, depletion of ARMS by specific RNA interference, or disruption of ARMS-TrkB interaction with expression of dominant-negative ARMS mutant, abolished BDNF-induced signaling to NF-κB. Our data further suggests that ARMS may promote NF-κB signaling via activation of mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and IκB kinase (IKK), thereby facilitating phosphorylation of RelA (major NF-κB subunit) at an IKK-sensitive site. The results shown here identify ARMS as a major factor that links neurotrophin signaling to NF-κB. PMID:18501627

  15. Ubiquitination of tombusvirus p33 replication protein plays a role in virus replication and binding to the host Vps23p ESCRT protein

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Post-translational modifications of viral replication proteins could be widespread phenomena during the replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. In this paper, we identify two lysines in the tombusvirus p33 replication co-factor involved in ubiquitination and show that the same lysines are also important for the p33 to interact with the host Vps23p ESCRT-I factor. We find that the interaction of p33 with Vps23p is also affected by a "late-domain"-like sequence in p33. The combined mutations of the two lysines and the late-domain-like sequences in p33 reduced replication of a replicon RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus in yeast model host, in plant protoplasts and plant leaves, suggesting that p33-Vps23p ESCRT protein interaction affects tombusvirus replication. Using ubiquitin-mimicking p33 chimeras, we demonstrate that high level of p33 ubiquitination is inhibitory for TBSV replication. These findings argue that optimal level of p33 ubiquitination plays a regulatory role during tombusvirus infections. PMID:20004458

  16. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  17. Sphingosine kinase 1 dependent protein kinase C-δ activation plays an important role in acute liver failure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Yang, Ling-Ling; Li, Wen; Luo, Pan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC)-δ activation in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure (ALF) in a well-characterized mouse model of D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF. METHODS: BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to five groups, and ALF was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of D-GaIN (600 mg/kg) and LPS (10 μg/kg). Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels at different time points within one week were determined using a multiparameteric analyzer. Serum levels of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 as well as nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatic morphological changes at 36 h after ALF induction were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of PKC-δ in liver tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: The expression and activation of PKC-δ were up-regulated in liver tissue and PBMCs of mice with D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. Inhibition of PKC-δ activation with rottlerin significantly increased the survival rates and decreased serum ALT/AST levels at 6, 12 and 24 h compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Rottlerin treatment also significantly decreased serum levels of HMGB1 at 6, 12, and 24 h, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 β at 12 h compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in liver tissue were also decreased in the rottlerin treatment group. Furthermore, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) dependent PKC-δ activation played an important role in promoting NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine production in ALF. CONCLUSION: SphK1 dependent PKC-δ activation plays an important role in promoting NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in ALF, and inhibition of PKC-δ activation might be

  18. Metabolite Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Carbohydrate-response Element-binding Protein (ChREBP): ROLE OF AMP AS AN ALLOSTERIC INHIBITOR.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shogo; Jung, Hunmin; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Pawlosky, Robert; Takeshima, Tomomi; Lee, Wan-Ru; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Laxman, Sunil; Wynn, R Max; Tu, Benjamin P; MacMillan, John B; De Brabander, Jef K; Veech, Richard L; Uyeda, Kosaku

    2016-05-13

    The carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that plays an essential role in converting excess carbohydrate to fat storage in the liver. In response to glucose levels, ChREBP is regulated by nuclear/cytosol trafficking via interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, CRM-1 (exportin-1 or XPO-1), or importins. Nuclear localization of ChREBP was rapidly inhibited when incubated in branched-chain α-ketoacids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide. Here, we discovered that protein-free extracts of high fat-fed livers contained, in addition to ketone bodies, a new metabolite, identified as AMP, which specifically activates the interaction between ChREBP and 14-3-3. The crystal structure showed that AMP binds directly to the N terminus of ChREBP-α2 helix. Our results suggest that AMP inhibits the nuclear localization of ChREBP through an allosteric activation of ChREBP/14-3-3 interactions and not by activation of AMPK. AMP and ketone bodies together can therefore inhibit lipogenesis by restricting localization of ChREBP to the cytoplasm during periods of ketosis. PMID:26984404

  19. Protein kinase C-alpha and -beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dieter, P; Schwende, H

    2000-05-01

    The roles of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells are investigated. Inhibition of PKC by RO 31-8220 reduces the phagocytosis of latex particles and the release of superoxide, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The proliferation of THP-1 cells is slightly enhanced by RO 31-8220. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-alpha, and incubation of THP-1 cells with antisense (as) PKC-alpha oligodeoxynucleotides reduces PKC-alpha levels and PKC activity. asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis and a decreased release of superoxide, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. The proliferation of asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells is enhanced. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta, and incubation of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta oligodeoxynucleotides, reduces PKC-beta levels and PKC activity. asPKC-beta-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis, a decreased TNF-alpha release, and a decreased proliferation. However, no difference is measured in the release of superoxide and PGE(2). These results suggest that: (1) PKC-alpha but not PKC-beta is involved in the release of superoxide and PGE(2); (2) TNF-alpha release and the phagocytosis of latex particles are mediated by PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and other PKC isoenzymes; and (3) PKC-alpha and PKC-beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells. PKC-alpha promotes the differentiation process of THP-1 cells, PKC-beta retards the differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells. PMID:10822170

  20. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 Plays an Important Role in Protection against Acute Toxicity of Diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Scialis, Renato J; Csanaky, Iván L; Goedken, Michael J; Manautou, José E

    2015-07-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly prescribed to reduce pain in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. One of the main DCF metabolites is a reactive diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG) that covalently binds to biologic targets and may contribute to adverse drug reactions arising from DCF use. Cellular efflux of DCF-AG is partially mediated by multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp). The importance of Mrp2 during DCF-induced toxicity has been established, yet the role of Mrp3 remains largely unexplored. In the present work, Mrp3-null (KO) mice were used to study the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of DCF and its metabolites. DCF-AG plasma concentrations were 90% lower in KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that Mrp3 mediates DCF-AG basolateral efflux. In contrast, there were no differences in DCF-AG biliary excretion between WT and KO, suggesting that only DCF-AG basolateral efflux is compromised by Mrp3 deletion. Susceptibility to toxicity was also evaluated after a single high DCF dose. No signs of injury were detected in livers and kidneys; however, ulcers were found in the small intestines. Furthermore, the observed intestinal injuries were consistently more severe in KO compared with WT. DCF covalent adducts were observed in liver and small intestines; however, staining intensity did not correlate with the severity of injuries, implying that tissues respond differently to covalent modification. Overall, the data provide strong evidence that (1) in vivo Mrp3 plays an important role in DCF-AG disposition and (2) compromised Mrp3 function can enhance injury in the gastrointestinal tract after DCF treatment.

  1. The Multifunctional PE_PGRS11 Protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Plays a Role in Regulating Resistance to Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rashmi; Bansal, Kushagra; Narayana, Yeddula; Kapoor, Nisha; Sukumar, Namineni; Togarsimalemath, Shambhuprasad Kotresh; Chandra, Nagasuma; Mishra, Saurabh; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi; Joshi, Beenu; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Patil, Shripad A.; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes unique strategies to survive amid the hostile environment of infected host cells. Infection-specific expression of a unique mycobacterial cell surface antigen that could modulate key signaling cascades can act as a key survival strategy in curtailing host effector responses like oxidative stress. We demonstrate here that hypothetical PE_PGRS11 ORF encodes a functional phosphoglycerate mutase. The transcriptional analysis revealed that PE_PGRS11 is a hypoxia-responsive gene, and enforced expression of PE_PGRS11 by recombinant adenovirus or Mycobacterium smegmatis imparted resistance to alveolar epithelial cells against oxidative stress. PE_PGRS11-induced resistance to oxidative stress necessitated the modulation of genetic signatures like induced expression of Bcl2 or COX-2. This modulation of specific antiapoptotic molecular signatures involved recognition of PE_PGRS11 by TLR2 and subsequent activation of the PI3K-ERK1/2-NF-κB signaling axis. Furthermore, PE_PGRS11 markedly diminished H2O2-induced p38 MAPK activation. Interestingly, PE_PGRS11 protein was exposed at the mycobacterial cell surface and was involved in survival of mycobacteria under oxidative stress. Furthermore, PE_PGRS11 displayed differential B cell responses during tuberculosis infection. Taken together, our investigation identified PE_PGRS11 as an in vivo expressed immunodominant antigen that plays a crucial role in modulating cellular life span restrictions imposed during oxidative stress by triggering TLR2-dependent expression of COX-2 and Bcl2. These observations clearly provide a mechanistic basis for the rescue of pathogenic Mycobacterium-infected lung epithelial cells from oxidative stress. PMID:20558725

  2. The Drosophila pumilio gene encodes two functional protein isoforms that play multiple roles in germline development, gonadogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, M; Lin, H

    1999-01-01

    The pumilio (pum) gene plays an essential role in embryonic patterning and germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance during oogenesis in Drosophila. Here we report on a phenotypic analysis using pum(ovarette) mutations, which reveals multiple functions of pum in primordial germ cell proliferation, larval ovary formation, GSC division, and subsequent oogenic processes, as well as in oviposition. Specifically, by inducing pum(-) GSC clones at the onset of oogenesis, we show that pum is directly involved in GSC division, a function that is distinct from its requirement in primordial germ cells. Furthermore, we show that pum encodes 156- and 130-kD proteins, both of which are functional isoforms. Among pum(ovarette) mutations, pum(1688) specifically eliminates the 156-kD isoform but not the 130-kD isoform, while pum(2003) and pum(4277) specifically affect the 130-kD isoform but not the 156-kD isoform. Normal doses of both isoforms are required for the zygotic function of pum, yet either isoform alone at a normal dose is sufficient for the maternal effect function of pum. A pum cDNA transgene that contains the known open reading frame encodes only the 156-kD isoform and rescues the phenotype of both pum(1688) and pum(2003) mutants. These observations suggest that the 156- and 130-kD isoforms can compensate for each other's function in a dosage-dependent manner. Finally, we present molecular evidence suggesting that the two PUM isoforms share some of their primary structures. PMID:10471709

  3. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  4. Specific Subunits of Heterotrimeric G Proteins Play Important Roles during Nodulation in Soybean1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Pandey, Sona

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits regulate many fundamental growth and development processes in all eukaryotes. Plants possess a relatively limited number of G-protein components compared with mammalian systems, and their detailed functional characterization has been performed mostly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the presence of single Gα and Gβ proteins in both these species has significantly undermined the complexity and specificity of response regulation in plant G-protein signaling. There is ample pharmacological evidence for the role of G proteins in regulation of legume-specific processes such as nodulation, but the lack of genetic data from a leguminous species has restricted its direct assessment. Our recent identification and characterization of an elaborate G-protein family in soybean (Glycine max) and the availability of appropriate molecular-genetic resources have allowed us to directly evaluate the role of G-protein subunits during nodulation. We demonstrate that all G-protein genes are expressed in nodules and exhibit significant changes in their expression in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection and in representative supernodulating and nonnodulating soybean mutants. RNA interference suppression and overexpression of specific G-protein components results in lower and higher nodule numbers, respectively, validating their roles as positive regulators of nodule formation. Our data further show preferential usage of distinct G-protein subunits in the presence of an additional signal during nodulation. Interestingly, the Gα proteins directly interact with the soybean nodulation factor receptors NFR1α and NFR1β, suggesting that the plant G proteins may couple with receptors other than the canonical heptahelical receptors common in metazoans to modulate signaling. PMID:23569109

  5. RIN1-Ras-ERK pathway plays an important role in carcinogenesis in colon cancer cell line LoVo.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Goi, Takanori; Hirono, Yasuo; Katayama, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    The RIN1 protein has SH2, three domains, and H-Ras binding domains; thus, it is presumed to be an important molecule in an intracellular signaling pathway. We examined the effect of the introduction of a membrane protein-encoding, mutated (S351A)RIN1 gene into a colon cancer. In the LoVo colon cancer cell line, endogenous RIN1 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasmic fraction, and the RIN1 protein in the cytoplasmic fraction was strongly bound to the 14-3-3 protein. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the mutated (S351A)RIN1 protein was identified in the cell membrane, and was bound to HRas protein. Also, in vitro the proliferative capacity of the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells was significantly inhibited, compared with that of their empty vector-transfected counterparts. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins downstream of the H-Ras molecule was inhibited, compared with the counterparts. This study is the first to show that the localization of RIN1 protein plays an important role in the carcinogenesis in colon cancer cells LoVo (i.e., signal transduction in the Ras-ERK pathway).

  6. Analysis of self-association of West Nile virus capsid protein and the crucial role played by Trp 69 in homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Ng, Mah-Lee

    2005-04-01

    The understanding of capsid (C) protein interactions with itself would provide important data on how the core is organized in flaviviruses during assembly. In this study, West Nile (WN) virus C protein was shown to form homodimers using yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjunction with mammalian two-hybrid and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation assays. To delineate the region on the C protein which mediates C-C dimerization, truncation studies were carried out. The results obtained clearly showed that the internal hydrophobic segment flanked by helix I and helix III of WN virus C protein is essential for the self-association of C protein. The crucial role played by Trp 69 in stabilizing the self-association of C protein was also demonstrated by mutating Trp to Gly/Arg/Phe. Substitution of the Trp residue with Gly/Arg abolished the dimerization, whereas substitution with Phe decreased the self-association significantly. The results of this study pinpoint a critical residue in the C protein that potentially plays a role in stabilizing the homotypic interaction. PMID:15721300

  7. Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judy I.

    This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language…

  8. Plastid ribosomal protein S5 plays a critical role in photosynthesis, plant development, and cold stress tolerance in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastid ribosomal proteins (RPs) are essential components for protein synthesis machinery and exert diverse roles in plant growth and development. Mutations in plastid RPs lead to a range of developmental phenotypes in plants. However, how they regulate these processes is not fully understood and th...

  9. The amphiphilic hydrophobin Vmh2 plays a key role in one step synthesis of hybrid protein-gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Longobardi, Sara; Giardina, Paola; Rea, Ilaria; Methivier, Christophe; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Casale, Sandra; Spadavecchia, Jolanda

    2015-12-01

    We report a simple and original method to synthesize gold nanoparticles in which a fungal protein, the hydrophobin Vmh2 from Pleurotus ostreatus and dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene-glycol (PEG) has been used as additional components in a one step process, leading to hybrid protein-metal nanoparticles (NPs). The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultra-violet/visible, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering and also by electron microscopy imaging. The results of these analytical techniques highlight nanometric sized, stable, hybrid complexes of about 12 nm, with outer surface rich in functional chemical groups. Interaction with protein and antibodies has also been exploited. PMID:26402419

  10. Play Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Play therapy represents a unique form of treatment that is not only geared toward young children, but is translated into a language children can comprehend and utilize—the language of play. For the referring provider or practitioner, questions may remain regarding the nature, course, and efficacy of play therapy. This article reviews the theoretical underpinnings of play therapy, some practical considerations, and finally a summary of the current state of research in regard to play therapy. The authors present the practicing psychiatrist with a road map for referring a patient to play therapy or initiating it in appropriate cases. PMID:21103141

  11. Protein structure plays a critical role in peanut allergen stability and may determine immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Moon; Kopper, Randall; Pons, Laurent; Abraham, Edathara C; Burks, A Wesley; Bannon, Gary A

    2002-07-15

    Hypersensitivity to peanuts is a reaction mediated by IgE Abs in response to several peanut protein allergens. Among these allergenic proteins, Ara h 2 is one of the most commonly recognized allergens. Ara h 2 is a 17-kDa protein that has eight cysteine residues that could form up to four disulfide bonds. Circular dichroism studies showed substantial changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of the reduced Ara h 2 as compared with the native protein. Upon treatment with trypsin, chymotrypsin, or pepsin, a number of relatively large fragments are produced that are resistant to further enzymatic digestion. These resistant Ara h 2 peptide fragments contain intact IgE-binding epitopes and several potential enzyme cut sites that are protected from the enzymes by the compact structure of the protein. The enzyme-treated allergen remains essentially intact despite the action of proteases until the fragments are dissociated when the disulfide linkages are reduced. Amino acid sequence analysis of the resistant protein fragments indicates that they contain most of the immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes. These results provide a link between allergen structure and the immunodominant IgE-binding epitopes within a population of food-allergic individuals.

  12. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  13. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  14. Possible role played by R1 protein in starch accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings under phosphate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Lilia; Coello, Patricia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2005-09-01

    The effect of phosphate (Pi) deficiency on starch accumulation was studied in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). After 3 weeks of Pi deprivation total Pi concentration in root and shoot was reduced by 68% and 42%, respectively; however, only shoot growth was affected. In leaves, Pi deprivation induced glucose, fructose and starch accumulation. Pi deficiency did not affect starch synthesis, but it reduced its mobilization during the dark period. At the same time, starch produced by Pi deficient plants have fewer Pi bound and was also less susceptible to beta-amylase hydrolysis. R1 protein is the protein responsible of phosphorylating C3 and C6 glucosyl residues of the polyglucan, increasing the hydration capacity and the interaction with amylolytic enzymes. Pi deprivation did not change the amount of R1 protein detected in total extracts but decreased its association with starch granules.

  15. LytM Proteins Play a Crucial Role in Cell Separation, Outer Membrane Composition, and Pathogenesis in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Giuseppe; Tani, Chiara; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Vacca, Irene; Martinelli, Manuele; Pecetta, Simone; Petracca, Roberto; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Soriani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT LytM proteins belong to a family of bacterial metalloproteases. In Gram-negative bacteria, LytM factors are mainly reported to have a direct effect on cell division by influencing cleavage and remodeling of peptidoglycan. In this study, mining nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) genomes, three highly conserved open reading frames (ORFs) containing a LytM domain were identified, and the proteins encoded by the ORFs were named YebA, EnvC, and NlpD on the basis of their homology with the Escherichia coli proteins. Immunoblotting and confocal analysis showed that while NTHI NlpD is exposed on the bacterial surface, YebA and EnvC reside in the periplasm. NTHI ΔyebA and ΔnlpD deletion mutants revealed an aberrant division phenotype characterized by an altered cell architecture and extensive membrane blebbing. The morphology of the ΔenvC deletion mutant was identical to that of the wild-type strain, but it showed a drastic reduction of periplasmic proteins, including the chaperones HtrA, SurA, and Skp, and an accumulation of β-barrel-containing outer membrane proteins comprising the autotransporters Hap, IgA serine protease, and HMW2A, as observed by proteomic analysis. These data suggest that EnvC may influence the bacterial surface protein repertoire by facilitating the passage of the periplasmic chaperones through the peptidoglycan layer to the close vicinity of the inner face of the outer membrane. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the fact that an NTHI envC defective strain had an impaired capacity to adhere to epithelial cells and to form biofilm. Notably, this strain also showed a reduced serum resistance. These results suggest that LytM factors are not only important components of cell division but they may also influence NTHI physiology and pathogenesis by affecting membrane composition. PMID:25714719

  16. Gliding Associated Proteins Play Essential Roles during the Formation of the Inner Membrane Complex of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Harding, Clare R; Egarter, Saskia; Gow, Matthew; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Ferguson, David J P; Meissner, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites is a specialised structure localised beneath the parasite's plasma membrane, and is important for parasite stability and intracellular replication. Furthermore, it serves as an anchor for the myosin A motor complex, termed the glideosome. While the role of this protein complex in parasite motility and host cell invasion has been well described, additional roles during the asexual life cycle are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that core elements of the glideosome, the gliding associated proteins GAP40 and GAP50 as well as members of the GAPM family, have critical roles in the biogenesis of the IMC during intracellular replication. Deletion or disruption of these genes resulted in the rapid collapse of developing parasites after initiation of the cell cycle and led to redistribution of other glideosome components. PMID:26845335

  17. Autophagy proteins play cytoprotective and cytocidal roles in leucine starvation-induced cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Slawomir A.; Caplan, Allan B.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is essential for prolonging yeast survival during nutrient deprivation; however, this report shows that some autophagy proteins may also be accelerating population death in those conditions. While leucine starvation caused YCA1-mediated apoptosis characterized by increased annexin V staining, nitrogen deprivation triggered necrotic death characterized by increased propidium iodide uptake. Although a Δatg8 strain died faster than its parental strain during nitrogen starvation, this mutant died slower than its parent during leucine starvation. Conversely, a Δatg11 strain died slower than its parent during nitrogen starvation, but faster during leucine starvation. Curiously, although GFP-Atg8 complemented the Δatg8 mutation, this protein made ATG8 cells more sensitive to nitrogen starvation, and less sensitive to leucine starvation. These results were difficult to explain if autophagy only extended life but could be an indication that a second form of autophagy could concurrently facilitate either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. PMID:22361650

  18. Gliding Associated Proteins Play Essential Roles during the Formation of the Inner Membrane Complex of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Matthew; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Ferguson, David J. P.; Meissner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites is a specialised structure localised beneath the parasite’s plasma membrane, and is important for parasite stability and intracellular replication. Furthermore, it serves as an anchor for the myosin A motor complex, termed the glideosome. While the role of this protein complex in parasite motility and host cell invasion has been well described, additional roles during the asexual life cycle are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that core elements of the glideosome, the gliding associated proteins GAP40 and GAP50 as well as members of the GAPM family, have critical roles in the biogenesis of the IMC during intracellular replication. Deletion or disruption of these genes resulted in the rapid collapse of developing parasites after initiation of the cell cycle and led to redistribution of other glideosome components. PMID:26845335

  19. Gliding Associated Proteins Play Essential Roles during the Formation of the Inner Membrane Complex of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Harding, Clare R; Egarter, Saskia; Gow, Matthew; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Ferguson, David J P; Meissner, Markus

    2016-02-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites is a specialised structure localised beneath the parasite's plasma membrane, and is important for parasite stability and intracellular replication. Furthermore, it serves as an anchor for the myosin A motor complex, termed the glideosome. While the role of this protein complex in parasite motility and host cell invasion has been well described, additional roles during the asexual life cycle are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that core elements of the glideosome, the gliding associated proteins GAP40 and GAP50 as well as members of the GAPM family, have critical roles in the biogenesis of the IMC during intracellular replication. Deletion or disruption of these genes resulted in the rapid collapse of developing parasites after initiation of the cell cycle and led to redistribution of other glideosome components.

  20. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  1. Pretend play.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development. PMID:26263228

  2. Identification of a Conserved Non-Protein-Coding Genomic Element that Plays an Essential Role in Alphabaculovirus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kikhno, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Highly homologous sequences 154–157 bp in length grouped under the name of “conserved non-protein-coding element” (CNE) were revealed in all of the sequenced genomes of baculoviruses belonging to the genus Alphabaculovirus. A CNE alignment led to the detection of a set of highly conserved nucleotide clusters that occupy strictly conserved positions in the CNE sequence. The significant length of the CNE and conservation of both its length and cluster architecture were identified as a combination of characteristics that make this CNE different from known viral non-coding functional sequences. The essential role of the CNE in the Alphabaculovirus life cycle was demonstrated through the use of a CNE-knockout Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) bacmid. It was shown that the essential function of the CNE was not mediated by the presumed expression activities of the protein- and non-protein-coding genes that overlap the AcMNPV CNE. On the basis of the presented data, the AcMNPV CNE was categorized as a complex-structured, polyfunctional genomic element involved in an essential DNA transaction that is associated with an undefined function of the baculovirus genome. PMID:24740153

  3. Global human frequencies of predicted nuclear pathogenic variants and the role played by protein hydrophobicity in pathogenicity potential

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro; Triska, Petr; Rito, Teresa; van der Waerden, Agnes; Li, Biao; Radivojac, Predrag; Samuels, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins are coded by nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genes, implying a complex cross-talk between the two genomes. Here we investigated the diversity displayed in 104 nuclear-coded mitochondrial proteins from 1,092 individuals from the 1000 Genomes dataset, in order to evaluate if these genes are under the effects of purifying selection and how that selection compares with their mitochondrial encoded counterparts. Only the very rare variants (frequency < 0.1%) in these nDNA genes are indistinguishable from a random set from all possible variants in terms of predicted pathogenicity score, but more frequent variants display distinct signs of purifying selection. Comparisons of selection strength indicate stronger selection in the mtDNA genes compared to this set of nDNA genes, accounted for by the high hydrophobicity of the proteins coded by the mtDNA. Most of the predicted pathogenic variants in the nDNA genes were restricted to a single continental population. The proportion of individuals having at least one potential pathogenic mutation in this gene set was significantly lower in Europeans than in Africans and Asians. This difference may reflect demographic asymmetries, since African and Asian populations experienced main expansions in middle Holocene, while in Europeans the main expansions occurred earlier in the post-glacial period. PMID:25412673

  4. Protein Inhibitor of NOS1 Plays a Central Role in the Regulation of NOS1 Activity in Human Dilated Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Tarazón, Estefanía; Ortega, Ana; Gil-Cayuela, Carolina; Carnicer, Ricardo; Lago, Francisca; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An essential factor for the production of nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), major modulator of cardiac function, is the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 is regulated by GTP cyclohydrolase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis which catalyses the formation of dihydroneopterin 3′triphosfate from GTP, producing BH4 after two further steps catalyzed by 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase. However, there are other essential factors involved in the regulation of NOS1 activity, such as protein inhibitor of NOS1 (PIN), calmodulin, heat shock protein 90, and NOS interacting protein. All these molecules have never been analysed in human non-ischemic dilated hearts (DCM). In this study we demonstrated that the upregulation of cardiac NOS1 is not accompanied by increased NOS1 activity in DCM, partly due to the elevated PIN levels and not because of alterations in biopterin biosynthesis. Notably, the PIN concentration was significantly associated with impaired ventricular function, highlighting the importance of this NOS1 activity inhibitor in Ca2+ homeostasis. These results take a central role in the current list of targets for future studies focused on the complex cardiac dysfunction processes through more efficient harnessing of NOS1 signalling. PMID:27481317

  5. A chloroplast protein homologous to the eubacterial topological specificity factor minE plays a role in chloroplast division.

    PubMed

    Itoh, R; Fujiwara, M; Nagata, N; Yoshida, S

    2001-12-01

    We report the identification of a nucleus-encoded minE gene, designated AtMinE1, of Arabidopsis. The encoded AtMinE1 protein possesses both N- and C-terminal extensions, relative to the eubacterial and algal chloroplast-encoded MinE proteins. The N-terminal extension functioned as a chloroplast-targeting transit peptide, as revealed by a transient expression assay using an N terminus:green fluorescent protein fusion. Histochemical beta-glucuronidase staining of transgenic Arabidopsis lines harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::uidA reporter fusion unveiled specific activation of the promoter in green tissues, especially at the shoot apex, which suggests a requirement for cell division-associated AtMinE1 expression for proplastid division in green tissues. In addition, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing a full-length AtMinE1 cDNA and examined the subcellular structures of those plants. Giant heteromorphic chloroplasts were observed in transgenic plants, with a reduced number per cell, whereas mitochondrial morphology remained similar to that of wild-type plants. Taken together, these observations suggest that MinE is the third conserved component involved in chloroplast division.

  6. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  7. Murine Herc6 Plays a Critical Role in Protein ISGylation In Vivo and Has an ISGylation-Independent Function in Seminal Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Kei-ichiro; Hishiki, Takayuki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Cheng, Chuyi; Yan, Ming; Fan, Jun-Bao; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Zhang, Dong-Er; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2015-05-01

    ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) to proteins is a multistep process involving interferon (IFN)-inducible UBE1L (E1), UbcH8 (E2), and ISG15 E3 ligases (E3s). Studies performed over the past several years have shown that ISGylation plays a pivotal role in the host antiviral response against certain viruses. Recent in vitro studies revealed that human Herc5 and mouse Herc6 are major ISG15 E3 ligases, respectively. However, the global function of Herc5/6 proteins in vivo still remains unclear. Here, we report generation and initial characterization of Herc6 knockout mice. Substantial reductions of ISGylation were observed in Herc6-deficient cells after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA injection of mice or IFN treatment of cells. On the other hand, Herc6-deficient cells and wild-type (WT) cells had similar responses to IFN stimulation, Sendai virus (Z strain) infection, and vesicular stomatitis virus infection. These results indicate that Herc6 does not play a critical role in antiviral defense of these viral infections in mice. Interestingly, male Herc6-deficient mice showed seminal vesicle hypertrophy. No such problem was detected in WT and ISG15 activating enzyme Ube1L-deficient mice. These results suggest that in addition to promoting protein ISGylation, Herc6 has a novel and protein ISGylation-independent function in the male reproductive system.

  8. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-04-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. PMID:26903535

  9. Ubiquitin ligase gene neurl3 plays a role in spermatogenesis of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) by regulating testis protein ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenteng; Li, Hailong; Dong, Zhongdian; Cui, Zhongkai; Zhang, Ning; Meng, Liang; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Li, Yangzhen; Guo, Hua; Ma, Jialu; Wei, Zhanfei; Zhang, Nianwei; Yang, Yingming; Chen, Songlin

    2016-10-30

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are a large gene family that plays a diversity of roles in spermatogenesis. In this study, the functional characterization of a neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3 (neurl3) revealed its potential participation in spermatogenesis. Firstly, we found that neurl3 exhibited male-biased transcription and that its translation was predominant in testis germ cells. The knockdown of neurl3 by RNA interference caused increased transcription of spermatogenesis-related genes. These results corroborate previous studies indicating a role for neurl3 in spermatogenesis. Moreover, the levels of neurl3 transcription and testis protein ubiquitination were closely correlated. Based on these findings, we speculate that neurl3 modulates testis protein ubiquitination in a dosage-dependent manner and that this influences spermatogenesis. PMID:27480167

  10. RNA-binding protein DUS16 plays an essential role in primary miRNA processing in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tomohito; Onishi, Masayuki; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Cerutti, Heriberto; Ohama, Takeshi

    2016-09-20

    Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) are embedded in duplexed stem-loops in long precursor transcripts and are excised by sequential cleavage by DICER nuclease(s). In this miRNA biogenesis pathway, dsRNA-binding proteins play important roles in animals and plants by assisting DICER. However, these RNA-binding proteins are poorly characterized in unicellular organisms. Here we report that a unique RNA-binding protein, Dull slicer-16 (DUS16), plays an essential role in processing of primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii In animals and plants, dsRNA-binding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis harbor two or three dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs), whereas DUS16 contains one dsRBD and also an ssRNA-binding domain (RRM). The null mutant of DUS16 showed a drastic reduction in most miRNA species. Production of these miRNAs was complemented by expression of full-length DUS16, but the expression of RRM- or dsRBD-truncated DUS16 did not restore miRNA production. Furthermore, DUS16 is predominantly localized to the nucleus and associated with nascent (unspliced form) pri-miRNAs and the DICER-LIKE 3 protein. These results suggest that DUS16 recognizes pri-miRNA transcripts cotranscriptionally and promotes their processing into mature miRNAs as a component of a microprocessor complex. We propose that DUS16 is an essential factor for miRNA production in Chlamydomonas and, because DUS16 is functionally similar to the dsRNA-binding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis in animals and land plants, our report provides insight into this mechanism in unicellular eukaryotes. PMID:27582463

  11. Playing Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  12. Why Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, O.

    This paper draws together briefly theories and knowledge from research in morphology and cognitive psychology, as well as some hypothetical information from traditional psychiatry, to show the ramifications of play in children's development. Play is defined as any of a wide variety of behaviors through which an individual attempts to discover what…

  13. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  14. Proline 235 plays a key role in the regulation of the oligomeric states of Thermotoga maritima Arginine Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Giovanni; Vigorita, Marilisa; Ruggiero, Alessia; Balasco, Nicole; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; D'Auria, Sabato; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Graziano, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    The Arginine Binding Protein isolated from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is a protein endowed with several peculiar properties. We have previously shown that TmArgBP dimerization is a consequence of the swapping of the C-terminal helix. Here we explored the structural determinants of TmArgBP domain swapping and oligomerization. In particular, we report a mutational analysis of the residue Pro235, which is located in the hinge region of the swapping dimer. This residue was either replaced with a Gly-Lys dipeptide (TmArgBP(P235GK)) or a Gly residue (TmArgBP(P235G)). Different forms of these mutants were generated and extensively characterized using biophysical techniques. For both TmArgBP(P235GK) and TmArgBP(P235G) mutants, the occurrence of multiple oligomerization states (monomers, dimers and trimers) was detected. The formation of well-folded monomeric forms for these mutants indicates that the dimerization through C-terminal domain swapping observed in wild-type TmArgBP is driven by conformational restraints imposed by the presence of Pro235 in the hinge region. Molecular dynamics studies corroborate this observation by showing that Gly235 assumes conformational states forbidden for Pro residues in the TmArgBP(P235G) monomer. Unexpectedly, the trimeric forms present: (a) peculiar circular dichroism spectra, (b) a great susceptibility to heating, and (c) the ability to bind the Thioflavin T dye. The present findings clearly demonstrate that single-point mutations have an important impact on the TmArgBP oligomerization process. In a wider context, they also indicate that proteins endowed with an intrinsic propensity to swap have an easy access to states with altered structural and, possibly, functional properties.

  15. Proline 235 plays a key role in the regulation of the oligomeric states of Thermotoga maritima Arginine Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Giovanni; Vigorita, Marilisa; Ruggiero, Alessia; Balasco, Nicole; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; D'Auria, Sabato; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Graziano, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    The Arginine Binding Protein isolated from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is a protein endowed with several peculiar properties. We have previously shown that TmArgBP dimerization is a consequence of the swapping of the C-terminal helix. Here we explored the structural determinants of TmArgBP domain swapping and oligomerization. In particular, we report a mutational analysis of the residue Pro235, which is located in the hinge region of the swapping dimer. This residue was either replaced with a Gly-Lys dipeptide (TmArgBP(P235GK)) or a Gly residue (TmArgBP(P235G)). Different forms of these mutants were generated and extensively characterized using biophysical techniques. For both TmArgBP(P235GK) and TmArgBP(P235G) mutants, the occurrence of multiple oligomerization states (monomers, dimers and trimers) was detected. The formation of well-folded monomeric forms for these mutants indicates that the dimerization through C-terminal domain swapping observed in wild-type TmArgBP is driven by conformational restraints imposed by the presence of Pro235 in the hinge region. Molecular dynamics studies corroborate this observation by showing that Gly235 assumes conformational states forbidden for Pro residues in the TmArgBP(P235G) monomer. Unexpectedly, the trimeric forms present: (a) peculiar circular dichroism spectra, (b) a great susceptibility to heating, and (c) the ability to bind the Thioflavin T dye. The present findings clearly demonstrate that single-point mutations have an important impact on the TmArgBP oligomerization process. In a wider context, they also indicate that proteins endowed with an intrinsic propensity to swap have an easy access to states with altered structural and, possibly, functional properties. PMID:27087545

  16. CyclinD1 protein plays different roles in modulating chemoresponses in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Luo, Dianzhong; Liao, D. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Background: CyclinD1 is an essential sensor and activator of cell cycle initiation and progression; overexpression of cyclinD1 is linked to various human cancers, including breast cancer. The elevated cyclinD1 in some types of cancers is believed to be associated with tumor progression and response to systemic treatments. Aims: In this study, we anticipate to address the questions in human breast cancer; the function of cyclinD1 in mediating chemoresponses; and the signaling pathway cooperating with cyclinD1 to interfere with the drug functions. Materials and Methods: Using the cell clones, concurrent ectopic expression of the wild-type or K112E-mutated human cyclinD1 protein in the MCF7 and MDA-MB231 (MB231) breast cancer cells to study the function of cyclinD1 in responses to the chemotherapeutic treatments. Three drugs, cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and Gemzar were used in this study; the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell cycle and cell death analysis, clonogenic survival assay, acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining, and Western blot assay were conducted to evaluate the drugs’ effects in the cell clones. Results: The cell clones expressing the D1 protein in MCF7 and MB231 cells result in distinct effects on the responses to chemotherapeutic treatments. Particularly with Gemzar, ectopic expression of cyclinD1 protein in MCF7 cells results in a potentiated effect, which is CDK4 kinase activity dependent, whereas in MB231 cells, an opposite effect was observed. Moreover, our results suggested that the distinct chemosensitivities among those cell clones were not resulted from accelerated cell cycle, cell proliferation driven by the cyclinD1CDK4/6-Rb-E2F signaling chain, rather, they were results of the cell cycle-independent functions led by cyclinD1 alone or in complex with CDK4. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the functions of cyclinD1 protein in modulating chemoresponses in the MCF7

  17. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  18. The protein kinase A regulatory subunit R1A (Prkar1a) plays critical roles in peripheral nerve development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Lee, Audrey A; Rizvi, Tilat A; Ratner, Nancy; Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2013-11-13

    Signaling through cAMP has been implicated in Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and myelination, but the signaling pathway components downstream of cAMP required for SC function remain unknown. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a potential downstream effector of cAMP. Here, we induced loss of Prkar1a, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of PKA, in SC to study its role in nerve development; loss of Prkar1a is predicted to elevate PKA activity. Conditional Prkar1a knock-out in mouse SC (Prkar1a-SCKO) resulted in a dramatic and persistent axonal sorting defect, and unexpectedly decreased SC proliferation in Prkar1a-SCKO nerves in vivo. Effects were cell autonomous as they were recapitulated in vitro in Prkar1a-SCKO SC, which showed elevated PKA activity. In the few SCs sorted into 1:1 relationships with axons in vivo, SC myelination was premature in Prkar1a-SCKO nerves, correlating with global increase in the cAMP-regulated transcription factor Oct-6 and expression of myelin basic protein. These data reveal a previously unknown role of PKA in axon sorting, an unexpected inhibitory role of PKA on SC cell proliferation in vivo and define the importance of Prkar1a in peripheral nerve development. PMID:24227708

  19. Anti-myelin antibodies play an important role in the susceptibility to develop proteolipid protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Marín, N; Eixarch, H; Mansilla, M J; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Mecha, M; Guaza, C; Álvarez-Cermeño, J C; Montalban, X; Villar, L M; Espejo, C

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is an autoimmune disorder in which activated T cells cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to initiate an inflammatory response that leads to demyelination and axonal damage. The key mechanisms responsible for disease initiation are still unknown. We addressed this issue in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. It is widely known that EAE manifests only in certain strains when immunized with myelin proteins or peptides. We studied the differential immune responses induced in two mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to EAE induction when they are immunized with the 139–151 peptide of proteolipid protein, an encephalitogenic peptide capable of inducing EAE in the susceptible strain. The adequate combination of major histocompatibility complex alleles and myelin peptides triggered in susceptible mice a T helper type 17 (Th17) response capable of inducing the production of high-affinity anti-myelin immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. These were not detected in resistant mice, despite immunization with the encephalitogenic peptide in junction with complete Freund's adjuvant and pertussis toxin, which mediate BBB disruption. These data show the pivotal role of Th17 responses and of high-affinity anti-myelin antibodies in EAE induction and that mechanisms that prevent their appearance can contribute to resistance to EAE. PMID:24188195

  20. Anti-myelin antibodies play an important role in the susceptibility to develop proteolipid protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Marín, N; Eixarch, H; Mansilla, M J; Rodríguez-Martín, E; Mecha, M; Guaza, C; Álvarez-Cermeño, J C; Montalban, X; Villar, L M; Espejo, C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is an autoimmune disorder in which activated T cells cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to initiate an inflammatory response that leads to demyelination and axonal damage. The key mechanisms responsible for disease initiation are still unknown. We addressed this issue in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. It is widely known that EAE manifests only in certain strains when immunized with myelin proteins or peptides. We studied the differential immune responses induced in two mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to EAE induction when they are immunized with the 139-151 peptide of proteolipid protein, an encephalitogenic peptide capable of inducing EAE in the susceptible strain. The adequate combination of major histocompatibility complex alleles and myelin peptides triggered in susceptible mice a T helper type 17 (Th17) response capable of inducing the production of high-affinity anti-myelin immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. These were not detected in resistant mice, despite immunization with the encephalitogenic peptide in junction with complete Freund's adjuvant and pertussis toxin, which mediate BBB disruption. These data show the pivotal role of Th17 responses and of high-affinity anti-myelin antibodies in EAE induction and that mechanisms that prevent their appearance can contribute to resistance to EAE. PMID:24188195

  1. Activation of Protein Kinases and Inhibition of Protein Phosphatases Play a Central Role in the Regulation of Exocytosis in Mouse Pancreatic β Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammala, Carina; Eliasson, Lena; Bokvist, Krister; Berggren, Per-Olof; Honkanen, Richard E.; Sjoholm, Ake; Rorsman, Patrik

    1994-05-01

    The mechanisms that regulate insulin secretion were investigated using capacitance measurements of exocytosis in single β cells maintained in tissue culture. Exocytosis was stimulated by voltage-clamp depolarizations to activate the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels that mediate Ca2+ influx into the β cell. Under basal conditions, the exocytotic responses were small despite large Ca2+ currents. The exocytotic responses were dramatically increased (10- to 20-fold) by conditions that promote protein phosphorylation, such as activation of protein kinases A and C or inhibition of protein phosphatases. The stimulation of secretion was not due to an enhancement of Ca2+ influx and both peak and integrated Ca2+ currents were largely unaffected. Our data indicate that exocytosis in the insulin-secreting pancreatic β cell is determined by a balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. They further suggest that although Ca2+ is required for the initiation of exocytosis, modulation of exocytosis by protein kinases and phosphatases, at a step distal to the elevation of Ca2+, is of much greater quantitative importance. Thus an elevation of Ca2+ may represent a permissive rather than a decisive factor in the regulation of the insulin secretory process.

  2. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP plays a critical role in bacterial invasion during fatal rickettsioses

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bin; Shelite, Thomas; Mei, Fang C.; Ha, Tuha; Hu, Yaohua; Xu, Guang; Chang, Qing; Wakamiya, Maki; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Boor, Paul J.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Chen, Ju; Walker, David H.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsiae are responsible for some of the most devastating human infections. A high infectivity and severe illness after inhalation make some rickettsiae bioterrorism threats. We report that deletion of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) gene, Epac1, in mice protects them from an ordinarily lethal dose of rickettsiae. Inhibition of Epac1 suppresses bacterial adhesion and invasion. Most importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Epac1 in vivo using an Epac-specific small-molecule inhibitor, ESI-09, completely recapitulates the Epac1 knockout phenotype. ESI-09 treatment dramatically decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with fatal spotted fever rickettsiosis. Our results demonstrate that Epac1-mediated signaling represents a mechanism for host–pathogen interactions and that Epac1 is a potential target for the prevention and treatment of fatal rickettsioses. PMID:24218580

  3. Investigation of the functional role played by the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in interleukin-1-induced murine peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajuebor, Maureen N; Gibbs, Linda; Flower, Roderick J; Das, Anuk M; Perretti, Mauro

    1998-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of murine recombinant IL-1β (mrIL-1β) produced a dose-dependent (0.5–50 ng) and time-related (0.5–2 h) secretion of murine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (mMCP-1; 3–4 ng per cavity) in the lavage fluids. MCP-1 mRNA could also be detected in the cell pellets by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).MCP-1 levels were reduced by more than 90% by co-administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (10 μg) (n=6, P<0.05). In contrast, an IL-1 mutant with low affinity for IL-1 receptor type I, termed yIL-1βΔ4 (50 ng), produced only a modest release of the chemokine. Treatment of mice with dexamethasone (DEX) (∼1 mg kg−1 s.c.) reduced mrIL-1β-induced mMCP-1 gene expression (apparent total inhibition) and protein release in the lavage fluids (∼40% reduction; n=10; P<0.05). Drastic reductions in the numbers of residential macrophages or mast cells did not modify the levels of mMCP-1 recovered in the lavage fluids.Injection of mrIL-1β produced neutrophil accumulation into the peritoneal cavities (maximal at 4 h with 1.42±0.15×106 cells per mouse). Co-injection of a specific polyclonal antibody against mMCP-1 reduced this process by more than 50% (n=6; P<0.05). In conclusion, we studied the mechanisms leading to the specific release of the CC chemokine mMCP-1 after in vivo administration of mrIL-1β. PMID:9786504

  4. The Malaria Parasite Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Plays a Central Role in Blood-Stage Schizogony▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Helen M.; McRobert, Louisa; Grainger, Munira; Sicard, Audrey; Dluzewski, Anton R.; Hopp, Christine S.; Holder, Anthony A.; Baker, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A role for the Plasmodium falciparum cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG) in gametogenesis in the malaria parasite was elucidated previously. In the present study we examined the role of PfPKG in the asexual blood-stage of the parasite life cycle, the stage that causes malaria pathology. A specific PKG inhibitor (compound 1, a trisubstituted pyrrole) prevented the progression of P. falciparum schizonts through to ring stages in erythrocyte invasion assays. Addition of compound 1 to ring-stage parasites allowed normal development up to 30 h postinvasion, and segmented schizonts were able to form. However, synchronized schizonts treated with compound 1 for ≥6 h became large and dysmorphic and were unable to rupture or liberate merozoites. To conclusively demonstrate that the effect of compound 1 on schizogony was due to its selective action on PfPKG, we utilized genetically manipulated P. falciparum parasites expressing a compound 1-insensitive PfPKG. The mutant parasites were able to complete schizogony in the presence of compound 1 but not in the presence of the broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine. This shows that PfPKG is the primary target of compound 1 during schizogony and provides direct evidence of a role for PfPKG in this process. Discovery of essential roles for the P. falciparum PKG in both asexual and sexual development demonstrates that cGMP signaling is a key regulator of both of these crucial life cycle phases and defines this molecule as an exciting potential drug target for both therapeutic and transmission blocking action against malaria. PMID:19915077

  5. Thioredoxin-family protein EYE2 and Ser/Thr kinase EYE3 play interdependent roles in eyespot assembly

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Joseph S.; Mittelmeier, Telsa M.; Lamb, Mary Rose; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    The eyespot of the biflagellate unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a complex organelle that facilitates directional responses of the cell to environmental light stimuli. The eyespot, which assembles de novo after every cell division and is associated with the daughter four-membered (D4) microtubule rootlet, comprises an elliptical patch of rhodopsin photoreceptors on the plasma membrane and stacks of carotenoid-rich pigment granule arrays in the chloroplast. Two loci, EYE2 and EYE3, define factors involved in the formation and organization of the eyespot pigment granule arrays. Whereas EYE3, a serine/threonine kinase of the ABC1 family, localizes to pigment granules, EYE2 localization corresponds to an area of the chloroplast envelope in the eyespot. EYE2 is positioned along, and adjacent to, the D4 rootlet in the absence of pigment granules. The eyespot pigment granule array is required for maintenance of the elliptical shape of both the overlying EYE2 and channelrhodopsin-1 photoreceptor patches. We propose a model of eyespot assembly wherein rootlet and photoreceptor direct EYE2 to an area of the chloroplast envelope, where it acts to facilitate assembly of pigment granule arrays, and EYE3 plays a role in the biogenesis of the pigment granules. PMID:21372178

  6. Play & Play Grounds. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jeannette Galambos

    Using camera and tape recorder, a photographer and an early childhood specialist explored as a team the universe of children's outdoor play, seeking worthy and innovative ideas and stressing urban playground problems and solutions. The resulting photographs and text focus on (1) the characteristics of play, (2) the nature of playgrounds, and (3)…

  7. Shadow Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of shadows to explain such scientific phenomena as umbra and penumbra, eclipses, day and night, seasons, and length of day. Indicates that shadow plays can serve to help the students in understanding more about light. (CC)

  8. IL-10 plays a central regulatory role in the cytokines induced by hepatitis C virus core protein and polyinosinic acid:polycytodylic acid.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhai, Naicui; Zhang, Qianqian; Song, Hongxiao; Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Tianyang; Li, Haijun; Su, Lishan; Niu, Junqi; Tu, Zhengkun

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause persistent infection and chronic liver disease, and viral factors are involved in HCV persistence. HCV core protein, a highly conserved viral protein, not only elicits an immunoresponse, but it also regulates it. In addition, HCV core protein interacts with toll-like receptors (TLRs) on monocytes, inducing them to produce cytokines. Polyinosinic acid:polycytodylic acid (polyI:C) is a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA that binds to TLR3 and can induce secretion of type I IFN from monocytes. Cytokine response against HCV is likely to affect the natural course of infection as well as HCV persistence. However, possible effects of cytokines induced by HCV core protein and polyI:C remain to be investigated. In this study, we isolated CD14(+) monocytes from healthy donors, cultured them in the presence of HCV core protein and/or polyI:C, and characterized the induced cytokines, phenotypes and mechanisms. We demonstrated that HCV core protein- and polyI:C-stimulated CD14(+) monocytes secreted tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and type I interferon (IFN). Importantly, TNF-α and IL-1β regulated the secretion of IL-10, which then influenced the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and subsequently the production of type I IFN. Interestingly, type I IFN also regulated the production of IL-10, which in turn inhibited the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Therefore, IL-10 appears to play a central role in regulating the production of cytokines induced by HCV core protein and polyI:C. PMID:27337528

  9. The Unfolded Protein Response Plays a Predominant Homeostatic Role in Response to Mitochondrial Stress in Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hsin-Yuan; Waldron, Richard T.; Gong, Raymond; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Pandol, Stephen J.; Lugea, Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PaSC) are key participants in the stroma of pancreatic cancer, secreting extracellular matrix proteins and inflammatory mediators. Tumors are poorly vascularized, creating metabolic stress conditions in cancer and stromal cells that necessitate adaptive homeostatic cellular programs. Activation of autophagy and the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) have been described in hepatic stellate cells, but the role of these processes in PaSC responses to metabolic stress is unknown. We reported that the PI3K/mTOR pathway, which AMPK can regulate through multiple inputs, modulates PaSC activation and fibrogenic potential. Here, using primary and immortalized mouse PaSC, we assess the relative contributions of AMPK/mTOR signaling, autophagy and the UPR to cell fate responses during metabolic stress induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial uncoupler rottlerin at low doses (0.5–2.5 μM) was added to cells cultured in 10% FBS complete media. Mitochondria rapidly depolarized, followed by altered mitochondrial dynamics and decreased cellular ATP levels. This mitochondrial dysfunction elicited rapid, sustained AMPK activation, mTOR pathway inhibition, and blockade of autophagic flux. Rottlerin treatment also induced rapid, sustained PERK/CHOP UPR signaling. Subsequently, high doses (>5 μM) induced loss of cell viability and cell death. Interestingly, AMPK knock-down using siRNA did not prevent rottlerin-induced mTOR inhibition, autophagy, or CHOP upregulation, suggesting that AMPK is dispensable for these responses. Moreover, CHOP genetic deletion, but not AMPK knock-down, prevented rottlerin-induced apoptosis and supported cell survival, suggesting that UPR signaling is a major modulator of cell fate in PaSC during metabolic stress. Further, short-term rottlerin treatment reduced both PaSC fibrogenic potential and IL-6 mRNA expression. In contrast, expression levels of the angiogenic factors HGF and VEGF

  10. Molecular Cloning Reveals that the p160 Myb-Binding Protein Is a Novel, Predominantly Nucleolar Protein Which May Play a Role in Transactivation by Myb

    PubMed Central

    Tavner, Fiona J.; Simpson, Richard; Tashiro, Shigeki; Favier, Diane; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Gilbert, Debra J.; Copeland, Neal G.; Macmillan, Elizabeth M.; Lutwyche, Jodi; Keough, Rebecca A.; Ishii, Shunsuke; Gonda, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously detected two related murine nuclear proteins, p160 and p67, that can bind to the leucine zipper motif within the negative regulatory domain of the Myb transcription factor. We now describe the molecular cloning of cDNA corresponding to murine p160. The P160 gene is located on mouse chromosome 11, and related sequences are found on chromosomes 1 and 12. The predicted p160 protein is novel, and in agreement with previous studies, we find that the corresponding 4.5-kb mRNA is ubiquitously expressed. We showed that p67 is an N-terminal fragment of p160 which is generated by proteolytic cleavage in certain cell types. The protein encoded by the cloned p160 cDNA and an engineered protein (p67*) comprising the amino-terminal region of p160 exhibit binding specificities for the Myb and Jun leucine zipper regions identical to those of endogenous p160 and p67, respectively. This implies that the Myb-binding site of p160 lies within the N-terminal 580 residues and that the Jun-binding site is C-terminal to this position. Moreover, we show that p67* but not p160 can inhibit transactivation by Myb. Unexpectedly, immunofluorescence studies show that p160 is localized predominantly in the nucleolus. The implications of these results for possible functions of p160 are discussed. PMID:9447996

  11. The mitochondrial protein Mcu1 plays important roles in carbon source utilization, filamentation, and virulence in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guobo; Wang, Haitao; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Tao, Li; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B; Wang, Yue; Huang, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is both a pathogen and a commensal in humans. The ability to utilize different carbon sources available in diverse host niches is vital for both commensalism and pathogenicity. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an important signaling molecule as well as a carbon source in C. albicans. Here, we report the discovery of a novel gene MCU1 essential for GlcNAc utilization. Mcu1 is located in mitochondria and associated with multiple energy- and metabolism-related proteins including Por1, Atp1, Pet9, and Mdh1. Consistently, inactivating Por1 impaired GlcNAc utilization as well. Deletion of MCU1 also caused defects in utilizing non-fermentable carbon sources and amino acids. Furthermore, MCU1 is required for filamentation in several inducing conditions and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. We also deleted TGL99 and GUP1, two genes adjacent to MCU1, and found that the gup1/gup1 mutant exhibited mild defects in the utilization of several carbon sources including GlcNAc, maltose, galactose, amino acids, and ethanol. Our results indicate that MCU1 exists in a cluster of genes involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Given its importance in metabolism and lack of a homolog in humans, Mcu1 could be a potential target for developing antifungal agents.

  12. Playing RNase P evolution: swapping the RNA catalyst for a protein reveals functional uniformity of highly divergent enzyme forms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christoph; Hartig, Andreas; Hartmann, Roland K; Rossmanith, Walter

    2014-08-01

    The RNase P family is a diverse group of endonucleases responsible for the removal of 5' extensions from tRNA precursors. The diversity of enzyme forms finds its extremes in the eukaryal nucleus where RNA-based catalysis by complex ribonucleoproteins in some organisms contrasts with single-polypeptide enzymes in others. Such structural contrast suggests associated functional differences, and the complexity of the ribonucleoprotein was indeed proposed to broaden the enzyme's functionality beyond tRNA processing. To explore functional overlap and differences between most divergent forms of RNase P, we replaced the nuclear RNase P of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a 10-subunit ribonucleoprotein, with Arabidopsis thaliana PRORP3, a single monomeric protein. Surprisingly, the RNase P-swapped yeast strains were viable, displayed essentially unimpaired growth under a wide variety of conditions, and, in a certain genetic background, their fitness even slightly exceeded that of the wild type. The molecular analysis of the RNase P-swapped strains showed a minor disturbance in tRNA metabolism, but did not point to any RNase P substrates or functions beyond that. Altogether, these results indicate the full functional exchangeability of the highly dissimilar enzymes. Our study thereby establishes the RNase P family, with its combination of structural diversity and functional uniformity, as an extreme case of convergent evolution. It moreover suggests that the apparently gratuitous complexity of some RNase P forms is the result of constructive neutral evolution rather than reflecting increased functional versatility.

  13. The BH3-only protein Puma plays an essential role in p53-mediated apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Jia; Liu, Ling; Fan, Lei; Zhang, Li-Na; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and functions of BH3-only proteins Puma, Noxa and Bim in the prognosis, therapy and drug resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Puma, Noxa and Bim mRNAs were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and correlations between their expression levels and CLL prognostic markers were analyzed. Primary CLL samples were treated in vitro with fludarabine to investigate the role of Puma, Noxa and Bim in the response to chemotherapeutic drugs which act through activation of the p53 pathway. We found that a low expression level of Puma was associated with some markers of poor prognosis. However, the level of Noxa or Bim was not different in patients with CLL with variant clinical features and prognostic factors. Puma expression was up-regulated after fludarabine treatment in primary CLL cells, but there was no significant difference for Noxa and Bim. Up-regulation of Puma occurred only in CLL cells with functional p53. CLL cells with p53 abnormalities were deficient in the activation of Puma by chemotherapeutics. These results suggest that a lack of Puma induction may contribute to the development of resistance to anticancer agents in CLL.

  14. ESCRT-I Protein Tsg101 Plays a Role in the Post-macropinocytic Trafficking and Infection of Endothelial Cells by Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Binod; Dutta, Dipanjan; Iqbal, Jawed; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Roy, Arunava; Chikoti, Leela; Pisano, Gina; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Chandran, Bala

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) binding to the endothelial cell surface heparan sulfate is followed by sequential interactions with α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and Ephrin A2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R). These interactions activate host cell pre-existing FAK, Src, PI3-K and RhoGTPase signaling cascades, c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination of receptors, recruitment of CIB1, p130Cas and Crk adaptor molecules, and membrane bleb formation leading to lipid raft dependent macropinocytosis of KSHV into human microvascular dermal endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells. The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins, ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and–III, play a central role in clathrin-mediated internalized ubiquitinated receptor endosomal trafficking and sorting. ESCRT proteins have also been shown to play roles in viral egress. We have recently shown that ESCRT-0 component Hrs protein associates with the plasma membrane during macropinocytosis and mediates KSHV entry via ROCK1 mediated phosphorylation of NHE1 and local membrane pH change. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT-I complex Tsg101 protein also participates in the macropinocytosis of KSHV and plays a role in KSHV trafficking. Knockdown of Tsg101 did not affect virus entry in HMVEC-d and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells but significantly inhibited the KSHV genome entry into the nucleus and consequently viral gene expression in these cells. Double and triple immunofluorescence, proximity ligation immunofluorescence and co-immuoprecipitation studies revealed the association of Tsg101 with the KSHV containing macropinosomes, and increased levels of Tsg101 association/interactions with EphA2R, c-Cbl, p130Cas and Crk signal molecules, as well as with upstream and downstream ESCRT components such as Hrs (ESCRT-0), EAP45 (ESCRT-II), CHMP6 (ESCRT-III) and CHMP5 (ESCRT-III) in the KSHV infected cells. Tsg101 was also associated with early (Rab5) and late endosomal (Rab7) stages of

  15. Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Proteins May Play a Role in Transcription and Second-Strand Synthesis of Recombinant Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Salganik, Maxim; Aydemir, Fikret; Nam, Hyun-Joo; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2014-01-01

    A group of four interacting amino acids in adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8) called the pH quartet has been shown to undergo a structural change when subjected to acidic pH comparable to that seen in endosomal compartments. We examined the phenotypes of mutants with mutations in these amino acids as well as several nearby residues in the background of AAV2. We found that three of the mutations in this region (Y704A, E562A, and E564A) produce normal titers of mature capsids but are extremely defective for transduction (>107-fold). The remaining mutants were also defective for transduction, but the defect in these mutants (E563A, E561A, H526A, and R389A) is not as severe (3- to 22-fold). Two other mutants (Y700A and Y730A) were found to be defective for virus assembly. One of the extremely defective mutants (Y704A) was found to enter the cell, traffic to the nucleus, and uncoat its DNA nearly as efficiently as the wild type. This suggested that some step after nuclear entry and uncoating was defective. To see if the extremely defective mutants were impaired in second-strand synthesis, the Y704A, E562A, and E564A mutants containing self-complementary DNA were compared with virus containing single-stranded genomes. Two of the mutants (Y704A and E564A) showed 1-log and 3-log improvements in infectivity, respectively, while the third mutant (E562A) showed no change. This suggested that inhibition of second-strand synthesis was responsible for some but not most of the defect in these mutants. Comparison of Y704A mRNA synthesis with that of the wild-type capsid showed that accumulation of steady-state mRNA in the Y704A mutant was reduced 450-fold, even though equal genome numbers were uncoated. Our experiments have identified a novel capsid function. They suggest that AAV capsids may play a role in the initiation of both second-strand synthesis and transcription of the input genome. PMID:24198419

  16. Nod-like receptor protein-3 inflammasome plays an important role during early stages of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Mirza, Rita E; Koh, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing.

  17. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  18. The NS5A-binding heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70 play distinct roles in the hepatitis C viral life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Ahmadieh, Yasaman; Wheatley, Nicole; Sundberg, Christopher; Jung, Chun-Ling; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified HSP70 and HSC70 in complex with NS5A in a proteomic screen. Here, coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed NS5A/HSC70 complex formation during infection, and immunofluorescence studies showed NS5A and HSC70 to colocalize. Unlike HSP70, HSC70 knockdown did not decrease viral protein levels. Rather, intracellular infectious virion assembly was significantly impaired by HSC70 knockdown. We also discovered that both HSC70 nucleotide binding and substrate binding domains directly bind NS5A whereas only the HSP70 nucleotide binding domain does. Knockdown of both HSC70 and HSP70 demonstrated an additive reduction in virus production. This data suggests that HSC70 and HSP70 play discrete roles in the viral life cycle. Investigation of these different functions may facilitate developing of novel strategies that target host proteins to treat HCV infection. PMID:24725938

  19. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  20. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304308

  1. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  2. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.

  3. Protein kinase R is a novel mediator of CD40 signaling and plays a critical role in modulating immunoglobulin expression during respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal A; Zalinger, Zachary B; Johnson, Teresa R; Imani, Farhad

    2011-12-01

    Effective immunoglobulin responses play a vital role in protection against most pathogens. However, the molecular mediators and mechanisms responsible for signaling and selective expression of immunoglobulin types remain to be elucidated. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that protein kinase R (PKR) plays a crucial role in IgE responses to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in vitro. In this study, we show that PKR plays a critical role in IgG expression both in vivo and in vitro. PKR(-/-) mice show significantly altered serum IgG levels during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. IgG2a expression is particularly sensitive to a lack of PKR and is below the detection level in mock- or RSV-infected PKR(-/-) mice. Interestingly, we show that upon activation by anti-CD40 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), B cells from PKR(-/-) mice show diminished major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), CD80, and CD86 levels on the cell surface compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Our data also show that PKR is necessary for optimal expression of adhesion molecules, such as CD11a and ICAM-1, that are necessary for homotypic aggregation of B cells. Furthermore, in this report we demonstrate for the first time that upon CD40 ligation, PKR is rapidly phosphorylated and activated, indicating that PKR is an early and novel downstream mediator of CD40 signaling pathways.

  4. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana; Rynes, Jan; Nellen, Wolfgang; Puta, Frantisek; Folk, Petr

    2009-05-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-J{kappa}/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +}, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +} are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG{sup A}/{sub G}GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11{sup +} is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  5. A Sporozoite- and Liver Stage-expressed Tryptophan-rich Protein Plays an Auxiliary Role in Plasmodium Liver Stage Development and Is a Potential Vaccine Candidate*

    PubMed Central

    Jaijyan, Dabbu Kumar; Singh, Himanshu; Singh, Agam Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The liver stages of the malaria parasite are clinically silent and constitute ideal targets for causal prophylactic drugs and vaccines. Cellular and molecular events responsible for liver stage development are poorly characterized. Here, we show that sporozoite, liver stage tryptophan-rich protein (SLTRiP) forms large multimers. Mice immunized with a purified recombinant SLTRiP protein gave high antibody titers in both inbred and outbred mice. Immunized mice showed highly significant levels of protection upon challenge with sporozoites and exhibited 10,000-fold fewer parasite 18S-rRNA copy numbers in their livers. The protection offered by immunization with SLTRiP came mainly from T-cells, and antibodies had little role to play despite their high titers. Immunofluorescence assays showed that SLTRiP is expressed in the sporozoite and early to late liver stages of malaria parasites. SLTRiP protein is exported to the cytosol of infected host cells during the early hours of parasite infection. Parasites deficient in SLTRiP were moderately defective in liver stage parasite development. A transcriptome profile of SLTRiP-deficient parasite-infected hepatocytes highlighted that SLTRiP interferes with multiple pathways in the host cell. We have demonstrated a role for SLTRiP in sporozoites and the liver stage of malaria parasites. PMID:25960542

  6. The Acinetobacter baumannii 19606 OmpA protein plays a role in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and in the interaction of this pathogen with eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Gaddy, Jennifer A; Tomaras, Andrew P; Actis, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to adhere to and persist on surfaces as biofilms could be central to its pathogenicity. The production of pili and a biofilm-associated protein and the expression of antibiotic resistance are needed for robust biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces. This multistep process also depends on the expression of transcriptional regulatory functions, some of which could sense nutrients available to cells. This report extends previous observations by showing that although outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of A. baumannii 19606 plays a partial role in the development of robust biofilms on plastic, it is essential for bacterial attachment to Candida albicans filaments and A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast to abiotic surfaces, the interaction with biotic surfaces is independent of the CsuA/BABCDE-mediated pili. The interaction of A. baumannii 19606 with fungal and epithelial cells also results in their apoptotic death, a response that depends on the direct contact of bacteria with these two types of eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the bacterial adhesion phenotype correlates with the ability of bacteria to invade A549 epithelial cells. Interestingly, the killing activity of cell-free culture supernatants proved to be protease and temperature sensitive, suggesting that its cytotoxic activity is due to secreted proteins, some of which are different from OmpA.

  7. The tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene, SlGLO1, plays key roles in petal and stamen development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuhu; Hu, Zongli; Yin, Wencheng; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important role in plant growth and development, especially floral organ identities. In our study, a MADS-box gene SlGLO1- tomato floral homeotic protein FBP1-like gene was isolated. Its tissue-specific expression profile analysis showed that SlGLO1 was highly expressed in petals and stamens. RNAi (RNA interference) repression of SlGLO1 resulted in floral organ abnormal phenotypes, including green petals with shorter size, and aberrant carpelloid stamens. SlGLO1-silenced lines are male sterile. Total chlorophyll content was increased and chlorophyll biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in SlGLO1-silenced petals and stamens. Furthermore, B-class genes expression analysis indicated that the repressed function of SlGLO1 led to the enhanced expression of TAP3 and the down-regulation of TPI in the petals and stamens, while the expression of TM6 was reduced in petals and increased in stamens and carpels of SlGLO1-RNAi plants. Additionally, pollen grains of transgenic lines were aberrant and failed to germinate and tomato pollen-specific genes were down-regulated by more than 90% in SlGLO1-silenced lines. These results suggest that SlGLO1 plays important role in regulating plant floral organ and pollen development in tomato. PMID:26842499

  8. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals heat shock proteins play important roles in mediating cold, heat, and drought tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiming; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Meiliang; Cheng, Hongmei

    2014-03-01

    Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.ex kom.) Cheng F. is the only evergreen broadleaf shrub endemic to the desert of central Asian and it can survive at drought, salt, and alkali stress. It is believed that A. mongolicus is an important germplasm containing abiotic-tolerance genes. In order to identify drought-, cold-, and heat-responsive genes and to gain a better understanding of stress responses in A. mongolicus, genome-wide investigation of drought-, cold-, and heat-responsive genes was performed in A. mongolicus using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism. Selective amplification with 240 primer combinations generated 5,000 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs). Of these, 201 TDFs with differential expression patterns were excised from gels, reamplified by PCR, and sequenced. The gene expression patterns of 11 regulated genes were further investigated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing and similarity analysis revealed that TDFs present homologies chiefly with proteins involved in various abiotic and biotic stress and developmental responses. The information presented in this study reveals that heat shock proteins play an active role in mediating drought, cold, and heat tolerance in A. mongolicus. PMID:24241624

  9. Crystal structure of NblA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, a small protein playing a key role in phycobilisome degradation.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Ralf; Baier, Kerstin; Volkmer, Rudolf; Lockau, Wolfgang; Heinemann, Udo

    2006-02-24

    Cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes, are proteolytically degraded when the organisms are starved for combined nitrogen, a process referred to as chlorosis or bleaching. Gene nblA, present in all phycobilisome-containing organisms, encodes a protein of about 7 kDa that plays a key role in phycobilisome degradation. The mode of action of NblA in this degradation process is poorly understood. Here we presented the 1.8-A crystal structure of NblA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. In the crystal, NblA is present as a four-helix bundle formed by dimers, the basic structural units. By using pull-down assays with immobilized NblA and peptide scanning, we showed that NblA specifically binds to the alpha-subunits of phycocyanin and phycoerythrocyanin, the main building blocks of the phycobilisome rod structure. By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified amino acid residues in NblA that are involved in phycobilisome binding. The results provided evidence that NblA is directly involved in phycobilisome degradation, and the results allowed us to present a model that gives insight into the interaction of this small protein with the phycobilisomes.

  10. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals heat shock proteins play important roles in mediating cold, heat, and drought tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiming; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Meiliang; Cheng, Hongmei

    2014-03-01

    Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.ex kom.) Cheng F. is the only evergreen broadleaf shrub endemic to the desert of central Asian and it can survive at drought, salt, and alkali stress. It is believed that A. mongolicus is an important germplasm containing abiotic-tolerance genes. In order to identify drought-, cold-, and heat-responsive genes and to gain a better understanding of stress responses in A. mongolicus, genome-wide investigation of drought-, cold-, and heat-responsive genes was performed in A. mongolicus using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism. Selective amplification with 240 primer combinations generated 5,000 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs). Of these, 201 TDFs with differential expression patterns were excised from gels, reamplified by PCR, and sequenced. The gene expression patterns of 11 regulated genes were further investigated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing and similarity analysis revealed that TDFs present homologies chiefly with proteins involved in various abiotic and biotic stress and developmental responses. The information presented in this study reveals that heat shock proteins play an active role in mediating drought, cold, and heat tolerance in A. mongolicus.

  11. A functional cyclic AMP response element plays a crucial role in neuroendocrine cell type-specific expression of the secretory granule protein chromogranin A.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Mahata, S K; Mahata, M; Webster, N J; Parmer, R J; O'Connor, D T

    1995-01-01

    Chromogranin A, a soluble acidic protein, is a ubiquitous component of secretory vesicles throughout the neuroendocrine system. We reported previously the cloning and initial characterization of the mouse chromogranin A gene promoter, which showed that the promoter contains both positive and negative domains and that a proximal promoter spanning nucleotides -147 to +42 bp relative to the transcriptional start site is sufficient for neuroendocrine cell type-specific expression. The current study was undertaken to identify the particular elements within this proximal promoter that control tissue-specific expression. We found that deletion or point mutations in the potential cAMP response element (CRE) site at -68 bp virtually abolished promoter activity specifically in neuroendocrine (PC12 chromaffin or AtT20 corticotrope) cells, with little effect on activity in control (NIH3T3 fibroblast) cells; thus, the CRE box is necessary for neuroendocrine cell type-specific activity of the chromogranin A promoter. Furthermore, the effect of the CRE site is enhanced in the context of intact (wild-type) promoter sequences between -147 and -100 bp. DNase I footprint analysis showed that these regions (including the CRE box) bind nuclear proteins present in both neuroendocrine (AtT20) and control (NIH3T3) cells. In AtT20 cells, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and factor-specific antibody supershifts showed that an oligonucleotide containing the chromogranin A CRE site formed a single, homogeneous protein-DNA complex containing the CRE-binding protein CREB. However, in control NIH3T3 cells we found evidence for an additional immunologically unrelated protein in this complex. A single copy of this oligonucleotide was able to confer neuroendocrine-specific expression to a heterologous (thymidine kinase) promoter, albeit with less fold selectivity than the full proximal chromogranin A promoter. Hence, the CRE site was partially sufficient to explain the neuroendocrine cell type

  12. Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabI) plays a determinant role in completing cycles of fatty acid elongation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Heath, R J; Rock, C O

    1995-11-01

    The role of enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (E.C. 1.3.1.9), the product of the fabI gene, was investigated in the type II, dissociated, fatty acid synthase system of Escherichia coli. All of the proteins required to catalyze one cycle of fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA plus malonyl-CoA to butyryl-ACP in vitro were purified. These proteins were malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (fabD), beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (fabH), beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (fabG), beta-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP dehydrase (fabA), and enoyl-ACP reductase (fabI). Unlike the other enzymes in the cycle, FabA did not efficiently convert its substrate beta-hydroxybutyryl-ACP to crotonyl-ACP, but rather the equilibrium favored formation of beta-hydroxybutyryl-ACP over crotonyl-ACP by a ratio of 9:1. The amount of butyryl-ACP formed depended on the amount of FabI protein added to the assay. Extracts from fabI(Ts) mutants accumulated beta-hydroxybutyryl-ACP, and the addition of FabI protein to the fabI(Ts) extract restored both butyryl-ACP and long-chain acyl-ACP synthesis. FabI was verified to be the only enoyl-ACP reductase required for the synthesis of fatty acids by demonstrating that purified FabI was required for the elongation of both long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These results were corroborated by analysis of the intracellular ACP pool composition in fabI(Ts) mutants that showed beta-hydroxybutyryl-ACP and crotonyl-ACP accumulated at the nonpermissive temperature in the same ratio found in the fabI(Ts) extracts and in the in vitro reconstruction experiments that lacked FabI. We conclude that FabI is the only enoyl-ACP reductase involved in fatty acid synthesis in E. coli and that the activity of this enzyme plays a determinant role in completing cycles of fatty acid biosynthesis.

  13. A Novel DNA-Binding Protein, PhaR, Plays a Central Role in the Regulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Accumulation and Granule Formation in the Haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuangfeng; Cai, Lei; Zhao, Dahe; Liu, Guiming; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are synthesized and assembled as PHA granules that undergo well-regulated formation in many microorganisms. However, this regulation remains unclear in haloarchaea. In this study, we identified a PHA granule-associated regulator (PhaR) that negatively regulates the expression of both its own gene and the granule structural gene phaP in the same operon (phaRP) in Haloferax mediterranei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) assays demonstrated a significant interaction between PhaR and the phaRP promoter in vivo. Scanning mutagenesis of the phaRP promoter revealed a specific cis-element as the possible binding position of the PhaR. The haloarchaeal homologs of the PhaR contain a novel conserved domain that belongs to a swapped-hairpin barrel fold family found in AbrB-like proteins. Amino acid substitution indicated that this AbrB-like domain is critical for the repression activity of PhaR. In addition, the phaRP promoter had a weaker activity in the PHA-negative strains, implying a function of the PHA granules in titration of the PhaR. Moreover, the H. mediterranei strain lacking phaR was deficient in PHA accumulation and produced granules with irregular shapes. Interestingly, the PhaR itself can promote PHA synthesis and granule formation in a PhaP-independent manner. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the haloarchaeal PhaR is a novel bifunctional protein that plays the central role in the regulation of PHA accumulation and granule formation in H. mediterranei. PMID:25344243

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinases play an essential role in oxidative burst-independent expression of pathogenesis-related genes in parsley.

    PubMed

    Kroj, Thomas; Rudd, Jason J; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gäbler, Yvonne; Lee, Justin; Scheel, Dierk

    2003-01-24

    Plants are continuously exposed to attack by potential phytopathogens. Disease prevention requires pathogen recognition and the induction of a multifaceted defense response. We are studying the non-host disease resistance response of parsley to the oomycete, Phytophthora sojae using a cell culture-based system. Receptor-mediated recognition of P. sojae may be achieved through a thirteen amino acid peptide sequence (Pep-13) present within an abundant cell wall transglutaminase. Following recognition of this elicitor molecule, parsley cells mount a defense response, which includes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins or enzymes involved in the synthesis of antimicrobial phytoalexins. Treatment of parsley cells with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), blocked both Pep-13-induced phytoalexin production and the accumulation of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in their synthesis. In contrast, DPI treatment had no effect upon Pep-13-induced PR gene expression, suggesting the existence of an oxidative burst-independent mechanism for the transcriptional activation of PR genes. The use of specific antibodies enabled the identification of three parsley mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are activated within the signal transduction pathway(s) triggered following recognition of Pep-13. Other environmental challenges failed to activate these kinases in parsley cells, suggesting that their activation plays a key role in defense signal transduction. Moreover, by making use of a protoplast co-transfection system overexpressing wild-type and loss-of-function MAPK mutants, we show an essential role for post-translational phosphorylation and activation of MAPKs for oxidative burst-independent PR promoter activation.

  15. The Vaccine Candidate Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 Plays a Key Role in Arginine Uptake, Which Is Required for Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen that is an important cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous global impact in reducing morbidity resulting from these infections. Substrate binding protein 2 (SBP2) of an ABC transporter system has recently been identified as a promising vaccine candidate antigen on the bacterial surface of M. catarrhalis. In this study, we showed that SBP1, -2, and -3 individually bind different basic amino acids with exquisite specificity. We engineered mutants that each expressed a single SBP from this gene cluster and showed in growth experiments that SBP1, -2, and -3 serve a nutritional function through acquisition of amino acids for the bacterium. SBP2 mediates uptake of arginine, a strict growth requirement of M. catarrhalis. Adherence and invasion assays demonstrated that SBP1 and SBP3 play a role in invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells, consistent with a nutritional role in intracellular survival in the human respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that the SBPs of an ABC transporter system function in the uptake of basic amino acids to support growth of M. catarrhalis. The critical role of SBP2 in arginine uptake may contribute to its potential as a vaccine antigen. PMID:26597985

  16. β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianquan; Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Jianghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids serve many functions in plants, but the effects of some key genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis on plants growth and development are not well understood yet. To understand the functions of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I (KASI) in tobacco, we isolated two KASI homologs, which we have designated NtKASI-1 and NtKASI-2. Expression analysis showed that these two KASI genes were transcribed constitutively in all tissues examined. Over-expression of NtKASI-1 in tobacco changed the fatty acid content in leaves, whereas over-expressed lines of NtKASI-2 exhibited distinct phenotypic features such as slightly variegated leaves and reduction of the fatty acid content in leaves, similar to the silencing plants of NtKASI-1 gene. Interestingly, the silencing of NtKASI-2 gene had no discernibly altered phenotypes compared to wild type. The double silencing plants of these two genes enhanced the phenotypic changes during vegetative and reproductive growth compared to wild type. These results uncovered that these two KASI genes had the partially functional redundancy, and that the KASI genes played a key role in regulating fatty acids synthesis and in mediating plant growth and development in tobacco. PMID:27509494

  17. A Flucytosine-Responsive Mbp1/Swi4-Like Protein, Mbs1, Plays Pleiotropic Roles in Antifungal Drug Resistance, Stress Response, and Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Hee; Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Ja-Kyung; White, Theodore C.; Floyd, Anna; Heitman, Joseph; Strain, Anna K.; Nielsen, Judith N.; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcosis, caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, is responsible for more than 600,000 deaths annually in AIDS patients. Flucytosine is one of the most commonly used antifungal drugs for its treatment, but its resistance and regulatory mechanisms have never been investigated at the genome scale in C. neoformans. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis by employing two-component system mutants (tco1Δ and tco2Δ) exhibiting opposing flucytosine susceptibility. As a result, a total of 177 flucytosine-responsive genes were identified, and many of them were found to be regulated by Tco1 or Tco2. Among these, we discovered an APSES-like transcription factor, Mbs1 (Mbp1- and Swi4-like protein 1). Expression analysis revealed that MBS1 was regulated in response to flucytosine in a Tco2/Hog1-dependent manner. Supporting this, C. neoformans with the deletion of MBS1 exhibited increased susceptibility to flucytosine. Intriguingly, Mbs1 played pleiotropic roles in diverse cellular processes of C. neoformans. Mbs1 positively regulated ergosterol biosynthesis and thereby affected polyene and azole drug susceptibility. Mbs1 was also involved in genotoxic and oxidative stress responses. Furthermore, Mbs1 promoted production of melanin and capsule and thereby was required for full virulence of C. neoformans. In conclusion, Mbs1 is considered to be a novel antifungal therapeutic target for treatment of cryptococcosis. PMID:22080454

  18. β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianquan; Xu, Ronghua; Chen, Jianghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids serve many functions in plants, but the effects of some key genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis on plants growth and development are not well understood yet. To understand the functions of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase I (KASI) in tobacco, we isolated two KASI homologs, which we have designated NtKASI-1 and NtKASI-2. Expression analysis showed that these two KASI genes were transcribed constitutively in all tissues examined. Over-expression of NtKASI-1 in tobacco changed the fatty acid content in leaves, whereas over-expressed lines of NtKASI-2 exhibited distinct phenotypic features such as slightly variegated leaves and reduction of the fatty acid content in leaves, similar to the silencing plants of NtKASI-1 gene. Interestingly, the silencing of NtKASI-2 gene had no discernibly altered phenotypes compared to wild type. The double silencing plants of these two genes enhanced the phenotypic changes during vegetative and reproductive growth compared to wild type. These results uncovered that these two KASI genes had the partially functional redundancy, and that the KASI genes played a key role in regulating fatty acids synthesis and in mediating plant growth and development in tobacco. PMID:27509494

  19. The C terminus of the movement protein of Brome mosaic virus controls the requirement for coat protein in cell-to-cell movement and plays a role in long-distance movement.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Kaido, Masanori; Okuno, Tetsuro; Mise, Kazuyuki

    2004-06-01

    The 3a movement protein (MP) plays a central role in the movement of Brome mosaic virus (BMV). To identify the functional regions in BMV MP, 24 alanine-scanning (AS) MP mutants of BMV were constructed. Infectivity of the AS mutants in the host plant Chenopodium quinoa showed that the central region of BMV MP is important for viral movement and both termini of BMV MP have effects on the development of systemic symptoms. A green-fluorescent-protein-expressing RNA3-based BMV vector containing a 2A sequence from Foot-and-mouth disease virus was also constructed. Using this vector, two AS mutants that showed more efficient cell-to-cell movement than wild-type BMV were identified. The MPs of these two AS mutants, which have mutations at their C termini, mediated cell-to-cell movement independently of coat protein (CP), unlike wild-type BMV MP. Furthermore, a BMV mutant with a truncation in the C-terminal 42 amino acids of MP was also able to move from cell to cell without CP, but did not move systemically, even in the presence of CP. These results and an encapsidation analysis suggest that the C terminus of BMV MP is involved in the requirement for CP in cell-to-cell movement and plays a role in long-distance movement. Furthermore, the ability to spread locally and form virions is not sufficient for the long-distance movement of BMV. The roles of MP and CP in BMV movement are discussed.

  20. Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 integrates activating and inhibitory signaling in platelets.

    PubMed

    Gegenbauer, Kristina; Elia, Giuliano; Blanco-Fernandez, Alfonso; Smolenski, Albert

    2012-04-19

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein for the G-α-q and G-α-i subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins that turns off signaling by G-protein coupled receptors. RGS18 is highly expressed in platelets. In the present study, we show that the 14-3-3γ protein binds to phosphorylated serines 49 and 218 of RGS18. Platelet activation by thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulates the association of 14-3-3 and RGS18, probably by increasing the phosphorylation of serine 49. In contrast, treatment of platelets with prostacyclin and nitric oxide, which trigger inhibitory cyclic nucleotide signaling involving cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI), induces the phosphorylation of serine 216 of RGS18 and the detachment of 14-3-3. Serine 216 phosphorylation is able to block 14-3-3 binding to RGS18 even in the presence of thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP. 14-3-3-deficient RGS18 is more active compared with 14-3-3-bound RGS18, leading to a more pronounced inhibition of thrombin-induced release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. Therefore, PKA- and PKGI-mediated detachment of 14-3-3 activates RGS18 to block Gq-dependent calcium signaling. These findings indicate cross-talk between platelet activation and inhibition pathways at the level of RGS18 and Gq. PMID:22234696

  1. DR1769, a Protein with N-Terminal Beta Propeller Repeats and a Low-Complexity Hydrophilic Tail, Plays a Role in Desiccation Tolerance of Deinococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S.

    2013-01-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes five putative quinoproteins. Among these, the Δdr2518 and Δdr1769 mutants became sensitive to gamma radiation. DR2518 with beta propeller repeats in the C-terminal domain was characterized as a radiation-responsive serine/threonine protein kinase in this bacterium. DR1769 contains beta propeller repeats at the N terminus, while its C-terminal domain is a proline-rich disordered structure and constitutes a low-complexity hydrophilic region with aliphatic-proline dipeptide motifs. The Δdr1769 mutant showed nearly a 3-log cycle sensitivity to desiccation at 5% humidity compared to that of the wild type. Interestingly, the gamma radiation and mitomycin C (MMC) resistance in mutant cells also dropped by ∼1-log cycle at 10 kGy and ∼1.5-fold, respectively, compared to those in wild-type cells. But there was no effect of UV (254 nm) exposure up to 800 J · m−2. These cells showed defective DNA double-strand break repair, and the average size of the nucleoid in desiccated wild-type and Δdr1769 cells was reduced by approximately 2-fold compared to that of respective controls. However, the nucleoid in wild-type cells returned to a size almost similar to that of the untreated control, which did not happen in mutant cells, at least up to 24 h postdesiccation. These results suggest that DR1769 plays an important role in desiccation and radiation resistance of D. radiodurans, possibly by protecting genome integrity under extreme conditions. PMID:23794625

  2. DR1769, a protein with N-terminal beta propeller repeats and a low-complexity hydrophilic tail, plays a role in desiccation tolerance of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S; Misra, Hari S

    2013-09-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes five putative quinoproteins. Among these, the Δdr2518 and Δdr1769 mutants became sensitive to gamma radiation. DR2518 with beta propeller repeats in the C-terminal domain was characterized as a radiation-responsive serine/threonine protein kinase in this bacterium. DR1769 contains beta propeller repeats at the N terminus, while its C-terminal domain is a proline-rich disordered structure and constitutes a low-complexity hydrophilic region with aliphatic-proline dipeptide motifs. The Δdr1769 mutant showed nearly a 3-log cycle sensitivity to desiccation at 5% humidity compared to that of the wild type. Interestingly, the gamma radiation and mitomycin C (MMC) resistance in mutant cells also dropped by ∼1-log cycle at 10 kGy and ∼1.5-fold, respectively, compared to those in wild-type cells. But there was no effect of UV (254 nm) exposure up to 800 J · m(-2). These cells showed defective DNA double-strand break repair, and the average size of the nucleoid in desiccated wild-type and Δdr1769 cells was reduced by approximately 2-fold compared to that of respective controls. However, the nucleoid in wild-type cells returned to a size almost similar to that of the untreated control, which did not happen in mutant cells, at least up to 24 h postdesiccation. These results suggest that DR1769 plays an important role in desiccation and radiation resistance of D. radiodurans, possibly by protecting genome integrity under extreme conditions.

  3. Hydration patterns of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNMs) play a major role in the stability of a helical protein: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Lokesh; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Dhawan, Alok

    2013-11-19

    Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNMs) [graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene] have been recognized as potential candidates for various biomedical applications ranging from biosensing platform to cellular delivery of proteins and peptides. However, GBNMs induced conformational changes in proteins are the major concerns in realizing their full potential in aforementioned applications. Despite several studies, the effect of GBNMs on the conformation of proteins is still not well understood. Therefore, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of GBNMs on the adsorption and conformation of positively charged cytoplasmic protein using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our study showed that the adsorption of protein on GO was highly selective and mediated through electrostatic interactions (hydrogen bond/salt bridge interactions), whereas the van der Waals and π-π stacking interactions were the major driving forces for the adsorption of protein on rGO and graphene. The secondary structure analysis showed the conformational stability of the protein on GO may be attributed to the extensive hydration of GO surface and the absence of tyrosine residues in π-π stacking with π regions of GO. The GO surface acts as a hydrogen bond acceptor similar to the protein's natural receptor present in a physiological environment. This computational study has also explored the artificial protein receptor like potential of GO.

  4. Distortion of homeostatic signaling proteins by simulated microgravity in rat hypothalamus: A(16) O/(18) O-labeled comparative integrated proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Li, Wang; Hasan, Murtaza; Juan Li, Yu; Ullah, Kaleem; Yun, Wang; Awan, Umer; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-01

    Microgravity generates oxidative stress in central nervous system, causing distortion of various vital signaling cascades involved in many homeostatic functions. Here, we performed comparative (16) O/(18) O labeled integrated proteomic strategy to observe the differential expression of signaling proteins involved in homeostasis. In this study, rat-tail suspension model is employed to induce simulated microgravity in CNS. By wide proteomic analysis, total of 35 and 97 significantly differentially expressed proteins were found by HPLC/ESI-TOF and HPLC-Q-TOF analysis, respectively. Among the total of 132 proteins quantified, 25 proteins were found related to various signaling cascades. Protein Thy-1, 14-3-3 gamma, 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 theta, 14-3-3 eta, and 14-3-3 beta/alpha proteins, calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type-II subunit beta were found upregulated under the influence of simulated microgravity. These proteins are found involved in disrupting homeostatic pathways like sleep/wake cycle, drinking behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical regulation and fight and/or flee actions under stress. Furthermore, MS results for protein Thy-1 were verified by Western blot analysis showing the quantification accuracy of MS instruments. Results presented here will serve as means to understand the mechanism of action of microgravity and further reference for future detailed study of consequences of microgravity on astronauts and their possible countermeasures.

  5. The virion host shutoff RNase plays a key role in blocking the activation of protein kinase R in cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1.

    PubMed

    Sciortino, Maria Teresa; Parisi, Tiziana; Siracusano, Gabriel; Mastino, Antonio; Taddeo, Brunella; Roizman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Earlier studies have shown that active MEK blocks the activation of protein kinase R (PKR), a component of antiviral innate immune responses. In this report we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 virion host shutoff (VHS) RNase protein and MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) act cooperatively in blocking the activation of PKR. This conclusion is based on the following. (i) In contrast to viral gene expression in the parental cell line or a cell line expressing a constitutively active MEK, the replication of a VHS mutant is particularly impaired in cells expressing dominant negative MEK. In this cell line PKR is activated by phosphorylation, and the accumulation of several viral proteins is delayed. (ii) In transfected cells, wild-type VHS blocked the activation of PKR, whereas PKR was activated in cells transfected with a mutant VHS or with plasmids encoding the VHS RNase and VP16 and VP22, the two viral proteins that neutralize the RNase activity of VHS. The results suggest that early in infection the VHS RNase degrades RNAs that activate PKR. Coupled with published data, the results suggest that inhibition of activation of PKR or its effect on viral replication is staged early in infection by VHS, postsynthesis of VP16 and VP22 by the γ(1)34.5 protein, and very late in infection by the U(S)11 protein.

  6. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kangtai; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins.

  7. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Min; Zhu, Yunye; Qiao, Maiju; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Wei; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.

  8. Cyclic Nucleotide Dependent Dephosphorylation of Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 18 in Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gegenbauer, Kristina; Nagy, Zoltan; Smolenski, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets. PMID:24244663

  9. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Gegenbauer, Kristina; Nagy, Zoltan; Smolenski, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets. PMID:24244663

  10. The tomato UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) plays a role in organ size control via an epigenetic manner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epigenetic regulation, including various covalent modifications of histone proteins and methylation of cytosine bases in DNA, participates broadly in many fundamentally physiological and developmental processes. The repressed or active states of transcription resulted from epigenetic modifications a...

  11. Glucose-regulated protein 78 may play a crucial role in promoting the pulmonary microvascular remodeling in a rat model of hepatopulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiying; Lv, Minli; Zhao, Zhongfu; Jia, Jiantao; Zhang, Lili; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Limin; Li, Chen; Ji, Jingquan; Tian, Xiaoxia; Li, Xujiong; Fan, Yimin; Lai, Lina; Liu, Yan; Li, Baohong; Zhang, Cuiying; Liu, Mingshe; Guo, Jianhong; Han, Dewu; Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is to investigate the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the pulmonary microvascular remodeling during hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) development. Methods The rat models with liver cirrhosis and HPS were induced by multiple pathogenic factors for 4 to 8 wk. The concentrations of alanine transferase (ALT) and endotoxin in plasma were detected in the models, followed by the detection of GRP78 expression. RT-PCR, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were employed to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of a specific vascular marker, factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg), and several cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins, including CHOP/GADD153, caspase-12, Bcl-2 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results The levels of endotoxin and ALT in plasma were gradually increased as the disease progressed, so did GRP78, which were in a positive correlation. The expression levels of VEGF (both mRNA and protein) and FVIII-RAg were significantly elevated in the HPS models, indicating active angiogenesis, which was also positively correlated with GRP78 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins of CHOP/GADD153 and caspase-12 were dramatically decreased, while the anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 and NF-κB were significantly elevated, in the HPS models. There were also close correlations between these proteins and GRP78. Conclusions Over-expression of GRP78 in lungs may be the critical pathogenic factor for HPS. Through promoting cell proliferation and survival and inhibiting apoptosis, GRP78 may promote the pulmonary microvascular remodeling in HPS pathogenesis. Our results provide a potential therapeutic target for clinical prevention and treatment for HPS and related complications. PMID:24768185

  12. G protein-cAMP signaling pathway mediated by PGA3 plays different roles in regulating the expressions of amylases and cellulases in Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Qin, Yuqi; Qu, Yinbo; Song, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) have been extensively investigated for their regulatory functions in morphogenesis and development in filamentous fungi. In addition, G proteins were also shown to be involved in the regulation of cellulase expression in some fungi. Here, we report the different regulatory effects of PGA3, a group III G protein α subunit, on the expressions of amylases and cellulases in Penicillium decumbens. Deletion of pga3 resulted in impaired amylase production and significantly decreased transcription of the major amylase gene amy15A. Supplementation of exogenous cAMP or its analog dibutyryl-cAMP restored amylase production in Δpga3 strain, suggesting an essential role of PGA3 in amylase synthesis via controlling cAMP level. On the other hand, the transcription of major cellulase gene cel7A-2 increased, nevertheless cellulase activity in the medium was not affected, in Δpga3. The above regulatory effects of PGA3 are carbon source-independent, and are achieved, at least, by cAMP-mediated regulation of the expression level of transcription factor AmyR. The functions of PGA3 revealed by gene deletion were partially supported by the analysis of the mutant carrying dominantly-activated PGA3. The results provided new insights into the understanding of the physiological functions of G protein-cAMP pathway in filamentous fungi.

  13. Colletotrichum higginsianum extracellular LysM proteins play dual roles in appressorial function and suppression of chitin-triggered plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kombrink, Anja; Hughes, H Bleddyn; Halder, Vivek; Robin, Guillaume P; Hiruma, Kei; Neumann, Ulla; Shinya, Tomonori; Kombrink, Erich; Shibuya, Naoto; Thomma, Bart P H J; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum, encodes a large repertoire of candidate-secreted effectors containing LysM domains, but the role of such proteins in the pathogenicity of any Colletotrichum species is unknown. Here, we characterized the function of two effectors, ChELP1 and ChELP2, which are transcriptionally activated during the initial intracellular biotrophic phase of infection. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that ChELP2 is concentrated on the surface of bulbous biotrophic hyphae at the interface with living host cells but is absent from filamentous necrotrophic hyphae. We show that recombinant ChELP1 and ChELP2 bind chitin and chitin oligomers in vitro with high affinity and specificity and that both proteins suppress the chitin-triggered activation of two immune-related plant mitogen-activated protein kinases in the host Arabidopsis. Using RNAi-mediated gene silencing, we found that ChELP1 and ChELP2 are essential for fungal virulence and appressorium-mediated penetration of both Arabidopsis epidermal cells and cellophane membranes in vitro. The findings suggest a dual role for these LysM proteins as effectors for suppressing chitin-triggered immunity and as proteins required for appressorium function. PMID:27174033

  14. An inhibitor of yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase plays an important role in ensuring the genomic integrity of daughter cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, T T; Mendenhall, M D

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding a 40-kDa protein, previously studied as a substrate and inhibitor of the yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase, Cdc28, has been cloned. The DNA sequence reveals that p40 is a highly charged protein of 32,187 Da with no significant homology to other proteins. Overexpression of the gene encoding p40, SIC1, produces cells with an elongated but morphology similar to that of cells with depleted levels of the CLB gene products, suggesting that p40 acts as an inhibitor of Cdc28-Clb complexes in vivo. A SIC1 deletion is viable and has highly increased frequencies of broken and lost chromosomes. The deletion strain segregates out many dead cells that are primarily arrested at the G2 checkpoint in an asymmetric fashion. Only daughters and young mothers display the lethal defect, while experienced mothers appear to grow normally. These results suggest that negative regulation of Cdc28 protein kinase activity by p40 is important for faithful segregation of chromosomes to daughter cells. Images PMID:8164683

  15. Identification of two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) in the pollination drop of hybrid yew that may play a role in pathogen defence during pollen collection.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Stephen J B; Poulis, Brett A D; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    We describe the proteomic identification of two pathogenesis-related group 5 (PR-5) proteins, an acidic thaumatin-like protein (TLP) and a basic TLP isolated from the pollination drop of hybrid yew (Taxus x media Rehder). The basic TLP (TxmTLPb) was the most abundant protein in the yew pollination drop based on protein spot size after two-dimensional electrophoresis. The acidic TLP (TxmTLPa) is also a major protein component of the yew ovular secretion and appears to be encoded by a number of mRNAs transcribed from a TLP gene family that has undergone limited sequence divergence. We have sequenced five acidic TLP-encoding cDNAs (TxmTLPa-1,2,3,4 and 5) isolated from the yew ovule that vary from each other by no more than five out of 233 amino acid residues in their predicted protein sequences. All of the cDNA variants encode TLPs possessing the 16 conserved cysteine residues and five charged amino acid side chains associated with antifungal activity. Amplification of genomic DNA with TxmTLPa primers indicated that at least 11 acidic TLPs with highly similar amino acid sequences may be expressed in yew tissues. Antibodies against TLPs confirmed the identity of TxmTLPa and TxmTLPb in the yew pollination drop and detected TLPs in the ovular secretions of four other species from three other conifer families. Our results suggest that TLPs are a conserved component of conifer ovular secretions and are involved in broad spectrum pathogen defence of ovules.

  16. Play Therapy: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  17. Host MicroRNA miR-197 Plays a Negative Regulatory Role in the Enterovirus 71 Infectious Cycle by Targeting the RAN Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen-Fang; Huang, Ru-Ting; Chien, Kun-Yi; Huang, Jo-Yun; Lau, Kean-Seng; Jheng, Jia-Rong; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chung-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of Picornaviridae, is associated with severe central nervous system complications. In this study, we identified a cellular microRNA (miRNA), miR-197, whose expression was downregulated by viral infection in a time-dependent manner. In miR-197 mimic-transfected cells, EV71 replication was inhibited, whereas the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity was decreased in EV71 strains with or without predicted miR-197 target sites, indicating that miR-197 targets host proteins to modulate viral replication. We thus used a quantitative proteomics approach, aided by the TargetScan algorithm, to identify putative target genes of miR-197. Among them, RAN was selected and validated as a genuine target in a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) reporter assay. Reduced production of RAN by RNA interference markedly reduced the synthesis of EV71-encoded viral proteins and virus titers. Furthermore, reintroduction of nondegradable RAN into these knockdown cells rescued viral protein synthesis. miR-197 levels were modulated by EV71 to maintain RAN mRNA translatability at late times postinfection since we demonstrated that cap-independent translation exerted by its intrinsic IRES activity was occurring at times when translation attenuation was induced by EV71. EV71-induced downregulation of miR-197 expression increased the expression of RAN, which supported the nuclear transport of the essential viral proteins 3D/3CD and host protein hnRNP K for viral replication. Our data suggest that downregulation of cellular miRNAs may constitute a newly identified mechanism that sustains the expression of host proteins to facilitate viral replication. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a picornavirus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA that globally inhibits the cellular translational system, mainly by cleaving cellular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which inhibits the association of the

  18. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses.

  19. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses. PMID:26175353

  20. The shuttling SR protein 9G8 plays a role in translation of unspliced mRNA containing a constitutive transport element.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Jennifer E; Bor, Yeou-Cherng; Misawa, Yukiko; Rekosh, David; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise

    2007-07-01

    The splicing regulatory SR protein, 9G8, has recently been proposed to function in mRNA export in conjunction with the export protein, Tap/NXF1. Tap interacts directly with the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus constitutive transport element (CTE), an element that enables export of unspliced, intron-containing mRNA. Based on our previous finding that Tap can promote polysome association and translation of CTE-RNA, we investigated the effect of 9G8 on cytoplasmic RNA fate. 9G8 was shown to enhance expression of unspliced RNA containing either the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus-CTE or the recently discovered Tap-CTE. 9G8 also enhanced polyribosome association of unspliced RNA containing a CTE. Hyperphosphorylated 9G8 was present in monosomes and small polyribosomes, whereas soluble fractions contained only hypophosphorylated protein. Our results are consistent with a model in which hypophosphorylated SR proteins remain stably associated with messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes during export and are released during translation initiation concomitant with increased phosphorylation. These results provide further evidence for crucial links between RNA splicing, export and translation. PMID:17513303

  1. A pericentrin-related protein homolog in Aspergillus nidulans plays important roles in nucleus positioning and cell polarity by affecting microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Gao, Rongsui; Chen, Shaochun; Pu, Li; Li, Pin; Huang, Ying; Lu, Ling

    2012-12-01

    Pericentrin is a large coiled-coil protein in mammalian centrosomes that serves as a multifunctional scaffold for anchoring numerous proteins. Recent studies have linked numerous human disorders with mutated or elevated levels of pericentrin, suggesting unrecognized contributions of pericentrin-related proteins to the development of these disorders. In this study, we characterized AnPcpA, a putative homolog of pericentrin-related protein in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and found that it is essential for conidial germination and hyphal development. Compared to the hyphal apex localization pattern of calmodulin (CaM), which has been identified as an interactive partner of the pericentrin homolog, GFP-AnPcpA fluorescence dots are associated mainly with nuclei, while the accumulation of CaM at the hyphal apex depends on the function of AnPcpA. In addition, the depletion of AnPcpA by an inducible alcA promoter repression results in severe growth defects and abnormal nuclear segregation. Most interestingly, in mature hyphal cells, knockdown of pericentrin was able to significantly induce changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal remodeling; it resulted in some enlarged compartments with condensed nuclei and anucleate small compartments as well. Moreover, defects in AnPcpA significantly disrupted the microtubule organization and nucleation, suggesting that AnPcpA may affect nucleus positioning by influencing microtubule organization.

  2. Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Tegument Protein ORF75 Is Essential for Viral Lytic Replication and Plays a Critical Role in the Antagonization of ND10-Instituted Intrinsic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Full, Florian; Jungnickl, Doris; Reuter, Nina; Bogner, Elke; Brulois, Kevin; Scholz, Brigitte; Stürzl, Michael; Myoung, Jinjong; Jung, Jae U.; Stamminger, Thomas; Ensser, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components are restriction factors that inhibit herpesviral replication. Effector proteins of different herpesviruses can antagonize this restriction by a variety of strategies, including degradation or relocalization of ND10 proteins. We investigated the interplay of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and cellular defense by nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components. Knock-down experiments in primary human cells show that KSHV-infection is restricted by the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but not by ATRX. After KSHV infection, ATRX is efficiently depleted and Daxx is dispersed from ND10, indicating that these two ND10 components can be antagonized by KSHV. We then identified the ORF75 tegument protein of KSHV as the viral factor that induces the disappearance of ATRX and relocalization of Daxx. ORF75 belongs to a viral protein family (viral FGARATs) that has homologous proteins in all gamma-herpesviruses. Isolated expression of ORF75 in primary cells induces a relocalization of PML and dispersal of Sp100, indicating that this viral effector protein is able to influence multiple ND10 components. Moreover, by constructing a KSHV mutant harboring a stop codon at the beginning of ORF75, we could demonstrate that ORF75 is absolutely essential for viral replication and the initiation of viral immediate-early gene expression. Using recombinant viruses either carrying Flag- or YFP-tagged variants of ORF75, we could further corroborate the role of ORF75 in the antagonization of ND10-mediated intrinsic immunity, and show that it is independent of the PML antagonist vIRF3. Members of the viral FGARAT family target different ND10 components, suggesting that the ND10 targets of viral FGARAT proteins have diversified during evolution. We assume that overcoming ND10 intrinsic defense constitutes a critical event in the replication of all herpesviruses; on the other hand, restriction of herpesviral replication by ND10 components may also

  3. The Oligomerization Domain of VP3, the Scaffolding Protein of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus, Plays a Critical Role in Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Maraver, Antonio; Oña, Ana; Abaitua, Fernando; González, Dolores; Clemente, Roberto; Ruiz-Díaz, Jose A.; Castón, Jose R.; Pazos, Florencio; Rodriguez, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsids are formed by a single protein layer containing three polypeptides, pVP2, VP2, and VP3. Here, we show that the VP3 protein synthesized in insect cells, either after expression of the complete polyprotein or from a VP3 gene construct, is proteolytically degraded, leading to the accumulation of product lacking the 13 C-terminal residues. This finding led to identification of the VP3 oligomerization domain within a 24-amino-acid stretch near the C-terminal end of the polypeptide, partially overlapping the VP1 binding domain. Inactivation of the VP3 oligomerization domain, by either proteolysis or deletion of the polyprotein gene, abolishes viruslike particle formation. Formation of VP3-VP1 complexes in cells infected with a dual recombinant baculovirus simultaneously expressing the polyprotein and VP1 prevented VP3 proteolysis and led to efficient virus-like particle formation in insect cells. PMID:12743301

  4. The LOV Protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Plays a Significant Role in the Counteraction of Plant Immune Responses during Citrus Canker

    PubMed Central

    Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, María Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development. PMID:24260514

  5. Phaseolin: a 47.5kDa protein of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plays a pivotal role in hypersensitivity induction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Roy, Ruchi; Kumar, Dinesh; Bh, Giridhar; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-03-01

    Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a protein rich legume, is consumed globally due to its delicacy. This study was aimed to purify, characterize and assess allergenicity of one of its clinically relevant allergens, later identified as phaseolin. This study was carried out using clinical, in vivo and ex vivo approaches. Phaseolin, an abundant protein of red kidney bean, was purified by column chromatography and reverse-phase-HPLC techniques and characterized by peptide mass fingerprinting. The IgE immunoblotting using red kidney bean allergic patients sera showed phaseolin as a major IgE binding protein of red kidney bean. Phaseolin treated mice demonstrated enhanced levels of specific IgE and IgG1, mouse mast cell protease-1, mRNA expressions of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GATA-3 in the lungs, spleen and intestine along with anaphylactic symptoms indicative of allergic responses. Further, flow cytometry analysis and immunohistochemical studies indicated increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GATA-3, respectively as compared to controls. The level of Foxp3 was found suppressed in the intestine of phaseolin treated mice when compared to the control. Further, phaseolin treated mice showed positive results in type 1 skin test. Bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells showed enhanced release of allergic mediators like β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Taken together, phaseolin was found to possess characteristics of a potential allergen that may lead to hypersensitivity responses in the susceptible individuals and this may be one of the major proteins responsible for allergenicity of red kidney bean. PMID:24468678

  6. The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP){sub 3} reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin β2 or importin β3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis. - Highlights: ► We introduce a numeric index system that represents the degree of nuclear import. ► The rate of nuclear import is dictated by the sequence context of the basic cluster. ► Importin β2 and β3 were mainly responsible for the N4 mediated nuclear import.

  7. Protein phosphatases pph3, ptc2, and ptc3 play redundant roles in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Hicks, Wade M; Li, Jin; Tay, Sue Yen; Haber, James E

    2011-02-01

    In response to a DNA double-strand break (DSB), cells undergo a transient cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis until the break is repaired. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the DNA damage checkpoint is regulated by a signaling cascade of protein kinases, including Mec1 and Rad53. When DSB repair is complete, cells resume cell cycle progression (a process called "recovery") by turning off the checkpoint. Recovery involves two members of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family, Ptc2 and Ptc3, as well as the protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) enzyme, Pph3. Here, we demonstrate a new function of these three phosphatases in DSB repair. Cells lacking all three phosphatases Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 exhibit synergistic sensitivities to the DNA-damaging agents camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate, as well as hydroxyurea but not to UV light. Moreover, the simultaneous absence of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 results in defects in completing DSB repair, whereas neither single nor double deletion of the phosphatases causes a repair defect. Specifically, cells lacking all three phosphatases are defective in the repair-mediated DNA synthesis. Interestingly, the repair defect caused by the triple deletion of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 is most prominent when a DSB is slowly repaired and the DNA damage checkpoint is fully activated.

  8. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  9. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses.

  10. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. PMID:26550992

  11. The nuclear protein GmbZIP110 has transcription activation activity and plays important roles in the response to salinity stress in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhaolong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Xu, Ling; He, Xiaolan; Huang, Yihong; Yi, Jinxin; Shao, Hongbo; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Plant basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in many biological processes and are involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance. Previously, our lab generated digital gene expression profiling (DGEP) data to identify differentially expressed genes in a salt-tolerant genotype of Glycine soja (STGoGS) and a salt-sensitive genotype of Glycine max (SSGoGM). This DGEP data revealed that the expression (log2 ratio) of GmbZIP110 was up-regulated 2.76-fold and 3.38-fold in SSGoGM and STGoGS, respectively. In the present study, the salt inducible gene GmbZIP110 was cloned and characterized through phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization and in silico transcript abundance analysis in different tissues. The functional role of this gene in salt tolerance was studied through transactivation analysis, DNA binding ability, expression in soybean composite seedlings and transgenic Arabidopsis, and the effect of GmbZIP110 on the expression of stress-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis was investigated. We found that GmbZIP110 could bind to the ACGT motif, impact the expression of many stress-related genes and the accumulation of proline, Na+ and K+, and enhanced the salt tolerance of composite seedlings and transgenic Arabidopsis. Integrating all these results, we propose that GmbZIP110 plays a critical role in the response to salinity stress in soybean and has high potential usefulness in crop improvement. PMID:26837841

  12. They Too Should Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Cyntha C.; Shelley, Eva Y.

    1989-01-01

    Children with mental retardation and multiple handicaps can effectively participate in play activities and games, but the experience must be structured for them. Techniques for organizing play activities involving handicapped and nonhandicapped children are offered. Examples of singles play, rotation play, and associative play are described. (JDD)

  13. Children's Play and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

  14. The Denial of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    Well meaning parents and teachers often use children's play for the purposes of literacy and socialization. Yet, these attempts may deny play to children by subordinating play to some other concept. Evidence shows that even when parents play with their very young children they generally play games like shopping, cooking, and eating; whereas when…

  15. mRNA stability plays a major role in regulating the temperature-specific expression of a Tetrahymena thermophila surface protein

    SciTech Connect

    Love, H.D. Jr.; Allen-Nash, A.; Zhao, Q.; Bannon, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of the serotype H3 (SerH3) surface antigen is temperature dependent and responds within 1 h to a change in incubation conditions. Recently, a Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA clone has been shown to be homologous to a portion of the SerH3 mRNA, and it was shown that the cellular levels of this RNA rapidly decreased when cells were shifted from 30 to 41/sup 0/C. These observations indicate that synthesis of the SerH3 protein is highly regulated in response to temperature and led us to initiate studies to determine the mechanism(s) by which SerH3 gene expression is controlled. Using pC6 as a hybridization probe for the SerH3 mRNA, they have determined that (i) the level of SerH3 protein synthesis is directly correlated with the amount of SerH3 message available for translation; (ii) there is, at most, a twofold difference between the relative transcription rates of SerH3 genes at 30 and 40/sup 0/C; (iii) the SerH3 mRNA half-life in cells incubated at 30/sup 0/C is greater than 1 h, whereas the half-life in cells incubated at 40/sup 0/C is only -- 3 min. These results demonstrate that Tetrahymena SerH3 surface protein expression is regulated by mRNA abundance. Furthermore, the major mechanism controlling mRNA abundance is a dramatic temperature-dependent change in SerH3 mRNA stability.

  16. microRNA-183 plays as oncogenes by increasing cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting protein phosphatase 2A in renal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Mingning Liu, Lei Chen, Lieqian Tan, Guobin Liang, Ziji Wang, Kangning Liu, Jianjun Chen, Hege

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues. • Inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed renal cancer cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 regulated renal cancer cell growth and metastasis via directly targeting tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-183 in renal cancer cells and the mechanisms miR-183 regulates this process. In this study, level of miR-183 in clinical renal cancer specimens was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. miR-183 was up- and down-regulated in two renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, respectively, and cell proliferation, Caspase 3/7 activity, colony formation, in vitro migration and invasion were measured; and then the mechanisms of miR-183 regulating was analyzed. We found that miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues; inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and stimulated Caspase 3/7 activity; up-regulated miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis and suppressed Caspase 3/7 activity. We also found that miR-183 directly targeted tumor suppressor, specifically the 3′UTR of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Cα, PP2A-Cβ, and PP2A-B56-γ) transcripts, inhibiting their expression and regulated the downstream regulators p21, p27, MMP2/3/7 and TIMP1/2/3/4. These results revealed the oncogenes role of miR-183 in renal cancer cells via direct targeting protein phosphatase 2A.

  17. Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 plays a role in prostate cancer cell invasion and affects expression of PSA and ANXA1.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Bhakti R; Breed, Ananya A; Apte, Snehal; Acharya, Kshitish; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) is upregulated in prostate cancer as compared to the normal prostate tissue. Higher expression of CRISP-3 has been linked to poor prognosis and hence it has been thought to act as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer. It is proposed to have a role in innate immunity but its role in prostate cancer is still unknown. In order to understand its function, its expression was stably knocked down in LNCaP cells. CRISP-3 knockdown did not affect cell viability but resulted in reduced invasiveness. Global gene expression changes upon CRISP-3 knockdown were identified by microarray analysis. Microarray data were quantitatively validated by evaluating the expression of seven candidate genes in three independent stable clones. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes identified cell adhesion, cell motility, and ion transport to be affected among other biological processes. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as Kallikrein 3) was the top most downregulated gene whose expression was also validated at protein level. Interestingly, expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a known anti-inflammatory protein, was upregulated upon CRISP-3 knockdown. Re-introduction of CRISP-3 into the knockdown clone reversed the effect on invasiveness and also led to increased PSA expression. These results suggest that overexpression of CRISP-3 in prostate tumor may maintain higher PSA expression and lower ANXA1 expression. Our data also indicate that poor prognosis associated with higher CRISP-3 expression could be due to its role in cell invasion. PMID:26369530

  18. Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 plays a role in prostate cancer cell invasion and affects expression of PSA and ANXA1.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Bhakti R; Breed, Ananya A; Apte, Snehal; Acharya, Kshitish; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) is upregulated in prostate cancer as compared to the normal prostate tissue. Higher expression of CRISP-3 has been linked to poor prognosis and hence it has been thought to act as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer. It is proposed to have a role in innate immunity but its role in prostate cancer is still unknown. In order to understand its function, its expression was stably knocked down in LNCaP cells. CRISP-3 knockdown did not affect cell viability but resulted in reduced invasiveness. Global gene expression changes upon CRISP-3 knockdown were identified by microarray analysis. Microarray data were quantitatively validated by evaluating the expression of seven candidate genes in three independent stable clones. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes identified cell adhesion, cell motility, and ion transport to be affected among other biological processes. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as Kallikrein 3) was the top most downregulated gene whose expression was also validated at protein level. Interestingly, expression of Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a known anti-inflammatory protein, was upregulated upon CRISP-3 knockdown. Re-introduction of CRISP-3 into the knockdown clone reversed the effect on invasiveness and also led to increased PSA expression. These results suggest that overexpression of CRISP-3 in prostate tumor may maintain higher PSA expression and lower ANXA1 expression. Our data also indicate that poor prognosis associated with higher CRISP-3 expression could be due to its role in cell invasion.

  19. War, Conflict and Play. Debating Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyder, Tina

    2004-01-01

    Young refugees from many parts of the world are increasingly present in UK early years settings. This book explores the crucial importance of play for young refugee children's development. It considers the implications of war and conflict on young children and notes how opportunities for play are denied. It provides a framework for early years…

  20. The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 play complementary roles during state transitions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J; Aro, Eva-Mari; Jansson, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  1. The Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Binding Proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 Play Complementary Roles during State Transitions in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzykowska, Malgorzata; Suorsa, Marjaana; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Tikkanen, Mikko; Boekema, Egbert J.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by phosphorylation-driven state transitions: functional redistributions of the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) to balance the relative excitation of photosystem I and photosystem II. State transitions are driven by reversible LHCII phosphorylation by the STN7 kinase and PPH1/TAP38 phosphatase. LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. Here, we show that despite their nearly identical amino acid composition, the functional roles of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are different but complementary. Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. However, these do not perform state transitions, so phosphorylation of Lhcb2 seems to be a critical step. In contrast, plants lacking Lhcb1 had a more profound antenna remodeling due to a decrease in the amount of LHCII trimers influencing thylakoid membrane structure and, more indirectly, state transitions. Although state transitions are also found in green algae, the detailed architecture of the extant seed plant light-harvesting antenna can now be dated back to a time after the divergence of the bryophyte and spermatophyte lineages, but before the split of the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages more than 300 million years ago. PMID:25194026

  2. Arabidopsis PHOSPHOTYROSYL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVATOR is essential for PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A holoenzyme assembly and plays important roles in hormone signaling, salt stress response, and plant development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Rongbin; Zhu, Yinfeng; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) is a major group of serine/threonine protein phosphatases in eukaryotes. It is composed of three subunits: scaffolding subunit A, regulatory subunit B, and catalytic subunit C. Assembly of the PP2A holoenzyme in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) depends on Arabidopsis PHOSPHOTYROSYL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVATOR (AtPTPA). Reduced expression of AtPTPA leads to severe defects in plant development, altered responses to abscisic acid, ethylene, and sodium chloride, and decreased PP2A activity. In particular, AtPTPA deficiency leads to decreased methylation in PP2A-C subunits (PP2Ac). Complete loss of PP2Ac methylation in the suppressor of brassinosteroid insensitive1 mutant leads to 30% reduction of PP2A activity, suggesting that PP2A with a methylated C subunit is more active than PP2A with an unmethylated C subunit. Like AtPTPA, PP2A-A subunits are also required for PP2Ac methylation. The interaction between AtPTPA and PP2Ac is A subunit dependent. In addition, AtPTPA deficiency leads to reduced interactions of B subunits with C subunits, resulting in reduced functional PP2A holoenzyme formation. Thus, AtPTPA is a critical factor for committing the subunit A/subunit C dimer toward PP2A heterotrimer formation.

  3. microRNA-183 plays as oncogenes by increasing cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting protein phosphatase 2A in renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingning; Liu, Lei; Chen, Lieqian; Tan, Guobin; Liang, Ziji; Wang, Kangning; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Hege

    2014-09-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-183 in renal cancer cells and the mechanisms miR-183 regulates this process. In this study, level of miR-183 in clinical renal cancer specimens was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. miR-183 was up- and down-regulated in two renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, respectively, and cell proliferation, Caspase 3/7 activity, colony formation, in vitro migration and invasion were measured; and then the mechanisms of miR-183 regulating was analyzed. We found that miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues; inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and stimulated Caspase 3/7 activity; up-regulated miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis and suppressed Caspase 3/7 activity. We also found that miR-183 directly targeted tumor suppressor, specifically the 3'UTR of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Cα, PP2A-Cβ, and PP2A-B56-γ) transcripts, inhibiting their expression and regulated the downstream regulators p21, p27, MMP2/3/7 and TIMP1/2/3/4. These results revealed the oncogenes role of miR-183 in renal cancer cells via direct targeting protein phosphatase 2A.

  4. The Uses of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabaniss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Teaching artists have techniques for keeping play alive and vital in their work. But how do they think of play as TAs? In this article, the author examines the role of play in the work and life of teaching artists.

  5. The Arabidopsis homolog of human minor spliceosomal protein U11-48K plays a crucial role in U12 intron splicing and plant development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Kim, Bo Mi; Kwak, Kyung Jin; Jung, Hyun Ju; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-05-01

    The minor U12 introns are removed from precursor mRNAs by the U12 intron-specific minor spliceosome. Among the seven ribonucleoproteins unique to the minor spliceosome, denoted as U11/U12-20K, U11/U12-25K, U11/U12-31K, U11/U12-65K, U11-35K, U11-48K, and U11-59K, the roles of only U11/U12-31K and U11/U12-65K have been demonstrated in U12 intron splicing and plant development. Here, the functional role of the Arabidopsis homolog of human U11-48K in U12 intron splicing and the development of Arabidopsis thaliana was examined using transgenic knockdown plants. The u11-48k mutants exhibited several defects in growth and development, such as severely arrested primary inflorescence stems, formation of serrated leaves, production of many rosette leaves after bolting, and delayed senescence. The splicing of most U12 introns analyzed was impaired in the u11-48k mutants. Comparative analysis of the splicing defects and phenotypes among the u11/u12-31k, u11-48k, and u11/12-65k mutants showed that the severity of abnormal development was closely correlated with the degree of impairment in U12 intron splicing. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence that the Arabidopsis homolog of human U11-48K protein, as well as U11/U12-31K and U11/U12-65K proteins, is necessary for correct splicing of U12 introns and normal plant growth and development. PMID:27091878

  6. [BcMF4 gene, encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein, plays a role in male fertility in Chinese cabbage-pak-choi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Le-Cheng; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jia-Shu

    2006-11-01

    The BcMF4 (Brassica campestris Male Fertility 4) gene was previously isolated from the fertile B line of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. communis). In the present paper, based on the cDNA sequence of BcMF4, primers were designed and used to amplify two fragments from the cDNA of flower buds of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi. Two produced fragments were introduced separately into binary vector pBI121 in antisense and sense orientations. The generated RNA interference (RNAi) vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The A. tumefaciens harboring the BcMF4 fragments was transformed to flowering Chinese cabbage (B. campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis) via tissue culture. Approximately 45.8% of the pollen grains from 72.2% of RNAi plants exhibited abnormal in their shapes, and only 23.7% of the pollen grains from these plants germinated normally. Northern blotting demonstrated that the phenotypic change of pollen grains resulted from the inhibition of expression of the BcMF4 due to the insertion of the transgene. This indicates that functional interrupting of BcMF4 by RNAi resulted in partial pollen abortion in flowering Chinese cabbage, suggesting that the product of BcMF4 gene plays an important role during pollen development of Chinese cabbage such as Chinese cabbage-pak-choi and flowering Chinese cabbage.

  7. Biogenesis of Fe/S proteins and pathogenicity: IscR plays a key role in allowing Erwinia chrysanthemi to adapt to hostile conditions.

    PubMed

    Rincon-Enriquez, Gabriel; Crété, Patrice; Barras, Frédéric; Py, Béatrice

    2008-03-01

    The Erwinia chrysanthemi genome is predicted to encode three systems, Nif, Isc and Suf, known to assist Fe/S cluster biogenesis and the CsdAE cysteine desulphurase. Single iscU, hscA and fdx mutants were found sensitive to paraquat and exhibited reduced virulence on both chicory leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana. Depletion of the whole Isc system led to a pleiotropic phenotype, including sensitivity to both paraquat and 2,2'-dipyridyl, auxotrophies for branched-chain amino acids, thiamine, nicotinic acid, and drastic alteration in virulence. IscR was able to suppress all of the phenotypes listed above in a sufC-dependent manner while depletion of the Isc system led to IscR-dependent activation of the suf operon. No virulence defects were found associated with csdA or nifS mutations. Surprisingly, we found that the sufC mutant was virulent against A. thaliana, whereas its virulence had been found altered in Saintpaulia. Collectively, these results lead us to propose that E. chrysanthemi possess the Fe/S biogenesis strategy suited to the physico-chemical conditions encountered in its host upon infection. In this view, the IscR regulator, which controls both Isc and Suf, is predicted to play a major role in the ability of E. chrysanthemi to colonize a wide array of different plants. PMID:18284573

  8. Understanding Playful Pedagogies, Play Narratives and Play Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goouch, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a tentative attempt to unwrap and understand one aspect of playful practice and the influences which determine its existence in early years settings. "Storying" events, those occasions when teachers and children together "make up" stories or parts of stories, develop roles or co-construct fantasies, occur moment by moment in some…

  9. The Play of Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  10. The mitochondrial protein import component, TRANSLOCASE OF THE INNER MEMBRANE17-1, plays a role in defining the timing of germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Law, Simon R; Ivanova, Aneta; van Aken, Olivier; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Uggalla, Vindya; van der Merwe, Margaretha; Duncan, Owen; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, James; Murcha, Monika W

    2014-11-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), small gene families encode multiple isoforms for many of the components of the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. There are three isoforms of the TRANSLOCASE OF THE INNER MEMBRANE17 (Tim17). Transcriptome analysis indicates that AtTim17-1 is only detectable in dry seed. In this study, two independent transfer DNA insertional mutant lines of tim17-1 exhibited a germination-specific phenotype, showing a significant increase in the rate of germination. Microarray analyses revealed that Attim17-1 displayed alterations in the temporal sequence of transcriptomic events during germination, peaking earlier compared with the wild type. Promoter analysis of AtTim17-1 further identified an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element, which binds ABA-responsive transcription factors, acting to repress the expression of AtTim17-1. Attim17-1 dry seeds contained significantly increased levels of ABA and gibberellin, 2- and 5-fold, respectively. These results support the model that mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated in a tight temporal sequence of events during germination and that altering mitochondrial biogenesis feeds back to alter the germination rate, as evidenced by the altered levels of the master regulatory hormones that define germination.

  11. Identification of PGAM5 as a Mammalian Protein Histidine Phosphatase that Plays a Central Role to Negatively Regulate CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saswati; Srivastava, Shekhar; Li, Zhai; Vaeth, Martin; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-08-01

    Whereas phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine is exceedingly well characterized, the role of histidine phosphorylation in mammalian signaling is largely unexplored. Here we show that phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5) functions as a phosphohistidine phosphatase that specifically associates with and dephosphorylates the catalytic histidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B). By dephosphorylating NDPK-B, PGAM5 negatively regulates CD4(+) T cells by inhibiting NDPK-B-mediated histidine phosphorylation and activation of the K(+) channel KCa3.1, which is required for TCR-stimulated Ca(2+) influx and cytokine production. Using recently developed monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize phosphorylation of nitrogens at the N1 (1-pHis) or N3 (3-pHis) positions of the imidazole ring, we detect for the first time phosphoisoform-specific regulation of histidine-phosphorylated proteins in vivo, and we link these modifications to TCR signaling. These results represent an important step forward in studying the role of histidine phosphorylation in mammalian biology and disease. PMID:27453048

  12. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weiyan; Li, Baohua; Li, Shujia; Liang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Ma, Mei; Wang, Jiyao; Gao, Jin; Cai, Yueyue; Zhang, Yuanya; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Jiayang; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1) mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7) was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development. PMID:27618482

  13. The potato virus X TGBp2 protein association with the endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in but is not sufficient for viral cell-to-cell movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2003-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and coat protein are required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp2 were bombarded to leaf epidermal cells and GFP:TGBp2 moved cell to cell in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but not in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. GFP:TGBp2 movement was observed in TGBp1-transgenic N. tabacum, indicating that TGBp2 requires TGBp1 to promote its movement in N. tabacum. In this study, GFP:TGBp2 was detected in a polygonal pattern that resembles the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed TGBp2 has two putative transmembrane domains. Two mutations separately introduced into the coding sequences encompassing the putative transmembrane domains within the GFP:TGBp2 plasmids and PVX genome, disrupted membrane binding of GFP:TGBp2, inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in N. benthamiana and TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum, and inhibited PVX movement. A third mutation, lying outside the transmembrane domains, had no effect on GFP:TGBp2 ER association or movement in N. benthamiana but inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum and PVX movement in either Nicotiana species. Thus, ER association of TGBp2 may be required but not be sufficient for virus movement. TGBp2 likely provides an activity for PVX movement beyond ER association.

  14. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Cai, Yueyue; Zhang, Yuanya; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Jiayang; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1) mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7) was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development. PMID:27618482

  15. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weiyan; Li, Baohua; Li, Shujia; Liang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Ma, Mei; Wang, Jiyao; Gao, Jin; Cai, Yueyue; Zhang, Yuanya; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Jiayang; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1) mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7) was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development.

  16. Heat Shock Protein 27 Plays a Pivotal Role in Myofibroblast Differentiation and in the Development of Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ah-Mee; Kanai, Kyosuke; Itoh, Tatsuki; Sato, Takao; Tsukui, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Yutaka; Selman, Moises; Matsushima, Kouji; Yoshie, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is a member of the small molecular weight HSP family. Upon treatment with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), we observed upregulation of HSP27 along with that of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of myofibroblast differentiation, in cultured human and mouse lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, by using siRNA knockdown, we demonstrated that HSP27 was involved in cell survival and upregulation of fibronectin, osteopontin (OPN) and type 1 collagen, all functional markers of myofibroblast differentiation, in TGF-β1-treated MRC-5 cells. In lung tissues of bleomycin-treated mice, HSP27 was strongly upregulated and substantially co-localized with α-SMA, OPN and type I collagen but not with proSP-C (a marker of type II alveolar epithelial cells), E-cadherin (a marker of epithelial cells) or F4/80 (a marker of macrophages). A similar co-localization of HSP27 and α-SMA was observed in lung tissues of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, airway delivery of HSP27 siRNA effectively suppressed bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Collectively, our findings indicate that HSP27 is critically involved in myofibroblast differentiation of lung fibroblasts and may be a promising therapeutic target for lung fibrotic diseases. PMID:26859835

  17. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  18. The complex of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) proteins plays a central role in antagonistic interactions of genes for leaf polarity specification in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Machida, Chiyoko; Nakagawa, Ayami; Kojima, Shoko; Takahashi, Hiro; Machida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Leaf primordia are born around meristem-containing stem cells at shoot apices, grow along three axes (proximal-distal, adaxial-abaxial, medial-lateral), and develop into flat symmetric leaves with adaxial-abaxial polarity. Axis development and polarity specification of Arabidopsis leaves require a network of genes for transcription factor-like proteins and small RNAs. Here, we summarize present understandings of adaxial-specific genes, ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2. Their complex (AS1-AS2) functions in the regulation of the proximal-distal leaf length by directly repressing class 1 KNOX homeobox genes (BP, KNAT2) that are expressed in the meristem periphery below leaf primordia. Adaxial-abaxial polarity specification involves antagonistic interaction of adaxial and abaxial genes including AS1 and AS2 for the development of two respective domains. AS1-AS2 directly represses the abaxial gene ETTIN/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ETT/ARF3) and indirectly represses ETT/ARF3 and ARF4 through tasiR-ARF. Modifier mutations have been identified that abolish adaxialization and enhance the defect in the proximal-distal patterning in as1 and as2. AS1-AS2 and its modifiers synergistically repress both ARFs and class 1 KNOXs. Repression of ARFs is critical for establishing adaxial-abaxial polarity. On the other hand, abaxial factors KANADI1 (KAN1) and KAN2 directly repress AS2 expression. These data delineate a molecular framework for antagonistic gene interactions among adaxial factors, AS1, AS2, and their modifiers, and the abaxial factors ARFs as key regulators in the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity. Possible AS1-AS2 epigenetic repression and activities downstream of ARFs are discussed.

  19. Play: early and eternal.

    PubMed Central

    Mears, C E; Harlow, H F

    1975-01-01

    A systematic 12-week investigation of development of play behavior was conducted with eight socially reared rhesus monkey infants. A new, basic and primary play form termed self-motion play or peragration was identified and examined. This behavior follows a human model which includes a wide range of pleasurable activities involving motion of the body through space, e.g., rocking, swinging, running, leaping, and water or snow skiing. It can be argued that self-motion play is the initial primate play form and because of its persistence constitutes a reinforcing agent for maintaining many complex patterns and even pastimes. Monkey self-motion play in the present study was divided into five separate patterns in order to compare the relative importance of social and individual peragration play, the role of apparatus and the overall developmental relationships between the different individual and social self-motion play patterns. The data showed that from 90 to 180 days of age self-motion play was independent of other forms of play, that individual self-motion play appeared earlier and with significantly greater increases in frequency than did social self-motion play, and that apparatus was a necessary component for significant increases in social self-motion play. Other findings were that self-motion play existed independent of locomotion and, though initiated by exploration, was separate from it. Therapeutic implications of self-motion play were discussed. Images PMID:1057178

  20. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  1. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. The Excellence of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet R., Ed.

    Recognizing that for young children, play is a tool for learning, this book compiles contributions by different authors, reflecting both up-to-date research and current classroom practice as they relate to children's play. Part 1 of the book explores the value of play as a cross-cultural concept as well as one rooted in the Western world. Gender…

  3. Play Is the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steve; Sanderson, Rebecca Cornelli

    2012-01-01

    Historically, play has been viewed as a frivolous break from important endeavors like working and learning when, in fact, a child's ability to fully and freely engage in play is essential to their learning, productivity, and overall development. A natural drive to play is universal across all young mammals. Children from every society on earth…

  4. Dimensions of Infant Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenson, Larry

    Changes in manipulative play with objects were examined in a longitudinal sample of 10 boys and 9 girls tested at ages 9, 13, and 18 months. Stability of individual differences in play was also examined. Each child was observed individually for 7 minutes in a room in which a tea set was the only toy present. Seven types of play behavior were…

  5. The Pedagogy of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  6. The Importance of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Allen

    Play is the spontaneous or organized recreational activity of children; it is at the heart of the preschool curriculum. Play aids in the development of physical, intellectual, and social skills. Children's play progresses through three developmental stages: solitary, parallel, and social. Preschool teachers should arrange for four kinds of…

  7. Literacy through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owocki, Gretchen

    When young children play in a purposefully designed, literacy-rich environment, teachers can discover and capitalize on teachable moments. This book discusses how children develop literacy and how early childhood teachers use play and other child-centered experiences to facilitate literacy development. Chapter 1, "Play and Developmentally…

  8. Play, Policy & Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Edgar, Ed.

    In 1992, the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), in conjunction with Wheelock College (Boston), sponsored its second workshop on children's play, entitled "Play and Cognitive Ability: The Cultural Context." This volume reflects the presentations and discussions held at the workshop, offering perspectives on children's play that, taken…

  9. The multiubiquitin-chain-binding protein Mcb1 is a component of the 26S proteasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plays a nonessential, substrate-specific role in protein turnover.

    PubMed

    van Nocker, S; Sadis, S; Rubin, D M; Glickman, M; Fu, H; Coux, O; Wefes, I; Finley, D; Vierstra, R D

    1996-11-01

    The 26S proteasome is an essential proteolytic complex that is responsible for degrading proteins conjugated with ubiquitin. It has been proposed that the recognition of substrates by the 26S proteasome is mediated by a multiubiquitin-chain-binding protein that has previously been characterized in both plants and animals. In this study, we identified a Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of this protein, designated Mcb1. Mcb1 copurified with the 26S proteasome in both conventional and nickel chelate chromatography. In addition, a significant fraction of Mcb1 in cell extracts was present in a low-molecular-mass form free of the 26S complex. Recombinant Mcb1 protein bound multiubiquitin chains in vitro and, like its plant and animal counterparts, exhibited a binding preference for longer chains. Surprisingly, (delta)mcb1 deletion mutants were viable, grew at near-wild-type rates, degraded the bulk of short-lived proteins normally, and were not sensitive to UV radiation or heat stress. These data indicate that Mcb1 is not an essential component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in S.cerevisiae. However, the (delta)mcb1 mutant exhibited a modest sensitivity to amino acid analogs and had increased steady-state levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Whereas the N-end rule substrate, Arg-beta-galactosidase, was degraded at the wild-type rate in the (delta)mcb1 strain, the ubiquitin fusion degradation pathway substrate, ubiquitin-Pro-beta-galactosidase, was markedly stabilized. Collectively, these data suggest that Mcb1 is not the sole factor involved in ubiquitin recognition by the 26S proteasome and that Mcb1 may interact with only a subset of ubiquitinated substrates.

  10. Target of tae-miR408, a chemocyanin-like protein gene (TaCLP1), plays positive roles in wheat response to high-salinity, heavy cupric stress and stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Qiuling; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Jia; Li, Man; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-11-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are novel and significant regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and they are essential for normal growth and development and adaptation to stress conditions. As miRNAs are a kind of RNAs that do not code proteins, they play roles by repressing gene translation or degrading the corresponding target mRNAs. Plantacyanin-like (basic blue) proteins have been predicted and verified as the target gene of miR408 in wheat and Arabidopsis, respectively. Besides some biochemical characteristics, their detailed biological function remains unknown. In this study, the target gene of a wheat miRNA (tae-miR408), designated TaCLP1, was identified using degradome sequencing and co-transformation technology in tobacco leaves. We isolated the full-length cDNA clone, and defined its product as a chemocyanin-like protein, a kind of plantacyanin. Transcript accumulation of TaCLP1 and tae-miR408 showed contrasting divergent expression patterns in wheat response to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) and high copper ion stress. Overexpression of TaCLP1 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly increased cell growth under high salinity and Cu²⁺ stresses. Silencing of individual cDNA clones in wheat challenged with Pst indicated that TaCLP1 positively regulates resistance to stripe rust. The results indicate that the target of tae-miR408, TaCLP1, play an important role in regulating resistance of host plants to abiotic stresses and stripe rust, and such interactions can be a valuable resource for investigating stress tolerance in wheat.

  11. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  12. AtPPR2, an Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat protein, binds to plastid 23S rRNA and plays an important role in the first mitotic division during gametogenesis and in cell proliferation during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuqing; Li, Cong; Wang, Hai; Chen, Hao; Berg, Howard; Xia, Yiji

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are mainly involved in regulating post-transcriptional processes in mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts. Mutations in the Arabidopsis PPR2 gene have previously been found to cause defects in seed development and reduced transmission through male and female gametophytes. However, the exact function of AtPPR2 has not been defined. We found that a loss-of-function mutation of AtPPR2 leads to arrest of the first mitotic division during both male and female gametogenesis. In addition, the Atppr2 mutation causes delayed embryogenesis, leading to embryonic lethality. Mutation in emb2750, which appears to be a weak mutant allele of the AtPPR2 locus, also results in defective seeds. However, a majority of emb2750 seeds were able to germinate, but their cotyledons were albino and often deformed, and gro