Science.gov

Sample records for 14-day depuration period

  1. +Gz tolerance in man after 14-day bedrest periods with isometric and isotonic exercise conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Haines, R. F.; Sandler, H.; Bernauer, E. M.; Morse, J. T.; Armbruster, R.; Sagan, L.; Van Beaumont, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of isometric and isotonic exercise training on post-bedrest +Gz tolerance were determined. In general, 14-day bedrest resulted in a significant loss of Gz tolerance, as previously discovered. At 2.1 Gz, neither the isometric nor the isotonic exercises regimens resulted in a significant increase in post-bedrest Gz tolerance. However, following isometric exercise, restoration of about half the tolerance decrement occurred at 3.2 Gz and 3.8 Gz. Possible reasons for this partial restoration of tolerance are put forward.

  2. +Gz tolerance in man after 14-day bedrest periods with isometric and isotonic exercise conditioning.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, J E; Bernauer, E M; Morse, J T; Sandler, H; Armbruster, R; Sagan, L; van Beaumont, W

    1975-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isometric or isotonic exercise training on post-bedrest +Gz tolerance. Seven male volunteers, 19-22 years, underwent accelerations of +2.1 Gz (740 s), +3.2 Gz (327 s), and +3.8 Gz (312 s) in a selected, randomized order; the ramp to peak acceleration was 1.8 G/min. The centrifugation runs were terminated by loss of central vision (blackout) to a white light with a luminance of 3.15 times 10-5 log candle/cm-2 (0.092 ft-lambert). The study began with a 14-d ambulatory control period, followed by three 14-d bedrest periods (each separated by a 21-d recovery period) and then a final week of recovery. During the ambulatory periods, the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 50% of their maximal oxygen uptake (max VO2) for 1 h/d. During two of the three bedrest periods, the subjects performed in the supine position one of two routines, either isometric exercise (21% of max leg extension force for 1 min followed by 1-min rest) or isotonic exercise (68% of max VO2) for 0.5 in the morning and afternoon. During the third bedrest period, no exercise was performed. In general +Gz tolerance was reduced by 24% to 35% (p less than or equal to 0.05) after bedrest. Compared with control values, there were significant reductions in average tolerance times after bedrest with no exercise and isotonic exercise at all G levels. With isometric exercise, there was a significant decrease in tolerance at 2.1 Gz but not at 3.2 Gz or 3.8 Gz, even though the latter tolerances were reduced 15.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Both exercise regimens maintained tolerance at levels equal to or above that obtained with no exercise. Compared with control values, average tolerances were lower (p less than or equal to 0.05) after the two recovery periods between the bedrest periods (minus 24% to minus 26% at 3.2 Gz and 3.8 Gz), indicating that 3 weeks of ambulation was not sufficient time for full recovery from the deconditioning induced in

  3. Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Victoria; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, Isabel M.; Prieto, Ana I.; Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and gene expression of some glutathione related enzymes in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of CYN has been reported. However, little is known about the effects induced by repeated doses of this toxin in tilapias exposed by immersion and the potential reversion of these biochemical alterations after two different depuration periods (3 or 7 days). In the present study, tilapias were exposed by immersion to repeated doses of a CYN-containing culture of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum during 14 days, and then were subjected to depuration periods (3 or 7 days) in clean water in order to examine the potential reversion of the effects observed. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST), and also the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney of fish. Results showed significant alterations in most of the parameters evaluated and their recovery after 3 days (GPx activity, sGST relative abundance) or 7 days (GPx gene expression, sGST activity). These findings not only confirm the oxidative stress effects produced in fish by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN, but also show the effectiveness of depuration processes in mitigating the CYN-containing culture toxic effects. PMID:24632554

  4. Troposphere delay modeling using ray-traced delays around Tsukuba during a 14-days typhoon period in September 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pany, A.; Boehm, J.; Hobiger, T.; Schuh, H.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate modeling of the tropospheric delay of microwave signals is of great importance for space geodetic techniques, such as Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In state-of-the-art VLBI analysis tropospheric zenith delays are estimated using mapping functions, and gradients are applied in order to account for azimuthal asymmetries. Monte Carlo simulations carried out within the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) to design the next generation VLBI system, VLBI2010, have clearly shown that the tropospheric delay is the limiting factor in VLBI analysis and that a simple gradient model, as currently applied, might be insufficient for VLBI2010 which will provide a much higher observation density. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides high resolution numerical weather models. With KARAT, the Kashima Ray-Tracing Tools, we computed tropospheric slant delays around the VLBI site in Tsukuba for a 14-days typhoon period in September 2007. The resolution of these ray-traced delays is 1° in both azimuth and elevation, and three hours in time. The delays exhibit significant azimuthally asymmetric characteristics. We fit spherical harmonic functions of different degrees and orders to the ray-traced delays in order to test their ability of modeling the spatial structures of the troposphere, and we investigate whether further continuation of the continued fraction form, i.e. estimating more coefficients, might improve troposphere modeling.

  5. Hepatic retention and toxicological responses during feeding and depuration periods in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) fed graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Holaas, Eivind; Bohne, Victoria B; Hamre, Kristin; Arukwe, Augustine

    2008-12-10

    The human safety aspects of seafood production require the expansion of vital knowledge of both nutrients and possible contaminants along the entire production chain. Thus, production of safer seafood can be achieved by using feed materials that are low in contaminants, while maintaining balanced nutrition, in order to secure optimal fish and consumer health. Our understanding of primary responses of fish health and production related diseases, as well as biological processes that influence carry-over and lowering of contaminants in farmed fish, will contribute to a sustainable production of safer seafood products. Therefore, we have studied the liver deposition and toxicological effects in salmon fed graded levels of BHT during a 12-week feeding followed by a 2-week depuration period using chemical, molecular, and catalytic assays. In general, our data showed that BHT was significantly retained in the liver and selectively modulated toxicological responses in the xenobiotic biotransformation pathways during the feeding period. Specifically, BHT produced consistent dose- and time-specific gene expression patterns for AhR2alpha, AhR2beta, CYP1A1, CYP3A, UGT1, and GSTpi. The effect of BHT on the gene expression of biotransformation enzyme did not parallel enzyme activity levels, suggesting a possible inhibition by parent BHT or its metabolites. As a safety precaution, the production of farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway requires a mandatory 2-week depuration period prior to slaughtering and market delivery to ensure the elimination of veterinary medicaments, additives, and other undesirable components. Comparison of feeding and depuration periods showed that BHT was highly retained in fish liver, as only 8-13% of fed BHT was eliminated during the 2-week depuration period. This is just a part of the total concentration in the whole fish, since BHT may have been distributed and accumulated in other organs. Since BHT or its metabolites putatively inhibited

  6. Accumulation and depuration of cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish toxins by the freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Dias, Elsa; Franca, Susana; Pereira, Elisa; Carolino, Manuela; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2004-07-14

    The increasing frequency by which the production of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) by freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacteria is being noticed world-wide raises the possibility of PST bioaccumulation by freshwater mussels. This study evaluates PST accumulation and depuration by the freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea exposed over a 14-day period to high densities (mean = 1.4 x 10(9) cells1(-1), S.D. = 0.29 x 10(9) cellsl(-1)) of the toxic cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (corresponding to a mean toxin concentration of 25.5 nmol PSTl(-1), S.D. = 9.9 nmol PSTl(-1)). Mussels were subsequently detoxified either by starvation or by feeding on the non-toxic green-algae Ankistodesmus falcatus. Filter feeding activity and toxin uptake by the mussels were followed by cell counting and toxin analysis in water samples taken before and after each daily water renewal. The accumulation and depuration of PST as well as the anatomical distribution of toxins were monitored throughout the experiment by HPLC analysis of mussel extracts. Mussels fed the toxic cyanobacterium removed on average 65.3% of cells and 40.36% of total PST daily provided. Daily rates of cell clearance (% of initial) were negatively correlated with the amounts of PST daily provided (but not with the amount of cells). This suggests a negative effect of toxins on the feeding behaviour of mussels. Small amounts of toxins could be detected in the mussels after the second day of exposure, reaching a maximum of 26 microg PST100 g(-1) by day 7. The viscera contained the greatest proportion of toxins (78%) at the start of the toxification. However, increasing amounts of PST were found in the remaining tissues (gills, mantle and foot) over time. Toxins detected in the mussel extracts were the same provided in the dietary A. issatschenkoi. Nevertheless, mussels showed a higher proportion of saxitoxin and decarbomoylsaxitoxin and a lower proportion of gonyautoxin-5 than the fed cyanobacterium. Similar depuration

  7. 14 Days to Have Your Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Andrea; Haulgren, Frank

    2010-01-01

    During spring quarter 2008, the Western Washington University (WWU) Libraries established an interactive bloglike environment called "14 Days to Have Your Say" with the intention of gathering new ideas and feedback about the libraries from the university community. The environment was developed as a fairly simple Drupal site. The project was open…

  8. Depuration of metals by the green-colored oyster Crassostrea sikamea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of metals (especially copper) in oysters has led to green-color now being found in Chinese estuaries. In the present study, the authors quantified the depuration of 8 metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in green-colored oysters (Crassostrea sikamea) collected from an estuary that is heavily contaminated by metals as a result of industrial effluent releases. The oysters were depurated under laboratory conditions for 4 mo; the accumulated concentrations and the subcellular distribution of metals were measured at different time intervals. Results showed that the green color of oysters faded to light yellow (nearly normal) after 4 mo of depuration. Depuration of metals could be described by a first-order kinetic process. The calculated overall depuration rate constants of metals were in the range of 0.008 d(-1) to 0.024 d(-1) , with a biological retention half-life of 30 d to 70 d. The depuration rates of green-colored contaminated oysters were significantly higher for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni than the rates of oysters from a less contaminated site, whereas the depuration rates of Ag, Co, Pb, and Zn were comparable between the 2 populations. When corrected for the change of oyster tissue weight, the actual efflux rate constants of the metals (0.0708-0.1014 d(-1) ) were much higher than the overall depuration rate constants. Cellular debris and metallothionein-like proteins were the important fractions binding with the metals in the oysters. Significant changes in metal subcellular distribution were observed during the 4-mo depuration for Ag, Cd, Cu, and Zn. Metallothionein-like protein became more important in sequestering the metals during the depuration period, with a concomitant decrease in metals associated with the cellular debris fraction. PMID:25053576

  9. Uptake and depuration of nonionic organic contaminants from sediment by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Wang, F.N.; Dwyer, J.; Ankley, G.T.; Mount, D.R.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Landrum, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was evaluated after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of exposure to a field-collected sediment contaminated with DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or to a field-collected sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Depuration of contaminants by oligochaetes in a control sediment or in water was also evaluated over a 7-d period after 28 d of exposure to the field-collected sediments. Accumulation of PAHs with a log octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) 5.6 or DDD and DDE typically exhibited a steady increase from day 1 to about day 14 or 28, followed by a plateau. Therefore, exposures conducted for a minimum of 14 to 28 d better reflected steady-state concentrations for DDT and its metabolites and for PAHs. Depuration rates for DDT and its metabolites and high-Kow PAHs were much higher in organisms held in clean sediment relative to both water-only depuration and model predictions. This suggests that depuration in clean sediment may artificially accelerate depuration of hydrophobic compounds. Comparisons between laboratory-exposed L. variegatus and oligochaetes collected in the field from these sediments indicate that results of laboratory tests can be extrapolated to the field with a reasonable degree of certainty.

  10. Effectiveness of depuration for hepatitis A virus removal from mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Polo, David; Álvarez, Cristina; Longa, Ángeles; Romalde, Jesús L

    2014-06-16

    The efficacy and kinetic of depuration of hepatitis A virus (HAV) were evaluated under experimental conditions with Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) subjected previously to bioaccumulation processes. Seven independent trials (70kg of mussels each) were performed in a closed experimental system using two different water temperatures (13 and 17°C) during 7days. The real time RT-PCR technique with TaqMan probes was used for viral quantification. Qualitative infectivity assays were conducted to test the presence of infectious viral particles at the end of the depuration period. The depuration trials showed an average reduction of HAV levels of aproximately 1.1 Log units (>90%). However, the average final viral loads in shellfish samples remain at relatively high levels (6.5×10(3) RNA copies/g digestive tissue) and still infectious. A positive correlation between the initial and the final numbers of the viral RNA copies was observed. The reduction of HAV showed a two-phase removal kinetic, an initial logarithmic trendline, with a rapid reduction of viruses during the first 24-48h of depuration, and a subsequent stabilization with a slower depuration rate until the end of the process. PMID:24769165

  11. Effectiveness of Standard UV Depuration at Inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum Recovered from Spiked Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)▿

    PubMed Central

    Sunnotel, O.; Snelling, W. J.; McDonough, N.; Browne, L.; Moore, J. E.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Lowery, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 × 106 oocysts liter −1) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P < 0.05; ninefold) the number of viable oocysts recovered from oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17574996

  12. An automatic 14-day paste diet feeder for animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasques, Marilyn; Mulenburg, Jerry; Gundo, Dan; Griffith, Jon

    1994-01-01

    During a centrifuge experiment, any interruption that requires stopping the centrifuge may influence the results. Centrifuges often must be stopped for animal maintenance (food, water and waste removal), especially in cases of timed feedings. To eliminate the need for stopping the centrifuge while still providing timed feeding, an automatic paste diet feeder was developed. The feeder is based on a constant volume concept and can deliver a predetermined amount of paste diet at specified time intervals. This unit was supported by water delivery and waste collection systems. The entire system performed reliably and maintained the animals well for a continuous centrifugation experiment of 14 days.

  13. EPO modulation in a 14-days undersea scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Revelli, L; Vagnoni, S; D'Amore, A; Di Stasio, E; Lombardi, C P; Storti, G; Proietti, R; Balestra, C; Ricerca, B M

    2013-10-01

    Erythropoiesis is affected during deep saturation dives. The mechanism should be related to a downregulation of serum Erythropoietin (s-EPO) concentration or to a toxic effect of the hyperbaric hyperoxia. We evaluated s-EPO and other haematological parameters in 6 scuba divers before, during and after a 14-days guinness saturation dive (8-10 m). Athletes were breathing air at 1.8-2 ATA, under the control of a team of physicians. Serum parameters were measured before diving (T0) and: 7 days (T1), 14 days (T2) after the beginning of the dive and 2 h (T3) and 24 h (T4) after resurfacing. Hgb, and many other haematological parameters did not change whereas Ht, s-EPO, the ratio between s-EPO predicted and that observed and reticulocytes (absolute, percent) declined progressively from T0 to T3. At T4 a significant rise in s-EPO was observed. Hgb did not vary but erythropoiesis seemed to be affected as s-EPO and reticulocyte counts showed. All these changes were statistically significant. The experiment, conducted in realistic conditions of dive length, oxygen concentration and pressure, allows us to formulate some hypotheses about the role of prolonged hyperbarism on erythropoiesis. The s-EPO rise, 24 h after resurfacing, is clearly documented and related to the "Normobaric Oxygen Paradox". This evidence suggests interesting hypotheses for new clinical applications such as modulation of s-EPO production and Hgb content triggered by appropriate O₂ administration in pre-surgical patients or in some anemic disease. PMID:23670359

  14. Changes in recruitment of Rhesus soleus and gastrocnemius muscles following a 14 day spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Roy, R. R.; De Leon, R. D.; De Guzman, C. P.; Koslovskaia, I.; Sirota, M.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the recruitment patterns of the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis-anterior muscles was investigated by comparing electromyograms (EMGs) of these muscles of Rhesus monkeys implanted with EMG electrodes, taken before and after a 14-day flight on board Cosmos 2044. It was found that the EMG amplitude values in the soleus muscle decreased after the spaceflight but returned to normal values over the 2-wk recovery period. The medial amplitudes of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior were not changed by flight. Joint probability density distributions displayed changes after flight in both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, but not in tibialis anterior.

  15. Uptake, tissue distribution and depuration of triclosan in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to freshwater.

    PubMed

    Escarrone, Ana Laura Venquiaruti; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; Martins, Samantha Eslava; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia

    2016-08-01

    The agent triclosan has been extensively used in different personal care products as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial and preservative agent. Due to its continuous release into the environment, including discharge via wastewater treatment plants, triclosan has been widely detected in aquatic environments. There is growing interest in improving the knowledge about the environmental fate of triclosan due to its possible bioaccumulation and the toxicity it may pose to organisms, such as fish and other non-target species. To investigate the distribution and bioconcentration of triclosan in fish, Poecilia vivipara was exposed to 0.2mgL(-1). Contents of triclosan in whole fish, brain, gonads, liver, muscle and gills were quantified by LC-MS/MS. When lipid normalised concentration was used, the liver exhibited the highest concentration followed by the gills, gonads, brain and muscle tissues. Bioconcentration was increased with time reaching a steady-state around 7-14days for most all tissues. After 24h depuration, triclosan concentrations declined >80% in all tissues except liver, in which triclosan takes longer to be depurated. These results not only clearly indicate that triclosan accumulated in P. vivipara, with tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCF) that ranged from 40.2 to 1025.4, but also show that the elimination of triclosan after transferring the fish to triclosan-free freshwater is rapid in all tissues. PMID:27101458

  16. [A 14-day-old boy with jaundice and apnoea].

    PubMed

    Smerud, Ole-Jørgen Olsøy; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud; Grønn, Morten

    2015-12-15

    We describe an infant who was readmitted from home at 14 days of age with jaundice and a history of apnoea and episodes of retrocollis/opisthotonos. He had been only mildly jaundiced on discharge from the maternity clinic at 2 days of age. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) on admission was 542 µmol/L, and the infant was treated intensively with triple phototherapy and exchange transfusion. In contrast to what is recommended in Norwegian national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, the parents had apparently neither received oral nor written information about jaundice and its follow-up at the time of discharge from maternity. They therefore contacted their child healthcare centre when they had questions about jaundice, though the national guidelines specifically state that follow-up for neonatal jaundice during the first 2 weeks of life is the responsibility of the birth hospital. Inappropriate advice resulted in delayed referral, and the child has been diagnosed with chronic kernicterus, probably the first such case in Norway since national guidelines were formalised in 2006. Genetic work-up disclosed compound heterozygosity for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, to the best of our knowledge the first instance of this disorder ever to have been diagnosed in Norway. The incidence of kernicterus is Norway is much lower than in other industrialised countries. This is most likely due to national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, which place the responsibility for management and follow-up of jaundice with the birth hospital during the crucial first 2 weeks of life. This case report reminds us that tragedies may occur when guidelines are disregarded. PMID:26674039

  17. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M.

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  18. Exercise thermoregulation after 14 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Reese, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and exercise training during bed rest on body temperature and thermoregulatory responses at rest and during exercise are investigated. Seven male subjects underwent three two-week periods of bed rest during which isometric, isotonic, or no exercises were performed, separated by two ambulatory control periods and preceded by a two-week control period, during which they exercised regularly. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and sweating responses were determined during 70-min submaximal supine exercise during the bed rest and recovery periods. Measurements reveal a reduction in basal oral temperature during the control-recovery periods, with a relatively constant level during bed rest periods, and a significant increase in the rectal temperature elavation brought on by exercise following all three bed-rest regimes. It is concluded that the excessive increase in rectal temperature could be influenced by changes in skin heat conductance or the inhibition of sweating.

  19. Single-dose oral toxicity of fermented rice extracts (FREs): a 14-day observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Ki-Young; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present research was to determine the acute oral toxicity of fermented rice extracts (FREs), in female and male ICR mice. To investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, FREs were orally administered once to male and female ICR mice at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW). Effects on mortality, BW, and clinical signs were monitored over 14 days, including changes in the weights and histopathological characteristics of 14 organs, as described in the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guidelines (2009-116, 2009). No treatment-related mortality was observed during the 14-day observation period in either gender. In addition, no FRE-related change was observed in BW or organ weight (OW), clinical indicators, or histopathological findings in this study. Our results suggest that the FRE is non-toxic in mice and is therefore likely to be safe for clinical use. The approximate LD and LD50 in mice after single oral dose of FRE are greater than 2000 mg/kg in female and male ICR mice. Additionally, no specific target organ or negative clinical indicator was detected in this study. PMID:24374435

  20. Report of 14-day bedrest simulation of Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Compiler); Mitchell, C. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    Part one of a two-phase bedrest project in which the physiological effects of weightlessness were simulated is presented. The project was designed to approximate the medical testing and dietary control of Skylab. The test period included a three week pre-flight period, a two week bedrest period and a two week post-flight period. The test subjects ate measured amounts of the Skylab diet and drank deionized water to recreate the metabolic balance studies of Skylab. The medical testing program, pre- and postbedrest, was similar to that of Skylab including: lower body negative pressure testing the orthostatic intolerance noted after both spaceflights and bedrest, bicycle ergometry testing the cardiovascular response to graded exercise, postural equilibrium, vestibular studies and electromyograms. Fluid and electrolyte shifts and balance were documented with intake and output records and radionuclide studies. The subjects were observed by a psychiatrist who watched for signs of mental stress in the test environment and changes in mental status.

  1. Accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-06-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are a group of marine algal toxins. In this study, the accumulation and depuration of pectenotoxins in brown crab Cancer pagurus were investigated. Crabs were fed with toxic blue mussels Mytilus edulis for 21 days and then depurated for 42 days. Toxins were extracted with methanol from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group) and from blue mussels for comparison. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of PTX-2, PTX-2 SA, 7- epi-PTX-2 SA, and PTX-12 were analyzed in two batches of toxic blue mussels and the crabs. A one-compartment model was applied to describe the depuration of PTXs. The half-life of PTXs was estimated to be 6-7.5 days. After depuration for 42 days, the amount of PTXs measured in the crab digestive glands was less than 1 μg/kg.

  2. Hemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin, and aldosterone in man after 5 to 14 days of bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melada, G. A.; Goldman, R. H.; Luetscher, J. A.; Zager, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous bedrest for 5 to 14 days had no significant effect on resting heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac output in six normal men. Head-up tilt induced greater tachycardia in 5 of 6 patients after bed rest than in the control period. Propranolol diminished both tachycardia and the incidence of hypotension and faintness in upright posture. Plasma volume fell, extracellular fluid volume increased, and plasma renin activity was significantly elevated following bedrest. Unusually large increases in plasma renin followed head-up tilt or administration of isoproterenol during bedrest and after resuming normal activity. During bedrest, plasma aldosterone was often increased in the early morning. It is concluded that after bedrest, upright posture evokes strong beta-adrenergic activity as well as exaggerated metabolic and circulatory responses which can be reduced or abolished by the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol.

  3. Calculation of passive sampling rates from both native PCBs and depuration compounds in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Persoon, Carolyn; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-02-01

    Passive sampling has become a practical way of sampling persistent organic pollutants over large spatial and remote areas; however, its ease in use is also coupled with some uncertainty in calculating air concentrations from accumulated mass. Here we report a comparison study of polyurethane-foam-based passive samplers (PUF-PAS) for quantitatively determining the sampling rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from air. We measured both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds and determined the sampling rates (R-values) for multiple samplers harvested at three different time periods. The uptake of native PCBs in the linear phase was similar to the loss of depuration compounds for indoor air and behaved as predicted. A single R-value of 2.6m(3)d(-1) was calculated from the mean of 12 samplers deployed indoors from three harvest dates with a range of 2.0-3.4m(3)d(-1) for both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds. Loss of depuration compounds in outdoor air also followed the predicted linear behavior with a range of calculated R-value of 4.4-8.4m(3)d(-1). Uptake of native PCBs behavior was extremely variable, probably due to changes in ambient air concentrations and resulted in R-values of 1.6-11.5m(3)d(-1) with greater variation seen in higher chlorinated homolog groups. PMID:19068264

  4. Changes in prevalence of subjective fatigue during 14-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayanagi, Kaname; Natsuno, Toyoki; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Nobuhisa; Watanabe, Yoriko; Suzuki, Satomi; Iwase, Satoshi; Mano, Tadaaki; Yajima, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of subjective fatigue in young healthy males during 14 days of 6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) by using a multidimensional questionnaire. Forty-one subjects completed the Subjective Fatigue Scale questionnaire to assess the fatigue-related complaints and symptoms. The questionnaire is composed of three sections, with 10 items each. The sections measured drowsiness and dullness (Section 1), difficulty in concentration (Section 2), and the projection of physical disintegration (Section 3). The subjects answered simple questions between 1400 and 1700 on 6 measurement days before and during the HDBR period. The prevalence rate of low back pain was markedly high (80.5%) on the second day and more than 50% in the first half of the HDBR period, and any complaints related to either a lack of sleep or a deterioration in the quality of sleep continued until the end of the HDBR period. Our findings may be useful in developing preventive strategies against physical and mental fatigue associated with prolonged HDBR, horizontal bed rest, and microgravity environments.

  5. STUDIES ON THE DEPURATION OF CADMIUM AND COPPER BY THE AMERICAN OYSTER 'CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few studies concerned with the accumulation of trace metals by the oyster have dealt with depuration. Depuration, or a loss of metal, has been observed during gametogenesis. Spawning has also been implicated in metal loss from the oyster. Some depuration studies have been perform...

  6. Local versus whole-body sweating adaptations following 14 days of traditional heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Martin P; Gagnon, Daniel; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if local changes in sweat rate following 14 days of heat acclimation reflect those that occur at the whole-body level. Both prior to and following a 14-day traditional heat acclimation protocol, 10 males exercised in the heat (35 °C, ∼20% relative humidity) at increasing rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 350 (Ex2), and 400 (Ex3) W·m(-2). A 10-min recovery period followed Ex1, while a 20-min recovery period separated Ex2 and Ex3. The exercise protocol was performed in a direct calorimeter to measure whole-body sweat rate and, on a separate day, in a thermal chamber to measure local sweat rate (LSR), sweat gland activation (SGA), and sweat gland output (SGO) on the upper back, chest, and mid-anterior forearm. Post-acclimation, whole-body sweat rate was greater during each exercise bout (Ex1: 14.3 ± 0.9; Ex2: 17.3 ± 1.2; Ex3: 19.4 ± 1.3 g·min(-1), all p ≤ 0.05) relative to pre-acclimation (Ex1: 13.1 ± 0.6; Ex2: 15.4 ± 0.8; Ex3: 16.5 ± 1.3 g·min(-1)). In contrast, only LSR on the forearm increased with acclimation, and this increase was only observed during Ex2 (Post: 1.32 ± 0.33 vs. Pre: 1.06 ± 0.22 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.03) and Ex3 (Post: 1.47 ± 0.41 vs. Pre: 1.17 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.05). The greater forearm LSR post-acclimation was due to an increase in SGO, as no changes in SGA were observed. Overall, these data demonstrate marked regional variability in the effect of heat acclimation on LSR, such that not all local measurements of sweat rate reflect the improvements observed at the whole-body level. PMID:27467216

  7. Glycogen depletion and resynthesis during 14 days of chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit muscle.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; Bernal, C; Cadefau, J A; Frias, J; Tibolla, M; Cussó, R

    2002-10-10

    Electro-stimulation alters muscle metabolism and the extent of this change depends on application intensity and duration. The effect of 14 days of chronic electro-stimulation on glycogen turnover and on the regulation of glycogen synthase in fast-twitch muscle was studied. The results showed that macro- and proglycogen degrade simultaneously during the first hour of stimulation. After 3 h, the muscle showed net synthesis, with an increase in the proglycogen fraction. The glycogen content peaked after 4 days of stimulation, macroglycogen being the predominant fraction at that time. Glycogen synthase was determined during electro-stimulation. The activity of this enzyme was measured at low UDPG concentration with either high or low Glu-6-P content. Western blots were performed against glycogen synthase over a range of stimulation periods. Activation of this enzyme was maximum before the net synthesis of glycogen, partial during net synthesis, and low during late synthesis. These observations suggest that the more active, dephosphorylated and very low phosphorylated forms of glycogen synthase may participate in the first steps of glycogen resynthesis before net synthesis is observed, while partially phosphorylated forms are most active during glycogen elongation. PMID:12383944

  8. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  9. Depuration kinetics of hepatitis A virus in clams.

    PubMed

    Polo, David; Ávarez, Cristina; Vilariño, M Luz; Longa, Ángeles; Romalde, Jesús L

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy and dynamic of depuration for the removal of hepatitis A virus (HAV) contamination were evaluated under experimental conditions using Manila clams previously subjected to bioaccumulation with this virus. Five independent trials were assayed in a closed experimental system with a total volume of approximately 1750 l, using clam batches of 60 Kg. The reverse transcriptase-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) technique was utilized for viral quantification. Infectivity assays were conducted at the end of depuration. Although the final viral loads in shellfish after 7 days remained relatively high and still infectious, an average reduction in HAV levels of 1.44 log units (approx. 93.1%) was observed. This reduction showed a two-phase removal kinetic, with an initial rapid reduction of viruses during the first 72 h of depuration, with a 0.6 log units (69%) of average decrease in HAV RNA copies/g digestive tissue, and a subsequent stabilization with a slower depuration rate in the remaining days. PMID:24387859

  10. Bioconcentration and depuration of endosulfan sulfate in mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2011-07-01

    Endosulfan is an insecticide which has been widely used in agriculture. The technical grade material consists of two isomers (alpha and beta). Under natural environmental conditions, endosulfan is metabolized through oxidation and the main metabolite in the environment is endosulfan sulfate. Most ecotoxicology research has been conducted with technical grade endosulfan to determine effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Little data on the effects of endosulfan sulfate on aquatic organisms are available in the literature. This study characterizes endosulfan sulfate bioconcentration and depuration in mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis). During the study, G. affinis was exposed to an environmentally relevant endosulfan sulfate concentration of 0.25 μg L(-1) for 5 weeks (uptake phase) followed by a 3-week period (depuration phase) in clean water. This study found that G. affinis bioconcentrated endosulfan sulfate. During the exposure phase, fish tissue concentrations of endosulfan sulfate increased with time up to 730 μg kg(-1) dw or 215 μg kg(-1) ww. The bioconcentration data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics better than the one-compartment first order kinetics (1-CFOK). Using these models, the bioconcentration factors for endosulfan sulfate-exposed G. affinis were from 687 to 888 L kg(-1) in wet weight or 2263 to 2936 L kg(-1) in dry weight. During the depuration phase, endosulfan sulfate concentrations in tissue significantly decreased and the data followed first order kinetics. The half-life of endosulfan sulfate in G. affinis was about 9 d. There was no significant difference in standard length or weight between control and exposed fish. The growth data followed the von Bertalanffy growth model. However, the condition factor of exposed fish increased with time during the exposure phase. PMID:21550631

  11. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). PMID:24507133

  12. Evidence for Increased Beta-Adrenoreceptor Responsiveness Induced by 14 Days of Simulated Microgravity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Polet, Jill L.; Engelke, Keith A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha and beta receptor agonists in 8 healthy men ( 38+- 2 yrs) before and after 14 days of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenergic responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Immediately following a 30-min baseline period, a steady-state infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) was used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic responsiveness. ISO was infused at three graded constant rates of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 ug/kg/min. After heart rate and blood pressure had been allowed to return to baseline levels following ISO infusion graded infusion of phenylephrine (PE) was used to assess responsiveness of alpha I-vascular receptors. PE was infused at three graded constant rates of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 ug/kg/min. Each infusion interval for both drugs was 9 min. During the infusions, constant monitoring of beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate was performed and leg blood flow was measured with occlusion plethysmography at each infusion level. The slopes calculated from linear regressions between ISO and PE doses and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance for each subject were used to represent alpha- and beta- adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Fourteen days HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1056 +- 107 to 1553 +- 83 beats/ug/kg/min; P= 0.014) and vasodilation (-469ft +- 111 to -l446 +- 309 PRU/ug/kg/min; P =0.0224) to ISO infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular responses.

  13. Fiber size and myosin phenotypes of selected rhesus lower limb muscles after a 14-day spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Bodine, S. C.; Pierotti, D. J.; Talmadge, R. J.; Barkhoudarian, G.; Kim, J.; Fanton, J. W.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsies were taken from the rhesus (Macaca mulatta) soleus (Sol, a slow ankle extensor), medial gastrocnemius (MG, a fast ankle extensor), tibialis anterior (TA, a fast ankle flexor), and vastus lateralis (VL, a fast knee extensor) muscles in vivarium controls (n=5) before and after either a 14-day spaceflight (Bion 11, n=2) or a 14-day ground-based flight simulation (n=3). Myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition (gel electrophoresis), fiber type distribution (immunohistochemistry), and fiber size were determined. Although there were no significant changes, each muscle showed trends towards adaptation.

  14. Field studies using the oyster Crassostrea virginica to determine mercury accumulation and depuration rates

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.J.; Presley, B.J.; Powell, E.N. ); Taylor, R.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Mercury as an environmental hazard, especially with regard to human health, has been of concern since the Minamata disaster. From 1966 to 1970 a chlor-alkali plant in Point Comfort, Texas released mercury-enriched wastewater (up to 29.9 kgHg/day) into Lavaca Bay (TWQB 1977). Since 1970 the Texas Department of Health (TDH) has periodically closed and then re-opened portions of Lavaca Bay to the harvesting of crabs and finfish based on their levels (<>0.5 ppm Hg wet weight) of mercury. A 1988 closure remains in effect as of this writing. Mercury contamination in Lavaca Bay organisms thus continues to be a problem 22 years after the chlor-alkali plant ceased releasing mercury into the bay. The goal of the following research was to better understand the behavior of mercury in Lavaca Bay. Oysters have been widely used as indicator species in metal pollution studies. Most such programs have focused on the concentrations of metals in oysters from different geographic areas. This study, however, investigated the rate and amount of mercury a [open quotes]clean[close quotes] oyster would accumulate when transplanted to a contaminated estuary and the rate of mercury depuration by contaminated oysters placed in a clean environment. The oysters were additionally analyzed for Ba, Cu, Fe, P, and Zn to test for the possible involvement of these metals in mercury accumulation and depuration. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Depuration rates of chlordane compounds from rat fat

    SciTech Connect

    Dearth, M.A.; Hites, R.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed a diet containing 10 ppm of technical chlordane for 28 days. The depuration of the various chlordane compounds was then followed for 32 days. The concentrations of 14 components or metabolites of technical chlordane were measured in the adipose tissues of 21 rats, using electron capture, negative ionization mass spectrometry, coupled with capillary gas chromatography. The half-lives of the two major octachloro isomers, {gamma}-and {alpha}-chlordane, were determined to be 7.1 and 5.9 days, respectively. The half-lives of the nonachlors were 9.7 (cis-nonachlor), 14.3 (trans-nonachlor), and 54.1 days (nonachlor III). The depuration rates seem to be controlled by three structural features of the molecules: the total number and configuration of the chlorines on ring 1 and the number of chlorines on carbon 2.

  16. ACUTE, 14-DAY REPEATED DOSING, AND 90-DAY SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY STUDIES OF POTASSIUM PICLORAM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potassium picloram was administered either by gavage (acute studies) or in drinking water to male and female Sprague-Dawley derived rats (14-day and 90-day studies). The acute oral LD50 was 950 mg/kg (812-1120) for males and 686 mg/kg (599-786) for females. Depression, prostratio...

  17. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Bromoform in Five Marine Species

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. I.; Tone, F. C.; Wilkinson, P.; Blaylock, J. W.; Schirmer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Bromoform has been identified as the single most abundant halogenated organic compound produced by the chlorination of marine waters. To determine the potential biological effects of its release into marine waters, short-term toxicity bioassays and 28-day uptake/28-day depuration studies were conducted with five marine species: Protothaca staminea, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea virginica, Penaeus aztecus, and Brevoortia tyrannus. The bioassay studies indicate that 96-hr LC50s ranged from approximately 7 ppm for B. tyrannus to greater than 40 ppm for P. staminea. Behavioral changes were noted in P. aztecus and B. tyrannus exposed to sublethal concentrations of bromoform. In all species tested, the uptake and depuration of bromoform was rapid. Bromoform was present in all exposed animal tissues within 24 hours and was depurated within 48 hours. In the mollusk species, there was bioaccumulation above water concentrations in the first week of exposure, and then the tissue concentrations fell to levels approximately equal to the water concentrations. The shrimp and menhaden also bioaccumulated bromoform above water concentrations in the first week of exposure, but then the tissue concentrations fell to approximately 0.4 {micro}g/g and remained at this level independent of water concentrations.

  18. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  19. Accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by laboratory cultured purple clam Hiatula diphos Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hong Nong; Huang, Chen Ping; Chen, Chih Yu

    2005-10-01

    Purple clams (Hiatula diphos Linnaeus) accumulate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins produced by a toxic strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim in a laboratory study. The maximal toxicity of PSP toxins attained 31.3m MU/g after 20 days exposure. The toxin profile of H. diphos was similar to that reported for A. minutum at the end of the exposure period; and GTX1 was dominant. GTX congeners were found in muscle on day 16 and day 20, these substances could be detected during the depuration period as well. GTX1 was detected in the siphon only on day 32. The results show that H. diphos accumulates PSP toxins according to the amount and toxin profile of ingested A. minutum. PMID:16137734

  20. Bioconcentration and depuration of (14) C-labeled 17α-ethinyl estradiol and 4-nonylphenol in individual organs of the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis L. .

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Karen L; Poynton, Helen C; Duphily, Brian J; Blalock, Bonnie J; Robinson, William E

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), enter coastal environments primarily in effluents of wastewater treatment facilities and have become ubiquitous in marine surface waters, sediments, and biota. Although EE2 and 4-NP have been detected in marine shellfish, the kinetics of bioconcentration and their tissue distribution have not been thoroughly investigated. The authors performed bioconcentration and depuration experiments in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, with 3.37 nM EE2 (0.999 μg/L) and 454 nM 4-NP (100.138 µg/L). Mussels and seawater were sampled throughout a 38-d exposure and a 35-d depuration period, and 6 tissues were individually assayed. Uptake of EE2 and 4-NP was curvilinear throughout exposure and followed a similar uptake pattern: digestive gland > gill ≥ remaining viscera > gonad > adductor > plasma. Depuration varied, however, with half-lives ranging from 2.7 d (plasma) to 92 d (gill) for EE2 and 15 d (plasma) to 57 d (gill) for 4-NP. An innovative modeling approach, with 3 coupled mathematical models, was developed to differentiate the unique roles of the gill and plasma in distributing the EDCs to internal tissues. Plasma appears pivotal in regulating EDC uptake and depuration within the whole mussel. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:863-873. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26126666

  1. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  2. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO₂) or V (as NaVO₃) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) μg/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) μg/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat. PMID:20878520

  3. Rat soleus muscle fiber responses to 14 days of spaceflight and hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohira, Yoshi; Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Oganov, V.; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Marini, J. F.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and enzymatic responses in fibers of different types were studied in rats after 14 days of spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 or hindlimb suspension. Fibers were classified as fast-twitch, slow-twitch, or both fast- and slow-twitch on the basis of the type of myosin heavy chains (MHC). Data obtained indicate that during the 14 days of spaceflight or suspension the protein profiles of 9-14 percents of the slow-twitch fibers reconfigured from typical slow-twitch toward fast switch fibers, while all fibers were dramatically losing total protein. These results were consistent with the data obtained from Cosmos 1887 and Skylab 3. It is suggested that effects of spaceflight on skeletal muscle can be attributed to a dramatic reduction in the level and/or pattern of loading.

  4. A 14-day ground-based hypokinesia study in nonhuman primates: A compilation of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazarian, L.; Cann, C. E.; Parfitt, M.; Simmons, D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1981-01-01

    A 14 day ground based hypokinesia study with rhesus monkeys was conducted to determine if a spaceflight of similar duration might affect bone remodeling and calcium homeostatis. The monkeys were placed in total body casts and sacrificed either immediately upon decasting or 14 days after decasting. Changes in vertebral strength were noted and further deterioration of bone strength continued during the recovery phase. Resorption in the vertebrae increased dramatically while formation decreased. Cortical bone formation was impaired in the long bones. The immobilized animals showed a progressive decrease in total serum calcium which rebounded upon remobilization. Most mandibular parameters remained unchanged during casting except for retardation of osteon birth or maturation rate and density distribution of matrix and mineral moieties.

  5. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  6. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Chouker, A.; Feuerecker, M.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the use of 14 day undersea missions as a possible analog for short duration spaceflight for the study of immune system dysregulation. Sixteen subjects from the the NASA Extreme Enviro nment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 12, 13 and 14 missions were studied for immune system dysregulation. The assays that are presented in this poster are the Virleukocyte subsets, the T Cell functions, and the intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles. Other assays were performed, but are not included in this presntation.

  7. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K. )

    1989-06-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration.

  8. Assimilation and depuration of microcystin-LR by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Pires, L M Dionisio; Karlsson, K M; Meriluoto, J A O; Kardinaal, E; Visser, P M; Siewertsen, K; Donk, E Van; Ibelings, B W

    2004-09-20

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an important component of the foodweb of shallow lakes in the Netherlands, amongst others in Lake IJsselmeer, an international important wetland. Large numbers of ducks feed on these mussels in autumn and winter. The mussels are filter feeders and are exposed to high densities of cyanobacteria in summer and autumn. Mussels and cyanobacteria both thrive in Lake IJsselmeer. Apparently the mussels are somehow protected against accumulation of harmful quantities of cyanobacterial toxins. In this study, we investigated the assimilation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in zebra mussels when fed the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa as sole food or in a mixture with the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis limnetica. After 3 weeks of assimilation we studied the depuration of MC-LR during 3 weeks when the food of the mussels was free of cyanobacteria. These assimilation/depuration experiments were combined with grazing experiments, using the same food treatments. Microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS); in addition, covalently bound MC were analyzed using the MMPB method. The mussels showed higher clearance rates on Microcystis than on Nannochloropsis. No selective rejection of either phytoplankton species was observed in the excretion products of the mussels. Zebra mussels fed Microcystis as single food, assimilated microcystin-LR relatively fast, and after 1 week the maximum value of free unbound microcystin assimilation (ca. 11 microg g DW(-1)) was attained. For mussels, fed with the mixed food, a maximum of only 3.9 microg g DW(-1) was recorded after 3 weeks. Covalently bound MC never reached high values, with a maximum of approximately 62% of free MC in the 2nd week of the experiment. In the depuration period microcystin decreased rapidly to low values and after 3 weeks only very low amounts of microcystin were detectable. The amount of toxin that accumulated in

  9. Behavior of mercury in bio-systems. II. Depuration of /sup 203/Hg/sup 2 +/ in various trophic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, M.K.; Prabhu, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiotracer techniques, the depuration rates for methylmercury at three trophic levels in an aquatic ecosystem are examined. Bacteria (decomposers), mosquito larvae (primary consumers), and fish (secondary consumers) were studied. Results indicated that depuration rates for mercury were temperature dependent - the rate of depuration increased with increase in temperature (up to 45/sup 0/C)

  10. Comparison of soleus muscles from rats exposed to microgravity for 10 versus 14 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staron, R. S.; Kraemer, W. J.; Hikida, R. S.; Reed, D. W.; Murray, J. D.; Campos, G. E.; Gordon, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of two different duration space-flights on the extent of atrophy, fiber type composition, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content of rat soleus muscles were compared. Adult male Fisher rats (n=12) were aboard flight STS-57 and exposed to 10 days of microgravity and adult ovariectomized female Spraque-Dawley rats (n=12) were aboard flight STS-62 for 14 days. Soleus muscles were bilaterally removed from the flight and control animals and frozen for subsequent analyses. Muscle wet weights, fiber types (I, IC, IIC, and IIA), cross-sectional area, and MHC content were determined. Although a significant difference was found between the soleus wet weights of the two ground-based control groups, they were similar with regard to MHC content (ca 90% MHCI and ca 10% MHCIIa) and fiber type composition. Unloading of the muscles caused slow-to-fast transformations which included a decrease in the percentage of type I fibers and MHCI, an increase in fibers classified as type IC, and the expression of two fast myosin heavy chains not found in the control rat soleus muscles (MHCIId and MHCIIb). Although the amount of atrophy (ca 26%) and the extent of slow-to-fast transformation (decrease in the percentage of MHCI from 90% to 82.5%) in the soleus muscles were similar between the two spaceflights, the percentages of the fast MHCs differed. After 14 days of spaceflight, the percentage of MHCIIa was significantly lower and the percentages of MHCIId and MHCIIb were significantly higher than the corresponding MHC content of the soleus muscles from the 10-day animals. Indeed, MHCIId became the predominant fast MHC after 14 days in space. These data suggest fast-to-faster transformations continued during the longer spaceflight.

  11. Ecological Uptake and Depuration of Carbon Nanotubes by Lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Elijah J.; Huang, Qingguo; Weber, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes represent a class of nanomaterials having broad application potentials and documented cellular uptake and ecotoxicological effects that raise the possibility that they may bioaccumulate in living organisms. Objectives Radioactively labeled nanotubes were synthesized using a novel methane chemical vapor deposition procedure. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and pyrene were spiked to sediment samples, and the respective uptake and depuration of these nanotubes and pyrene were assessed by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus. Results 14C-labeled carbon nanotubes were developed for these experiments to overcome significant previous limitations for quantifying nanotube materials in environmental and biological media. Biota-sediment accumulation factors for SWNTs and MWNTs were observed to be almost an order of magnitude lower than those for pyrene, a four-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The depuration behaviors of the oligochaete suggested that the nanotubes detected in these organisms were associated with sediments remaining in the organism guts and not absorbed into cellular tissues as was the pyrene. The results suggest that, unlike PAHs, purified carbon nanotubes do not readily absorb into organism tissues. PMID:18414633

  12. Human Habitation in a Lunar Electric Rover During a 14-Day Field Trial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litaker, Harry, Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Howard, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Various military and commercial entities, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have conducted space cabin confinement studies. However, after an extensive literature search, only one study was found using a simulated lunar rover (LUNEX II), under laboratory conditions, with a crew of two for an eighteen day lunar mission. Forty-three years later, NASA human factors engineers conducted a similar study using the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) in a dynamic real-world lunar simulation at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. The objective of the study was to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data on the vehicle s interior volume with respect to human-system interfaces, crew accommodations, and habitation over a 14-day mission. Though part of a larger study including 212 overall operational elements, this paper will discuss only the performance of fifty different daily habitational elements within the confines of the vehicle carried out by two male subjects. Objective timing data and subjective questionnaire data were collected. Results indicate, much like the LUNEX II study, the LER field study suggest that a crew of two was able to maintain a satisfactory performance of tasks throughout the 14-day field trail within a relative small vehicle volume.

  13. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  14. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs. PMID:24768639

  15. Ocular Outcomes Evaluation in a 14-Day Head-Down Bed Rest Study

    PubMed Central

    Taibbi, Giovanni; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, Susana B.; Yarbough, Patrice O.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Godley, Bernard F.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated ocular outcomes in a 14-day head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR) study designed to simulate the effects of microgravity on the human body. Methods Healthy subjects were selected using NASA standard screening procedures. Standardized NASA BR conditions were implemented (e.g., strict sleep-wake cycle, standardized diet, 24-hour-a-day BR, continuous video monitoring). Subjects maintained a 6° HDT position for 14 consecutive days. Weekly ophthalmological examinations were performed in the sitting (pre/post-BR) and HDT (in-bed phase) positions. Equivalency tests with optimal-alpha techniques evaluated pre/post-BR differences in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical equivalent, intraocular pressure (IOP), Spectral-domain OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), optic disc and macular parameters. Results 16 subjects (12 men and 4 women) were enrolled. Nearly all ocular outcomes were within our predefined clinically relevant thresholds following HDTBR, except near BCVA (pre/post-BR mean difference: −0.06 logMAR), spherical equivalent (−0.30 D), Tonopen XL IOP (+3.03 mmHg) and Spectralis OCT average (+1.14 μm), temporal-inferior (+1.58 μm) and nasal-inferior RNFLT (+3.48 μm). Modified Amsler grid, red dot test, confrontational visual field and color vision were within normal limits throughout. No changes were detected on stereoscopic color fundus photography. Discussion A few functional and structural changes were detected after 14-day HDTBR, notably an improved BCVA possibly due to learning effect and RNFL thickening without signs of optic disc edema. In general, 6° HDTBR determined a small non-progressive IOP elevation, which returned to baseline levels post-BR. Further studies with different BR duration and/or tilt angle are warranted to investigate microgravity-induced ophthalmological changes. PMID:25245897

  16. Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

  17. Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Andreas H; Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M

    2013-05-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies. PMID:23459487

  18. Randomized Dose-Ranging Study of the 14-Day Early Bactericidal Activity of Bedaquiline (TMC207) in Patients with Sputum Microscopy Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R.; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies. PMID:23459487

  19. Toxic effects and depuration after the dietary lead(II) exposure on the bioaccumulation and hematological parameters in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Ki; Kim, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-07-01

    Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead(II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P. stellatus (5-30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bioaccumulation (2-4μg/g tissue). The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were substantially decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and lasted even after the depuration period. For plasma components, calcium and magnesium levels in plasma were generally decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and glucose level was also mainly increased over 60mg Pb/kg. Total protein was significantly decreased over 120mg Pb/kg after 4 weeks exposure. Glucose and total protein showed the restoration after the depuration period in groups of fish exposed previously to over 60 and 120mg Pb/kg, respectively. However, other parameters that changed during the exposure over 60mg Pb/kg did not recovered. For enzymatic components in plasma, glutamic oxalate transminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased over 120mg Pb/kg, and there was only restoration observed after the depuration for ALP over 120mg Pb/kg. PMID:27362663

  20. A new page on the road book of inorganic mercury in fish body - tissue distribution and elimination following waterborne exposure and post-exposure periods.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo, Joana; Barata, Marisa; Araújo, Olinda; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Canário, João; Almeida, Armando; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-03-01

    There are several aspects of inorganic mercury (iHg) toxicokinetics in fish that remain undeveloped despite its environmental ubiquity, bioaccumulation capacity and toxicity. Thus, this study presents new information on the uptake, distribution and accumulation of iHg following water contamination by adopting a novel set of body compartments (gills, eye wall, lens, blood, liver, brain and bile) of the white sea bream (Diplodus sargus) over 14 days of exposure. Realistic levels of iHg in water (2 μg L(-1)) were adopted in order to engender reliable conclusions in the assessment of fish health. A depuration phase of 28 days was also considered with the purpose of clarifying iHg elimination. It was found that iHg was accumulated faster in the gills (within 1 day), which also had the highest accumulated levels among all the target tissues/organs. Moreover, iHg increased gradually with exposure time in all the tissues/organs, except for the lens that showed relatively unaltered levels throughout the experiment. After 14 days of exposure, lower values of Hg were recorded in the brain/eye wall compared to the liver, which is probably related with the presence of blood-organ protection barriers, which limit iHg influx. iHg reached the brain earlier than the eye wall (3 and 7 days, respectively) and, hence, higher accumulated levels were recorded in the former. A depuration period of 28 days did not allow the total elimination of iHg in any of the tissues/organs. Despite this, iHg was substantially eliminated in the gills, blood and liver, whereas the brain and eye wall were not able to eliminate iHg within this timeframe. The brain and eye wall are more "refractory" structures with regard to iHg elimination, and this could represent a risk for wild fish populations. PMID:25677695

  1. Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Marta; Palero, Ferran; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo; Macpherson, Enrique; Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Mestres, Francesc; Roda, Tania; Abelló, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time periods might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. By analysing spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator we assessed the contribution of historical and contemporary processes on population connectivity patterns across three main oceanographic discontinuities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected from localities at both sides of each discontinuity during three time periods. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling periods. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses. The persistence of a clinal pattern in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area together with local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection. PMID:27431989

  2. Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Marta; Palero, Ferran; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo; Macpherson, Enrique; Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Mestres, Francesc; Roda, Tania; Abelló, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time periods might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. By analysing spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator we assessed the contribution of historical and contemporary processes on population connectivity patterns across three main oceanographic discontinuities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected from localities at both sides of each discontinuity during three time periods. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling periods. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses. The persistence of a clinal pattern in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area together with local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection. PMID:27431989

  3. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

  4. Ozone depuration of Vibrio vulnificus from the southern quahog clam, Mercenaria campechiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.R.; Steslow, F.S.; Sierra, F.S.; Rodrick, G.E.; Noss, C.I. )

    1991-03-01

    Southern quahog clams, Mercenaria campechiensis, were dosed with Vibrio vulnificus and placed in a pilot-scale depuration system using ozonated recirculated artificial seawater. Twenty-four hours of treatment with ozone-treated recirculating artificial seawater reduced the numbers of V. vulnificus in the shellfish meats by an average of 2 log units when compared to natural die-off in control clams. The oxidant levels (up to 3 mg/liter) did not adversely affect shellfish pumping during the depuration process.

  5. Uptake and depuration of 131I from labelled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) to the edible periwinkle (Littorina littorea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives I Batlle, J; Watts, S J; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2007-01-01

    Uptake and depuration of (131)I into winkles through consumption of the diatom Skeletonema costatum is described. The work follows on from previous studies that investigated the uptake of iodine into winkles from seawater and seaweed. Incorporation of (131)I in S. costatum from labelled seawater followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 0.40 days. Iodine uptake in winkles from labelled S. costatum also followed linear first-order kinetics, with a calculated equilibrium concentration (C(infinity)) of 42Bqkg(-1) and a transfer factor (TF) of 1.1x10(-4) with respect to labelled diatom food. This TF is lower than that observed for uptake of (131)I in winkles from labelled seaweed. For the depuration stage, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1.3 and 255 days was determined. The first phase is biokinetically important, given that winkles can lose two-thirds of their activity during that period. This study shows that, whilst winkles can obtain radioactive iodine from phytoplankton consumption, they do not retain the majority of that activity for very long. Hence, compared with other exposure pathways, such as uptake from seawater and macroalgae, incorporation from phytoplankton is a relatively minor exposure route. PMID:17442468

  6. Chitosan oligosaccharide-Ca complex accelerates the depuration of cadmium from Chlamys ferrari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqing; Sun, Jipeng; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of a chitosan oligosaccharide-Ca complex (COS-Ca) on the depuration of cadmium (Cd) from Chlamys ferrari. After exposure to 0.5 mg L-1 CdCl2 for 3 or 7 d, the scallops were treated by COS-Ca prior to determination of Cd, calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) contents, Cd distribution in organs, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and antioxidant variables. Results showed that COS-Ca reduced Cd content in the viscera of the scallops, with highest Cd depuration rate (47%) observed on day 3. The COS-Ca concentration substantially affected Cd depuration, and the exposure to 8.75 mg L-1 COS-Ca led to significantly higher Cd depuration rate compared with those of lower COS-Ca concentrations (1.75, 3.5, 5.25, and 7.00 mg L-1). Distribution analysis of Cd in scallop organs indicated that COS-Ca significantly reduced Cd content in the kidney throughout the 5-d experiment, as well as in the gill during the early stage of Cd depuration. In addition, COS-Ca treatment decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and MDA content while increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities on different days. Our work suggested COS-Ca complex treatment as an effective method for acceleration of Cd depuration from Cd-contaminated bivalves.

  7. Hydrocarbon depuration and abiotic changes in artificially oil contaminated sediment in the subtidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, John A.; Lichtenthaler, Rainer G.; Oreld, Frøydis

    1987-04-01

    North Sea crude oil was mixed with sediment in concentrations similar to those found in heavily polluted areas (10 000 and 18 000 ppm) and placed in experimental boxes in the subtidal. Experiments were performed in two Norwegian fjords, the eutrophicated Oslofjord (experimental period of 3 months) and the non-eutrophicated Raunefjord (13 months). Physical and chemical responses of the contaminated sediment were compared with similarly treated control sediment without oil. Depuration was investigated using gas and liquid chromatographic analyses for determination of total hydrocarbon content and selected single aromatic components. Biodegradation was followed using n-alkane/branched alkane ratios. No depuration or biodegradation of hydrocarbon, or pronounced changes in sediment nitrogen and carbon content were observed after exposure in the Oslofjord. In the Raunefjord the redox potential was reduced by 75-200 mV in the oil contaminated sediment after 9 and 13 months. In the control sediment nitrogen and carbon content were significantly reduced after 9 and 13 months but did not change in the oil contaminated sediment except at the sediment surface (0-1 cm). A significantly higher macrofaunal biomass was found in the control sediment after 9 and 13 months but not after 5 months. After 13 months of exposure in the Raunefjord 33% of the originally added oil remained in the sediment. The most soluble components such as naphthalene and methylnaphthalene were reduced by two orders of magnitude and less soluble components such as phenanthrene and methylphenanthrene by one order of magnitude. Reduction was most pronounced at the sediment surface. Biodegradation in the Raunefjord sediment was documented after an initial lag period of 4-9 months. It is suggested that lower bioturbation and resuspension rates are responsible for the reducing conditions and the conservation of carbon, nitrogen and particle size distribution in the oil contaminated sediment. Results found as a

  8. Evidence for increased beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness induced by 14 days of simulated microgravity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Eckberg, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha- and beta-receptor agonists in eight healthy men before and after 14 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenoreceptor responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to simulated microgravity. Steady-state infusions of isoproterenol (Iso) at rates of 0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Infusions of phenylephrine (PE) at rates of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess responsiveness of alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptors. Slopes calculated from linear regressions between Iso and PE doses and changes in beat-to-beat heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance (occlusion plethysmography) for each subject were used as an index of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1,056 +/- 107 to 1,553 +/- 83 beats micrograms-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.014) and vasodilation (-469 +/- 111 to -1,446 +/- 309 peripheral resistance units.microgram-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.0224) to Iso infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that simulated microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptor responses.

  9. Effect of a 14-day hindlimb suspension on beta-adrenoreceptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzeghrane, F; Somody, L; Gallo-Bona, N; Gauquelin-Koch, G; Gharib, C; Fagette, S

    1999-05-01

    Exposure to long-term simulated microgravity exhibits reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. This study tested the hypothesis that the hypersensitivity of adrenoreceptors would explain partly many other features of the hemodynamic consequences of return from space. The biochemical properties of the beta adrenoreceptors (betaAR) were determined using 125I-cyanopindolol (125I-CYP) binding in three rat groups: (1) The first experimental group consisted of 24 h-restrained orthostatic rats in the horizontal position, to test the early effect of the attachment to the suspension device; (2) the second experimental group consisted of 24 h-restrained antiorthostatic rats, to test the early effect of the suspension; (3) the third experimental group consisted of 14 day-restrained antiorthostatic rats, to test the long term effect of the suspension. The study was performed in two organs involved in blood pressure regulation, i.e. the heart (atria and ventricles were separated) and kidneys. The Scatchard analysis of 125I-cyanopindolol binding in both organs indicated no significant alterations in the dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) in the three experimental groups. These results do not allow the conclusion about the SNS adaptation pattern to simulated microgravity. Thus, the hypothesis that betaAR are involved in the cardiovascular adaptation to simulated microgravity is not verified in this model where, as a matter of fact, cardiovascular deconditioning is not verified even if this model is widely used. PMID:10390061

  10. Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2012-04-01

    The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (P<0.05). Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels were 55.2% and 20.4% lower, respectively, in the experimental group (P<0.05 in both cases). These results indicate that a physiological change in mineral metabolism resulting from physical or mental stress, such as hindlimb suspension, is reflected in body hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

  11. Attenuated thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous vasodilation after 14-day bed rest in humans.

    PubMed

    Michikami, Daisaku; Kamiya, Atsunori; Fu, Qi; Iwase, Satoshi; Mano, Tadaaki; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of head-down bed rest (HDBR) for 14 days on thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous vasodilation in humans. Fluid intake was ad libitum during HDBR. We induced whole body heating by increasing skin temperature for 1 h with a water-perfused blanket through which hot water (42 degrees C) was circulated. The experimental room was air-conditioned (27 degrees C, 30-40% relative humidity). We measured skin blood flow (chest and forearm), skin temperatures (chest, upper arm, forearm, thigh, and calf), and tympanic temperature. We also measured sweat rate by the ventilated capsule method in which the skin area for measurement was drained by dry air conditioned at 27 degrees C under similar skin temperatures in both trials. We calculated cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from the ratio of skin blood flow to mean blood pressure. From tympanic temperature-sweat rate and -CVC relationships, we assessed the threshold temperature and sensitivity as the slope response of variables to a given change in tympanic temperature. HDBR increased the threshold temperature for sweating by 0.31 degrees C at the chest and 0.32 degrees C at the forearm, whereas it reduced sensitivity by 40% at the chest and 31% at the forearm. HDBR increased the threshold temperature for cutaneous vasodilation, whereas it decreased sensitivity. HDBR reduced plasma volume by 11%, whereas it did not change plasma osmolarity. The increase in the threshold temperature for sweating correlated with that for cutaneous vasodilation. In conclusion, HDBR attenuated thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous vasodilation by increasing the threshold temperature and decreasing sensitivity. HDBR increased the threshold temperature for sweating and cutaneous vasodilation by similar magnitudes, whereas it decreased their sensitivity by different magnitudes. PMID:12949026

  12. Depuration and anatomical distribution of domoic acid in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Regueiro, Jorge; Martin, Helena; Gajardo, Teresa; Jara, Lorena; Blanco, Juan

    2015-08-01

    In northern Chile, domoic acid (DA) has been detected in several bivalve species. In Mesodesma donacium, one of the most important commercial species for local fishermen, no information is available on depuration, or on the anatomical distribution of this toxin and its potential use as a palliative measure to minimize the consequences of ASP outbreaks. Deputation of DA is very fast in M. donacium, and can be adequately described by means of a two-compartment model. The estimated rates for the first and second compartments were 1.27 d(-1) and 0.24 d(-1), respectively, with a transfer rate between compartments of 0.75. Having high depuration rates protects this species from being affected by Pseudo-nitzschia blooms for an extended period of time. Taking this into account, the time in which the bivalves are unsafe for consumers is very short, and therefore the economic losses that could result by the DA outbreaks in local fisheries should be moderate. In relation to anatomical distribution, at least during the uptake phase, the toxin was evenly distributed within the soft tissues, with a total toxin burden corresponding to 27%, 32% and 41% for Digestive Gland (DG), Foot (FT) and Other Body Fractions (OBF), respectively. Since the contribution of each organ to the toxin concentration is a function of both weight contribution and toxin burden, the pattern of toxin distribution showed the following trend: "all other body fractions" (OBF) > Foot (FT) > Digestive Gland (DG). Thus, the highest concentration of DA, with a contribution close to 72%, corresponds to the edible tissues (OBF + FT), while the DG (non-edible tissue) only contributes the remaining 28%. Consequently, in view of the anatomical distribution of domoic acid in M. donacium, the elimination of the digestive gland does not substantially reduce the toxicity of the final product and therefore selective evisceration would not improve their quality for human consumption. PMID:26003793

  13. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID) occurs during spaceflight and may represent specific clinical risks for exploration-class missions. An appropriate ground analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation would offer a platform for ground-evaluation of various potential countermeasures. This study evaluated the NASA Undersea Mission Operations ( NEEMO ), consisting of 14 day undersea deployment at the Aquarius station, as an analog for SAID. Sixteen Aquanauts from missions NEEMO-12, 13 and 14 participated in the study. RESULTS Mid-mission alterations leukocyte distribution occurred, including granulocytosis and elevations in central-memory CD8+ T-cells. General T cell function was reduced during NEEMO missions in roughly 50% of subjects. Secreted cytokines profiles were evaluated following whole blood stimulation with CD3/CD28 (T cells) or LPS (monocytes). T cell production of IFNg, IL-5, IL-10, IL-2, TNFa and IL-6 were all reduced before and during the mission. Conversely, monocyte production of TNFa, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1b and IL-8 were elevated during mission, moreso at the MD-14 timepoint. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen and early antigen were increased in approximately 40% of the subjects. Changes in EBV tetramer-positive CD8+ T-cells exhibited a variable pattern. Antibodies against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) were marginally increased during the mission. Herpesvirus reactivation was determined by PCR. EBV viral load was generally elevated at L-6. Higher levels of salivary EBV were found during the NEEMO mission than before and after as well as than the healthy controls. No VZV or CMV was found in any pre, during and after NEEMO mission or control samples. Plasma cortisol was elevated at L-6. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, L-6 may be too near to mission start to be an appropriate baseline measurement. The general immune changes in leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production, virus specific

  14. Acetylcholinesterase, glutathione and hepatosomatic index as potential biomarkers of sewage pollution and depuration in fish.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghais, Saif M

    2013-09-15

    The current study was designed to validate the biomarkers of sewage pollution in Mozambique Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica, Peters) reared in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emerates, before and following depuration/detoxification. Cellular biomarkers, cholinesterase activity using acetylcholine as a substrate (acetylcholinesterase AChE) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were investigated in fresh water fish, Tilapia, raised in a fish farm (Group I/Clean, as Control), treated sewage water/TSW (Group II/Sewage) and thereafter exposed to fresh water in an aquarium for 6 weeks (Group III/Depurated) for depuration. The results showed significantly lower levels of AChE activities in liver (26% p<0.01) and muscle (30% p<0.01) of the fish reared in the STP water (Group II/Sewage) as compared to those recorded in the fish from fish farm (Group I/Clean). The depressed AChE level was fully restored in the muscle but partially in the liver after depuration (Group III/Depurated). In contrast, GSH levels were significantly raised in both liver (1.3-fold p<0.01) and muscle (4-fold) of Group II fish as compared to Group I (control) fish raised in fish farm and following depuration in fresh water (Group III/Depurated) elevated GSH level in liver restored to control values, while remained unchanged in muscle. The average hepatosomatic index (HSI=weight of liver×100/total fish weight), an indicator of hepatomegaly, in the Group II fish reared in TSW was also significantly higher than that in the reference Group I fish, but decreased to control level in Group III fish following depuration. This study suggests the importance of cellular biomarkers, AChE, GSH and hepatosomatic index in monitoring the impact of sewage water pollution on fish caused by a complex mixture of chemico-biological contaminants and its mitigation following depuration, an effective mean of fish detoxification. PMID:23911202

  15. Depuration effects on trace metals in Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791)

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner-Kersanach, M. ); Lobo, S.E.; Silva, E.M. da )

    1994-06-01

    Bivalves have been regarded as suitable bioindicators of metal pollution in the marine and estuarine environments. However, the metal concentrations of the soft parts of individual bivalves can vary considerably depending on size variations, geographic and genetic differences, individual variability in metal uptake, ingestion of sediment particles and induction of metal-binding proteins. Metal-containing particulate matter in the gut can also be significant. These authors showed that if deputation is not carried out, then large variations in metal concentrations are more likely to occur. In the Todos os Santos Bay on the northeastern coast of Brazil, the cockle A. brasiliana is the most abundant bivalve and is well adapted to area conditions. An important source of food for many local communities, this species has been frequently used as an indicator for heavy metals pollution; however, no data have been published on metal concentrations of A. brasiliana of different size classes and on the effects of deputation on overall concentration. It is therefore important to determine the metal concentrations in A. brasiliana both from the point of view of how the concentrations relate to metal loading of the area. The effect of size upon metal concentration of shellfish has been examined by Boyden, who found that zinc in Mytilus edulis was greater in smaller individuals while cadmium was independent of size. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in A. brasiliana collected from a site with a relatively low impact of heavy metal contamination, to examine metals in different size classes and to assess the effect of depuration on tissue concentration of the metals. These elements were selected due to their toxicity to marine organisms, when their excess as free metal may interact with cell structures and/or enzymes affecting metabolic activities. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    /D) ratio. For all measures, there was no significant difference between subject groups for pre-bed rest testing. Post bed rest values also remained similar between groups. Comparison of pre- to post bed rest testing within each group did not demonstrate any statistical differences. These preliminary results from 14-day bed rest studies suggest that the combination of exercise and horizontal bed rest as compared to 6 degrees HDT bed rest did not produce differences in the ocular response with regard to IOP and optic disc parameters. The ocular measures reported here only included pre- and post bed rest time points. Further investigation is needed to examine both the acute response and long term adaptation of structural and functional ocular parameters in the bed rest platform and determine its usefulness for studying spaceflight phenomena. From a clinical perspective, the ability to study ocular responses in the controlled environment of the bed rest platform can provide valuable information for the care of patients restricted to bed rest.

  17. Static tank depuration and chronic short-term experimental contamination of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) with Giardia duodenalis cysts.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jessica E; McClure, J T; McClure, Carol; Spears, Jonathan; Davidson, Jeff; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2015-01-01

    Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia have been detected in many bivalve shellfish species worldwide. The detection of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B is of public health concern, yet there is limited data available demonstrating the bioaccumulation and elimination of Giardia cysts in bivalve shellfish. This study quantified G. duodenalis cysts that were filtered and retained by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) over a one week chronic exposure period, or 24 hour exposure followed by a 6 day depuration period, using static tank systems containing 10 L of 29 ppt water inoculated with 1000 or 10,000 cysts. Under chronic exposure, each oyster retained a mean of 13.4 and 87.4 cysts during the first 24h of exposure at low and high doses, respectively, and the cysts bioaccumulated at a rate of 1.2 and 6.8 cysts/oyster/day, respectively, for the remaining duration of the trials. In acute exposure trials, oysters retained 13.8 cysts or 78.9 cysts at low and high doses, respectively, during the initial 24 hour exposure and naturally depurated cysts at a rate of -0.92 cysts/oyster/day and -2.2 cysts/oyster/day, respectively, after transfer. Although most G. duodenalis cysts were eliminated within the first 24h via pseudofeces and feces, detection of some cysts in the fecal material on day 7 of acute exposure trials was indicative of cysts which passed through the digestive tract and released in feces. Only 48-53% of the initial tank inocula were recovered and may indicate that some cysts were selectively filtered by oysters but degraded through digestion. PMID:25305439

  18. Bioaccumulation and depuration pattern of copper in different tissues of mystus vittatus, related to various size groups.

    PubMed

    Subathra, Sriramulu; Karuppasamy, Ramasamy

    2008-02-01

    The bioaccumulation pattern of copper (Cu) in gill, liver, kidney, and muscle of different sizes (fingerlings and adult age) of healthy Mystus vittatus when exposed to their respective sublethal concentrations of Cu-water, containing one-third 96-hr LC(50) level (6.20 and 15.95 mg L(-1)) for short-term (120 hr) and one-eighth 96-hr LC(50) level (2.33 and 5.98 mg L(-1)) for long-term experimentation, respectively, has been analyzed. The Cu shows a maximum deposition (p < 0.01) in the liver (82.12 and 70.65 microg/g) followed by gill (74.35 and 63.69 microg/g) and kidney (61.52 and 54.09 microg/g) both in fingerlings and adult fish, respectively, during 28 days of exposure. The lowest deposition of Cu is found to be 0.83 and 0.93 microg/g in fingerlings and 0.79 and 0.86 microg/g in adult muscle tissue during short-term (120 hr) and long-term (28 days) exposure periods, respectively. Comparing the accumulation of Cu on the two size groups at both exposure levels, it is obvious that the fingerlings showed higher Cu concentration in all tissues than those of adult fish. Another equally important finding is that the depuration of Cu by maintaining the bioaccumulated fish (long-term exposed group) of both size groups in quality dechlorinated ground water reveals that there is a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in Cu concentration in different tissues as the day passes. A comparison of the performance of the two size groups in respect of depuration clearly indicates that the fingerlings have taken 24-43 days (gill-kidney), whereas in mature fish it is 21-39 days (gill-kidney) to reach the level of control fish. Among the various tissues in both size groups, gill took the minimum number of days for complete recovery, whereas the muscle tissue did not significantly eliminate Cu even after 30 days of depuration. These data constitute a reference for future studies on the evolution of Cu accumulation and elimination tendency in relation to different size groups of fish in the

  19. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  20. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  1. +Gz tolerance after 14 days bed rest and the effects of rehydration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haines, R. F.; Sandler, H.; Young, H. L.; Yusken, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of the reduction in centrifugation tolerance after two weeks of bedrest with moderate daily exercise, with an attempt to determine if rehydration improves +Gz tolerance. There were significant reductions in +Gz tolerance during bedrest periods at three acceleration levels. Rehydration resulted in a significant increase in tolerance at 2.1G but it did not restore tolerance to control levels. Rehydration did not affect tolerance at 3.2G and 3.8G.

  2. KIC 7668647: a 14 day beaming sdB+WD binary with a pulsating subdwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telting, J. H.; Baran, A. S.; Nemeth, P.; Østensen, R. H.; Kupfer, T.; Macfarlane, S.; Heber, U.; Aerts, C.; Geier, S.

    2014-10-01

    The recently discovered subdwarf B (sdB) pulsator KIC 7668647 is one of the 18 pulsating sdB stars detected in the Kepler field. It features a rich g-mode frequency spectrum, with a few low-amplitude p-modes at short periods. This makes it a promising target for a seismic study aiming to constrain the internal structure of this star, and of sdB stars in general. We use new ground-based low-resolution spectroscopy, and the near-continuous 2.88 year Kepler light curve, to reveal that KIC 7668647 consists of a subdwarf B star with an unseen white-dwarf companion with an orbital period of 14.2 d. An orbit with a radial-velocity amplitude of 39 km s-1 is consistently determined from the spectra, from the orbital Doppler beaming seen by Kepler at 163 ppm, and from measuring the orbital light-travel delay of 27 s by timing of the many pulsations seen in the Kepler light curve. The white dwarf has a minimum mass of 0.40 M⊙. We use our high signal-to-noise average spectra to study the atmospheric parameters of the sdB star, and find that nitrogen and iron have abundances close to solar values, while helium, carbon, oxygen and silicon are underabundant relative to the solar mixture. We use the full Kepler Q06-Q17 light curve to extract 132 significant pulsation frequencies. Period-spacing relations and multiplet splittings allow us to identify the modal degree ℓ for the majority of the modes. Using theg-mode multiplet splittings we constrain the internal rotation period at the base of the envelope to 46-48 d as a first seismic result for this star. The few p-mode splittings may point at a slightly longer rotation period further out in the envelope of the star. From mode-visibility considerations we derive that the inclination of the rotation axis of the sdB in KIC 7668647 must be around ~60°. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for a few multiplets indicative of degree 3 ≤ ℓ ≤ 8, which is another novelty in sdB-star observations made possible by Kepler. Based on

  3. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION STUDIES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS IN FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of PCDD/PCDFs from municipal incinerator fly ash and sediment to freshwater fish has been studied. A preference to selectively bioaccumulate PCDD/PCDF isomers substituted in the 2,3,7, and 8 positions was observed. The depuration half life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from...

  4. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from seawater.

    PubMed

    Vives i Batlle, J; Wilson, R C; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments for the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed using 131I-labelled seawater. Throughout the experimental phase the winkles were fed on unlabelled Chondrus crispus. 131I concentrations in winkles during uptake followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 11 days, whereas for depuration a triphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 4, 23 and 56 days was determined. In general, iodine turnover in winkles via labelled seawater appears to be slower than observed for other molluscs (2-3 days). Most of the activity prior to and after depuration is found to be in the shell, with indications that shell and soft parts accumulate and depurate 131I at a similar rate. The operculum displays the highest specific activity of all fractions with a concentration factor of 750 l kg(-1). Concentration factors for whole winkle, shell, soft parts and digestive gland are in the order of 40-60 l kg(-1), higher than the IAEA recommended CF value for iodine in molluscs of 10 l kg(-1). The 131I CF in winkles is closer to that of the conservative radionuclides 99Tc and 137Cs than the CF of the particle reactive radionuclides (239,240)Pu and 241Am. PMID:15465179

  5. Accumulation and depuration of chlorinated phenolics in the freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Maekelae, T.P.Pe.; Petaenen, T.K.; Kukkonen, J.; Oikari, A.O. )

    1991-10-01

    Uptake from ambient water and the depuration of five chlorinated phenolics, two chloroguaiacols (3,4,5-tri- and tetrachloroguaiacol), and three chlorophenols (2,4,6-tri-, 2,3,4,6-tetra-, and pentachlorophenol) were studied in the duck mussel (Anodonta anatina). Groups of animals were exposed at four acclimiation temperatures (3, 8, 13, 18 degrees C) to four chlorophenolic concentrations (total 6-56 micrograms/liter). The depuration was monitored for 72 hr. For the analysis of individual chlorophenolics by the GC/ECD technique, the soft tissue of mussels was homogenized, spiked with internal standard, acetylated, and extracted with n-hexane. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) (concn. in animal wet wt./concn. in water) were determined for mussel soft tissue. The highest BCF was found for pentachlorophenol (81-461) and the lowest for trichlorophenol (14-125). Neither water temperature nor exposure concentration affected the BCFs. The compounds studied were depurated rapidly and their depuration half-lives (T1/2) in soft tissue were generally less than 24 hr.

  6. Antiorthostatic suspension for 14 days does not diminish the oxidative response of neutrophils in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolen, J. E.; Fossett, M. C.; Joe, Y.; Prince, J. E.; Priest, E.; Kanwar, S.; Smith, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of long-term spaceflight on inflammatory responses have not been well-studied in either humans or animals. It is thus important to determine if the functions of immune and inflammatory cells are altered in models of spaceflight. One such animal model is antiorthostatic suspension (AOS), in which the experimental animal is subjected to a head-down tilt that mimics both the stress and the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. A previous study reported that the peritoneal neutrophils from mice experiencing AOS generated less superoxide than unsuspended controls. We expanded on this study using several different stimuli and measuring the oxidative response of murine neutrophils in a variety of ways. These responses included the rate, lag period, and dose/response characteristics for superoxide generation, FACS analysis with dihydrodichlorofluorescein as a substrate, and a chemiluminescence response with luminol as a substrate. We also examined phagocytosis of three different microorganisms. While some effects of orthostatic suspension (attributable to the stress of the apparatus) were observed, no clear effects of AOS on oxidative function of the peritoneal neutrophils were seen.

  7. Optimal Culture Incubation Time in Orthopedic Device-Associated Infections: a Retrospective Analysis of Prolonged 14-Day Incubation

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Peter; Fracheboud, Dominique; Gautier, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of orthopedic device-associated infections can be challenging. Culture of tissue biopsy specimens is often considered the gold standard; however, there is currently no consensus on the ideal incubation time for specimens. The aim of our study was to assess the yield of a 14-day incubation protocol for tissue biopsy specimens from revision surgery (joint replacements and internal fixation devices) in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively in order to identify cases of infection according to predefined diagnostic criteria. From August 2009 to March 2012, 499 tissue biopsy specimens were sampled from 117 cases. In 70 cases (59.8%), at least one sample showed microbiological growth. Among them, 58 cases (82.9%) were considered infections and 12 cases (17.1%) were classified as contaminations. The median time to positivity in the cases of infection was 1 day (range, 1 to 10 days), compared to 6 days (range, 1 to 11 days) in the cases of contamination (P < 0.001). Fifty-six (96.6%) of the infection cases were diagnosed within 7 days of incubation. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the incubation of tissue biopsy specimens beyond 7 days is not productive in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Prolonged 14-day incubation might be of interest in particular situations, however, in which the prevalence of slow-growing microorganisms and anaerobes is higher. PMID:24153117

  8. Short-term tissue distribution, depuration and possible gene expression effects of [{sup 3}H]TCDD exposure in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, L.D.; Beneden, R.J. van; Gardner, G.R.

    1997-09-01

    A short-term, waterborne exposure and depuration study of Mya arenaria to [{sup 3}H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ([{sup 3}H]TCDD) was performed. Gill, digestive gland, foot, and gonad were sampled up to 2 weeks after a 24-h exposure to a low dose (10 parts per trillion [pptr]) or high dose (2,000 pptr) of [{sup 3}H]TCDD in the water. In the gill, peak concentrations occurred at the beginning of depuration (406 and 8,658 pg/g wet weight, low- and high-dose groups, respectively), whereas peak concentrations in the digestive gland and foot were found 12 to 24 h after exposure. In contrast, tissue concentrations in the gonad increased through the post-exposure period; at 2 weeks after exposure, tissue concentrations were highest in the gonad. Examination of gill and gonad by differential display polymerase chain reaction identified potential alterations in expression of genes that may be associated with increased cell cycling or translation initiation. This study shows that M. arenaria can accumulate TCDD in the gonad from an acute exposure, and it identifies several M. arenaria genes whose expression may be altered by TCDD exposure.

  9. Microcystin-LR bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics in lettuce and arugula: Human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Vilca, Franz Zirena; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the most toxic and common microcystins (MCs) variant found in aquatic ecosystems. Little is known about the possibility of recovering microcystins contaminated agricultural crops. The objectives of this study were to determine the bioaccumulation and depuration kinetics of MC-LR in leaf tissues of lettuce and arugula, and estimate the total daily intake (ToDI) of MC-LR via contaminated vegetables by humans. Arugula and lettuce were irrigated with contaminated water having 5 and 10μgL(-1) of MC-LR for 7days (bioaccumulation), and subsequently, with uncontaminated water for 7days (depuration). Quantification of MC-LR was performed by LC-MS/MS. The one-compartment biokinetic model was employed for MC-LR bioaccumulation and depuration data analysis. MC-LR was only accumulated in lettuce. After 7days of irrigation with uncontaminated water, over 25% of accumulated MC-LR was still retained in leaf tissues of plants treated with 10μgL(-1) MC-LR. Total daily toxin intake by adult consumers (60kg-bw) exceeded the 0.04μgMC-LRkg(-1) limit recommended by WHO. Bioaccumulation was found to be linearly proportional to the exposure concentration of the toxin, increasing over time; and estimated to become saturated after 30days of uninterrupted exposure. On the other hand, MC-LR depuration was less efficient at higher exposure concentrations. This is because biokinetic half-life calculations gave 2.9 and 3.7days for 5 and 10μgL(-1) MC-LR treatments, which means 29-37days are required to eliminate the toxin. For the first time, our results demonstrated the possibility of MC-LR decontamination of lettuce plants. PMID:27267723

  10. Behavior of pathogenic bacteria in the oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, during depuration, re-laying, and storage.

    PubMed Central

    Son, N T; Fleet, G H

    1980-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea commercials) harvested from major cultivation areas within the state of New South Wales, Australia, were commonly contaminated with low levels of the food-poisoning organisms Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Salmonella was found in oysters on only one occasion. These bacteria were cleansed from oysters during oyster purification by re-laying in a non-polluted waterway. Oysters were laboratory contaminated to levels in excess 1,000 cells per g with either B. cereus, C. perfringens, V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium, or S. senftenberg. These species were cleansed from such oysters during purification in a laboratory depuration unit that used ultraviolet light for sterilizing the depuration water. Escherichia coli was also cleansed from oysters under the same re-laying or depuration conditions so that its measurement alone could be used to indicate the cleansing of the above pathogenic species. The levels of these bacteria were also measured during the storage of oysters under conditions that occur during marketing. While B. cereus counts remained relatively stable during storage, the Salmonella spp. gradually decreased in numbers and C. perfringens rapidly died off. V. parahaemolyticus counts increased slightly during the first 4 days of storage, after which decreases occurred. PMID:6257164

  11. Uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sediment by the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Djomo, J.E.; Garrigues, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) were exposed for 30 d to individual {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, or benzo[a]pyrene) adsorbed on sediment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were measured. Rate of radioactivity release was measured under both contaminated (experiment 1) and clean (experiment 2) conditions. The results confirm that uptake and depuration rate constants were strongly related to physicochemical properties. However, the uptake from the water compartment was rapidly decreased in the microcosm system ({minus}83% for anthracene and phenanthrene, {minus}71% for pyrene, and {minus}59% for benzo[a]pyrene within the first 2 d). For depuration in clean water, the half-lives of radioactivity loss from whole body were 63, 97, 115, and 138 h for anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, and were positively correlated with log K{sub ow}. In experiment 1 after 10 d, the remaining PAH concentrations were only about 16% of the maximum concentrations measured at time 24 h for anthracene, 12% for phenanthrene, 30% for pyrene, and 46% for benzo[a]pyrene. K{sub ow} appears to be a determining factor for partitioning constants for sorption to sediment, uptake, and release in aquatic organisms.

  12. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation: Final report for the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-11-01

    Irradiation of live bivalve molluscs is a promising new technique to reduce the public health threats of viral and bacterial pathogens in the consumption of raw shellfish. In studies conducted within the past year, live hardshelled clams and oysters were innoculated with Simian Rotavirus SA-11, Poliovirus I, and Hepatitis-A virus and treated with gamma ray ionizing radiation from University of Lowell/DOE 800,000 Curie /sup 60/Co source over a dose range of 0.5--10 kiloGray (50--1000 kilorad) to determine the effectiveness of the process in eliminating viral activity and thus easing the potential viral health threats associated with uncooked bivalves. Two viral strains, SA-11 and Poliovirus I, were employed as models to perfect laboratory technique and to estimate the most appropriate range of dose exposures necessary for optimal inactivation of the infectious pathogen, Hepatitis A. Post-irradiation survivorship of the oysters and quahogs was assessed over a range of exposures, and showed an exceptionally high degree of radioresistance for these molluscan species. 7 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Computerized spatial navigation training during 14 days of bed rest in healthy older adult men: Effect on gait performance.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Uros; Kavcic, Voyko; Giordani, Bruno; Gerževič, Mitja; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged physical inactivity or bed rest (BR) due to illness or other factors can result in significant declines in physical health and even cognitive functions. Based on random selection, 7 healthy older adult men received computerized spatial navigation training, while 8 served as active controls during 14-day BR. Greater post-BR declines were seen in normal and complex (dual-task) walking for the control as compared to intervention group, suggesting that computerized spatial navigation training can successfully moderate detrimental BR effects. Findings underline the generalization of cognitive-based intervention to the motor domain and potentially support their use to supplement BR interventions (e.g., exercise and nutrition). PMID:25938245

  14. Self-Reported Recovery from 2-Week 12-Hour Shift Work Schedules: A 14-Day Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Merkus, Suzanne L.; Holte, Kari Anne; Huysmans, Maaike A.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recovery from fatigue is important in maintaining night workers' health. This study compared the course of self-reported recovery after 2-week 12-hour schedules consisting of either night shifts or swing shifts (i.e., 7 night shifts followed by 7 day shifts) to such schedules consisting of only day work. Methods Sixty-one male offshore employees—20 night workers, 16 swing shift workers, and 25 day workers—rated six questions on fatigue (sleep quality, feeling rested, physical and mental fatigue, and energy levels; scale 1–11) for 14 days after an offshore tour. After the two night-work schedules, differences on the 1st day (main effects) and differences during the follow-up (interaction effects) were compared to day work with generalized estimating equations analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, significant main effects were found for sleep quality for night workers (1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.89) and swing shift workers (1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.94) when compared to day workers; their interaction terms were not statistically significant. For the remaining fatigue outcomes, no statistically significant main or interaction effects were found. Conclusion After 2-week 12-hour night and swing shifts, only the course for sleep quality differed from that of day work. Sleep quality was poorer for night and swing shift workers on the 1st day off and remained poorer for the 14-day follow-up. This showed that while working at night had no effect on feeling rested, tiredness, and energy levels, it had a relatively long-lasting effect on sleep quality. PMID:26929834

  15. An examination of the ingestion, bioaccumulation, and depuration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Doyle, John J; Ward, J Evan; Mason, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The production rates of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles for consumer products far exceed the pace at which research can determine the effects of these particles in the natural environment. Sedentary organisms such as suspension-feeding bivalves are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic contaminants, such as nanoparticles, that enter coastal environments. The purpose of this work was to examine the ingestion, bioaccumulation, and depuration rates of TiO2 nanoparticles by two species of suspension-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Two representative TiO2 nanoparticles, UV-Titan M212 (Titan) and Aeroxide P25 (P25), were delivered to the animals either incorporated into marine snow or added directly to seawater at a concentration of 1.0 mg/L for exposure periods of 2 and 6 h. After feeding, the animals were transferred to filtered-seawater and allowed to depurate. Feces and tissues were collected at 0, 12, 24, 72, and 120 h, post-exposure, and analyzed for concentrations of titanium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the capture and ingestion (i.e., transfer to the gut) of TiO2 nanoparticles by both mussels and oysters was not dependent on the presence of marine snow, and weight-standardized clearance rates of bivalves exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles were not significantly different than those of unexposed control animals. Both species ingested about half of the nanoparticles to which they were exposed, and >90% of the nanoparticles were egested in feces within 12 h, post-exposure. The findings of this study demonstrate that mussels and oysters can readily ingest both Titan and P25 nanoparticles regardless of the form in which they are encountered, but depurate these materials over a short period of time. Importantly, bioaccumulation of Titan and P25 nanoparticles does not occur in mussels and oysters following exposures of up to 6 h. PMID:26263835

  16. Rifabutin-based 10-day and 14-day triple therapy as a third-line and fourth-line regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hideki; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Seiichiro; Miyoshi, Sawako; Hirata, Kenro; Seino, Takashi; Matsushita, Misako; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim This prospective randomized study was designed to assess the efficacy of 10-day and 14-day rifabutin-based triple therapy as a third- or fourth-line rescue therapy. Methods Patients who failed first- and second-line eradication therapy were enrolled. H. pylori was isolated from gastric biopsy specimens and the rpoB mutation status, a factor of resistance to rifamycins, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifabutin and amoxicillin were determined. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive 10-day or 14-day eradication therapy with esomeprazole (20 mg, 4 times a day (q.i.d.)), amoxicillin (500 mg, q.i.d.), and rifabutin (300 mg, once a day (q.d.s.)). Poor compliance was defined as intake of <80% of study drugs. Successful H. pylori eradication was confirmed using a [13C] urea breath test or a stool antigen test, 12 weeks after the end of therapy. Results Twelve patients were assigned to the 10-day group, and 17, to the 14-day group. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses of eradication rates were 83.3% and 81.8% for the 10-day group and 94.1% and 91.7% for the 14-day group, respectively. All patients with rpoB mutation-positive strains (n = 3) showed successful eradication, irrespective of the regimen received. Therapy was stopped due to adverse events in 8.3% and 29.3% of patients in the 10-day and 14-day groups, respectively. Conclusion Both the 10-day and 14-day therapies were effective as rescue regimens. In particular, the 14-day therapy resulted in successful eradication in over 90% of patients, but the 10-day treatment may be enough to obtain a successful eradication rate, considering the tolerability of therapy. PMID:27403304

  17. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  18. Alterations in glomerular and tubular dynamics at 1 and 14 days simulated microgravity and after acute return to orthostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.; Mendonca, Margarida M.

    1995-01-01

    Head-down tilt (HDT) is utilized to simulate microgravity and produces a cephalad fluid shift, which results in alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance. These changes in volume homeostasis are due, in part, to alterations in multiple volume control mechanisms in which renal function is a major participant. We have previously demonstrated that glomerular filtration rate increases early in HDT and eventually returns to values not different from non-tilt measurements. This early increase in glomerular filtration rate was also demonstrated during days 2 and 8 of the SLS-1 mission. However, urine flow and electrolyte excretion does not parallel the alternations in glomerular filtration rate and the site of this change in nephron fluid reabsorption pattern has not been previously examined. Through determination of the location of alterations in tubular fluid reabsorption within the nephron, a more detailed hypothesis can be forwarded as to which specific neuro-humoral agents participating in control or renal function in microgravity conditions. the importance of this type of examination is that measurements in circulating neuro-humoral agents and urinary excretion patterns alone are not accurate predictors of how renal functional response may alter to head-down tilt or other models of simulated weightlessness. To examine this issue, renal micropuncture techniques were utilized in Munich-Wistar rats submitted 24 hour and 14 day head-down tilt, measuring all the determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration and obtaining data regarding segmental tubular fluid reabsorption. Following these measurements, the rats were returned to an orthostatic position and after 60 minutes, the measurements were repeated.

  19. Effects of 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Cui, Jian; Levine, Benjamin D.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) reduces adrenergic and nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Additionally, an exercise countermeasure group was included to identify whether exercise during bed rest might counteract any vasoconstrictor deficits that arose during HDBR. Twenty-two subjects underwent 14 days of strict 6 degrees HDBR. Eight of these 22 subjects did not exercise during HDBR, while 14 of these subjects exercised on a supine cycle ergometer for 90 min a day at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum. To assess alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness, intradermal microdialysis was used to locally administer norepinephrine (NE), while forearm skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored over microdialysis membranes. Nonlinear regression modeling was used to identify the effective drug concentration that caused 50% of the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response (EC(50)) and minimum values from the SkBF-NE dose-response curves. In addition, the effects of HDBR on nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstriction were assessed via the venoarteriolar response of the forearm and leg. HDBR did not alter EC(50) or the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction to exogenous NE administration regardless of whether the subjects exercised during HDBR. Moreover, HDBR did not alter the forearm venoarteriolar response in either the control or exercise groups during HDBR. However, HDBR significantly reduced the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the venoarteriolar response in the leg, and this response was similarly reduced in the exercise group. These data suggest that HDBR does not alter cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous NE administration, whereas cutaneous vasoconstriction of the leg due to the venoarteriolar response is reduced after HDBR. It remains unclear whether attenuated venoarteriolar responses in the lower limbs contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance after bed rest and

  20. Neurobehavioral Toxicity of a Repeated Exposure (14 Days) to the Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fluorene in Adult Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Julie; Cosnier, Frédéric; Grova, Nathalie; Nunge, Hervé; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Decret, Marie-Josèphe; Cossec, Benoît; Rychen, Guido; Appenzeller, Brice M. R.; Schroeder, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and may contribute to the neurobehavioral alterations induced by the environmental exposure of humans to PAHs. Since no data are available on fluorene neurotoxicity, this study was conducted in adult rats to assess the behavioral toxicity of repeated fluorene inhalation exposure. Male rats (n = 18/group) were exposed nose-only to 1.5 or 150 ppb of fluorene 6 hours/day for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were exposed to non-contaminated air. At the end of the exposure, animals were tested for activity and anxiety in an open-field and in an elevated-plus maze, for short-term memory in a Y-maze, and for spatial learning in an eight-arm maze. The results showed that the locomotor activity and the learning performances of the animals were unaffected by fluorene. In parallel, the fluorene-exposed rats showed a lower level of anxiety than controls in the open-field, but not in the elevated-plus maze, which is probably due to a possible difference in the aversive feature of the two mazes. In the same animals, increasing blood and brain levels of fluorene monohydroxylated metabolites (especially the 2-OH fluorene) were detected at both concentrations (1.5 and 150 ppb), demonstrating the exposure of the animals to the pollutant and showing the ability of this compound to be metabolized and to reach the cerebral compartment. The present study highlights the possibility for a 14-day fluorene exposure to induce some specific anxiety-related behavioral disturbances, and argues in favor of the susceptibility of the adult brain when exposed to volatile fluorene. PMID:23977039

  1. Nocturnal Hypoxia Exposure With Simulated Altitude For 14 Days Does Not Significantly Alter Working Memory or Vigilance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert Joseph; Tamisier, Renaud; Boucher, Judith; Kotlar, Yana; Vigneault, Kevin; Weiss, J. Woodrow; Gilmartin, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effect of 2 weeks of nocturnal hypoxia exposure using simulated altitude on attention and working memory in healthy adult humans. Design: Prospective experimental physiological assessment. Setting: General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eleven healthy, nonsmoking, subjects (7 men, 4 women). The subjects had a mean age of 27 ± 1.5 years and body mass index of 23 ± 0.9 kg/m2 Interventions: Subjects were exposed to 9 hours of continuous hypoxia from 2200 to 0700 hours in an altitude tent. Acclimatization was accomplished by graded increases in “altitude” over 3 nights (7700, 10,000 and 13,000 feet), followed by 13,000 feet for 13 consecutive days (FIO2 0.13). Measurements and Results: Polysomnography that included airflow measurements with a nasal cannula were done at baseline and during 3 time points across the protocol (nights 3, 7, and 14). Attention (10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Task) and working memory (10-minute verbal 2-back) were assessed at baseline and on day 4, 8, 9, and 15. Nocturnal hypoxia was documented using endpoints of minimum oxygen saturation, oxygen desaturation index, and percentage of total sleep time under 90% and 80%. Total sleep time was reduced, stage 1 sleep was increased, and both obstructive and nonobstructive respiratory events were induced by altitude exposure. There was no difference in subjective mood, attention, or working memory. Conclusions: Two weeks of nocturnal continuous hypoxia in an altitude tent did not induce subjective sleepiness or impair objective vigilance and working memory. Caution is recommended in the extrapolation to humans the effects of hypoxia in animal models. Citation: Thomas RJ; Ramisier R; Boucher J; Kotlar Y; Vigneault K; Weiss JW; Gilmartin G. Nocternal hypoxia exposure with simulated altitude for 14 days does not significantly alter working memory or vigilance in humans. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1195-1203. PMID:17910391

  2. Multiparametric temporal analysis of the Caco-2/TC7 demonstrated functional and differentiated monolayers as early as 14 days of culture.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Perrine; Bricks, Thibault; Vidal, Guillaume; Jacques, Sébastien; Anton, Pauline M; Leclerc, Eric

    2015-05-25

    Reducing the differentiation period for obtaining an in vitro intestinal barrier model is required to reduce the duration and cost for drug screening assays. In this frame, the Caco-2/TC7 subclone differentiation state was investigated from day 0 (D0) to day 32 (D32). As such, the expression of 45 genes (including cell junction, cell polarization, cell functionality, drug transport and metabolism genes) was followed throughout the 32 days. In parallel, the monolayer polarization and the formation of the cellular junctions were characterized by the immuno-staining of occludin, claudin-1 and actin proteins. The cell monolayer permeability was analyzed via transepithelial electric resistance measurements and paracellular transport of Lucifer Yellow. The P-gp efflux efficiency was assessed by rhodamine 123 transport. Alkaline phosphate activity was quantified to assess the cell differentiation. Three stages of differentiation were observed using the clustering of principal component analysis of the RTqPCR data and the overall assays. From D0 to D10, cells were in a proliferation stage and under-differentiated; from D14 to D21 a stable differentiation stage was reached; from D25 to D32 the epithelium seemed to enter into a post-differentiated stage. This study demonstrates that Caco-2/TC7 cells are functional and ready for use in drug screening permeability assays from 14 days in culture when compared with conventional 21 days for Caco-2 cells. In addition, this study provides a refined set of data allowing temporal and multi scale investigations, due to the intracellular kinetics and mRNA levels that can be correlated with membrane protein kinetics and functional extracellular activities. Therefore, shorter time in culture combined with a better knowledge of the cells during the time in culture will in turn help to improve the quality and cost of Caco-2/TC7 assays for drug development. PMID:25725134

  3. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health. PMID:27179427

  4. THE ACCUMULATION AND DEPURATION OF NO. 2 FUEL OIL BY THE SOFT SHELL CLAM, 'MYA ARENARIA L.'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young soft shell clams, Mya arenaria, were exposed to subacute concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil-in-water emulsions under simulated winter (4 C) spill conditions. A pattern of accumulation and discharge of petroleum constituents, an experimental depuration time (biological half li...

  5. Uptake, depuration, and bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals, roxithromycin and propranolol, in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Yang, Haohan; Li, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the uptake, depuration, and bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals, roxithromycin (ROX) and propranolol (PRP), in Daphnia magna via aqueous exposure. Additionally, dietary and pH effects on the bioconcentration of two pharmaceuticals in daphnia were studied. During the 24-h uptake phase followed by the 24-h depuration phase, the uptake rate constants (k(u)) of ROX for daphnia were 9.21 and 2.77 L kg(-1) h(-1), corresponding to the exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), respectively; For PRP at the nominal concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), k(u) were 2.29 and 0.99 L kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constants (k(d)) of ROX in daphnia, at the exposure concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), were 0.0985 and 0.207 h(-1), respectively; while those of PRP were 0.0276 and 0.0539 h(-1) for the nominal concentrations of 5 and 100 μg L(-1), respectively. With the decreasing exposure concentrations, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in daphnia ranged from 13.4 to 93.5 L kg(-1) for ROX, and 18.4 to 83.0 L kg(-1) for PRP, revealing the considerable accumulation potential of these two pharmaceuticals. Moreover, after 6h exposure, the body burdens of ROX and PRP in dead daphnia were 4.98-6.14 and 7.42-12.9 times higher than those in living daphnia, respectively, implying that body surface sorption dominates the bioconcentration of the two pharmaceuticals in daphnia. In addition, the presence of algal food in the media could significantly elevate the kd values for both ROX and PRP, thereby restraining their bioconcentration in daphnia. A pH-dependent bioconcentration study revealed that the bioconcentration of the two pharmaceuticals in daphnia increased with increasing pH levels, which ranged from 7 to 9. Finally, a model was developed to estimate the relationships between pH and the BCFs of the two pharmaceuticals in zooplankton. The predicted values based on this model were highly consistent

  6. Molting as a mechanism of depuration of metals in the fiddler crab, Uca pugnax.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Lauren L; Weis, Judith S

    2007-12-01

    Metal distributions in the exoskeleton and soft tissues of the fiddler crab, Uca pugnax, were examined during intermolt and immediate postmolt to determine if distribution of the metals changed prior to molting and to determine if molting is a feasible mechanism to depurate metals. Fiddler crabs were collected from two locations in New Jersey, a highly contaminated site and a relatively clean environment. The crabs from the contaminated site had higher concentrations of metals in their soft tissues for Cu, significantly higher concentrations of Pb in their soft tissues and carapace, but did not have any significant differences in concentrations of Zn in comparison to their conspecifics from the relatively clean site during intermolt. Crabs from the contaminated site has significantly higher levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in both their soft tissues and exuvia immediately after molting. Crabs from both sites shifted copper and zinc from the carapace into the soft tissues prior to molting. Lead distribution shifted from the soft tissues to the exoskeleton prior to molting in the population from the contaminated site but shifted from the exoskeleton into the soft tissues for the relatively clean site. Average percent of the total body burden eliminated during the molting process for the highly contaminated site varied with each metal, 12% Cu, 76% Pb, and 22% Zn. Average percent of the total body burden eliminated during molting process for the relatively clean site also varied with each metal and was significantly lower than the conspecifics from the contaminated site, 3% Cu, 56% Pb, and 8% Zn. Molting can reduce overall body burdens significantly and is a feasible mechanism to depurate lead. PMID:17590429

  7. Planktonic and biofilm community characterization and Salmonella resistance of 14-day old chicken cecal microflora derived continuous-flow cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These studies were initiated to compare the composition of GIT bacterial communities in birds during the transition period in age where their susceptibility to Salmonella shifts to resistance. One of the challenges to developing probiotics is to develop an efficacious culture of minimal diversity, ...

  8. Rapid molecular detection of inducible macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium chelonae and M. abscessus strains: a replacement for 14-day susceptibility testing?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kimberly E; Slechta, E Susan; Muir, Haleina; Barker, Adam P

    2014-05-01

    The erm(41) gene causes inducible macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus but not Mycobacterium chelonae. erm(41) sequencing of 285 M. abscessus and 45 M. chelonae isolates was compared to 14-day susceptibility; agreement percentages were 98.9% and 100%, respectively. Extended incubation may not be necessary for M. chelonae, and the erm(41) genotype is a useful adjunct for M. abscessus. PMID:24554745

  9. Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Stefan Sorin; Tiliscan, Catalin; Negoita, Cristina; Croitoru, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Mihai, Carmen Marina; Pop, Florinel

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the eradication rates of of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection by a 7-day and 14-day anti-HP regimen. Materials and Methods. An open, randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the response to anti-HP treatment in adult HP-positive patients following a 7-day course (Regimen A) of a proton pump inhibitor in association with clarithromycin and amoxicillin compared to a 14-day course (Regimen B). Gastric biopsies were performed at baseline and two months after anti-HP treatment. Results. Seventy-eight patients aged 18–64 years (28 males, 50 females) diagnosed with HP infection were included. Fifty-two (66.7%) patients received Regimen B and 26 (33.3%) Regimen A. The overall eradication rate was 70.5%. Better treatment response (p < 0.01) was seen in Regimen B (44/52, 84.2% versus 11/26, 42.3%). Significant improvement in histological features was seen in regimen B. There has been significant overall reduction in endoscopic aspects of gastric and duodenal lesions in both regimens. Younger patients ≤35 years had a better response to Regimen B. Better treatment response was seen in women, urban residents, and those with tertiary level of education in both groups. Conclusion. 14-day anti-HP regimen offered a significant better overall eradication of HP in study population. PMID:26858750

  10. Thyroid hormones improve cardiac function and decrease expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in the heart of rats 14 days after infarction.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alexandre Luz; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Ortiz, Vanessa D; Campos, Cristina; Bonetto, Jéssica H P; Fernandes, Tânia R G; Conzatti, Adriana; Siqueira, Rafaela; Tavares, Angela Vicente; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander

    2016-02-01

    Apoptosis is a key process associated with pathological cardiac remodelling in early-phase post-myocardial infarction. In this context, several studies have demonstrated an anti-apoptotic effect of thyroid hormones (TH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TH on the expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic process 14 days after infarction. Male Wistar rats (300-350 g) (n = 8/group) were divided into four groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), infarcted (AMI), sham-operated + TH (SHAMT) and infarcted + TH (AMIT). For 12 days, the animals received T3 and T4 [2 and 8 µg/(100 g day)] by gavage. After this, the rats were submitted to haemodynamic and echocardiographic analysis, and then were sacrificed and the heart tissue was collected for molecular analysis. Statistical analyses included two-way ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls post test. Ethics Committee number: 23262. TH administration prevented the loss of ventricular wall thickness and improved cardiac function in the infarcted rats 14 days after the injury. AMI rats presented an increase in the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and JNK. The hormonal treatment prevented this increase in AMIT rats. In addition, TH administration decreased the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in the infarcted rats. TH administration improved cardiac functional parameters, and decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins 14 days after myocardial infarction. PMID:26659365

  11. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives i Batlle, J; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments of (131)I from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus) by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed. Radioiodine concentrations in winkles during uptake followed first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 1 day, and a calculated equilibrium concentration (C(infinity)) of 21 000 Bq kg(-1) resulting in a transfer factor of 0.07 with respect to the labelled seaweed used as food. For depuration, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1 and 24 days was determined. The results suggest that in general, iodine turnover in periwinkles is slower than observed for other molluscs (monophasic biological half-lives in the order of 2-3 days). Both environmental media, food and seawater, can be significant sources of radioiodine for the winkle. PMID:15725502

  12. AICAR treatment for 14 days normalizes obesity-induced dysregulation of TORC1 signaling and translational capacity in fasted skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Drake, Joshua C; Alway, Stephen E; Hollander, John M; Williamson, David L

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 14 days of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and mTOR-regulated processes (i.e., translation initiation) in obese mouse skeletal muscle. Our hypothesis was that daily treatment (14 days) with AICAR would normalize obesity-induced alterations in skeletal muscle mTOR signaling and mTOR-regulated processes to lean levels and positively affect muscle mass. Fourteen-week-old male, lean (L; 31.3 g body wt) wild-type and ob/ob (O; 59.6 g body wt) mice were injected with the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR (A) at 0.5 mg·g body wt(-1)·day(-1) or saline control (C) for 14 days. At 24 h after the last injection (including a 12-h fast), all mice were killed, and the plantar flexor complex muscle (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) was excised for analysis. Muscle mass was lower in OC (159 ± 12 mg) than LC, LA, and OA (176 ± 10, 178 ± 9, and 166 ± 16 mg, respectively) mice, independent of a body weight change. A decrease in obese muscle mass corresponded with higher muscle cross section staining intensity for lipid and glycogen, higher blood glucose and insulin levels, and lower nuclear-enriched fractions for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α protein expression in OC skeletal muscle, which was normalized with AICAR treatment. AMPK and acetyl-cocarboxylase phosphorylation was reduced in OC mice and augmented by AICAR treatment in OA mice. Conversely, OC mice displayed higher activation of downstream targets (S6 kinase-1 and ribosomal protein S6) of mTOR and lower raptor-associated mTOR than LC mice, which were reciprocally altered after 14 days of AICAR treatment. Dysregulation of translational capacity was improved in OA mice, as assessed by sucrose density gradient fractionation of ribosomes, total and ribosome-associated RNA content, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F complex formation, and

  13. Behavior of Escherichia coli and male-specific bacteriophage in environmentally contaminated bivalve molluscs before and after depuration.

    PubMed Central

    Doré, W J; Lees, D N

    1995-01-01

    We monitored the differential reduction rates and elimination patterns of Escherichia coli and male-specific (F+) bacteriophage during UV depuration for 48 h in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated by short-term (1 to 3 weeks) and long-term (more than 6 months) exposure to sewage in the marine environment. The time taken to reduce levels of E. coli by 90% was 6.5 h or less in all cases. In contrast, the amounts of time needed to reduce levels of F+ bacteriophage by 90% were considerably longer: 47.3 and 41.3 h (after short- and long-term exposures, respectively) in mussels and 54.6 and 60.8 h (after short- and long-term exposures, respectively) in oysters. No differences in the rates of reduction of indicators of viral pollution following exposure of the shellfish to either short- or long-term sewage contamination were observed. Further experiments were conducted with mussels to determine the relative distributions of E. coli and F+ bacteriophage in tissue before and during depuration. Prior to depuration the majority of E. coli organisms (90.1%) and F+ bacteriophage (87.3%) were detected in the digestive tract (i.e., the digestive gland and intestine). E. coli and F+ bacteriophage were reduced in all tissues except the digestive gland to undetectable levels following depuration for 48 h. Within the digestive gland, levels of F+ bacteriophage were reduced to 30% of initial levels, whereas E. coli was reduced to undetectable levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7487015

  14. On-farm biopurification systems for the depuration of pesticide wastewaters: recent biotechnological advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Evangelos; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2012-11-01

    Point source contamination of natural water resources by pesticides constitutes a serious problem and on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) were introduced to resolve it. This paper reviews the processes and parameters controlling BPS depuration efficiency and reports on recent biotechnological advances which have been used for enhancing BPS performance. Biomixture composition and water management are the two factors which either individually or through their interactions control the depuration performance of BPS. Which process (biodegradation or adsorption) will dominate pesticides dissipation in BPS depends on biomixture composition and the physicochemical properties of the pesticides. Biotechnological interventions such as augmentation with pesticide-degrading microbes or pesticide-primed matrices have resulted in enhanced biodegradation performance of BPS. Despite all these advancement in BPS research, there are still several issues which should be resolved to facilitate their full implementation. Safe handling and disposal of the spent biomixture is a key practical issue which needs further research. The use of BPS for the depuration of wastewaters from post-farm activities such as postharvest treatment of fruits should be a priority research issue considering the lack of alternative treatment systems. However, the key point hampering optimization of BPS is the lack of fundamental knowledge on BPS microbiology. The use of advanced molecular and biochemical methods in BPS would shed light into this issue in the future. PMID:23054187

  15. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from <1 to 100%) and was highly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient (p < 0.0001). A lack of loss for most of these other congeners during hibernation supports the notion that excretion (e.g., fecal or urinary) or lack of uptake during the feeding season underlies their lack of accumulation, because hibernating bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies. PMID:19480534

  16. Depuration and uptake kinetics of I, Cs, Mn, Zn and Cd by the earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) in radiotracer-spiked litter

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.; Cornwell, T.C.

    1997-10-01

    The relative depuration and uptake kinetics of contaminants should be known to interpret appropriately the use of organisms such as earthworms in environmental bioassays and monitoring. For example, 14-d earthworm bioassays should be interpreted with the knowledge that some contaminants will continue to accumulate in tissues for months. The radiotracers {sup 125}I, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 109}Cd were applied to deciduous litter and specimens of Lumbricus terrestris were exposed, either to litter alone or to litter on the top of soil columns. Depuration was monitored for 120 d and uptake, in a separate experiment, for 20 d. Both depuration and uptake were described using two-phase, first-order statistical models. Cut clearance had a mean half-time of 1.4 d. The mean half-time for physiological depuration decreased from I (210 d) > Cd (150 d) > Zn (69 d) > Mn (40 d) > Cs (24 d). Both the depuration and the uptake experiments were necessary to resolve even partially the multiphase processes. Earthworm/soil dry weight concentration ratios decreased from Cd > Zn > I {ge} Cs {ge} Mn. The very slow kinetics indicate that tissue concentrations will increase continuously for a long time, with important implications for subsequent food-chain transfers.

  17. Temperature effect on high salinity depuration of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus from the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Larsen, A M; Rikard, F S; Walton, W C; Arias, C R

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are opportunistic human pathogens naturally associated with the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. The abundances of both pathogens in oysters are positively correlated with temperature, thus ingestion of raw oysters during the warm summer months is a risk factor for contracting illness from these bacteria. Current post-harvest processing (PHP) methods for elimination of these pathogens are expensive and kill the oyster, changing their organoleptic properties and making them less appealing to some consumers. High salinity has proven effective in reducing Vv numbers in the wild and our research aims at developing an indoor recirculating system to reduce pathogenic Vibrios while maintaining the taste and texture of live oysters. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of temperature on the efficacy of high salinity depuration. Vv was enumerated as most probable number (MPN) per gram of oyster tissue using the FDA-approved modified cellobiose polymyxin colistin (mCPC) protocol and with an alternative Vibrio specific media CHROMagar™ Vibrio (CaV). CaV was also used to quantify Vp. Oysters were held at 35 psu for 10 days at three temperatures: low (20°C), mid (22.5°C) and high (25°C). There was no difference in MPN/g of Vv between media; however more Vv isolates were obtained from mCPC than CaV. There was no significant effect of temperature on reduction of Vv or Vp throughout depuration but there was a tendency for low temperatures to be less effective than the higher ones. High salinity resulted in a significant decrease in Vv by day 3 and again by day 10, and a decrease in Vp by day 3. Oyster condition indices were maintained throughout depuration and mortality was low (4% across three trials). Overall these results support the use of mCPC for Vv enumeration and demonstrate the promise of high salinity depuration for PHP of the Eastern oyster. The trend for lower temperatures to be less

  18. [The dendritic spines of the pyramidal neurons in layer V of the rat sensorimotor cortex following a 14-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Belichenko, P V; Krasnov, I B

    1991-11-01

    There was made a quantitative study of the influence of 14 days space flight ("Kosmos-2044") on dendritic spine (DS) density of the layer V pyramidal neurons of rat sensomotor cortex. There was found an increase of the number of apical DS lying in the layers III-IV in the flight group only. Number of DS on oblique dendrites was increased in the III-IV cortical layers both in the flight and tail-suspended rats. There was also an increase in the number of DS on basal dendrites in all experimental groups. Obtained data are compared with similar 7 days flight results ("Kosmos-1667") and other data of nervous tissue plasticity in weightlessness. PMID:1810500

  19. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  20. Effect of a 14-day course of systemic corticosteroids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Philipp; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Schild, Ursula; Süess, Erika; Facompre, Michael; Baty, Florent; Nusbaumer, Charly; Brutsche, Martin; Müller, Beat

    2008-01-01

    Background As supra-physiological intake of corticosteroids is a well known risk factor for the development of adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during a 14-day course of systemic corticosteroids in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using clinical and laboratory measures. Methods A systematic clinical and laboratory assessment including measurement of basal cortisol levels and the response to low dose (1 μg) ACTH stimulation was performed in nine patients before, on the first and the last day of treatment, as well as 2, 7 and 21 days after corticosteroid withdrawal. Results At baseline, all nine patients had normal responses to 1 μg ACTH. On the first day of steroid treatment, 78% had a blunted peak cortisol response. This percentage increased to 89% after 14 days of steroid treatment. 78%, 33% and 33% of the patients had a blunted cortisol response to ACTH 2, 7, and 21 days after corticosteroid withdrawal, respectively. ROC curve analysis revealed that only basal cortisol concentrations (AUC 0.89), but not ACTH concentrations (AUC 0.49) or clinical signs (AUC 0.47) were predictive of an impaired function of the HPA axis. Basal cortisol levels of > 400 and < 150 nmol/l were 96% and 100% sensitive for a normal or pathological response to the ACTH stimulation test, respectively. Conclusion Immediate and prolonged suppression of the HPA axis is a common finding in otherwise asymptomatic patients undergoing systemic steroid treatment for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and can reliably be assessed with the low-dose ACTH test. PMID:18221550

  1. Association Between Cardiovascular and Intraocular Pressure Changes in a 14-Day 6 deg Head Down Tilt (HDT) Bed Rest Study: Possible Implications in Retinal Anatomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita; Zanello, Susana; Yarbough, Patrice; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2013-01-01

    Visual symptoms and intracranial pressure increase reported in astronauts returning from long duration missions in low Earth-orbit are thought to be related to fluid shifts within the body due to microgravity exposure. Because of this possible relation to fluid shifts, studies conducted in head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest are being monitored for potential changes in ocular health. These measures will also serve to determine whether HDT is a suitable ground-based analog to model subclinical cardiovascular and ocular changes that could shed light on the etiology of the VIIP syndrome observed in spaceflight. Sixteen healthy normotensive (12M, 4F, age range 29-54 years), non-smoker and normal weight subjects, volunteered to participate in a 14 day 6 deg head HDT study conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU). This facility provides standard bed rest conditions (diet, wake/sleep time, time allowed in sunlight) during the time that the subjects stay at the FARU. Cardiovascular parameters were obtained in supine posture at BR-5, BR+0, and BR+3 and ocular monitoring was performed weekly. Intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from pre-bed rest BR-3) to the third day into bed rest (BR+3). Values reached a plateau towards the end of the bed rest phase (BR10) and decreased within the first three days of recovery (BR+2) returning to levels comparable to baseline at BR-3. As expected, most cardiovascular parameters were affected by 14 days of HDT bed rest. Plasma volume decreased as a result of bed rest but recovered to baseline levels by BR+3. Indications of cardiovascular deconditioning included increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, and a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output between BR-5 and BR+3. Due to the experimental design of this study, we were not able to test the hypothesis that fluid shifts might be involved in the IOP increase during the bed rest phase, since cardiovascular measures were not available for those

  2. A Randomised Trial of empiric 14-day Triple, five-day Concomitant, and ten-day Sequential Therapies for Helicobacter pylori in Seven Latin American Sites

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, E. Robert; Anderson, Garnet L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Chey, William D.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Mercedes María; Peña, Rodolfo; Peña, Edgar M.; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Valdivieso, Manuel; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Evidence from Europe, Asia, and North America suggests that standard three-drug regimens of a proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin are significantly less effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection than five-day concomitant and ten-day sequential four-drug regimens that include a nitroimidazole. These four-drug regimens also entail fewer antibiotic doses and thus may be suitable for eradication programs in low-resource settings. Studies are limited from Latin America, however, where the burden of H. pylori-associated diseases is high. Methods We randomised 1463 men and women ages 21–65 selected from general populations in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico (two sites) who tested positive for H. pylori by a urea breath test (UBT) to: 14 days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (standard therapy); five days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant therapy); or five days of lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by five of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential therapy). Eradication was assessed by UBT six–eight weeks after randomisation. Findings In intention-to-treat analyses, the probability of eradication with standard therapy was 82·2%, which was 8·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: 2·6%, 14·5%) than with concomitant therapy (73·6%) and 5·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: −0·04%, 11·6%) than with sequential therapy (76·5%). In analyses limited to the 1314 participants who adhered to their assigned therapy, the probabilities of eradication were 87·1%, 78·7%, and 81·1% with standard, concomitant, and sequential therapies, respectively. Neither four-drug regimen was significantly better than standard triple therapy in any of the seven sites. Interpretation Standard 14-day triple-drug therapy is preferable to five-day concomitant or ten-day sequential four-drug regimens as empiric therapy for H. pylori

  3. Effects of 14 days of spaceflight and nine days of recovery on cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The cross-sectional areas and succinate dehydrogenase activities of L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after nine days of recovery. The mean and distribution of the cross-sectional areas were similar to age-matched, ground-based controls for both the spaceflight and for the spaceflight plus recovery groups. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in spaceflight compared to aged-matched control rats, whereas the mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was similar in age-matched control and spaceflight plus recovery rats. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups. The reduction in the oxidative capacity of a subpopulation of sensory neurons having relatively large cross-sectional areas immediately following spaceflight and the sustained depression for nine days after returning to 1 g suggest that the 0 g environment induced significant alterations in proprioceptive function.

  4. Quantitative changes of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14-day hindlimb unloading by tail suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating quantitatively gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. A reduction in the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-containing terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system of hindlimb-suspended animals, it is suggested that the unloading due to hindlimb suspension alters afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the reduction in immunoreactivity of local circuit GABAergic neurons and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  5. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims. PMID:24731112

  6. Growth and maturational changes in dense fibrous connective tissue following 14 days of rhGH supplementation in the dwarf rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Orth, Michael W.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on patella tendon (PT), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) on collagen growth and maturational changes in dwarf GH-deficient rats. Twenty male Lewis mutant dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to Dwarf + rhGH (n = 10) and Dwarf + vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt twice daily for 14 days. rhGH administration stimulated dense fibrous connective tissue growth, as demonstrated by significant increases in hydroxyproline specific activity and significant decreases in the non-reducible hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) collagen cross-link contents. The increase in the accumulation of newly accreted collagen was 114, 67, and 117% for PT, MCL, and LCL, respectively, in 72 h. These findings suggest that a short course rhGH treatment can affect the rate of new collagen production. However, the maturation of the tendon and ligament tissues decreased 18-25% during the rapid accumulation of de novo collagen. We conclude that acute rhGH administration in a dwarf rat can up-regulate new collagen accretion in dense fibrous connective tissues, while causing a reduction in collagen maturation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T.; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce with negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Further, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims’ daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to sub-types of female rape victims. PMID:24731112

  8. Exposure to phenanthrene and depuration: Changes on gene transcription, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in gill of scallops Nodipecten nodosus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rômi S; Trevisan, Rafael; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Wendt, Nestor; Mattos, Jacó J; Lima, Daína; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Mello, Álvaro C P; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Gomes, Carlos H A M; Bícego, Márcia C; Almeida, Eduardo A de; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the mechanism of phenanthrene (PHE) biotransformation and related cellular responses in bivalves can be an important tool to elucidate the risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic organisms. In the present study it was analyzed the transcriptional levels of 13 biotransformation genes related to cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), flavin-containing monooxygenase and fatty acid-binding proteins by qPCR in gill of scallops Nodipecten nodosus exposed for 24 or 96h to 50 or 200μgL(-1) PHE (equivalent to 0.28 and 1.12μM, respectively), followed by depuration in clean water for 96h (DEP). Likewise, it was quantified the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and levels of lipid peroxidation. Increased transcriptional levels of CYP2UI-like, CYP2D20-like, CYP3A11-like, GSTomega-like, SULT1B1-like genes were detected in organisms exposed to PHE for 24 or 96h. In parallel, GR and GPX activities increased after 96h exposure to 200μgL(-1) PHE and G6PDH activity increased after 24h exposure to 50μgL(-1) PHE. This enhancement of antioxidant and phase I and II biotransformation systems may be related to the 2.7 and 12.5 fold increases in PHE bioaccumulation after 96h exposure to 50 and 200μgL(-1) PHE, respectively. Interestingly, DEP caused reestablishment of GPX and GR activity, as well as to the transcript levels of all upregulated biotransformation genes (except for SULT1B1-like). Bioaccumulated PHE levels decreased 2.5-2.9 fold after depuration, although some biochemical and molecular modifications were still present. Lipid peroxidation levels remained lower in animals exposed to 200μgL(-1) PHE for 24h and DEP. These data indicate that N. nodosus is able to induce an antioxidant and biotransformation-related response to PHE exposure, counteracting its toxicity, and DEP can

  9. Accumulation and depuration of trinitrotoluene and related extractable and nonextractable (bound) residues in marine fish and mussels.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Guilherme R; Belden, Jason B; Fisher, Jonathon C; Chen, Shou-Feng; Mowery, Richard A; Chambliss, C Kevin; Rosen, Gunther

    2016-03-01

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to extractable TNT and its major metabolites, organisms were exposed to water fortified with (14)C-TNT. After 24 h, nonextractable residues made up 75% (mussel) and 83% (fish) while TNT accounted for 2% of total radioactivity. Depuration half-lives for extractable TNT, aminodinitrotoluenes (ADNTs) and diaminonitrotoluenes (DANTs) were fast initially (<0.5 h), but slower for nonextractable residues. Nonextractable residues from organisms were identified as ADNTs and DANTs using 0.1 M HCL for solubilization followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Recovered metabolites only accounted for a small fraction of the bound residue quantified using a radiotracer likely because of low extraction or hydrolysis efficiency or alternative pathways of incorporation of radiolabel into tissue. PMID:26708767

  10. Toxicity of copper/dimethomorph combination for Lemna minor and depuration of the fungicides by aquatic plant.

    PubMed

    Megateli, S; Olette, R; Semsari, S; Couderchet, M

    2009-01-01

    Runoff-water of Champagne vineyards is often collected in decantation ponds where pesticides may be eliminated before the water is transferred to rivers. In order to accelerate this process, Lemna minor was tested for its phytoremediation capacity. In the ponds several pesticides coexist. Therefore, the cross-influence of copper and dimethomorph, two pesticides frequently used on grape to control fungal diseases, was studied on toxicity and their removal by L. minor. The toxicity of copper and dimethomorph alone and in combination, was assessed by growth inhibition of L. minor cultures after 96 h and 168 h. Copper had a severe impact on growth (maximum inhibition: 90% at 1000 microg/L) while dimethomorph (as pure ingredient DMM(P) or formulated as Forum DMM(F)) did not (inhibition < 45% at 1000 microg/L) after 168 h of treatment. When both chemicals were combined, a synergistic effect was detected after 96 h of exposure to copper and DMM(F). However, this interaction tended towards additivity after 168 h. Additivity was also observed when DMM(P) replaced DMM(F) in the mixture of copper and dimethomorph at 96h00 and 168h00. The removal of copper depended on DMM(F) concentration. For example, with 250 microg/L of dimethomorph as Forum, removal of copper increased from 36 to 41%. Depuration of DMM(F) by L. minor varied between 10 and 40% after 96 h. This depuration decreased in the presence of copper possibly due to the metal toxicity. PMID:20222580

  11. Diastereomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation, depuration, bioisomerization, and metabolism of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two ecologically different species of earthworms.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Yao, Tianqi; Sun, Hongwen; Zhang, Yanwei; Yang, Jirui

    2016-01-15

    In this study, two ecological types of earthworms were exposed to soil samples that were artificially contaminated with individual hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs) to investigate the bioaccumulation, depuration, enantiomer selectivity and isomerization of HBCDs in earthworms. The uptake rate constant (ku), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biota soil accumulation factor (BSAF), and half-life (t1/2) for the α-HBCD were the highest among the three diastereomers. The bioaccumulation parameters of the three diastereoisomers differed between the two ecologically different species of earthworms. The BSAF values of α- and γ-HBCDs were substantially higher in Eisenia fetida than those in Metaphire guillelmi, with the higher lipid and protein contents in E. fetida as the primary reason for this difference. The other processes, such as uptake, depuration, metabolism and isomerization, also differed between the two species and led to a difference in the bioaccumulation of β-HBCD. The β- and γ-HBCDs were bioisomerized to α-HBCD in the earthworms, but to a greater extent in E. fetida. The highest BSAF, t1/2 of α-HBCD and the bioisomerization of β- and γ-HBCDs to α-HBCD might explain in part why α-HBCD was the dominant isomer in biota samples. Most of the enantiomer fractions (EFs) for the three HBCD diastereoisomers in the earthworms were different from those in standard samples (p<0.05), indicating that enantiomer selectivity occurred. Moreover, the trends and extent of the enantioselectivity were different between the two species. Additionally, the EFs of α-HBCD that was bioisomerized from β- or γ-isomers were also different from those in the standards (p<0.05), which likely reflect the integration of several processes, such as enantioselective isomerization and the subsequent selective metabolism of the produced α-HBCD or selective excretion of the enantiomers. PMID:26520267

  12. Localization, depuration, bioaccumulation and impairment of ion regulation associated with cationic polymer exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Muir, M M; Kosteretz, K G; Lech, J J

    1997-10-01

    1. Static exposure of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to three commercial 14C-labelled cationic polymers (EDP, epichlorhydrin-dimethylamine; CYT, polyacrylamide ester; and STK, polyacrylamide amide) resulted in 14C being concentrated only in gill tissue. 2. Depuration studies examining the effect of humic acid (HA) on cationic polymer bound in gill tissue indicate that the binding is reversible with exposure to polymer-free water and polymer-free water with HA for each of the three polymers. 3. Analysis of blood pH, Na+, K+, total NH3 and Cl- after static water exposures to EDP (m.w. 50,000) at 7.5 mg EDP/l revealed a treatment related decrease in blood pH, from 7.1 to 6.6, accompanied by an increase in blood NH3 and evidence of severe impairment of ion regulation. 4. Repeated exposure to the cationic polymers did not result in increases in the 14C concentration in gill tissue suggesting that bioaccumulation of the polymers does not occur. 5. These data suggest that the gill is the site of toxicity for these cationic polymers and that their toxic effects involve gill function and ion regulation rather than systemic actions on internal organs. PMID:9364738

  13. Uptake, depuration and bioconcentration of bisphenol AF (BPAF) in whole-body and tissues of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachen; Yang, Yunjia; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is an analog of Bisphenol A (BPA) and is widely used as a raw material in the plastics industry. However, an understanding of the potential risks posed by BPAF in the aquatic environment is lacking. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is a measure used to assess the secondary poisoning potential as well as risks to human health. In this work we measured the accumulation and elimination of BPAF in the whole-body and in liver, muscle and gonad tissues of zebrafish. BPAF uptake was relatively rapid with equilibrium concentrations reached after 24-72h of exposure. We observed gender differences both in whole-body and in tissue accumulation. Muscle was the primary BPAF storage tissue during the uptake phase in this study. In the elimination phase, BPAF concentrations declined rapidly during depuration, especially during the initial 2h, and the rate of elimination in males was faster than females from the whole-body and from tissues. The appearance of BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G) at the start of the uptake phase indicated the rapid biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G in vivo. The high lipid content of female gonad could act to delay the diffusion of the xenobiotic within the body in a contaminated environment, but it also acts to delay xenobiotic elimination from the body. PMID:27362491

  14. Transversal Stiffness and Beta-Actin and Alpha-Actinin-4 Content of the M. Soleus Fibers in the Conditions of a 3-Day Reloading after 14-Day Gravitational Unloading

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions. PMID:21941432

  15. Use of depuration compounds in passive air samplers: results from active sampling-supported field deployment, potential uses, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeckel, Claudia; Harner, Tom; Nizzetto, Luca; Strandberg, Bo; Lindroth, Anders; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-05-01

    Depuration compounds (DCs) are added to passive air samplers (PAS) prior to deployment to account for the wind-dependency of the sampling rate for gas-phase compounds. This correction is particularly useful for providing comparable data for samplers that are deployed in different environments and subject to different meteorological conditions such as wind speeds. Two types of PAS--the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk sampler and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--were deployed at eight heights on a 100 m tower to test whether the DC approach could yield air concentrations profiles for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and account for the wind speed gradient with height. Average wind speeds ranged from 0.3 to 4.5 m s(-1) over the 40 day deployment, increasing with height Two low volume active air samples (AAS), one collected at 25 m and one at 73 m over the 40 day deployment showed no significant concentration differences for target compounds. As expected, the target compounds taken up by PAS reflected the wind profile with height This wind-dependency of the PAS was also reflected in the results of the DCs. A correction based on the DC approach successfully accounted for the effect of wind on PAS sampling rates, yielding a profile consistent with the AAS. Interestingly, in terms of absolute air concentrations, there were differences between the AAS and PAS-derived values for some target compounds. These were attributed to different sampling characteristics of the two approaches that may have resulted in slightly different air masses being sampled. Based on the results of this study, guidelines are presented for the use of DCs and for the calibration of PAS using AAS. PMID:19534139

  16. Dissipation, metabolism and sorption of pesticides used in fruit-packaging plants: Towards an optimized depuration of their pesticide-contaminated agro-industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Karas, Panagiotis; Metsoviti, Aria; Zisis, Vasileios; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Omirou, Michalis; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Menkissoglou-Spiroudi, Urania; Manta, Stella; Komiotis, Dimitri; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2015-10-15

    Wastewaters from the fruit-packaging industry constitute a serious point source contamination with pesticides. In the absence of effective depuration methods, they are discharged in municipal wastewater treatment plants or spread to land. Modified biobeds could be an applicable solution for their treatment. We studied the dissipation of thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and ethoxyquin (EQ), used by the fruit-packaging industry, in anaerobically digested sewage sludge, liquid aerobic sewage sludge and in various organic substrates (biobeds packing materials) composed of soil, straw and spend mushroom substrate (SMS) in various volumetric ratios. Pesticide sorption was also determined. TBZ and IMZ showed higher persistence especially in the anaerobically digested sewage sludge (DT50=32.3-257.6d), in contrast to OPP and DPA which were rapidly dissipated especially in liquid aerobic sewage sludge (DT50=1.3-9.3d). EQ was rapidly oxidized mainly to quinone imine (QI) which did not persist and dimethyl ethoxyquinoline (EQNL, minor metabolite) which persisted for longer. Sterilization of liquid aerobic sewage sludge inhibited pesticide decay verifying the microbial nature of pesticide dissipation. Organic substrates rich in SMS showed the highest dissipation capacity with TBZ and IMZ DT50s of ca. 28 d compared to DT50s of >50 d in the other substrates. TBZ and IMZ showed the highest sorption affinity, whereas OPP and DPA were weakly sorbed. Our findings suggest that current disposal practices could not guarantee an efficient depuration of effluents from the fruit-packaging industry, whereas SMS-rich biobed organic substrates show efficient depuration of effluents from the fruit-packaging industry via accelerated dissipation even of recalcitrant fungicides. PMID:26042894

  17. Uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water by mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki): a worst-case, multiple-exposure scenario.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies showed that caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine were bioconcentrated by mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) from freshwater bodies directly affected by reclaimed water. To understand the uptake, depuration, and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) under the worst-case conditions, the authors exposed 84 mosquito fish to reclaimed water under static renewal for 7 d, followed by a 14-d depuration phase in clean water. Characterization of the exposure media revealed the presence of 26 pharmaceuticals, whereas only 5 pharmaceuticals-caffeine, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, carbamazepine, and ibuprofen-were present in the organisms after only 5 h of exposure. Caffeine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine were quickly taken up by mosquito fish following a similar uptake curve. Diphenhydramine and ibuprofen, on the other hand, were more gradually taken up by mosquito fish but were also eliminated fairly quickly, resulting in the 2 shortest depuration half-lives at 34 h and 32 h, respectively. For comparison, BCFs based on rate constants (BCFb ), steady-state concentrations (BCFa ), and saturation-state concentrations (BCFc ) were calculated. Values of BCFb ranged from 0.23 to 29 and increased in the order of caffeine < carbamazepine < diltiazem < diphenhydramine < ibuprofen. Values of BCFa and BCFc ranged from 2.0 to 28 and increased in the order of carbamazepine < caffeine < diltiazem < diphenhydramine < ibuprofen. This is the first study using a nonartificial exposure-treated wastewater matrix to generate pharmacokinetic data for pharmaceutical mixtures in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1752-1758. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23595768

  18. Addition of clidinium-C to the 14-day proton-pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza; Homapoor, Saba; Zanganeh, Elahe; Dadjou, Mohammad; Eskandari Nejad, Shahab; Tajik Galayeri, Mohammad Hadi; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of clidinium-C addition on HP eradication and to investigate the efficacy and safety of clidinium-C in prevention of drugs' side effects. Methods: A total of 200 histopathologically confirmed HP positive peptic ulcer enrolled in this study which were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: OAC (20 mg omeprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid and 500 mg clarithromycin bid) and OAC + clidinium-C. The effect of treatment and adverse effects were compared 6 weeks after completion of treatment. A13C-urea breath test was performed to confirm HP eradication. Results: A total of 184 patients (90 in group A and 94 in group B) completed the treatment protocols. HP eradication was achieved in 71.1% in OAC versus 72.3% in OCA+clidinium-C, (P=0.73). The frequencies of abdominal pain and stool abnormality, among the side effects recorded during the therapy period, were significantly lower in group B (OCA+clidinium-C) (P=0.01 and P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Addition of clidinium-C to OCA triple therapy decreases abdominal pain and frequency of stool abnormalities without affecting HP eradication rate. Based on these findings addition of clidinium-C may increase patient's compliance. PMID:27386057

  19. No measurable "cleaning" of polychlorinated biphenyls from Rainbow Trout in a 9 week depuration study with dietary exposure to 40% polyethylene microspheres.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Christoph Daniel; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-07-13

    Persistent hydrophobic chemicals sorbed to plastic can be transferred to fish and other aquatic organisms upon ingestion. However, ingestion of plastic could also lead to enhanced elimination of these chemicals if the plastic is less contaminated than the fish. Here, we attempted to measure the influence of ingestion of uncontaminated polyethylene microspheres on the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an in vivo fish feeding experiment. Rainbow trout were given feed contaminated with PCBs for two consecutive days, then clean feed for three days to allow for egestion of the contaminated food. A control group of fish were then fed ordinary food pellets and a treatment group were fed pellets that additionally contained 40% by weight polyethylene microspheres. Condition factors and growth rates in both groups were similar, indicating no negative effect of the plastic microspheres on the nutritional status of the fish. Fish were sampled after zero, three, six and nine weeks, homogenized, solvent-extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. PCB concentrations declined in both groups at a rate consistent with growth dilution. There was no significant difference in the elimination rate constants between the control and treatment group, indicating that ingestion of uncontaminated plastic did not cause a measurable enhancement of depuration of PCBs by the fish in this study. PMID:27312800

  20. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  1. Tissue distribution and depuration of the extracted hepatotoxic cyanotoxin microcystins in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) intraperitoneally injected at a sublethal dose.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hehua; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Liang, Gaodao; Yu, Ting; Jiang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    An acute toxicity experiment was conducted by intraperitoneal injection with a sublethal dose of extracted microcystins (MCs), 50 microg MC-LR (where L = leucine and R = arginine) equivalent/kg body weight (BW), to examine tissue distribution and depuration of MCs in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Liver to body weight ratio increased at 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection compared with that at 0 h (p < 0.05). MC concentrations in various tissues and aquaria water were analyzed at 1, 3, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h postinjection using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The highest concentration of MCs (MC-RR + MC-LR) was found in blood, 2-270 ng/g dry weight (DW), followed by heart (3-100 ng/g DW) and kidney (13-88 ng/g DW). MC levels were relatively low in liver, gonad, intestine, spleen, and brain. MC contents in gills, gallbladder, and muscle were below the limit of detection. Significant negative correlation was present between MC-RR concentration in blood and that in kidney, confirming that blood was important in the transportation of MC-RR to kidney for excretion. Rapid accumulation and slow degradation of MCs were observed in gonad, liver, intestine, spleen, and brain. Only 0.07% of injected MCs were detected in liver. The recovery of MCs in liver of crucian carp seemed to be dose dependent. PMID:18677427

  2. 78 FR 48123 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contractor Comment Period, Past Performance Evaluations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... response to the past performance evaluation, contractors will have a maximum of 14 days to do so. In... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 42 RIN 9000-AM40 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contractor Comment Period, Past Performance Evaluations AGENCY:...

  3. A Phase II Study of a Dose-Density Regimen With Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, and Cyclophosphamide on Days 1 and 4 Every 14 Days With Filgrastim Support Followed by Weekly Paclitaxel in Women With Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, Elisabetta; Andreis, Daniele; Fabbri, Francesca; Menna, Cecilia; Schirone, Alessio; Kopf, Barbara; Rocca, Andrea; Amadori, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recent evidence shows that use of anthracycline and taxane adjuvant chemotherapy and dose-dense regimens, consisting of more frequent administration of the drugs, have improved outcomes for breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated administration of an epirubicin-based regimen with paclitaxel in a sequential, dose-dense schedule as adjuvant treatment for patients with high-risk primary breast cancer. Methods. In a phase II Simon two-stage design study, we evaluated the feasibility of a modified fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen at high dose intensity (fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 4, epirubicin 60 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 4, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 4; all drugs were administered every 14 days for 3 cycles) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support followed by dose-intense weekly paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 for 8 cycles. In 11 patients with breast cancer following quadrantectomy (n = 8) or modified radical mastectomy (n = 3), any grade 3 (G3) or higher nonhematologic toxicity (excluding alopecia, nausea or vomiting, and bone pain, which might be a consequence of the administration of filgrastim) and adherence to the scheduled dose-dense treatment (deliverability) were monitored with the purpose of enrolling an additional 27 patients in the case of a satisfying toxicity profile and deliverability of the planned treatment (at least 7 patients completing the treatment). Results. Five of 11 patients experienced G3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity during the FEC regimen. We did not observe G3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity related to paclitaxel treatment. In particular, three patients experienced G3 fatigue, one patient had G3 oral mucositis, three patients had G3 hypokalemia, one patient had G3 syncope, one patient had G3 transaminitis (alanine aminotransferase), one patient experienced G4 pulmonary thromboembolism, and 1 patient had a G3 breast infection. Four of 11 patients

  4. Brevetoxin Depuration in Shellfish via Production of Non-toxic Metabolites: Consequences for Seafood Safety and the Environmental Fate of Biotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Naar, J.; Kubanek, J.; Weidner, A.; Flewelling, L.; Bourdelais, A.; Steidinger, K.; Baden, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    During blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, filter-feeders such as oysters and clams bioaccumulate brevetoxins, often to levels that are toxic to humans. In controlled aquarium experiments, we exposed live oysters to bloom levels of toxic K. brevis, followed by 10 weeks of exposure to non-toxic microalgae. Oysters were harvested weekly and analyzed for brevetoxins and brevetoxin metabolites to quantify toxin bioaccumulation and depuration. All of the PbTx-2 concentrated by oysters was immediately converted to a mixture of polar metabolites that were then slowly eliminated from the oysters. However, 90% of measured PbTx-3 was eliminated within two weeks of toxic exposure but without apparent biotransformation. Extracts of oysters containing high levels of PbTx-3 were toxic to mice by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Extracts of oysters harvested after PbTx-3 had been eliminated were non-toxic despite high concentrations of PbTx-2 metabolites. Oysters collected in Florida during and after a bloom of K. brevis contained polar metabolites of PbTx-2 as well as PbTx-3, but no PbTx-2. Again, PbTx-3 concentration was a good predictor of mouse toxicity. One hundred percent conversion of PbTx-2 to polar metabolites was also accomplished in vitro by spiking oyster or clam homogenate with PbTx-2, followed by a brief incubation at room temperature. These PbTx-2 metabolites did not kill mice, either orally or by intraperitoneal injection, even at concentrations 30 times greater than toxic PbTx-3 levels. PMID:26448967

  5. Accumulation and depuration profiles of PSP toxins in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella.

    PubMed

    Samsur, Mohamad; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2006-09-01

    A toxic dinoflagellate responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Alexandrium catenella (Ac) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation and depuration profiles of PSP toxins were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested more than 99% of the Ac cells (4 x 10(7)cells) supplied once at the beginning of experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (185 nmol/10 clams) after 12h. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 23%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. Composition of the PSP toxin accumulated in the clams obviously different from that of Ac even 0.5h after the cell supply, the proportion of C1+2 being much higher than in Ac, although the reason remains to be elucidated. In contrast, a higher ratio of gonyautoxin (GTX)1+4 than in Ac was detected in the toxin profiles of clam excrements. The variation in toxin composition derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in clams was observed from 0.5h, such as reversal of the ratio of C1 to C2, and appearance of carbamate (saxitoxin (STX), neoSTX and GTX2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (dcSTX and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Ac cells. The total amount of toxin distributed over Ac cells, clams and their excrements gradually declined, and only 1% of supplied toxin was detected at the end of experiment. PMID:16887162

  6. Uptake and depuration kinetics of lead (Pb) and biomarker responses in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after simultaneous exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Chen, Lin; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) and BDE209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the uptake and toxicity of Pb in the presence of BDE209 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results have demonstrated that the presence of BDE209 facilitated the release of Pb into soil porewater. Compared with exposure to Pb alone, simultaneous exposure to BDE209 significantly enhanced the Pb uptake rate at the level of p<0.05, while decreased the depuration rate, ultimately resulting in a larger bioaccumulation factor (BAF) value. Additionally, BDE209 addition reduced the antioxidant enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST)] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). The decline trend in antioxidant enzymatic activities and T-AOC might explain an increase in lipid peroxidation reflected by the observed augment in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Moreover, a biomarker of the lysosomal membrane stability, measured by neutral red retention time (NRRT), was also investigated. The NRRT obviously declined in the joint presence of BDE209, indicating a distinct time-response relationship. The results of these observations have provided a basic understanding of the potential eco-toxicological effects of joint heavy metal and BDE209 exposure on terrestrial invertebrates in a multi-contamination context of ecosystems. PMID:25483371

  7. Follicular populations and luteal function in dairy heifers treated with a controlled internal drug release insert for 14 days as a method to synchronize the estrous cycle before prostaglandin F₂α treatment and artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Lucy, M C

    2013-06-01

    Progesterone-containing controlled internal drug release (CIDR) inserts are used to synchronize the estrous cycle before PGF2α is administered for timed AI (14dCIDR-PGF2α program). The program, initially designed for beef cattle, was recently shown to be efficacious in dairy heifers. We hypothesized that the 14-d CIDR treatment would synchronize the estrous cycle in dairy heifers and result in a uniformly sized corpus luteum (CL) and largest follicle (LF) at the time of PGF2α treatment. Holstein (n=110) or Holstein × Guernsey (n=4) dairy heifers were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) 14dCIDR-PGF2α [CIDR in for 14 d, CIDR out for 16d, PGF2α and AI after observed estrus (n=57)] or (2) control [PGF2α and AI after observed estrus (n=57)]. Regardless of treatment, additional PGF2α injections were administered at 14-d intervals to heifers that were not seen in estrus. Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sampling were done on d 0 (CIDR administered), 14 (day CIDR removed), 19 (5d after CIDR removed), 30 (PGF2α administered), and 44 (second PGF2α dose administered to heifers that were not detected in estrus after the first PGF2α). Compared with control (untreated), more CIDR-treated heifers were categorized as having a small CL (≤ 9.9 mm) and large LF (15.0-19.9 mm) on d 14 (CIDR removal) and, as expected, a greater percentage of CIDR-treated heifers were in estrus during the 5d after the CIDR removal compared with control heifers (75.4 vs. 22.8%, respectively). On d 19, the CIDR-treated heifers had apparently ovulated based on disappearance of LF and appearance of small CL. On d 30 (PGF2α administration), 89% of 14dCIDR-PGF2α heifers had CL that were ≥ 20 mm in diameter compared with 55% for control. Presence of larger CL on d 30 was associated with greater concentrations of plasma progesterone in 14dCIDR-PGF2α compared with control (10.5 ± 0.5 vs. 5.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL, respectively). The percentages of heifers with LF in the smallest category (≤ 9.9 mm) tended

  8. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  9. Extracorporeal detoxification for hepatic failure using molecular adsorbent recirculating system: depurative efficiency and clinical results in a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Donati, Gabriele; La Manna, Gaetano; Cianciolo, Giuseppe; Grandinetti, Valeria; Carretta, Elisa; Cappuccilli, Maria; Panicali, Laura; Iorio, Mario; Piscaglia, Fabio; Bolondi, Luigi; Colì, Luigi; Stefoni, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Acute liver failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure still show a poor prognosis. The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) has been extensively used as the most promising detoxifying therapy for patients with these conditions. Sixty-four patients with life-threatening liver failure were selected, and 269 MARS treatments were carried out as a bridge for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or for liver function recovery. All patients were grouped according to the aim of MARS therapy. Group A consisted of 47 patients treated for liver function recovery (median age 59 years, range 23-82). Group B consisted of 11 patients on the waiting list who underwent OLT (median age 47 years, range 32-62). Group C consisted of 6 patients on the waiting list who did not undergo OLT (median age 45.5 years, range 36-54, P = 0.001). MARS depurative efficiency in terms of liver toxins, cytokines, and growth factors was assessed together with the clinical outcome of the patients during a 1-year follow-up. Total bilirubin reduction rate per session (RRs) for each MARS session was 23% (range 17-29); direct bilirubin RRs was 28% (21-35), and indirect bilirubin RRs was 8% (3-21). Ammonia RRs was 34% (12-86). Conjugated cholic acid RRs was 58% (48-61); chenodeoxycholic acid RRs was 34% (18-48). No differences were found between groups. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) values on starting MARS were 4.1 ng/mL (1.9-7.9) versus 7.9 ng/mL (3.2-14.1) at MARS end (P < 0.01). Cox regression analysis to determine the risk factors predicting patient outcomes showed that age, male gender, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (but not Model for End-stage Liver Disease score) were factors predicting death, whereas the number of MARS sessions and the ΔHGF proved protective factors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also used; after 12 months, 21.3% of patients in Group A survived, while 90.9% were alive in Group B and 16.7% in Group C (log rank = 0.002). In

  10. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the

  11. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  12. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  13. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  14. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system in the brain and liver of zebra-seabreams exposed to waterborne methylmercury

    SciTech Connect

    Branco, Vasco; Canario, Joao; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Mercury compounds were recently found to interact in vitro with the thioredoxin system, inhibiting both Thioredoxin (Trx) and Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). In order to evaluate if Trx and TrxR are affected in vivo by methylmercury (MeHg), we exposed juvenile zebra-seabreams to different concentrations of this toxicant in water for 28 days followed by a 14-day depuration period. Methylmercury accumulated to a larger extent in the kidney and liver of fishes, but decreased significantly during the depuration. During the exposure, MeHg percentage in the liver reached levels above 90% of total mercury (HgT) decreasing to 60% of HgT by the end of the depuration period. In the kidney, MeHg accounted for 50-70% of HgT. In the brain and muscle, mercury accumulated throughout the exposure with all mercury being MeHg. The total mercury kept increasing in these organs during the depuration period. However, in the brain, this increase in HgT was accompanied by a decrease in the MeHg percentage ({approx} 10%). In the liver, both Trx and TrxR activities were significantly reduced (TrxR - 40%; Trx - 70%) by the end of the exposure, but recovered to control levels (100%) during the depuration. In the brain, both enzymes where inhibited during the depuration period (TrxR - 75%; Trx - 70%) when some production of inorganic mercury was detected. Activity of glutathione reductase showed increased levels when TrxR activity was low, suggesting complementarity between both systems. These results indicate that in vivo the thioredoxin system is a toxicological target for MeHg with TrxR being particularly affected.

  15. Quantification of periodic breathing in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Mary A.; Fairchild, Karen D.; Patel, Manisha; Sinkin, Robert A.; Clark, Matthew T.; Moorman, J. Randall; Lake, Douglas E.; Kattwinkel, John; Delos, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodic breathing (PB), regular cycles of short apneic pauses and breaths, is common in newborn infants. To characterize normal and potentially pathologic PB, we used our automated apnea detection system and developed a novel method for quantifying PB. We identified a preterm infant who died of SIDS and who, on review of her breathing pattern while in the NICU, had exaggerated PB. Methods We analyzed the chest impedance signal for short apneic pauses and developed a wavelet transform method to identify repetitive 10–40 second cycles of apnea/breathing. Clinical validation was performed to distinguish PB from apnea clusters and determine the wavelet coefficient cutoff having optimum diagnostic utility. We applied this method to analyze the chest impedance signals throughout the entire NICU stays of all 70 infants born at 32 weeks’ gestation admitted over a two-and-a-half year period. This group includes an infant who died of SIDS and her twin. Results For infants of 32 weeks’ gestation, the fraction of time spent in PB peaks 7–14 days after birth at 6.5%. During that time the infant that died of SIDS spent 40% of each day in PB and her twin spent 15% of each day in PB. Conclusions This wavelet transform method allows quantification of normal and potentially pathologic PB in NICU patients. PMID:26012526

  16. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  17. Accumulation and retention of No. 2 fuel-oil compounds in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus' rathbun

    SciTech Connect

    Melzian, B.D.; Lake, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine if Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) can bioaccumulate and retain complex mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons, adult crabs were exposed for 14 days or 30-35 days in continuous flow-through seawater systems to three sublethal concentrations, nominally 0.00 (control), 0.01, or 1.0 ppm (mg/liter), of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of Number (No.) 2 fuel oil. Crabs exposed for 14 days were subsequently exposed to clean running seawater for a 30 day depuration period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle tissue samples were collected from control, WAF exposed, and depurated crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography and/or gas chomatography-mass spectrometry. No. 2 fuel-oil compounds were not detected in any of the tissues of the control crabs. Trace amounts of fuel-oil compounds were detected in gill and hepatopancreas tissues collected from crabs exposed to the 0.01 ppm WAF and no fuel-oil compounds were detected in muscle tissues. All tissues of crabs exposed to the 1.0 ppm WAF accumulated No. 2 fuel-oil compounds and considerable amounts remained in hepatopancreas and gill tissues following depuration for 30 days in clean seawater.

  18. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  19. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  20. Optimizing depuration of salmon in RAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire "earthy" or "musty" off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  1. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  2. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  3. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  4. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  5. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  6. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  7. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  8. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  10. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  11. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  12. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  13. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  14. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  15. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  17. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  18. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  19. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  20. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  1. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  2. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  3. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  4. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  5. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  6. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  7. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  8. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  9. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  10. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  11. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  12. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  13. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  14. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  15. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  16. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  17. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  18. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  19. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  20. Stroke risk in the early period after carotid related symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsantilas, P; Kühnl, A; Kallmayer, M; Knappich, C; Schmid, S; Kuetchou, A; Zimmermann, A; Eckstein, H H

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend performing carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid disease as soon as possible after the neurological index event. However, early stroke risk has not been well documented for this patient group. We therefore conducted a systematic analysis of the current literature on the recurrent risk of ischemic events in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. Systematic review was performed by searching the MEDLINE® database from 1950 until June 8, 2015 (key words: cerebral ischemia, transient ischemic attack, amaurosis fugax, stroke, symptomatic carotid stenosis, recurrent risk, outcome, prognosis, follow-up, cohort and natural history). All studies reporting stroke risks in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis after neurologic index events within a period of 7 days were included. Cumulative stroke risks with 95% confidence intervals after a neurologic index event were recalculated at 2-3, 7, 14 and 30 days and a meta-analysis including an analysis of heterogeneity were performed using the statistical package R and Excel for Mac 2003. Ten studies with a total number of 2634 patients were included. Results of an overall stroke risk were as follows: 2.0-17.2% at 2-3 days, 0-22.1% at 7 days, 0-29.6% at 14 days and 0-11.1% at 30 days in patients with a symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis. The pooled stroke risk in the six studies with active follow-up was 6.0% (95% CI 2.4-14.4) at 2-3 days, 10.9% (6.1-18.7) at 7 days and 17.6% (9.7-29.9) at 14 days. Pooled stroke risk in the three studies with uncensored populations was even higher with 6.4% (1.5-23.8%) at 2-3 days, 19.5% (12.7-28.7) at 7 days and 26.1% (20.6-32.5%) at 14 days. Significant heterogeneity (P<0.001) could be explained by the different inclusion criteria and the study's design. Retrospective studies with passive follow-up had the lowest stroke risk whereas prospective studies with active follow-up and without bias through early intervention by carotid

  1. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  2. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  3. Effects of rehydration on +Gz tolerance after 14-days' bed rest.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haines, R. F.; Sandler, H.; Staley, R. W.; Young, H. L.; Yusken, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the magnitude of reduction in human tolerance to centrifugation following 2 weeks of bed rest with moderate daily exercise. The degree of hypovolemia associated with these exposures is assessed, and the possibility to improve or to return to control levels the tolerance to acceleration forces acting in the head-to-foot direction through rehydration prior to acceleration is explored.

  4. 4 CFR 7.5 - Adverse actions: Suspensions for 14 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 7.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PERSONNEL RELATIONS AND SERVICES... writing and to furnish affidavits and other documentary evidence in support of the answer; (3) Be... therefor, and any order effecting the suspension, together with any supporting material, shall...

  5. A 14-day elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing the lactulose breath test.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mark; Constantino, Tess; Kong, Yuthana; Bajwa, Meera; Rezaei, Abolghasem; Park, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frustrated by the low efficacy of antibiotics. Elemental diets have been shown to reduce enteric flora. In this study, we evaluate the ability of an elemental diet to normalize the lactulose breath test (LBT) in IBS subjects with abnormal breath test findings. Consecutive subjects with IBS and abnormal LBT suggesting the presence of bacterial overgrowth underwent a 2-week exclusive elemental diet. The diet consisted of Vivonex Plus (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Minneapolis, MN) in a quantity based on individual caloric requirement. On day 15 (prior to solid food), subjects returned for a follow-up breath test and those with an abnormal LBT were continued on the diet for an additional 7 days. The ability of an elemental diet to normalize the LBT was determined for days 15 and 21. A chart review was then conducted to evaluate any clinical benefit 1 month later. Of the 93 subjects available for analysis, 74 (80%) had a normal LBT on day 15 of the elemental diet. When those who continued to day 21 were included, five additional patients normalized the breath test (85%). On chart review, subjects who successfully normalized their breath test had a 66.4 +/- 36.1% improvement in bowel symptoms, compared to 11.9 +/- 22.0% in those who failed to normalize (P < 0.001). An elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing an abnormal LBT in IBS subjects, with a concomitant improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:14992438

  6. Increased beta-adrenergic responsiveness induced by 14 days exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1995-01-01

    Increased sensitivity of end-organ responses to neuroendocrine stimuli as a result of prolonged exposure to the relative inactivity of microgravity has recently been hypothesized. This notion is based on the inverse relationship between circulating norepinephrine and beta-adrenoreceptor sensitivity. The beta-adrenoreceptor activity is reduced in individuals who have elevated plasma norepinephrine as a result of regular exposure to upright posture and physical exercise. In contrast, adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity has been reported in patients with dysautonomias in which circulating catecholamines are absent or reduced. Taken together, these studies and the observation that circulating plasma norepinephrine has been reduced during spaceflight and in groundbased simulations of microgravity prompt the suggestion that adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity may be a consequence of the adaptation to spaceflight. We conducted an experiment designed to measure cardiovascular responses to adrenoreceptor agonists in human subjects before and after prolonged exposure to 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that adaptation to microgravity increases adrenoreceptor responsiveness, and that this adaptation is associated with reduced levels of circulating norepinephrine.

  7. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Tabbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of astronauts' visual changes have raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings include globe flattening with hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, it is hypothesized that, in predisposed individuals, hypertension in the brain may follow cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight. This possible mechanism of ocular changes may also apply to analogous cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) or pseudotumor cerebri on Earth patients. Head-down t ilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. Previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) but the conditions of bed rest varied among experiments, making it difficult to compare data and draw conclusions. For these reasons, vision evaluation of bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies since 2010, in an attempt to monitor vision health in subjects subjected to bed rest. Vision monitoring is thus currently performed in all NASA-conducted bed rest campaigns

  8. Evaluation of Arecoline Hydrobromide Toxicity after a 14-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jianrong; Zhou, Xuzheng; Li, Jianyong; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    A subchronic toxicity test was conducted in rats on the basis of a previous acute toxicity test to evaluate the safety of arecoline hydrobromide (Ah), to systematically study its pharmacological effects and to provide experimental support for a safe clinical dose. Eighty rats were randomly divided into four groups: a high-dose group (1000 mg/kg), medium-dose group (200 mg/kg), low-dose group (100mg/kg) and blank control group. The doses were administered daily via gastric lavage for 14 consecutive days. There were no significant differences in the low-dose Ah group compared to the control group (P>0.05) with regard to body weight, organ coefficients, hematological parameters and histopathological changes. The high-dose of Ah influenced some of these parameters, which requires further study. The results of this study indicated that a long-term, continuous high dose of Ah was toxic. However, it is safe to use Ah according to the clinically recommended dosing parameters. The level of Ah at which no adverse effects were observed was 100 mg/kg/day under the present study conditions. PMID:25880067

  9. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  10. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  11. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity - very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  12. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this...). SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORY: On February 3, 2011, the Postal Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement for various market dominant postal services,...

  13. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  14. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  15. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  16. Magnetospheric Periodicities at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Hamilton, D. C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    For several years before equinox, the energetic charged and neutral particles in Saturn’s magnetosphere displayed strong periodicities near 10.8 hours, the same period observed in radio emissions and magnetic fields. These particle periodicities have now been observed at equinox in electrons, protons, oxygen ions, and neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms at all energies greater than ~3 keV, the lowest energies measured by the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft. The equinoctial electrons exhibit a very strong period at 10.72 hours, while the protons have essentially no periodicity at all. Water group ions display a notable period at 10.73 hours. Both the electrons and the ions have curious overtones in their spectral structure that may be related to solar wind modulation. The energetic neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms have strong periods of 10.79 hours at equinox. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the ENA periods are slightly longer than the charged particle periods, although they cover a somewhat different time interval. For comparison, the Cassini magnetometer observed periodicities in Saturn’s magnetic field of 10.65 hours during the same equinoctial interval. These observations will be interpreted in terms of a wavy magnetodisk model.

  17. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  18. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  19. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  20. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  1. Effects of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds may persist in the post fledging period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) typically decreases the number of host juveniles that fledge: however, little information exists regarding the effect of cowbird parasitism during the post-fledging period. We monitored 115 Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests in 2006–2008 in northcentral Minnesota, six of which were parasitized. We used radiotelemetry to monitor movements of 36 Ovenbird fledglings (nine additional fledglings depredated <24 hrs after fledging were excluded from the movement analysis) from non-parasitized nests and one fledgling from a parasitized nest. Clutch sizes and productivity were lower in parasitized Ovenbird nests than non-parasitized nests, similar to populations at other locations. The fledgling we tracked from a parasitized nest (in 2008) died after 26 days. It was the only fledgling in our study that died (n  =  20) with no sign of predation and an empty stomach. That fledgling took 12 days to travel >50 m from its nest and 25 days to travel >100 m from its nest. Fledglings from non-parasitized broods tracked for ≥25 days during 2008 (n  =  16) took 4.1 ± 0.71 and 9.5 ± 1.14 days to travel the same distances. Our observations suggest that negative effects of brood parasitism may persist into the post-fledging period, possibly confirming observations of cowbird-only survival compiled from the literature.

  2. NIMBUS-7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) observations of solar UV spectral irradiance variations caused by solar rotation and active-region evolution for the period November 7, 1978 - November 1, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Repoff, T. P.; Donnelly, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of temporal variations of the solar UV spectral irradiance over several days to a few weeks in the 160-400 nm wavelength range are presented. Larger 28-day variations and a second episode of 13-day variations occurred during the second year of measurements. The thirteen day periodicity is not a harmonic of the 28-day periodicity. The 13-day periodicity dominates certain episodes of solar activity while others are dominated by 28-day periods accompanied by a week 14-day harmonic. Techniques for removing noise and long-term trends are described. Time series analysis results are presented for the Si II lines near 182 nm, the Al I continuum in the 190 nm to 205 nm range, the Mg I continuum in the 210 nm to 250 nm range, the MgII H & K lines at 280 nm, the Mg I line at 285 nm, and the Ca II K & H lines at 393 and 397 nm.

  3. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  4. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  5. 75 FR 39200 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Counsel, at stephen.sharfman@prc.gov or 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... rulemaking proceeding to consider a change in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic...

  6. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  7. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  8. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  9. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, M. J. S.

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  10. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  11. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  12. Bioaccumulation of cinmethylin in bluegill sunfish

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.W. ); Forbis, A.D.; Franklin, L. )

    1990-01-01

    Technical cinmethylin and Cinch 7EC herbicide showed low toxicity against various aquatic organisms. The bioaccumulation potential of ({sup 14}C)cinmethylin in the bluegill sunfish under a dynamic flow-through system at a constant concentration of 0.1 mg/L was examined. A rapid uptake of radioactivity was observed. Tissue residues plateaued after 3 days, and the mean tissue residues after 28 days of exposure were 35, 12, and 58 {mu}g/g (ppm) for the whole fish, fillet, and viscera, respectively. The corresponding bioconcentration factors for the above tissues were 360, 120, and 600, respectively. Greater than 99% of the tissue residues was eliminated from the exposed fish after the 14-day depuration period. In addition to ({sup 14}C)cinmethylin, major metabolites isolated from the treated fish were {alpha}-carboxycinmethylin and 8-hydroxy-{alpha}-carboxycinmethylin. o-Toluic acid and {alpha}-hydroxycinmethylin were observed as minor components.

  13. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  14. Periodical Vandalism: A Chronic Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Esther L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the losses due to theft and mutilation in the periodicals collection at Brock University indicates that security needs to be tightened. Nine suggestions for improving security are offered, and six references are cited. (CHC)

  15. Accumulation and Debromination of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) in Juvenile Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Induces Thyroid Disruption and Liver Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Hinton, David E.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are known to affect thyroid hormone (TH) regulation. The TH-regulating deiodinases have been implicated in these impacts; however, PBDE effects on the fish thyroid system are largely unknown. Moreover, the liver as a potential target of PBDE toxicity has not been explored in young fish. This study measured decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) effects on TH regulation by measuring deiodinase activity in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Dietary accumulations and debromination of BDE-209 were also measured, and the morphology of thyroid and liver tissues was examined. Juvenile fathead minnows (28 days old) received a 28-day dietary treatment of BDE-209 at 9.8 ± 0.16 μg/g of food at 5% of their body weight per day followed by a 14-day depuration period in which they were fed clean food. Chemical analysis revealed that BDE-209 accumulated in tissues and was metabolized to reductive products ranging from penta- to octaBDEs with 2,2′,4,4′,5,6′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154) being the most accumulative metabolite. By day 28 of the exposure, rates of outer and inner ring deiodination (ORD and IRD, respectively) of thyroxine (T4) were each reduced by ∼74% among treatments. Effects on T4-ORD and T4-IRD remained significant even after the 14-day depuration period. Histological examination of treated fish showed significantly increased thyroid follicular epithelial cell heights and vacuolated hepatocyte nuclei. Enlarged biliary passageways may be the cause of the distinctive liver phenotype observed, although further testing is needed. Altogether, these results suggest that juvenile fish may be uniquely susceptible to thyroid disruptors like PBDEs. PMID:21546348

  16. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  17. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  18. On composites with periodic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.; Iwakuma, T.; Hejazi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The overall moduli of a composite with an isotropic elastic matrix containing periodically distributed (anisotropic) inclusions or voids, can be expressed in terms of several infinite series which only depend on the geometry of the inclusions or voids, and hence can be computed once and for all for given geometries. For solids with periodic structures these infinite series play exactly the same role as does Eshelby's tensor for a single inclusion or void in an unbounded elastic medium. For spherical and circular-cylindrical geometries, the required infinite series are calculated and the results are tabulated. These are then used to estimate the overall elastic moduli when either the overall strains or the overall stresses are prescribed, obtaining the same results. These results are compared with other estimates and with experimental data. It is found that the model of composites with periodic structure yields estimates in excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Antioxidant responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Menghong; Wu, Fangli; Yuan, Mingzhe; Li, Qiongzhen; Gu, Yedan; Wang, Youji; Liu, Qigen

    2015-11-01

    Bloom forming algae and hypoxia are considered to be two main co-occurred stressors associated with eutrophication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on an ecologically important mussel species inhabiting lakes and reservoirs, the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, which is generally considered as a bio-management tool for eutrophication. A set of antioxidant enzymes involved in immune defence mechanisms and detoxification processes, i.e. glutathione-S-transferases (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lysozyme (LZM) in mussel haemolymph were analyzed during 14days exposure along with 7days depuration duration period. GST, GSH, SOD, GPX and LZM were elevated by toxic M. aeruginosa exposure, while CAT activities were inhibited by such exposure. Hypoxia influenced the immune mechanisms through the activation of GSH and GPX, and the inhibition of SOD, CAT, and LZM activities. Meanwhile, some interactive effects of M. aeruginosa, hypoxia and time were observed. Independently of the presence or absence of hypoxia, toxic algal exposure generally increased the five tested enzyme activities of haemolymph, except CAT. Although half of microcystin could be eliminated after 7days depuration, toxic M. aeruginosa or hypoxia exposure history showed some latent effects on most parameters. These results revealed that toxic algae play an important role on haemolymph parameters alterations and its toxic effects could be affected by hypoxia. Although the microcystin depuration rate of H. cumingii is quick, toxic M. aeruginosa and/or hypoxia exposure history influenced its immunological mechanism recovery. PMID:26318116

  20. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  1. Detection of latent sequence periodicities.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, E; Liuni, S; Frontali, C

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the automatic detection of serial periodicities in a linear sequence. Its application to DNA subtelomeric sequences from two lower eukaryotes, P.falciparum and S.cerevisiae, reveals ordered patterns organised in hierarchical periodicities, not easily recognizable by other methods. The possible implications concerning the evolution of tandemly repetitive arrays are discussed in light of a model which involves, as successive steps, random repeat modification, the fusion of differently modified repeat versions into longer units, and the amplification of (and/or homogenization to) the more recent repeat units. PMID:2197595

  2. HEPTACHLOR: UPTAKE, DEPURATION, RETENTION, AND METABOLISM BY SPOT, 'LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estuarine fish, spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), was exposed to 0.27, 0.52, 1.01, 1.99, and 3.87 micrograms/liter technical grade heptachlor (65% heptachlor, 22% trans-chlordane, 2% cis-chlordane, 2% nonachlor, and 9% unidentified compounds) for 24 days in a flow-through bioassay...

  3. Uptake and depuration of petroleum hydrocarbons by crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    No differences were noted in the amount of naphthalene uptake (approximately 125 :g) by individual crayfish exposed for 1, 2, or 4 hr at 25?C in open, non-aerated glass jars containing14C-naphthalene-5% of a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of No. 2 fuel oil. The cephalothorax, containing the hepatopancreas (a food absorption organ), showed greater uptake of naphthalene than the tail flesh or tail skeleton of individual crayfish exposed to the oil for 3 hr at 25?C. Crayfish exposed to the oil for 1, 2, or 4 hr and then placed in open, non-aerated containers of oil-free water lost most of the carbon-14 activity during the first 24 hr, with smaller losses occurring at 24 hr intervals up to and including 96 hr. Carbon-14 naphthalene in a 5% WSF of No. 2 fuel oil held in 12 open, non-aerated, oil-free, glass jars for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hr at 25?C showed little volatilization (P > 0.4).

  4. DEPURATION KINETICS OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE CLAM, MACOMA NASUTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that bioaccumulates in tissues of marine and fresh water fish (Young and Heesen, 1978; Niimi, 1979; Tsui and McCart, 1981). nce taken up by these tissues, biodegradation is very slow with pentachlorophenol (Sanborn e...

  5. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  6. The Period of 2167 Erin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montigiana, N.; Benedetti, W.; Mannucci, M.; Riccetti, S.

    2008-09-01

    Analysis of data taken in March and April 2007 by groups from Osservatorio Astronomico Margherita Hack and the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire indicates a likely period of 5.7186 ± 0.0001 h for 2167 Erin. The amplitude of the lightcurve was 0.53 ± 0.02 mag.

  7. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  8. 78 FR 70904 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rulemaking... Counsel, at 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Petition...

  9. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...The Commission is establishing a docket to consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to a Postal Service rulemaking petition. Establishing this docket will allow the Commission to consider the Postal Service's proposal and comments from the...

  10. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  11. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  12. 76 FR 30893 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in analytical principles. Proposal Three involves... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ Proposal... of a Proceeding to Consider a Proposed Change in Analytic Principles (Proposal Three), May 18,...

  13. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  14. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E.; Hall, David G.; Dawson, William O.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These ‘Las-exposed’ psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1–42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7–14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49–59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8–29% of the psyllids were infected following 1–14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14–28 days padp for nymphs and 21–35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when

  15. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E; Hall, David G; Dawson, William O; Shatters, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These 'Las-exposed' psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1-42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7-14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49-59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8-29% of the psyllids were infected following 1-14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14-28 days padp for nymphs and 21-35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when acquired by adults

  16. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  17. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  18. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  1. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  2. Noncoherent detection of periodic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The optimal Bayes detector for a general periodic waveform having uniform delay and additive white Gaussian noise is examined. It is shown that the detector is much more complex than that for the well known cases of pure sine waves (i.e. classical noncoherent detection) and narrowband signals. An interpretation of the optimal processing is presented, and several implementations are discussed. The results have application to the noncoherent detection of optical square waves.

  3. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  4. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  5. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  6. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  7. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  8. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  9. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  10. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  11. Rotation period of comet Donati

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the rotation period of comet Donati (1858 VI) whose haloes were approximate parabolic envelopes having foci near the apparent nucleus and vertices toward the sun forward from the tail axis. The regularity and sharpness of the halves suggest that they represent the repetitive ejection of material from an active area which is exposed to solar radiation as the cometary nucleus rotates. Bobrovnikov's results (1954) are used to evaluate the linear expansion velocity of such haloes. This calculation is applied to the comet and a linear correction is used to assess the results.

  12. Long-Period Solar Variability

    SciTech Connect

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  13. Rotational periods of asteroids II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccioli, D.; Blanco, C.; Cigna, M.

    2001-06-01

    In the framework of the photoelectric asteroid observational program undertaken at Catania University to collect lightcurves apt to apply the pole computational methods, the V-band lightcurves and the values of the synodic rotational period and of the average B- V colour index of 5 Astrea, 6 Hebe, 12 Victoria, 13 Egeria, 26 Proserpina, 34 Circe, 63 Ausonia, 66 Maja, 102 Miriam, 140 Siwa, 176 Iduna, 181 Eucaris, 241 Germania, 250 Bettina, 258 Tyche, 313 Chaldea, 335 Roberta, 352 Gisela, 419 Aurelia, 471 Papagena, 537 Pauly, 639 Latona and 984 Gretia are presented.

  14. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  15. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  16. Periodic microwave absorption in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinek, J.; Stankowski, J. )

    1994-08-01

    A model explaining the presence of a periodic train of microwave absorption lines in the magnetic modulated microwave absorption (MMMA) spectra of high- and low-temperature superconductors is proposed. The model assumes the occurrence of regular superconducting current loops, closed by Josephson junctions, in these materials. The system of such loops is considered within the basic model of the rf superconducting quantum interference device taking into account the effect of thermal fluctuations. The magnetic-field and temperature dependencies of the MMMA obtained on the basis of the proposed model are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  17. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  18. Quasi-periodic spatiotemporal filtering.

    PubMed

    Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282

  19. Flame propagation through periodic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Kerr, O.S.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-02-01

    The discovery of a new class of Navier-Stokes solutions representing steady periodic stretched vortices offers a useful test-bed for examining interactions between flames and complex flow-fields. After briefly describing these vortex solutions and their wide-ranging parameterization in terms of wavelength and amplitude, this article examines their effect on flames of constant normal propagation speed as observed through numerical solutions of an eikonal equation. Over certain ranges of vortex amplitude and flame-speed, a corridor of enhanced flame passage is seen to be created as a leading flame-tip managers to leap-frog between successive vortices. However, for large enough amplitudes of vorticity or small enough flame-speeds, the flame fails to be able to benefit from the advection due to the vortices. It is shown that the leading tips of such flames are effectively trapped by the stretched vortices.

  20. The periodic table in Flatland

    SciTech Connect

    Negadi, T.; Kibler, M.

    1996-01-05

    The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aujbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of a Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra U{sub q}(so(D)), that breaks down the SO(D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated in some detail. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. 55 refs.

  1. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  2. 34 CFR 75.251 - Budget periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget periods. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education Office...-Year Projects § 75.251 Budget periods. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of not more... multi-year project period, the Secretary: (1) Makes a grant to the project for the initial budget...

  3. The Educator's Guide to Computer Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlabay, Les R.

    1982-01-01

    This annotated directory of periodicals on computers and computer-related topics is divided into three sections: (1) seven major periodicals designed specifically for teachers who wish to use computers as a classroom aid; (2) 12 general-interest computer periodicals for educators; and (3) 15 additional periodicals for specialized interest. (JL)

  4. 20 CFR 627.901 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition period. 627.901 Section 627.901... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Transition Provisions § 627.901 Transition period. The transition period ended June 30, 1993 unless otherwise stated. The intent of the transition period is...

  5. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  6. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  7. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  8. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  9. 7 CFR 1488.7 - Expiration of period(s) for delivery and/or export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Financing Export Sales § 1488.7 Expiration of period(s..., the period for delivery may be extended by CCC by the period of such delay. (c) If delivery is...

  10. Gauge interaction as periodicity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, Donatello

    2012-06-01

    The paper is devoted to a geometrical interpretation of gauge invariance in terms of the formalism of field theory in compact space-time dimensions (Dolce, 2011) [8]. In this formalism, the kinematic information of an interacting elementary particle is encoded on the relativistic geometrodynamics of the boundary of the theory through local transformations of the underlying space-time coordinates. Therefore gauge interactions are described as invariance of the theory under local deformations of the boundary. The resulting local variations of the field solution are interpreted as internal transformations. The internal symmetries of the gauge theory turn out to be related to corresponding space-time local symmetries. In the approximation of local infinitesimal isometric transformations, Maxwell's kinematics and gauge invariance are inferred directly from the variational principle. Furthermore we explicitly impose periodic conditions at the boundary of the theory as semi-classical quantization condition in order to investigate the quantum behavior of gauge interaction. In the abelian case the result is a remarkable formal correspondence with scalar QED.

  11. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  12. Dense periodic packings of tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Dense packings of nonoverlapping bodies in three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 are useful models of the structure of a variety of many-particle systems that arise in the physical and biological sciences. Here we investigate the packing behavior of congruent ring tori in R3, which are multiply connected nonconvex bodies of genus 1, as well as horn and spindle tori. Specifically, we analytically construct a family of dense periodic packings of unlinked tori guided by the organizing principles originally devised for simply connected solid bodies [22 Torquato and Jiao, Phys. Rev. E 86, 011102 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.011102]. We find that the horn tori as well as certain spindle and ring tori can achieve a packing density not only higher than that of spheres (i.e., π /√18 =0.7404...) but also higher than the densest known ellipsoid packings (i.e., 0.7707...). In addition, we study dense packings of clusters of pair-linked ring tori (i.e., Hopf links), which can possess much higher densities than corresponding packings consisting of unlinked tori.

  13. HR 1225 - New observations and period search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuPuy, D. L.; Collins, G.; Swingler, D. N.

    1982-02-01

    Four nights of photoelectric observations of the delta Scuti star HR 1225 have been obtained. The light curve has a variable amplitude envelope indicating that more than one period is present. A search for periodicities using the Jurkevich method and Fourier analysis suggests periods of 0.156 d and 0.097 d. A least-squares solution yields a fair fit to the data with these two periods. The Fourier transform suggests that three periods are present.

  14. TIME COURSE OF METAL LOSS IN LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS FOLLOWING SEDIMENT EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After exposure for 21 d to sediment spiked with Cd, Pb, Cu, or Zn, oligochaetes held in clean water depurated metal rapidly over the first few hours, but much more slowly from 8 h up to 32 h. Results are consistent with previous work suggresting a 6-h depuration period as general...

  15. The effect of IDS (immediate dentin sealing) on dentin bond strength under various thermocycling periods

    PubMed Central

    Leesungbok, Richard; Lee, Sang-Min; Park, Su-Jung; Lee, Suk-Won; Lee, Do Yun; Im, Byung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) on bond strength of ceramic restoration under various thermocycling periods with DBA (dentin bonding agent system). MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular third molars were divided into 5 groups (1 control and 4 experimental groups) of 10 teeth. We removed enamel layer of sound teeth and embedded them which will proceed to be IDS, using All Bond II. A thermocycling was applied to experimental groups for 1, 2, 7, 14 days respectively and was not applied to control group. IPS Empress II for ceramic was acid-etched with ceramic etchant (9.5% HF) and silane was applied. Each ceramic disc was bonded to specimens with Duo-link, dual curable resin cement by means of light curing for 100 seconds. After the cementation procedures, shear bond strength measurement and SEM analysis of the fractured surface were done. The data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between 4 experimental groups and control group, however the mean value started to decrease in group 7d, and group 14d showed the lowest mean bond strength in all groups. Also, group 7d and 14d showed distinct exposed dentin and collapsed hybrid layer was observed in SEM analysis. CONCLUSION In the present study, it can be concluded that ceramic restorations like a laminate veneer restoration should be bonded using resin cement within one week after IDS procedure. PMID:26140174

  16. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (P<0.05) foetuses per ewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. PMID:26454684

  17. 29 CFR 516.23 - Employees of hospitals and residential care facilities compensated for overtime work on the basis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensated for overtime work on the basis of a 14-day work period pursuant to section 7(j) of the Act. 516.23... facilities compensated for overtime work on the basis of a 14-day work period pursuant to section 7(j) of the... employee's 14-day work period begins, (2) Hours worked each workday and total hours worked each 14-day......

  18. Length of the memory retention period depends on the extent of protein synthesis in the terrestrial slug Limax.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota

    2016-09-01

    The terrestrial slug Limax can form an odor-aversion memory by the single simultaneous presentation of a food odor and an aversive stimulus. We have previously demonstrated that the long-term retention of this memory was impaired by a high-dose injection of a protein synthesis inhibitor 30min prior to the conditioning. However, the onset of amnesia was delayed if the dose of the inhibitor was reduced or a less potent protein synthesis inhibitor was used. We thus speculated that the persistence of memory depends on the amount of newly synthesized protein following learning. In the present study, we further elaborated on this idea by injecting a high dose of anisomycin at different timings before or after conditioning, and tested the memory retention at 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14days after the conditioning. We found that the injection of anisomycin 6h before, or 1h after the conditioning had no effect on memory retention for 7days, and an injection at 30min before and just following the conditioning impaired the memory retention at 3days. Interestingly, the injection at 3h before and 30min after the conditioning did not impair the retention at 3days but did impair retention at 7days. Taking into account the time course of protein synthesis inhibition in the brain, our results further support the idea that the memory retention period is dependent on the amount of protein synthesized following memory acquisition. PMID:27497918

  19. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. Method: observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. Results: in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. Conclusion: anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. PMID:27305181

  20. [Morphology and development of the veins of the uterus in cattle during the fetal and neonatal periods].

    PubMed

    Wyrost, P; Molenda, O; Radek, J; Radek, T

    1990-03-01

    A total of 101 specimens were used; they came from 89 fetuses (4th to 40th week of gestation) and 12 neonates (1 to 14 days old). The age of the fetuses was determined according to the method of Kantorova (1960). The uterine veins were filled with latex using an automatic injection apparatus of our own construction. The study showed that blood left the uterus of the examined animals through constantly present veins (Ramus uterinus venae ovaricae, V. uterina and Ramus uterinus venae vaginalis) as well as through a number of inconstant veins to which belonged the Vv. vaginales accessoriae craniales et caudales. The constant uterine veins and their branches differed from their adult counterparts by being morphologically more differentiated, especially by having more branches of which some disappeared with time. The uterine veins developed toward the end of the fetal period. They arose either from the most caudal Vv. mesonephridicae lumbales (V. ovarica and its branches), or from the segmental, visceral veins of the pelvis (V. uterina and Vv. vaginales). PMID:2375507

  1. Trends in synoptic circulation and precipitation in the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, in the period 1958-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2016-03-01

    The hydroclimate of the Snowy Mountains, south-east Australia (SEA), is influenced by tropical and extra-tropical synoptic scale weather systems. Accordingly, it is sensitive to any changes in the mid-latitude westerly wind belt, the dominant driver of precipitation in winter, and the entrainment of moisture from tropical latitudes, particularly during the warmer months of the austral summer. The region has historically observed a cool-season (April-October) dominated precipitation regime. However, evidence is presented of a decline in precipitation during the autumn and spring transition months. Autumn precipitation is particularly important for crop sowing and agricultural production in the Murray-Darling Basin downstream of the Snowy Mountains, whilst spring precipitation influences snowmelt and water storage replenishment in the Snowy Mountains. Instead, we show a change in the annual precipitation distribution is evident, with an increase in precipitation during warmer months. Trend analyses for the period 1958-2012 show a decrease in annual frequency of precipitation days capable of generating inflows to the catchments of the Snowy Mountains of - 1.4 days per decade on average, whilst the precipitation they generate has increased by + 5.7 mm per decade. These results align with climate change projections that precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense.

  2. Dearth of short-period Neptunian exoplanets: A desert in period-mass and period-radius planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, T.; Holczer, T.; Faigler, S.

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have reported a significant dearth of exoplanets with Neptune mass and radius with orbital periods below 2-4 d. This cannot be explained by observational biases because many Neptunian planets with longer orbital periods have been detected. The existence of this desert is similar to the appearance of the so-called brown-dwarf desert that suggests different formation mechanisms of planets and stellar companions with short orbital periods. Similarly, the Neptunian desert might indicate different mechanisms of formation and evolution for hot Jupiters and short-period super-Earths. We here follow a previous study and examine the location and shape of the desert in both the period-mass and period-radius planes, using the currently available large samples of planets. The desert in the period-mass plane has a relatively sharp upper edge, with a planetary mass that is inversely proportional to the planetary orbital period, while the lower, somewhat blurred, boundary is located along masses that are apparently linearly proportional to the period. The desert in the period-radius plane of the transiting planets is less clear. It seems as if the radius along the upper boundary is inversely proportional to the period to the power of one-third, while the lower boundary shows a radius that is proportional to the period to the power of two-thirds. The combination of the two upper bounds of the desert, in the period-mass and period-radius planes, yields a planetary mass-radius relation of Rp/RJup ≃ (1.2 ± 0.3)(Mp/MJup)0.27 ± 0.11 for 0.1 ≲ Mp/MJup ≲ 1. The derived shape of the desert, which might extend up to periods of 5-10 d, could shed some light on the formation and evolution of close-in planets.

  3. Periodic Poisson model for beam dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohlus, M.; Henning, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    A method is described to solve the Poisson problem for a three dimensional source distribution that is periodic into one direction. Perpendicular to the direction of periodicity a free space (or open) boundary condition is realized. In beam physics, this approach allows us to calculate the space charge field of a continualized charged particle distribution with periodic pattern. The method is based on a particle-mesh approach with equidistant grid and fast convolution with a Green's function. The periodic approach uses only one period of the source distribution, but a periodic extension of the Green's function. The approach is numerically efficient and allows the investigation of periodic- and pseudoperiodic structures with period lengths that are small compared to the source dimensions, for instance of laser modulated beams or of the evolution of micro bunch structures. Applications for laser modulated beams are given.

  4. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  5. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  6. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  7. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  8. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  9. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  10. Improvement of the lung function of horses with heaves by treatment with a botanical preparation for 14 days.

    PubMed

    Anour, R; Leinker, S; van den Hoven, R

    2005-12-01

    The effects of an oral preparation containing a mixture of extracts from yellow gentian, garden sorrel, cowslip, verbena and common elder on the lung function of nine horses suffering from heaves were determined in a longitudinal crossover study. The horses were divided at random into a group of five (group 1) and a group of four (group 2). The horses in group 1 were each given 15 tablets of the preparation twice daily, while the horses in group 2 were left untreated. Fourteen days later, the horses in group 2 were given the same course of treatment while the horses in group 1 were left untreated. On being subjected to a histamine inhalation provocation test, five of eight horses tested appeared to be hyperresponsive to histamine. The treatment decreased the histamine sensitivity of three of them; it also caused a significant decrease in maximal intrapleural pressure difference of all the horses. The treatment had no significant effects on the clinical signs, the mucociliary activity or the cytology of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the horses. PMID:16326966

  11. 14 Days of supplementation with blueberry extract shows anti-atherogenic properties and improves oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats model.

    PubMed

    Ströher, Deise Jaqueline; Escobar Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa; Güllich, Angélica Aparecida da Costa; Pilar, Bruna Cocco; Coelho, Ritiéle Pinto; Bruno, Jamila Benvegnú; Faoro, Debora; Manfredini, Vanusa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with blueberry (BE) extract (Vaccinium ashei Reade) for 14 consecutive days on biochemical, hematological, histopathological and oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats were investigated. After supplementation with lyophilized extract of BE, the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histopathological analysis showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) of aortic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rats. Oxidative parameters showed significant reductions (p < 0.05) in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The BE extract showed an important cardioprotective effect by the improvements in the serum lipid profile, antioxidant system, particularly in reducing oxidative stress associated with hypercholesterolemia and anti-atherogenic effect in rats. PMID:26171628

  12. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures. PMID:15226467

  13. Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD) have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. Methods The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a) Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b) Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c) Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d) PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e) TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f) Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration), CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. Conclusion The overall result evolved from the study strengthens the candidature of CAD as a safe microbicidal spermicide. It is almost non-irritant to rabbit skin and rat vaginal tissues at doses 10 fold higher than its hemolytic index. The effect of CAD on Lactobacillus culture was not highly encouraging but it prevented the growth of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans at 20 mg/ml of CAD. PMID:21801392

  14. Fluid compartment and renal function alterations in the rat during 7 and 14 day head down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to conditions of microgravity for any extended duration can modify the distribution of fluid within the vascular and interstitial spaces, and eventually intracellular volume. Whether the redistribution of fluid and resetting of volume homeostasis mechanisms is appropriate for the long term environmental requirements of the body in microgravity remains to be fully defined. The event that initiates the change in fluid volume homeostasis is the cephalad movement of fluid which potentially triggers volume sensors and stretch receptors (atrial stretch with the resulting release of atrial natriuretic peptide) and suppresses adrenergic activity via the carotid and aortic arch baroreceptors. All these events act in concert to reset blood and interstitial volume to new levels, which in turn modify the renin-angiotensin system. All these factors have an influence on the kidney, the end organ for fluid volume control. How the fluid compartment volume changes interrelate with alterations in renal functions under conditions of simulated microgravity is the focus of the present investigation which utilizes 25-30 deg head-down tilt in the rat.

  15. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  16. 34 CFR 668.4 - Payment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment period. 668.4 Section 668.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.4 Payment period. (a) Payment periods for an eligible program that...

  17. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  18. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  20. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  1. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  3. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  4. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  5. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, the FAA reviews and makes a decision on an application...

  6. 14 CFR 325.6 - Periodic reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic reviews. 325.6 Section 325.6... REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.6 Periodic reviews. (a) The Department will start a periodic review of essential air service within 1 year of the date of the previous determination...

  7. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  8. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  9. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  10. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  11. 40 CFR 65.166 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including a halogen reduction device for a low-throughput transfer rack, is used to control emissions from storage vessels or low-throughput transfer racks, the periodic report shall identify and state the cause...-throughput transfer racks, periodic reports shall include the following information: (1) Periodic...

  12. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  13. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  14. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  15. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  16. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  17. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  18. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  19. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  20. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  1. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  2. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  3. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  4. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  5. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  6. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  7. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  8. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  9. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding period. 34.82 Section 34.82 Banks and... Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the...

  10. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding period. 34.82 Section 34.82 Banks and... Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of OREO at the earliest time that prudent judgment dictates, but not later than the end of the...

  11. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding period. 73.7005 Section 73.7005... Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a... holding period. From the grant of the construction permit and continuing until the facility has...

  12. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  13. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  14. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  15. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  16. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  17. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  18. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  19. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  20. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  1. 42 CFR 423.38 - Enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... period is the period during which an individual is first eligible to enroll in a Part D plan. (1) In 2005... which the notification was received. (b) Annual coordinated election period—(1) For 2006. This period... enroll in a PDP or disenroll from a PDP and enroll in another PDP or MA-PD plan (as provided at §...

  2. 42 CFR 423.38 - Enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period is the period during which an individual is first eligible to enroll in a Part D plan. (1) In 2005... which the notification was received. (b) Annual coordinated election period—(1) For 2006. This period... enroll in a PDP or disenroll from a PDP and enroll in another PDP or MA-PD plan (as provided at §...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  4. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service... § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1)(i) Until the effective date identified by the Postal Service in a future Federal Register document, a 2- to 4-day service standard is applied to Periodicals...

  5. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  6. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  7. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service... § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1)(i) Until February 1, 2014, a 2- to 4-day service standard is applied to Periodicals pieces properly accepted before the day-zero Critical Entry Time (CET) and...

  8. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  9. 42 CFR 412.626 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 412.626 Section 412.626 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.626 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period and proportion of the blended transition rate. (1) Except for a facility that makes an election under...

  10. 42 CFR 136a.31 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 136a.31 Section 136a.31 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Transition Provisions § 136a.31 Transition period. (a) The transition period for full implementation of the new eligibility regulations consists of three parts; (1)...

  11. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification period. 247.16 Section 247.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a) How long is the certification period?...

  12. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. In... service which began before and extended into the Mexican border period or ended during World War I,...

  13. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. In... service which began before and extended into the Mexican border period or ended during World War I,...

  14. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. In... service which began before and extended into the Mexican border period or ended during World War I,...

  15. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. In... service which began before and extended into the Mexican border period or ended during World War I,...

  16. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  17. 77 FR 5470 - Periodicals-Recognition of Distribution of Periodicals via Electronic Copies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... 111 Periodicals--Recognition of Distribution of Periodicals via Electronic Copies AGENCY: Postal... electronic distribution methods to report such circulation as paid or requested distribution, as applicable... allow distribution of Periodicals publications through various electronic media channels. According...

  18. A highly specific test for periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  19. Sawtooth period control by power modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, Menno; Schuster, Eugenio; de Baar, Marco; Felici, Federico; Heemels, Maurice; Gomes, Alexander; Goodman, Tim; Kim, Doohyun; Sauter, Olivier; Vandersteen, Gerd; Witvoet, Gert; Lennholm, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is foreseen that long sawtooth oscillations will occur during ITER H-mode scenarios leading to confinement loss and even disruptions. Sawtooth period control is therefore crucial. Most sawtooth period control approaches depend on changing the deposition location of electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) near r(q =1). In contrast to this, several TCV and AUG experiments with fixed ECCD deposition location show that ECCD power modulation, either periodic or feedback controlled, can lead to fast and reliable period control. To understand this nonlinear phenomenon, a reduced and `hybrid' reset model has been derived that models the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis reveals that the sawtooth period can be controlled by power modulation, even in the case of significant model uncertainties or when there is a significant lengthening effect of the fast particles on the sawtooth period, as there will be in ITER. The model can also be used to design period control using ICRH influencing this fast particle effect.

  20. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  1. Long periodic terms in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-06-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  2. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  3. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  4. 21 CFR 610.53 - Dating periods for licensed biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 months. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed 2 years ......do 1 year. Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: 1. Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen 6 months ......do 6 months. 2. Lyophilized coated red.... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: 1. Unlyophilized coated red blood cells Not applicable ......do 14 days...

  5. The period distribution of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, J. M.; King, A. R.; Lasota, J. P.; Ritter, H.

    1988-04-01

    In a recent paper, Warner and Livio (1987) claim that the AM Her and SU UMa cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods P less than 2 hr show a tendency to cluster in disjoint period ranges. It is shown here that the statistical significance of this result is entirely due to the large accumulation of AM Her systems in the range 113.5-114.8 minutes. It has been shown elsewhere that this period spike is probably caused by the resumption of mass transfer after the systems cross the 2-3 hr period gap. It is emphasized that the 'synchronization-induced gap' mechanism of Lamb and Melia (1987) is based on an incorrect assumption about the contraction time scale of a mass-losing secondary star and cannot produce any significant gap in the period distribution of AM Her systems or lead to the formation of ultrashort-period CVs, as claimed by Lamb and Melia.

  6. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  7. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  8. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  9. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  10. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  11. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1)(i) Until February 1, 2014, a 2- to 4-day service standard is applied to Periodicals pieces properly...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  17. [Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Areta-Higuera, J D; Algaba-Montes, M; Oviedo-García, A Á

    2014-01-01

    Periodic paralysis is a rare disorder that causes episodes of severe muscle weakness that can be confused with other diseases, including epilepsy or myasthenia gravis. Hyperkalemic and hypokalemic paralysis are included within these diseases, the latter being divided into periodic paralysis (familial, thyrotoxic or sporadic) and non-periodic paralysis. In this regard, we present a case of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis in an eighteen year-old female who was diagnosed with epilepsy in childhood, as well as a subclinical hypothyroidism (for which she received replacement therapy) months ago. The diagnosis was made by the anamnesis and the confirmation of hypokalemia. PMID:24360869

  18. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  3. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  4. On periodicity of solar wind phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, V. K.; Joshi, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the rate of occurrence of solar wind phenomena observed between 1972-1984 using power spectrum analysis. The data have been taken from the high speed solar wind (HSSW) streams catalogue published by Mavromichalaki et al. (1988). The power spectrum analysis of HSSW events indicate that HSSW stream events have a periodicity of 9 days. This periodicity of HSSW events is 1/3 of the 27 days period of coronal holes which are the major source of solar wind events. In our opinion the 9 days period may be the energy build up time to produce the HSSW stream events.

  5. Doppler effects on periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetosphere of Saturn exhibits a wide variety of periodic phenomena in magnetic fields, charged particles, and radio emissions. The periodicities are observed from a moving spacecraft, so an issue arises about the periodicities being influenced by the Doppler effects. Doppler effects can be investigated using models of the periodicities and then flying the spacecraft through the model, effectively measuring any Doppler phenomena with the simulation. Using 200 days of typical elliptical orbits from the Cassini mission at Saturn, three models were tested: an azimuthal wave (or "searchlight") model, a radial wave (or "pond ripple") model, and a model of an outwardly traveling spiral wave. The azimuthal wave model produced virtually no Doppler effects in the periodicities because its wave vector is nearly perpendicular to the spacecraft trajectory. The radial wave model generated strong Doppler effects of an upshifted and a downshifted signal (a dual period) on either side of the true period, because the wave vector is either parallel or antiparallel to the spacecraft trajectory. Being intermediate to the searchlight and radial waves, the spiral wave produced Doppler effects but only for low wave speeds (<10 RS/h). For higher wave speeds the Doppler effects were not as clear. The Doppler effects can be mitigated by employing only observations beyond ~15 RS where the spacecraft speed is low compared to the wave speed. The observed periodicities over the same 200 day interval do not show evidence of Doppler effects but generally display a single feature at the expected ~10.7 h period.

  6. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  7. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  8. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  9. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  10. On almost periodic solutions of logistic delay differential equations with almost periodic time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Rong

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we study almost periodic logistic delay differential equations. The existence and module of almost periodic solutions are investigated. In particular, we extend some results of Seifert in [G. Seifert, Almost periodic solutions of certain differential equations with piecewise constant delays and almost periodic time dependence, J. Differential Equations 164 (2000) 451-458].

  11. Time periodic solution to the compressible Euler equations with damping in a periodic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhong; Xu, Qiuju; Wang, Huaqiao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence and uniqueness of a time periodic solution to the three-dimensional compressible damped Euler equations in a periodic domain. By adapting a regularized approximation scheme and applying the topological degree theory, we establish the existence of the time periodic solution under some smallness and structure assumptions imposed on a time periodic force. And based on energy estimates, the uniqueness of the periodic solution is proved.

  12. A National Periodicals Center Technical Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This technical plan for developing, managing, and operating a national periodicals center (NPC), which was prepared at the request of the Library of Congress, is designed so that it could be used by the Library or any other agency prepared to assume responsibility for the creation of a major periodicals facility. The overall goal of the NPC is to…

  13. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  14. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the beneficiary's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  15. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the beneficiary's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  16. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  17. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... applicable at each stage of the beneficiary's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age at... screening services specified under paragraph (b) of this section....

  18. Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Adam, Comp.

    This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

  19. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  20. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part...

  1. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part...

  2. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part...

  3. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part...

  4. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part...

  5. Lightcurve and period determination for 582 Olympia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, David; Menke, John; Pozzoli, Valentino; Sheridan, Edwin; Dymock, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Minor planet 582 Olympia was observed over a period of 40 days from 9 February to 20 March 2003. More than 3000 data points from 42 sessions were obtained by 5 observers. The lightcurve obtained shows a rotational (synodic) period of 72.0 ± 0.5 hrs with amplitude of 0.20 ± 0.05 mag.

  6. 14 CFR 23.49 - Stalling period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stalling period. 23.49 Section 23.49 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.49 Stalling period. Link to an amendment published...

  7. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  8. 28 CFR 524.75 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic review. 524.75 Section 524.75... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.75 Periodic review. The Warden shall ensure that the status of an inmate's CIM assignment is considered at each program...

  9. 28 CFR 524.75 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodic review. 524.75 Section 524.75... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.75 Periodic review. The Warden shall ensure that the status of an inmate's CIM assignment is considered at each program...

  10. 50 CFR 424.21 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic review. 424.21 Section 424.21... SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.21 Periodic review. At least once every 5 years, the Secretary shall conduct a review of each listed species to determine whether...

  11. 50 CFR 424.21 - Periodic review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic review. 424.21 Section 424.21... SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT § 424.21 Periodic review. At least once every 5 years, the Secretary shall conduct a review of each listed species to determine whether it should be delisted...

  12. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 1.417 Section 1.417 Agriculture Office... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest...

  13. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  14. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  15. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  16. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  17. 40 CFR 65.166 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a... subpart, report all periods when all pilot flames were absent or the flare flame was absent as recorded in... report and the previous periodic report, the total number of hours that the control system did not...

  18. 40 CFR 65.166 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a... subpart, report all periods when all pilot flames were absent or the flare flame was absent as recorded in... report and the previous periodic report, the total number of hours that the control system did not...

  19. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.224 - Periodic evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic evaluation. 1280.224 Section 1280.224 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Periodic evaluation. Pursuant to the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C....

  1. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator will... management area (including any waste management activity prior to permitting, and the closure period.) (b....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  2. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator will... management area (including any waste management activity prior to permitting, and the closure period.) (b....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... Federal awards in compliance with the terms of those awards. Appendix A to this part describes what...

  4. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... whether the participant as a whole is managing its Federal awards in compliance with the terms of...

  5. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  6. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  7. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  8. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  9. 20 CFR 655.205 - Recruitment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment period. 655.205 Section 655.205... Agricultural Employment § 655.205 Recruitment period. (a) If the OFLC Administrator determines that the... carry out the assurances contained in § 655.203 with respect to the recruitment of U.S. workers....

  10. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid...

  11. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Periodicals Mail'' published by the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 41989-41991) is revised to... March 27, 1995, the Postal Service published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029... Part 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION: Final rule; revised....

  12. 14 CFR 254.6 - Periodic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic adjustments. 254.6 Section 254.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.6 Periodic adjustments. The Department of Transportation...

  13. Dirac Cones in Periodically Modulated Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuanzhao; Sakoda, Kazuaki

    2016-06-01

    We show by a degenerate k · p perturbation theory and group theory that Dirac cones in the Brillouin-zone center can be materialized for the electronic bands of periodically modulated quantum wells. We examine in particular the periodic modulation of the C4v and C6v symmetries. The analytical conclusions are confirmed by numerical calculations using the finite element method.

  14. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  15. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  16. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  17. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  18. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid...

  19. The dispersion of period spacing for DAVstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    Three groups of DAV star models are evolved with time-dependent element diffusion by WDEC. The core compositions of these models are directly from white dwarf models evolved by MESA, which are results of thermonuclear burning. Based on these DAV star models, we try to study the dispersion of period spacing. The thickness of hydrogen atmosphere can seriously affect the deviation degree of minimal period spacings. The minimal period spacings dominate the dispersion of period spacing. The thinner the hydrogen atmosphere, basically, the more dispersive the period spacing. Standard deviations are used to analyse the dispersion of period spacing. Studying the dispersion of period spacing on a DAV star KUV03442+0719 preliminarily, we suggest that log(MH/M*) is from -8.5 to -5.5. In addition, modes partly trapped in C/O core are found based on those DAV star models. The identified modes and average period spacings indicate that KUV03442+0719 may be the first star to `observe' modes partly trapped in C/O core.

  20. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  1. How Sensitively Timed Are Sensitive Periods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    Reviews Maria Montessori's view of sensitive periods and examines the kinds of help needed from adults: an open mind, specific help from a prepared learning environment, and challenges presented at the right time. Stresses the universality of sensitive periods and their connection to brain development. Focuses on the unconscious nature and…

  2. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following...

  3. 42 CFR 423.38 - Enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... period during which an individual is first eligible to enroll in a Part D plan. (1) In 2005. An... notification was received. (b) Annual coordinated election period—(1) For 2006. This period begins on November... disenroll from a PDP and enroll in another PDP or MA-PD plan (as provided at § 422.62(b) of this...

  4. 42 CFR 423.38 - Enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... period during which an individual is first eligible to enroll in a Part D plan. (1) In 2005. An... notification was received. (b) Annual coordinated election period—(1) For 2006. This period begins on November... individual may enroll in a PDP or disenroll from a PDP and enroll in another PDP or MA-PD plan (as...

  5. 42 CFR 423.38 - Enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enrollment periods. 423.38 Section 423.38 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment § 423.38 Enrollment periods. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.506 - Limitation periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Limitation periods. 1261.506 Section 1261.506 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.506 Limitation periods. NASA may not initiate administrative offset to collect a debt under 31...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.506 - Limitation periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation periods. 1261.506 Section 1261.506 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.506 Limitation periods. NASA may not initiate administrative offset to collect a debt under 31...

  8. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  9. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  10. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  11. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  12. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  13. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  14. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  15. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  16. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  17. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  18. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  19. 14 CFR 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section Sec. 2... Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this... settlement with debtors or creditors. (c) Expenditures incurred during the current accounting year...

  20. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  1. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  2. 18 CFR 367.5 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounting period. 367.5 Section 367.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Instructions § 367.5 Accounting period. Each service company must keep its books on a monthly basis so that...

  3. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in "J Chem Educ" 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students'…

  4. 75 FR 38757 - Periodic Reporting Exceptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... 39 CFR 3055 Periodic Reporting Exceptions AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... to Postal Service-proposed semi-permanent exceptions to certain rules on periodic reporting of... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On June 25, 2010,...

  5. 75 FR 71643 - Periodic Reporting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... No. RM2008-4, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Prescribing Form and Content of Periodic Reports, August... Commission approval of a list of research projects to be undertaken and a preliminary projected time...

  6. 43 CFR 2651.3 - Selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection period. 2651.3 Section 2651.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Village Selections § 2651.3 Selection period. Each eligible village corporation must file its selection application(s)...

  7. 43 CFR 2652.2 - Selection period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection period. 2652.2 Section 2652.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Regional Selections § 2652.2 Selection period. All regional corporations must file their selection applications not...

  8. School Superintendents' Choices of Professional Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, C. Russell; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports results of national survey of superintendents' top reading choices from a list of 34 periodicals in educational leadership. Superintendents' top-ranked periodicals are "Educational Leadership,""Phi Delta Kappan,""School Administrator," and "American School Board Journal." (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  9. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  10. Periodical Literature of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    In order to foster improvements in bibliographical control, this study attempts to provide some information on the periodicals in which articles on tropical and subtropical agriculture are published. The periodicals in which publications most frequently appear are listed, and the extent of bibliographic scattering and language of publication are…

  11. 49 CFR 215.15 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.15 Periodic inspection. (a... an initial periodic inspection in accordance with 49 CFR 215.25, as in effect on October 6, 1976 (41... shall be stenciled to so indicate in accordance with 49 CFR 215.11 and appendix C of this part, as...

  12. 49 CFR 215.15 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.15 Periodic inspection. (a... an initial periodic inspection in accordance with 49 CFR 215.25, as in effect on October 6, 1976 (41... shall be stenciled to so indicate in accordance with 49 CFR 215.11 and appendix C of this part, as...

  13. 49 CFR 215.15 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.15 Periodic inspection. (a... an initial periodic inspection in accordance with 49 CFR 215.25, as in effect on October 6, 1976 (41... shall be stenciled to so indicate in accordance with 49 CFR 215.11 and appendix C of this part, as...

  14. 49 CFR 215.15 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.15 Periodic inspection. (a... an initial periodic inspection in accordance with 49 CFR 215.25, as in effect on October 6, 1976 (41... shall be stenciled to so indicate in accordance with 49 CFR 215.11 and appendix C of this part, as...

  15. 49 CFR 215.15 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.15 Periodic inspection. (a... an initial periodic inspection in accordance with 49 CFR 215.25, as in effect on October 6, 1976 (41... shall be stenciled to so indicate in accordance with 49 CFR 215.11 and appendix C of this part, as...

  16. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  17. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  18. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...