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Sample records for 14-day washout period

  1. Rebound in ventilator-associated pneumonia rates during a prevention checklist washout period.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Ali A; Scott, Annette M; Shambaugh, Karen J; Shaffer-Hartman, Jacqueline N; Dechert, Ronald E; Hieber, Susan M; Gosbee, John W; Niedner, Matthew F

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the washout effect after stopping a prevention checklist for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS VAP rates were prospectively monitored for special cause variation over 42 months in a paediatric intensive care unit. A VAP prevention bundle was implemented, consisting of head of bed elevation, oral care, suctioning device management, ventilator tubing care, and standard infection control precautions. Key practices of the bundle were implemented with a checklist and subsequently incorporated into the nursing and respiratory care bedside flow sheets to achieve long-term sustainability. Compliance with the VAP bundle was monitored throughout. The timeline for the project was retrospectively categorised into the benchmark phase, the checklist phase (implementation), the checklist washout phase, and the flowsheet phase (cues in the flowsheet). RESULTS During the checklist phase (12 months), VAP bundle compliance rose from <50% to >75% and the VAP rate fell from 4.2 to 0.7 infections per 1000 ventilator days (p<0.059). Unsolicited qualitative feedback from frontline staff described overburdensome documentation requirements, form fatigue, and checklist burnout. During the checklist washout phase (4 months), VAP rates rose to 4.8 infections per 1000 ventilator days (p<0.042). In the flowsheet phase, the VAP rate dropped to 0.8 infections per 1000 ventilator days (p<0.047). CONCLUSIONS Salient cues to drive provider behaviour towards best practice are helpful to sustain process improvement, and cessation of such cues should be approached warily. Initial education, year-long habit formation, and effective early implementation demonstrated no appreciable effect on the VAP rate during the checklist washout period.

  2. Randomized, observer-blind, split-face study to compare the irritation potential of 2 topical acne formulations over a 14-day treatment period.

    PubMed

    Ting, William

    2012-08-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, split-face study assessed the irritation potential and likelihood of continued use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% gel or adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel once daily over a 14-day treatment period in 21 participants (11 males; 10 females) with acne who were 18 years or older. Investigator clinical assessment (erythema and dryness) and self-assessment (dryness and burning/stinging) were performed at baseline and each study visit (days 1-14) using a 4-point scale (O = none; 3 = severe). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry measurements were performed at baseline and days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. Lesions were counted at baseline and on day 14. Participant satisfaction questionnaires were completed on days 7 and 14. At the end of the study, investigators reported none or only mild erythema in 86% (18/21) of participants treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel compared with 62% (13/21) of participants treated with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. No severe erythema was reported with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel was prematurely discontinued due to severe erythema in 1 participant on day 5 and a second participant on day 9. Additionally, 2 more participants reported severe erythema on day 14. Mean erythema scores were 0.9 (mean change from baseline, 0.7) with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and 1.4 (mean change from baseline, 1.3) with adapalene 0. 1%--BPO 2.5% gel on day 14 (P < .05 for days 6-14). Similar results were seen with dryness. Mean scores were 0.5 (mean change from baseline, 0.4) and 1.0 (mean change from baseline, 1.0), respectively (P < .05 for days 6-14). Self-assessment, TEWL, and corneometry results underscored the investigator clinical assessment. Participant preference and likelihood of continued usage was greater with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Continued use and efficacy results for the treatment of acne were

  3. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  4. 14 Days to Have Your Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Andrea; Haulgren, Frank

    2010-01-01

    During spring quarter 2008, the Western Washington University (WWU) Libraries established an interactive bloglike environment called "14 Days to Have Your Say" with the intention of gathering new ideas and feedback about the libraries from the university community. The environment was developed as a fairly simple Drupal site. The project was open…

  5. Effect of chloroquine wash-out period of photosensitizers in the skin and selected organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Zima, T; Jirsa, M; Jirsa, M; Jirásková, M; Bradová, V; Stádník, B

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, photodynamic therapy has become an alternative method for the diagnosis and therapy of tumors. In human medicine hematoporphyrin derivatives, sulfonated hydrophilic meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPPS4) and an oligomer of hematoporphyrin (Photosan 3), are widely used. Chloroquine is used for the treatment of porphyria cutanea tarda for its power to release porphyrins from the liver tissue. The kinetics of two porphyrin photosensitizers TPPS4 and Photosan 3 in the skin and some organs as well as the effect of chloroquine on the porphyrin excretion and their accumulation in skin and organs of Wistar rats were studied. TPPS4 exhibited maximum fluorescence in skin 48 h after application with decreasing to basal level from the 8th to the 14th day. Maximum fluorescence was reached at 72 hours after Photosan 3 application and it decreased to basal level during 96 hours after application. TPPS4 caused significantly higher fluorescence compared to Photosan 3. Chloroquine after oral administration did not change the fluorescence of skin, but it significantly decreased the TPPS4 concentration in rat organs if chloroquine treatment started 3 days or 2 weeks after TPPS4 application. Chloroquine significantly decreased the serum TPPS4 concentration during the period of 28 days. Fluorescence of skin was significantly higher and lasted longer after application of TPPS4 compared to Photosan 3. Chloroquine after oral administration did not influence the fluorescence of the skin, but it significantly decreased the TPPS4 concentration in rat organs. This effect could be useful in photodynamic therapy for mobilizing exogenous porphyrins from tissues after parenteral photodynamic therapy. PMID:14984321

  6. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  7. ENT function in a 14-days guinness scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Revelli, L; D'Alatri, L; Scorpecci, A; D'Amore, A; De Corso, E; Lombardi, C P; Fetoni, A R

    2012-01-01

    Scuba diving is known to affect the rhino-pharyngo-tubaric district (RPT unit). The aim of the study was to document function modifications of the RPT unit in 6 Italian divers (3 men and 3 women) who lived for 14 days consecutively at a depth of 8-10 m, breathing air (21% oxygen) at a pressure ranging between 1.8 and 2 ATA. RPT and inner ear assessment were carried out before the dive (TIME 0) and 24 h (TIME 1) after resurfacing, in order to investigate diving-related RPT and inner ear alterations. Physical examination after resurfacing revealed: fungal external otitis, otoscopic findings consistent with middle ear barotraumas and rhinosinusitis. Rhino-manometry showed a remarkable increase in inspiratory nasal flow and a substantial decrease in nasal resistance. No epithelial cell disruption was retrieved comparing pre and post resurfacing samples. Post-diving tubaric dysfunction was found. Pure tone audiometry revealed a bilateral 40 dB HL hearing loss at 4 kHz in 1 diver. Relevant PTA functions did not seem to be affected by the experiment, no remarkable changes were found at the Sensory Organisation Test and at the Motor Control Test. The 14-day underwater period had a positive effect on nasal flows and resistances.

  8. Comparing 14-day adhesive patch with 24-h Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Kerr, Charles R; Krahn, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    Barrett PM, Komatireddy R, Haaser S et al. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring. Am. J. Med. 127(1), 95.e11–95.e17 (2014). The investigation of cardiac arrhythmias in the outpatient ambulatory setting has traditionally been initiated with the Holter monitor. Using the continuous recording over 24 or 48 h, the Holter monitor permits the detection of baseline rhythm, dysrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, including heart block and changes in the ST segment that may indicate myocardial ischemia. However, apart from the bulkiness and inconvenience of the device itself, the lack of extended monitoring results in a diagnostic yield of typically less than 20%. In this study by Barrett et al., 146 patients referred for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia were prospectively enrolled to wear both the 24-h Holter monitor and 14-day adhesive patch monitor (Zio Patch) simultaneously. The primary outcome was the detection of any one of six arrhythmias: supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause >3 s, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. The adhesive patch monitor detected more arrhythmia events compared with the Holter monitor over the total wear time (96 vs. 61 events; p < 0.001), although the Holter monitor detected more events during the initial 24-h monitoring period (61 vs. 52 events; p = 0.013). Novel, single-lead, intermediate-duration, user-friendly adhesive patch monitoring devices, such as the Zio Patch, represent the changing face of ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, the loss of quality, automated rhythm analysis and inability to detect myocardial ischemia continue to remain important issues that will need to be addressed prior to the implementation of these new devices.

  9. An automatic 14-day paste diet feeder for animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasques, Marilyn; Mulenburg, Jerry; Gundo, Dan; Griffith, Jon

    1994-01-01

    During a centrifuge experiment, any interruption that requires stopping the centrifuge may influence the results. Centrifuges often must be stopped for animal maintenance (food, water and waste removal), especially in cases of timed feedings. To eliminate the need for stopping the centrifuge while still providing timed feeding, an automatic paste diet feeder was developed. The feeder is based on a constant volume concept and can deliver a predetermined amount of paste diet at specified time intervals. This unit was supported by water delivery and waste collection systems. The entire system performed reliably and maintained the animals well for a continuous centrifugation experiment of 14 days.

  10. EPO modulation in a 14-days undersea scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Revelli, L; Vagnoni, S; D'Amore, A; Di Stasio, E; Lombardi, C P; Storti, G; Proietti, R; Balestra, C; Ricerca, B M

    2013-10-01

    Erythropoiesis is affected during deep saturation dives. The mechanism should be related to a downregulation of serum Erythropoietin (s-EPO) concentration or to a toxic effect of the hyperbaric hyperoxia. We evaluated s-EPO and other haematological parameters in 6 scuba divers before, during and after a 14-days guinness saturation dive (8-10 m). Athletes were breathing air at 1.8-2 ATA, under the control of a team of physicians. Serum parameters were measured before diving (T0) and: 7 days (T1), 14 days (T2) after the beginning of the dive and 2 h (T3) and 24 h (T4) after resurfacing. Hgb, and many other haematological parameters did not change whereas Ht, s-EPO, the ratio between s-EPO predicted and that observed and reticulocytes (absolute, percent) declined progressively from T0 to T3. At T4 a significant rise in s-EPO was observed. Hgb did not vary but erythropoiesis seemed to be affected as s-EPO and reticulocyte counts showed. All these changes were statistically significant. The experiment, conducted in realistic conditions of dive length, oxygen concentration and pressure, allows us to formulate some hypotheses about the role of prolonged hyperbarism on erythropoiesis. The s-EPO rise, 24 h after resurfacing, is clearly documented and related to the "Normobaric Oxygen Paradox". This evidence suggests interesting hypotheses for new clinical applications such as modulation of s-EPO production and Hgb content triggered by appropriate O₂ administration in pre-surgical patients or in some anemic disease.

  11. Changes in recruitment of Rhesus soleus and gastrocnemius muscles following a 14 day spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Bodine-Fowler, S. C.; Roy, R. R.; De Leon, R. D.; De Guzman, C. P.; Koslovskaia, I.; Sirota, M.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the recruitment patterns of the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis-anterior muscles was investigated by comparing electromyograms (EMGs) of these muscles of Rhesus monkeys implanted with EMG electrodes, taken before and after a 14-day flight on board Cosmos 2044. It was found that the EMG amplitude values in the soleus muscle decreased after the spaceflight but returned to normal values over the 2-wk recovery period. The medial amplitudes of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior were not changed by flight. Joint probability density distributions displayed changes after flight in both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, but not in tibialis anterior.

  12. [A 14-day-old boy with jaundice and apnoea].

    PubMed

    Smerud, Ole-Jørgen Olsøy; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud; Grønn, Morten

    2015-12-15

    We describe an infant who was readmitted from home at 14 days of age with jaundice and a history of apnoea and episodes of retrocollis/opisthotonos. He had been only mildly jaundiced on discharge from the maternity clinic at 2 days of age. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) on admission was 542 µmol/L, and the infant was treated intensively with triple phototherapy and exchange transfusion. In contrast to what is recommended in Norwegian national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, the parents had apparently neither received oral nor written information about jaundice and its follow-up at the time of discharge from maternity. They therefore contacted their child healthcare centre when they had questions about jaundice, though the national guidelines specifically state that follow-up for neonatal jaundice during the first 2 weeks of life is the responsibility of the birth hospital. Inappropriate advice resulted in delayed referral, and the child has been diagnosed with chronic kernicterus, probably the first such case in Norway since national guidelines were formalised in 2006. Genetic work-up disclosed compound heterozygosity for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, to the best of our knowledge the first instance of this disorder ever to have been diagnosed in Norway. The incidence of kernicterus is Norway is much lower than in other industrialised countries. This is most likely due to national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, which place the responsibility for management and follow-up of jaundice with the birth hospital during the crucial first 2 weeks of life. This case report reminds us that tragedies may occur when guidelines are disregarded. PMID:26674039

  13. Exercise thermoregulation after 14 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Reese, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and exercise training during bed rest on body temperature and thermoregulatory responses at rest and during exercise are investigated. Seven male subjects underwent three two-week periods of bed rest during which isometric, isotonic, or no exercises were performed, separated by two ambulatory control periods and preceded by a two-week control period, during which they exercised regularly. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and sweating responses were determined during 70-min submaximal supine exercise during the bed rest and recovery periods. Measurements reveal a reduction in basal oral temperature during the control-recovery periods, with a relatively constant level during bed rest periods, and a significant increase in the rectal temperature elavation brought on by exercise following all three bed-rest regimes. It is concluded that the excessive increase in rectal temperature could be influenced by changes in skin heat conductance or the inhibition of sweating.

  14. Report of 14-day bedrest simulation of Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Compiler); Mitchell, C. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    Part one of a two-phase bedrest project in which the physiological effects of weightlessness were simulated is presented. The project was designed to approximate the medical testing and dietary control of Skylab. The test period included a three week pre-flight period, a two week bedrest period and a two week post-flight period. The test subjects ate measured amounts of the Skylab diet and drank deionized water to recreate the metabolic balance studies of Skylab. The medical testing program, pre- and postbedrest, was similar to that of Skylab including: lower body negative pressure testing the orthostatic intolerance noted after both spaceflights and bedrest, bicycle ergometry testing the cardiovascular response to graded exercise, postural equilibrium, vestibular studies and electromyograms. Fluid and electrolyte shifts and balance were documented with intake and output records and radionuclide studies. The subjects were observed by a psychiatrist who watched for signs of mental stress in the test environment and changes in mental status.

  15. Inclusion of a three-dimensional washout coefficient in ADPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Naeslund, E.; Holmstroem, H.

    1993-05-01

    In ADPIC, the deposition emerging from washout has thus far been modelled rather crudely, since the only option has been to turn the rain on and off at different times. This kind of modelling is particularly unsatisfactory when ADPIC is used to model continuous releases over long periods of time. The assumption of simultaneous rain throughout such a large plume is simply not true. In this report a modified version of ADPIC with a three-dimensional (3-D) washout coefficient is presented. The effect of space variable precipitation is examined via two separate releases that are simulated for a period of 48 hours: one continuous {open_quote}Chernobyl-like source{close_quote} release and one instantaneous {open_quote}nuclear explosion-like{close_quote}. Simulations with both the new and old formulation are made and the resulting deposition patterns are compared.

  16. HTO washout model: on the relationship between exchange rate and washout coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.; Balashov, Y.; Mavrin, S.; Golubeva, V.; Galeriu, D.

    2015-03-15

    Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by a first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. The washout coefficient is a macroscopic parameter and we have considered in this paper its relationship with a microscopic rate K of HTO isotopic exchange in atmospheric humidity and drops of rainwater. We have shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships of molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient Λ can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.

  17. Hemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin, and aldosterone in man after 5 to 14 days of bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melada, G. A.; Goldman, R. H.; Luetscher, J. A.; Zager, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous bedrest for 5 to 14 days had no significant effect on resting heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac output in six normal men. Head-up tilt induced greater tachycardia in 5 of 6 patients after bed rest than in the control period. Propranolol diminished both tachycardia and the incidence of hypotension and faintness in upright posture. Plasma volume fell, extracellular fluid volume increased, and plasma renin activity was significantly elevated following bedrest. Unusually large increases in plasma renin followed head-up tilt or administration of isoproterenol during bedrest and after resuming normal activity. During bedrest, plasma aldosterone was often increased in the early morning. It is concluded that after bedrest, upright posture evokes strong beta-adrenergic activity as well as exaggerated metabolic and circulatory responses which can be reduced or abolished by the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol.

  18. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  19. Single and 14-day repeated dose inhalation toxicity studies of hexabromocyclododecane in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Naining; Li, Lei; Li, Haishan; Ai, Wenchao; Xie, Wenping; Yu, Wenlian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Cheng; Shen, Guolin; Zhou, Lili; Wei, Changlei; Li, Dong; Chen, Huiming

    2016-05-01

    Limited toxicological information is available for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD),a widely used additive brominated flame retardant. Inhalation is a major route of human exposure to HBCD. The aim of this study was to determine the acute inhalation toxicity and potential subchronic inhalation toxicity of HBCD in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to HBCD only through inhalation. The acute inhalation toxicity of HBCD was determined using the limit test method on five male and five female Sprague-Dawley rats at a HBCD concentration of 5000 mg/m(3). Repeated-dose toxicity tests were also performed, with 20 males and 20 females randomly assigned to four experimental groups (five rats of each sex in each group). There were three treatment groups (exposed to HBCD concentrations of 125,500, and 2000 mg/m(3)) and a blank control group (exposed to fresh air). In the acute inhalation toxicity study, no significant clinical signs were observed either immediately after exposure or during the recovery period. Gross pathology examination revealed no evidence of organ-specific toxicity in any rat. The inhalation LC50(4 h) for HBCD was higher than 5312 ± 278 mg/m3 for both males and females. In the repeated dose inhalation study, daily head/nose-only exposure to HBCD at 132 ± 8.8, 545.8 ± 35.3, and 2166.0 ± 235.9 mg/m(3) for 14 days caused no adverse effects. No treatment-related clinical signs were observed at any of the test doses. The NOAEL for 14-day repeated dose inhalation toxicity study of HBCD is 2000 mg/m(3). PMID:26929994

  20. 4 CFR 7.5 - Adverse actions: Suspensions for 14 days or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse actions: Suspensions for 14 days or less. 7.5 Section 7.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PERSONNEL RELATIONS AND SERVICES § 7.5 Adverse actions: Suspensions for 14 days or less. (a) Policy. A GAO employee may be...

  1. Changes in prevalence of subjective fatigue during 14-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayanagi, Kaname; Natsuno, Toyoki; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Nobuhisa; Watanabe, Yoriko; Suzuki, Satomi; Iwase, Satoshi; Mano, Tadaaki; Yajima, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of subjective fatigue in young healthy males during 14 days of 6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) by using a multidimensional questionnaire. Forty-one subjects completed the Subjective Fatigue Scale questionnaire to assess the fatigue-related complaints and symptoms. The questionnaire is composed of three sections, with 10 items each. The sections measured drowsiness and dullness (Section 1), difficulty in concentration (Section 2), and the projection of physical disintegration (Section 3). The subjects answered simple questions between 1400 and 1700 on 6 measurement days before and during the HDBR period. The prevalence rate of low back pain was markedly high (80.5%) on the second day and more than 50% in the first half of the HDBR period, and any complaints related to either a lack of sleep or a deterioration in the quality of sleep continued until the end of the HDBR period. Our findings may be useful in developing preventive strategies against physical and mental fatigue associated with prolonged HDBR, horizontal bed rest, and microgravity environments.

  2. Local versus whole-body sweating adaptations following 14 days of traditional heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Martin P; Gagnon, Daniel; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if local changes in sweat rate following 14 days of heat acclimation reflect those that occur at the whole-body level. Both prior to and following a 14-day traditional heat acclimation protocol, 10 males exercised in the heat (35 °C, ∼20% relative humidity) at increasing rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 350 (Ex2), and 400 (Ex3) W·m(-2). A 10-min recovery period followed Ex1, while a 20-min recovery period separated Ex2 and Ex3. The exercise protocol was performed in a direct calorimeter to measure whole-body sweat rate and, on a separate day, in a thermal chamber to measure local sweat rate (LSR), sweat gland activation (SGA), and sweat gland output (SGO) on the upper back, chest, and mid-anterior forearm. Post-acclimation, whole-body sweat rate was greater during each exercise bout (Ex1: 14.3 ± 0.9; Ex2: 17.3 ± 1.2; Ex3: 19.4 ± 1.3 g·min(-1), all p ≤ 0.05) relative to pre-acclimation (Ex1: 13.1 ± 0.6; Ex2: 15.4 ± 0.8; Ex3: 16.5 ± 1.3 g·min(-1)). In contrast, only LSR on the forearm increased with acclimation, and this increase was only observed during Ex2 (Post: 1.32 ± 0.33 vs. Pre: 1.06 ± 0.22 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.03) and Ex3 (Post: 1.47 ± 0.41 vs. Pre: 1.17 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), p = 0.05). The greater forearm LSR post-acclimation was due to an increase in SGO, as no changes in SGA were observed. Overall, these data demonstrate marked regional variability in the effect of heat acclimation on LSR, such that not all local measurements of sweat rate reflect the improvements observed at the whole-body level. PMID:27467216

  3. Glycogen depletion and resynthesis during 14 days of chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit muscle.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; Bernal, C; Cadefau, J A; Frias, J; Tibolla, M; Cussó, R

    2002-10-10

    Electro-stimulation alters muscle metabolism and the extent of this change depends on application intensity and duration. The effect of 14 days of chronic electro-stimulation on glycogen turnover and on the regulation of glycogen synthase in fast-twitch muscle was studied. The results showed that macro- and proglycogen degrade simultaneously during the first hour of stimulation. After 3 h, the muscle showed net synthesis, with an increase in the proglycogen fraction. The glycogen content peaked after 4 days of stimulation, macroglycogen being the predominant fraction at that time. Glycogen synthase was determined during electro-stimulation. The activity of this enzyme was measured at low UDPG concentration with either high or low Glu-6-P content. Western blots were performed against glycogen synthase over a range of stimulation periods. Activation of this enzyme was maximum before the net synthesis of glycogen, partial during net synthesis, and low during late synthesis. These observations suggest that the more active, dephosphorylated and very low phosphorylated forms of glycogen synthase may participate in the first steps of glycogen resynthesis before net synthesis is observed, while partially phosphorylated forms are most active during glycogen elongation.

  4. Analytical evaluation of two motion washout techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Practical tools were developed which extend the state of the art of moving base flight simulation for research and training purposes. The use of visual and vestibular cues to minimize the actual motion of the simulator itself was a primary consideration. The investigation consisted of optimum programming of motion cues based on a physiological model of the vestibular system to yield 'ideal washout logic' for any given simulator constraints.

  5. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  6. Nitrogen washout during tidal breathing with superimposed high-frequency chest wall oscillation.

    PubMed

    Harf, A; Zidulka, A; Chang, H K

    1985-08-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) superimposed on tidal ventilation, multiple-breath nitrogen washout curves were obtained in 7 normal seated subjects. To maintain a regular breathing pattern throughout the study, the subjects breathed synchronously with a Harvard ventilator set at a constant tidal volume and frequency for each subject during a trial period. Washout curves were obtained during 3 different maneuvers performed in random order. Series A was the control condition with no superimposed HFCWO. In Series B and C, HFCWO at 5 Hz was superimposed on the regulated tidal breathing; the magnitude of the oscillatory tidal volume measured at the airway opening was 20 ml for Series B and 40 ml for Series C. The nitrogen washout was clearly faster in Series C than in Series A for each subject. In Series B, there was an interindividual variability, with a washout rate either equal to that in Maneuver A or in Maneuver C, or intermediate between the two. When these washout curves were analyzed in terms of a simple monocompartment model, the time constant of the washout was found to decrease by 16 +/- 11% in Series B, and 25 +/- 7% in Series C compared with that in Series A. In this group of normal subjects, the correction of any inhomogeneity in the distribution of the ventilation is unlikely to explain these results because of the close fit of all washout curves to a monoexponential model. It is postulated that during inspiration HFCWO enhances gas mixing in the lung periphery and that during expiration it improves gas mixing in the airways.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Evidence for Increased Beta-Adrenoreceptor Responsiveness Induced by 14 Days of Simulated Microgravity in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Polet, Jill L.; Engelke, Keith A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha and beta receptor agonists in 8 healthy men ( 38+- 2 yrs) before and after 14 days of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenergic responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Immediately following a 30-min baseline period, a steady-state infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) was used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic responsiveness. ISO was infused at three graded constant rates of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 ug/kg/min. After heart rate and blood pressure had been allowed to return to baseline levels following ISO infusion graded infusion of phenylephrine (PE) was used to assess responsiveness of alpha I-vascular receptors. PE was infused at three graded constant rates of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 ug/kg/min. Each infusion interval for both drugs was 9 min. During the infusions, constant monitoring of beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate was performed and leg blood flow was measured with occlusion plethysmography at each infusion level. The slopes calculated from linear regressions between ISO and PE doses and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance for each subject were used to represent alpha- and beta- adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Fourteen days HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1056 +- 107 to 1553 +- 83 beats/ug/kg/min; P= 0.014) and vasodilation (-469ft +- 111 to -l446 +- 309 PRU/ug/kg/min; P =0.0224) to ISO infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular responses.

  8. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  9. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  10. A 14-day ground-based hypokinesia study in nonhuman primates: A compilation of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazarian, L.; Cann, C. E.; Parfitt, M.; Simmons, D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1981-01-01

    A 14 day ground based hypokinesia study with rhesus monkeys was conducted to determine if a spaceflight of similar duration might affect bone remodeling and calcium homeostatis. The monkeys were placed in total body casts and sacrificed either immediately upon decasting or 14 days after decasting. Changes in vertebral strength were noted and further deterioration of bone strength continued during the recovery phase. Resorption in the vertebrae increased dramatically while formation decreased. Cortical bone formation was impaired in the long bones. The immobilized animals showed a progressive decrease in total serum calcium which rebounded upon remobilization. Most mandibular parameters remained unchanged during casting except for retardation of osteon birth or maturation rate and density distribution of matrix and mineral moieties.

  11. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  12. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Chouker, A.; Feuerecker, M.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the use of 14 day undersea missions as a possible analog for short duration spaceflight for the study of immune system dysregulation. Sixteen subjects from the the NASA Extreme Enviro nment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 12, 13 and 14 missions were studied for immune system dysregulation. The assays that are presented in this poster are the Virleukocyte subsets, the T Cell functions, and the intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles. Other assays were performed, but are not included in this presntation.

  13. Comparison of soleus muscles from rats exposed to microgravity for 10 versus 14 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staron, R. S.; Kraemer, W. J.; Hikida, R. S.; Reed, D. W.; Murray, J. D.; Campos, G. E.; Gordon, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of two different duration space-flights on the extent of atrophy, fiber type composition, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content of rat soleus muscles were compared. Adult male Fisher rats (n=12) were aboard flight STS-57 and exposed to 10 days of microgravity and adult ovariectomized female Spraque-Dawley rats (n=12) were aboard flight STS-62 for 14 days. Soleus muscles were bilaterally removed from the flight and control animals and frozen for subsequent analyses. Muscle wet weights, fiber types (I, IC, IIC, and IIA), cross-sectional area, and MHC content were determined. Although a significant difference was found between the soleus wet weights of the two ground-based control groups, they were similar with regard to MHC content (ca 90% MHCI and ca 10% MHCIIa) and fiber type composition. Unloading of the muscles caused slow-to-fast transformations which included a decrease in the percentage of type I fibers and MHCI, an increase in fibers classified as type IC, and the expression of two fast myosin heavy chains not found in the control rat soleus muscles (MHCIId and MHCIIb). Although the amount of atrophy (ca 26%) and the extent of slow-to-fast transformation (decrease in the percentage of MHCI from 90% to 82.5%) in the soleus muscles were similar between the two spaceflights, the percentages of the fast MHCs differed. After 14 days of spaceflight, the percentage of MHCIIa was significantly lower and the percentages of MHCIId and MHCIIb were significantly higher than the corresponding MHC content of the soleus muscles from the 10-day animals. Indeed, MHCIId became the predominant fast MHC after 14 days in space. These data suggest fast-to-faster transformations continued during the longer spaceflight.

  14. Comparison of 7 versus 14 days wrist actigraphy monitoring in a sleep disorders clinic population.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Samantha; Hardy, Emma; Pengo, Martino F; Kosky, Christopher; Williams, Adrian J; Hart, Nicholas; Steier, Joerg

    2014-04-01

    Wrist actigraphy is a valid measure to assess sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities. It is listed in the diagnostic criteria for sleep disorders where single night polysomnography is insufficient (ICSD-2). However, an optimal recording time remains unclear. We hypothesised that seven days would provide sufficient data for analysis, similar to recordings for 14 days. We analysed three consecutive years of actigraphy data obtained within a tertiary sleep referral centre. Data were recorded continuously for two weeks using an AW4 actiwatch (Cambridge NeuroTechnology, Cambridge, UK; Mini Mitter Co, Sunriver, OR). Parameters, including sleep efficiency (SE), sleep latency (SL), sleep fragmentation index (SFI), total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were analysed using GraphPad Prism (Version 5.02, GraphPad Software Inc, San Diego, CA) and classified into week one, week two and an overall average for the duration of 14 days. In addition, two experienced consultants working in the sleep laboratory compared the results of week one versus week two independently, visually analysing the data for circadian rhythmicity and fragmentation of the pattern, allowing calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), κ. The actigraphies of 239 patients (51.9% male; age 42 (16) years) were analysed. There was no difference in SE, SL, SFI or WASO between week one, week two and 14 days average recording. A small difference was found between TST week one (399.9 minutes, 95% CI 389.9-409.9 minutes) and TST week two (388.7 minutes, 95% CI 378.3-399.1 minutes), but not between TST for 14 days average recording (394.3 minutes, 95% CI 384.7-403.9 minutes) and either week. Independent scorers achieved a good agreement in the rhythmicity of the sleep pattern (ICC κ 0.734, p < 0.001) and a low agreement for the fragmentation of the pattern (ICC κ 0.380, p < 0.001). One week of wrist actigraphy recording provides similar data to two week actigraphies, despite

  15. Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbrecht, Björn; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj E-mail: florian.gautier@tum.de

    2014-09-01

    We show that the effective decay asymmetry for resonant Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime with two sterile neutrinos and a single active flavour can in wide regions of parameter space be approximated by its late-time limit ε=Xsin(2φ)/(X{sup 2}+sin{sup 2}φ), where X=8πΔ/(|Y{sub 1}|{sup 2}+|Y{sub 2}|{sup 2}), Δ=4(M{sub 1}-M{sub 2})/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}), φ=arg(Y{sub 2}/Y{sub 1}), and M{sub 1,2}, Y{sub 1,2} are the masses and Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos. This approximation in particular extends to parametric regions where |Y{sub 1,2}|{sup 2}>> Δ, i.e. where the width dominates the mass splitting. We generalise the formula for the effective decay asymmetry to the case of several flavours of active leptons and demonstrate how this quantity can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry for phenomenological scenarios that are in agreement with the observed neutrino oscillations. We establish analytic criteria for the validity of the late-time approximation for the decay asymmetry and compare these with numerical results that are obtained by solving for the mixing and the oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. For phenomenologically viable models with two sterile neutrinos, we find that the flavoured effective late-time decay asymmetry can be applied throughout parameter space.

  16. Human Habitation in a Lunar Electric Rover During a 14-Day Field Trial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litaker, Harry, Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Howard, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Various military and commercial entities, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have conducted space cabin confinement studies. However, after an extensive literature search, only one study was found using a simulated lunar rover (LUNEX II), under laboratory conditions, with a crew of two for an eighteen day lunar mission. Forty-three years later, NASA human factors engineers conducted a similar study using the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) in a dynamic real-world lunar simulation at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. The objective of the study was to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data on the vehicle s interior volume with respect to human-system interfaces, crew accommodations, and habitation over a 14-day mission. Though part of a larger study including 212 overall operational elements, this paper will discuss only the performance of fifty different daily habitational elements within the confines of the vehicle carried out by two male subjects. Objective timing data and subjective questionnaire data were collected. Results indicate, much like the LUNEX II study, the LER field study suggest that a crew of two was able to maintain a satisfactory performance of tasks throughout the 14-day field trail within a relative small vehicle volume.

  17. Isolation of protoplasts from tissues of 14-day-old seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Jung, Ha-Il; Vatamaniuk, Olena K

    2009-08-17

    Protoplasts are plant cells that have had their cell walls enzymatically removed. Isolation of protoplasts from different plant tissues was first reported more than 40 years ago and has since been adapted to study a variety of cellular processes, such as subcellular localization of proteins, isolation of intact organelles and targeted gene-inactivation by double stranded RNA interference (RNAi). Most of the protoplast isolation protocols use leaf tissues of mature Arabidopsis (e.g. 35-day-old plants). We modified existing protocols by employing 14-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings. In this procedure, one gram of 14-day-old seedlings yielded 5 10(6)-10(7) protoplasts that remain intact at least 96 hours. The yield of protoplasts from seedlings is comparable with preparations from leaves of mature Arabidopsis, but instead of 35-36 days, isolation of protoplasts is completed in 15 days. This allows decreasing the time and growth chamber space that are required for isolating protoplasts when mature plants are used, and expedites the downstream studies that require intact protoplasts.

  18. Longitudinal changes in central artery stiffness with lifestyle modification, washout, and drug treatment in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kunihiko; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Overend, Tom J; Petrella, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    We assessed 17 middle-aged and older individuals (58.0 +/- 7.9 years, 7 females) at risk for cardiovascular disease regarding: (1) Whether carotid artery stiffness (cAS) would be reduced with a 1-year lifestyle modification program, (2) to what degree cAS would return following washout (mean of 26.9 +/- 4.0 months) from the active intervention, and (3) whether a 24-week telmisartan treatment would reduce cAS more than our lifestyle modification program. cAS by Doppler ultrasound, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and exercise capacity were assessed at three points: Following the 1-year lifestyle modification, following the washout period, and following a 24-week telmisartan treatment. Following telmisartan, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly decreased (114.8 +/- 12.3 mmHg) compared to baseline (127.9 +/- 12.7 mmHg) and following the washout period (126.1 +/- 14.9 mmHg). Similarly, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly lower following telmisaratn than following the washout period. Exercise capacity was increased following lifestyle modification but returned to the baseline level following the washout period. Following the lifestyle modification program, cAS was significantly reduced, and this reduction was maintained following the washout period. Conversely, the subsequent telmisartan treatment did not change cAS despite a significant blood pressure reduction. These results suggest that the reduced cAS achieved with lifestyle modification may not necessarily disappear following a cessation of the active program, indicating a possible role that family physicians can play in their clinical practice, and also providing a further rationale to promote lifestyle modification as an initial therapy for this population. In contrast, no additional benefit of telmisartan beyond our lifestyle intervention was observed in this study.

  19. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  20. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs.

  1. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  2. Daily Supine LBNP Treadmill Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, Andy C.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan R.; Fortney, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ballard, R. E.; William, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity or bed rest reduces upright exercise capacity. Exercise modes, durations, and intensities which will effectively and efficiently counteract such deconditioning are presently unresolved. We that daily supine treadmill interval training with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would prevent reduction in upright exercise capacity during 14 days of 6 deg. head-down bed rest (BR). Eight healthy male subjects underwent two 14 day BR protocols separated by 3 months. In a crossover design, subjects either remained at strict BR or performed 40 min of daily exercise consisting of supine walking and running at intensities varying from 40-80% of pre-BR upright peak oxygen uptake (VO2). LBNP during supine exercise was used to provide 1.0 to 1.2 times body weight of footward force. An incremental upright treadmill test to measure submaximal and peak exercise responses was given pre- and post-BR. In the non-exercise condition, peak VO2 and time to exhaustion were reduced 16 +/- 4% and 10 +/- 1% (p less than 0.05), respectively, from pre-BR. With LBNP exercise these variables were not significantly different (NS) from pre-BR. During submaximal treadmill speeds after BR, heart rate was higher (11 +/- 11 bpm, p less than 0.05) and respiratory exchange ratio was elevated (p less than 0.05) in the no exercise condition. Both were maintained at pre-BR levels in the LBNP exercise condition (NS from pre-BR). Since this supine treadmill interval training with addition of LBNP maintained upright exercise responses and capacity during BR, this countermeasure may also be effective during space flight.

  3. Ocular Outcomes Evaluation in a 14-Day Head-Down Bed Rest Study

    PubMed Central

    Taibbi, Giovanni; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, Susana B.; Yarbough, Patrice O.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Godley, Bernard F.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated ocular outcomes in a 14-day head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR) study designed to simulate the effects of microgravity on the human body. Methods Healthy subjects were selected using NASA standard screening procedures. Standardized NASA BR conditions were implemented (e.g., strict sleep-wake cycle, standardized diet, 24-hour-a-day BR, continuous video monitoring). Subjects maintained a 6° HDT position for 14 consecutive days. Weekly ophthalmological examinations were performed in the sitting (pre/post-BR) and HDT (in-bed phase) positions. Equivalency tests with optimal-alpha techniques evaluated pre/post-BR differences in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical equivalent, intraocular pressure (IOP), Spectral-domain OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), optic disc and macular parameters. Results 16 subjects (12 men and 4 women) were enrolled. Nearly all ocular outcomes were within our predefined clinically relevant thresholds following HDTBR, except near BCVA (pre/post-BR mean difference: −0.06 logMAR), spherical equivalent (−0.30 D), Tonopen XL IOP (+3.03 mmHg) and Spectralis OCT average (+1.14 μm), temporal-inferior (+1.58 μm) and nasal-inferior RNFLT (+3.48 μm). Modified Amsler grid, red dot test, confrontational visual field and color vision were within normal limits throughout. No changes were detected on stereoscopic color fundus photography. Discussion A few functional and structural changes were detected after 14-day HDTBR, notably an improved BCVA possibly due to learning effect and RNFL thickening without signs of optic disc edema. In general, 6° HDTBR determined a small non-progressive IOP elevation, which returned to baseline levels post-BR. Further studies with different BR duration and/or tilt angle are warranted to investigate microgravity-induced ophthalmological changes. PMID:25245897

  4. Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Andreas H; Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M

    2013-05-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies. PMID:23459487

  5. Randomized Dose-Ranging Study of the 14-Day Early Bactericidal Activity of Bedaquiline (TMC207) in Patients with Sputum Microscopy Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R.; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies. PMID:23459487

  6. Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Andreas H; Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M

    2013-05-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies.

  7. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways.

  8. Changes in cold tolerance due to a 14-day stay in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. D.; Romet, T.; Keefe, A. A.; Nolan, R. W.

    1996-12-01

    Responses to cold exposure tests both locally and of the whole body were examined in subjects who stayed in the Arctic (average maximum and minimum temperatures -11 and -21° C respectively) for 14 days of skiing and sleeping in tents. These changes were compared to responses in subjects living working in Ottawa, Canada (average max. and min. temperatures -5 and -11° C respectively). The tests were done before the stay in the Arctic (Pre), immediately after the return (Post 1) and approximately 32 days after the return (Post 2). For the whole-body cold exposure each subject, wearing only shorts and lying on a rope mesh cot, was exposed to an ambient temperature of 10° C. There was no consistent response in the changes of metabolic or body temperature to this exposure in either of groups and, in addition, the changes over time were variable. Cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD) was determined by measuring temperature changes in the middle finger of the nondominant hand upon immersion in ice water for 30 min. CIVD was depressed after the Arctic exposure whilst during the Post 2 testing, although variable, did not return to the Pre values; the responses of the control group were similar. These results indicate that normal seasonal changes may be as important in adaptation as a stay in the Arctic. Caution is advised in the separation of seasonal effects when examining the changes in adaptation after exposure to a cold environment.

  9. Evidence for increased beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness induced by 14 days of simulated microgravity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Eckberg, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha- and beta-receptor agonists in eight healthy men before and after 14 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenoreceptor responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to simulated microgravity. Steady-state infusions of isoproterenol (Iso) at rates of 0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Infusions of phenylephrine (PE) at rates of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess responsiveness of alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptors. Slopes calculated from linear regressions between Iso and PE doses and changes in beat-to-beat heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance (occlusion plethysmography) for each subject were used as an index of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1,056 +/- 107 to 1,553 +/- 83 beats micrograms-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.014) and vasodilation (-469 +/- 111 to -1,446 +/- 309 peripheral resistance units.microgram-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.0224) to Iso infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that simulated microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptor responses.

  10. Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, F.

    2010-08-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

  11. Comparison of 24-hour Holter Monitoring with 14-day Novel Adhesive Patch Electrocardiographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paddy M.; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration–cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. METHODS A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar’s tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. RESULTS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. PMID:24384108

  12. Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2012-04-01

    The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (P<0.05). Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels were 55.2% and 20.4% lower, respectively, in the experimental group (P<0.05 in both cases). These results indicate that a physiological change in mineral metabolism resulting from physical or mental stress, such as hindlimb suspension, is reflected in body hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

  13. Managing cytotoxic chemotherapy extravasation: use of saline washout.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Karen

    Florence Nightingale Foundation scholar Karen Harrold received funding to support her PhD exploring the patient experience of saline washout as a management strategy for chemotherapy extravasation. She discusses the focus of her thesis, the completion of phase one and looks ahead to phase two. PMID:25904536

  14. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID) occurs during spaceflight and may represent specific clinical risks for exploration-class missions. An appropriate ground analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation would offer a platform for ground-evaluation of various potential countermeasures. This study evaluated the NASA Undersea Mission Operations ( NEEMO ), consisting of 14 day undersea deployment at the Aquarius station, as an analog for SAID. Sixteen Aquanauts from missions NEEMO-12, 13 and 14 participated in the study. RESULTS Mid-mission alterations leukocyte distribution occurred, including granulocytosis and elevations in central-memory CD8+ T-cells. General T cell function was reduced during NEEMO missions in roughly 50% of subjects. Secreted cytokines profiles were evaluated following whole blood stimulation with CD3/CD28 (T cells) or LPS (monocytes). T cell production of IFNg, IL-5, IL-10, IL-2, TNFa and IL-6 were all reduced before and during the mission. Conversely, monocyte production of TNFa, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1b and IL-8 were elevated during mission, moreso at the MD-14 timepoint. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen and early antigen were increased in approximately 40% of the subjects. Changes in EBV tetramer-positive CD8+ T-cells exhibited a variable pattern. Antibodies against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) were marginally increased during the mission. Herpesvirus reactivation was determined by PCR. EBV viral load was generally elevated at L-6. Higher levels of salivary EBV were found during the NEEMO mission than before and after as well as than the healthy controls. No VZV or CMV was found in any pre, during and after NEEMO mission or control samples. Plasma cortisol was elevated at L-6. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, L-6 may be too near to mission start to be an appropriate baseline measurement. The general immune changes in leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production, virus specific

  15. Measurement of functional residual capacity by sulfur hexafluoride washout.

    PubMed

    Jonmarker, C; Jansson, L; Jonson, B; Larsson, A; Werner, O

    1985-07-01

    Measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) by the open-circuit multiple breath tracer gas washout technique is an established method. A system based upon washout of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) during mechanical ventilation is described. The central unit in the system is a sensitive and rapid-response infrared SF6 analyzer. SF6 is washed in until the alveolar concentration of SF6 is 0.5%, a concentration so low that the supply of other gases is hardly influenced. During washout, the flow of SF6 from the lungs is calculated by a computer every 10 ms from signals representing expiratory flow and SF6 concentration. The total volume of SF6, washed out, is calculated by integration of SF6 flow. Since the alveolar concentration at the end of washin is known, the lung volume may be obtained. The measurement procedure is highly automated and the result is presented by the computer immediately after washout. Accurate and reproducible results in model lung tests were obtained during air and N2O/O2 ventilation. Comparison with body plethysmography (FRCBOX) in eight sitting healthy subjects gave the following: FRCSF6 = 7 ml + 0.98 X FRCBOX, r = 0.99. Comparison with nitrogen washout (FRCN2) in five postoperative patients gave the following: FRCSF6 = 59 ml + 0.97 X FRCN2, r = 0.97. FRCSF6 during N2O/O2 ventilation was the same as during air/O2 ventilation in a group of paralyzed patients. The measurement system has not been tested in patients with obstructive lung disease.

  16. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    /D) ratio. For all measures, there was no significant difference between subject groups for pre-bed rest testing. Post bed rest values also remained similar between groups. Comparison of pre- to post bed rest testing within each group did not demonstrate any statistical differences. These preliminary results from 14-day bed rest studies suggest that the combination of exercise and horizontal bed rest as compared to 6 degrees HDT bed rest did not produce differences in the ocular response with regard to IOP and optic disc parameters. The ocular measures reported here only included pre- and post bed rest time points. Further investigation is needed to examine both the acute response and long term adaptation of structural and functional ocular parameters in the bed rest platform and determine its usefulness for studying spaceflight phenomena. From a clinical perspective, the ability to study ocular responses in the controlled environment of the bed rest platform can provide valuable information for the care of patients restricted to bed rest.

  17. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  18. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  19. Kubo relations and radiative corrections for lepton number washout

    SciTech Connect

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Laine, M. E-mail: laine@itp.unibe.ch

    2014-05-01

    The rates for lepton number washout in extensions of the Standard Model containing right-handed neutrinos are key ingredients in scenarios for baryogenesis through leptogenesis. We relate these rates to real-time correlation functions at finite temperature, without making use of any particle approximations. The relations are valid to quadratic order in neutrino Yukawa couplings and to all orders in Standard Model couplings. They take into account all spectator processes, and apply both in the symmetric and in the Higgs phase of the electroweak theory. We use the relations to compute washout rates at next-to-leading order in g, where g denotes a Standard Model gauge or Yukawa coupling, both in the non-relativistic and in the relativistic regime. Even in the non-relativistic regime the parametrically dominant radiative corrections are only suppressed by a single power of g. In the non-relativistic regime radiative corrections increase the washout rate by a few percent at high temperatures, but they are of order unity around the weak scale and in the relativistic regime.

  20. A comparison of washout filters using a human dynamic orientation model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Ormsby model of human dynamic orientation, a discrete time computer program, was used to provide a vestibular explanation for observed differences between two washout schemes. These washout schemes, a linear washout and a nonlinear washout, were subjectively evaluated. It was found that the linear washout presented false rate cues, causing pilots to rate the simulation fidelity of the linear scheme much lower than the nonlinear scheme. By inputting these motion histories into the Ormsby model, it was shown that the linear filter causes discontinuities in the pilot's perceived angular velocity, resulting in the sensation of an anomalous rate cue. This phenomenon does not occur with the use of the nonlinear filter.

  1. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  2. Anticontrol of Hopf Bifurcation and Control of Chaos for a Finance System through Washout Filters with Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengxia; Zuo, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    A controlled model for a financial system through washout-filter-aided dynamical feedback control laws is developed, the problem of anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation from the steady state is studied, and the existence, stability, and direction of bifurcated periodic solutions are discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the delay on price index has great influences on the financial system, which can be applied to suppress or avoid the chaos phenomenon appearing in the financial system. PMID:24977239

  3. Anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation and control of chaos for a finance system through washout filters with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huitao; Lu, Mengxia; Zuo, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    A controlled model for a financial system through washout-filter-aided dynamical feedback control laws is developed, the problem of anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation from the steady state is studied, and the existence, stability, and direction of bifurcated periodic solutions are discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the delay on price index has great influences on the financial system, which can be applied to suppress or avoid the chaos phenomenon appearing in the financial system.

  4. Sleep, mood, and fatigue during a 14-day He-O2 open-sea saturation dive to 850 fsw with excursions to 950 fsw.

    PubMed

    Townsend, R E; Hall, D A

    1978-06-01

    To obtain information on sleep, mood, and performance of divers and surface support personnel during deep dives in the open sea, 12 divers and 12 surface support personnel were monitored during a 14-day open-sea saturation dive using the U.S. Navy Deep Diving System, Mark 2, Mod O. Divers lived in the deck decompression chambers at 850 fsw equivalent and made 5 days of excursion wet dives to approximately 950 fsw via the Personnel Transfer Capsule. Electroencephalographic and self-report measures of sleep, and measures of mood, anxiety, and 4-choice reaction time performance were obtained during a predive base-line period and throughout the dive and decompression. Results suggested that, unless personnel are rotated, there are limitations to the practical duration of very deep open-sea saturation dives caused by the accumulation of sleep debt, fatigue, and loss of psychological vigor.

  5. Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout: A Feasible Alternative to Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Renee; Stanojevic, Sanja; Gibney, Karyn; Salazar, Juliana Giraldo; Gustafsson, Per; Subbarao, Padmaja; Ratjen, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Background The lung clearance index (LCI), measured by multiple breath washout (MBW), reflects global ventilation inhomogeneity and is a sensitive marker of early cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Current evidence is based on a customized mass spectrometry system that uses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas, which is not widely available. Nitrogen (N2) washout may be better suited for clinical use and multi-center trials. Objective To compare the results obtained from a N2 washout system to those generated by the SF6 based system in healthy children and children with CF. Methods Children with CF were recruited from outpatient clinics; healthy children were recruited from the Research4Kids online portal. Participants performed MBWSF6 (Amis 2000, Innovision, Denmark) and MBWN2 (ExhalyzerD, EcoMedics, Switzerland) in triplicate, in random order on the same day. Agreement between systems was assessed by Bland-Altman plot. Results Sixty-two healthy and 61 children with CF completed measurements on both systems. In health there was good agreement between systems (limits of agreement −0.7 to 1.9); on average N2 produced higher values of LCI (mean difference 0.58 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.74)). In CF the difference between systems was double that in health with a clear bias towards disproportionately higher LCIN2 compared to LCISF6 at higher mean values of LCI. Conclusion LCIN2 and LCISF6 have similar discriminative power and intra-session repeatability but are not interchangeable. MBWN2 offers a valid new tool to investigate early obstructive lung disease in CF, but requires independent normative values. PMID:23457632

  6. Antiorthostatic suspension for 14 days does not diminish the oxidative response of neutrophils in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolen, J. E.; Fossett, M. C.; Joe, Y.; Prince, J. E.; Priest, E.; Kanwar, S.; Smith, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of long-term spaceflight on inflammatory responses have not been well-studied in either humans or animals. It is thus important to determine if the functions of immune and inflammatory cells are altered in models of spaceflight. One such animal model is antiorthostatic suspension (AOS), in which the experimental animal is subjected to a head-down tilt that mimics both the stress and the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. A previous study reported that the peritoneal neutrophils from mice experiencing AOS generated less superoxide than unsuspended controls. We expanded on this study using several different stimuli and measuring the oxidative response of murine neutrophils in a variety of ways. These responses included the rate, lag period, and dose/response characteristics for superoxide generation, FACS analysis with dihydrodichlorofluorescein as a substrate, and a chemiluminescence response with luminol as a substrate. We also examined phagocytosis of three different microorganisms. While some effects of orthostatic suspension (attributable to the stress of the apparatus) were observed, no clear effects of AOS on oxidative function of the peritoneal neutrophils were seen.

  7. Fast washout of thallium-201 from area of myocardial infarction: possible artifact of background subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Benoit, L.; Clements, J.P.; Wackers, F.J.

    1987-06-01

    A recent report described a pattern of reverse redistribution on poststreptokinase /sup 201/Tl studies which was believed to be due to rapid washout of /sup 201/Tl from the infarct area related to reperfusion of the infarct vessel. We have also observed the phenomenon of rapid washout of /sup 201/Tl from the area of infarction in the absence of thrombolytic therapy. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that rapid washout of /sup 201/Tl from an area of infarction is an artifact of background subtraction usually employed in analysis of washout. A total of 61 patients with previous myocardial infarction who underwent cardiac catheterization and exercise /sup 201/Tl imaging were examined. Thallium-201 images were analyzed using a validated quantitative method employing interpolative background correction. Abnormally increased /sup 201/Tl washout was noted in 11 infarct segments in 10 (18%) patients. Infarct segments with rapid washout had significantly less initial uptake, and more severe associated wall motion abnormalities than infarct segments with normal washout. When quantitative analysis was repeated without background subtraction, no segments with rapid washout were observed. A phantom model was constructed to further test our hypothesis. The frequency of observed rapid washout was directly related to the severity of the initial defect and was entirely dependent upon utilizing background correction during the quantitative analysis. Our study suggests that rapid washout of /sup 201/Tl in an area of previous infarction reflects an artifact of background subtraction involved with standard quantitative analysis.

  8. Efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound washout rate in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qin, Xia-Chuan; Luo, Yan; Li, Yong-Zhong; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) washout rate in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differentiation. Two hundred seventy-one patients underwent liver resection for HCC between April 2008 and December 2012 after being examined by CEUS using the contrast agent SonoVue with a low mechanical index (<0.1) in a routine procedure. Contrast agent washout rates obtained from video images were divided into four categories from slow to fast: WR1 = no washout in all phases (slowest); WR2 = washout after 120 s from contrast injection (late-phase washout); WR3 = washout between 41 and 120 s from contrast injection (portal venous washout); WR4 = washout before 40 s from contrast injection (fastest washout rate). HCC nodules were graded as well, moderately and poorly differentiated. Spearman rank correlation and χ(2)-tests were used to assess group relationships and differences. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic predictive value of CEUS. Among the 271 patients, 18 (6.6%) had well differentiated, 150 (55.4%) had moderately differentiated and 103 (38.0%) had poorly differentiated HCC. Statistical tests indicated that washout rate was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (p < 0.05), and the poorly differentiated HCCs had earlier washout. At the cutoff point of WR4, CEUS based on washout rate performed poorly in distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well-differentiated HCCs, with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (area under the curve) of 24%, 97% and 0.68, respectively. However, at the cutoff point of WR2, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CEUS in differentiating well-differentiated HCC from other HCCs were significantly better: 98%, 78% and 0.96, respectively. Thus, CEUS washout rate may have a role in identifying patients with well-differentiated HCC.

  9. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  10. Peptide washout and permeability from glyceryl monooleate buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehwi; Kellaway, Ian W

    2002-10-01

    Simultaneous evaluation of the permeation and washout of a peptide from the mucoadhesive liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) has been investigated using a donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell. [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) was incorporated into the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and applied to excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in the donor compartment flow-through cell. Phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 (PBS) was pumped across the upper surface of the liquid crystalline phases to mimic salivary flow. The steady-state fluxes of DADLE and GMO from the cubic phase were significantly greater than that from the lamellar phase (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the amounts of DADLE and GMO washed out from the lamellar and cubic phases (P > 0.05). The donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell was found to be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of salivary washout on mucoadhesive oral mucosal delivery systems.

  11. Impact of 14-day bed rest on serum adipokines and low-grade inflammation in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Jurdana, Mihaela; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala; Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jakus, Tadeja; Šimunič, Boštjan; Pišot, Rado

    2015-12-01

    Ageing and inactivity both contribute to systemic inflammation, but the effects of inactivity on inflammation in healthy elderly individuals have not been elucidated. We hypothesised that 14-day bed rest could affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in young subjects differently than in older adults. A short-term 14-day horizontal bed rest study (BR14) has been used as a model of inactivity in two groups of healthy male volunteers: 7 aged 18-30 years (young) and 16 aged 55-65 years (older adults). The effects of inactivity on inflammation were compared. Key low-grade inflammation mediators, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), visfatin, resistin, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin were measured in fasting serum samples, collected at baseline (BDC) and post BR14. Young responded to BR14 by increasing serum visfatin and resistin while older adults responded to BR14 by increasing IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, serum adiponectin increased in all participants. Data from correlation analysis demonstrated positive association between Δ serum visfatin and Δ IL-6 in both groups, while Δ serum adiponectin was negatively associated with Δ TNF-α in young and positively associated with Δ resistin in the older adults. As little as 14 days of complete physical inactivity (BR14) negatively affected markers of low-grade inflammation in both groups, but the inflammation after BR14 was more pronounced in older adults. The effect of BR14 on IL-6 and resistin differed between young and older adults. Inflammatory responses to BR14 in older adults differed from those reported in the literature for obese or subjects in pathological states, suggesting potentially different mechanisms between inactivity- and obesity-induced inflammations.

  12. Continuous distributions of specific ventilation recovered from inert gas washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.; Evans, J. W.; Jalowayski, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique is described for recovering continuous distributions of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio from the nitrogen washout. The analysis yields a continuous distribution of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio represented as fractional ventilations of 50 compartments plus dead space. The procedure was verified by recovering known distributions from data to which noise had been added. Using an apparatus to control the subject's tidal volume and FRC, mixed expired N2 data gave the following results: (a) the distributions of young, normal subjects were narrow and unimodal; (b) those of subjects over age 40 were broader with more poorly ventilated units; (c) patients with pulmonary disease of all descriptions showed enlarged dead space; (d) patients with cystic fibrosis showed multimodal distributions with the bulk of the ventilation going to overventilated units; and (e) patients with obstructive lung disease fell into several classes, three of which are illustrated.

  13. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  14. Self-Reported Recovery from 2-Week 12-Hour Shift Work Schedules: A 14-Day Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Merkus, Suzanne L.; Holte, Kari Anne; Huysmans, Maaike A.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recovery from fatigue is important in maintaining night workers' health. This study compared the course of self-reported recovery after 2-week 12-hour schedules consisting of either night shifts or swing shifts (i.e., 7 night shifts followed by 7 day shifts) to such schedules consisting of only day work. Methods Sixty-one male offshore employees—20 night workers, 16 swing shift workers, and 25 day workers—rated six questions on fatigue (sleep quality, feeling rested, physical and mental fatigue, and energy levels; scale 1–11) for 14 days after an offshore tour. After the two night-work schedules, differences on the 1st day (main effects) and differences during the follow-up (interaction effects) were compared to day work with generalized estimating equations analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, significant main effects were found for sleep quality for night workers (1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.89) and swing shift workers (1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.94) when compared to day workers; their interaction terms were not statistically significant. For the remaining fatigue outcomes, no statistically significant main or interaction effects were found. Conclusion After 2-week 12-hour night and swing shifts, only the course for sleep quality differed from that of day work. Sleep quality was poorer for night and swing shift workers on the 1st day off and remained poorer for the 14-day follow-up. This showed that while working at night had no effect on feeling rested, tiredness, and energy levels, it had a relatively long-lasting effect on sleep quality. PMID:26929834

  15. An Examination of "Wash-Out" and Workplace Conditions of Beginning Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma; Colem, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the extent of wash-out in two beginning physical education teachers; and (2) determine the workplace conditions these novice teachers experienced that may have influenced the extent of wash-out for them. The interactive factors influencing workplace conditions for physical education teachers…

  16. Concentrations of salinomycin in eggs and tissues of laying chickens fed medicated feed for 14 days followed by withdrawal for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, A H; abou el-Sooud, K; Shehata, M A

    1996-01-01

    Laying chickens were fed medicated feed containing various concentrations of sodium salinomycin (SAL) for 14 days followed by a 3 day withdrawal period. Eggs, collected during treatment and withdrawal, tissues and ovarian yolk of birds slaughtered after 0, 1, and 3 days' withdrawal were extracted and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tissues, ovarian yolk and freeze-dried egg albumen and yolk were extracted with acetone, followed by partitioning with petroleum ether and HPLC analysis. Albumen was extracted with methanol and analysed without further clean-up. Salinomycin was detected at 520 nm after post-column reaction with vanillin at 95 degrees C. Recoveries of fortified salinomycin from freeze-dried eggs (albumen and yolk) and tissue, premix and feed were nearly quantitative (> 90%), except liver which was < 85%. The detection limit was estimated to be 5 ng g-1, with the practical quantifiable limit being about 10 ng g-1. Highest SAL concentrations were in the more fatty components such as egg yolk, ovarian yolk and subcutaneous fat. SAL residues in other tissues were generally low and followed the order liver, kidney, thigh and breast muscles. SAL residues were dependent on the SAL concentration in feed and declined rapidly during withdrawal. PMID:8950111

  17. Validation of CRASH Model in Prediction of 14-day Mortality and 6-month Unfavorable Outcome of Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Amanat, Mahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahmati, Farhad; Motamedi, Maryam; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importance for their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognostic model in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM) and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO) of patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discrimination of CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department. Variables required for calculating CRASH expected risks (ER), and observed 14-DM and 6-MUO were gathered. Then ER of 14-DM and 6-MUO were calculated. The patients were followed for 6 months and their 14-DM and 6-MUO were recorded. Finally, the correlation of CRASH ER and the observed outcome of the patients was evaluated. The data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: In this study, 323 patients with the mean age of 34.0 ± 19.4 years were evaluated (87.3% male). Calibration of the basic and CT models in prediction of 14-day and 6-month outcome were in the desirable range (P < 0.05). Area under the curve in the basic model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95), respectively. In addition, area under the curve in the CT model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.97) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96), respectively. There was no significant difference between the discriminations of the two models in prediction of 14-DM (p = 0.11) and 6-MUO (p = 0.1). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that CRASH prediction model has proper discrimination and calibration in predicting 14-DM and 6-MUO of head trauma patients. Since there was no difference between the values of the basic and CT models, using the basic model is recommended to simplify the risk

  18. A Systematic Approach to Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout Test Quality

    PubMed Central

    Klingel, Michelle; Pizarro, Maria Ester; Hall, Graham L.; Ramsey, Kathryn; Foong, Rachel; Saunders, Clare; Robinson, Paul D.; Webster, Hailey; Hardaker, Kate; Kane, Mica; Ratjen, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate estimates of multiple breath washout (MBW) outcomes require correct operation of the device, appropriate distraction of the subject to ensure they breathe in a manner representative of their relaxed tidal breathing pattern, and appropriate interpretation of the acquired data. Based on available recommendations for an acceptable MBW test, we aimed to develop a protocol to systematically evaluate MBW measurements based on these criteria. Methods 50 MBW test occasions were systematically reviewed for technical elements and whether the breathing pattern was representative of relaxed tidal breathing by an experienced MBW operator. The impact of qualitative and quantitative criteria on inter-observer agreement was assessed across eight MBW operators (n = 20 test occasions, compared using a Kappa statistic). Results Using qualitative criteria, 46/168 trials were rejected: 16.6% were technically unacceptable and 10.7% were excluded due to inappropriate breathing pattern. Reviewer agreement was good using qualitative criteria and further improved with quantitative criteria from (κ = 0.53–0.83%) to (κ 0.73–0.97%), but at the cost of exclusion of further test occasions in this retrospective data analysis. Conclusions The application of the systematic review improved inter-observer agreement but did not affect reported MBW outcomes. PMID:27304432

  19. [Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rats after a 14-day space flight in the "Space-2044" spacecraft].

    PubMed

    Markin, A A; Zhuravlëva, O A

    1993-01-01

    After 14-day space flight of rats onboard Cosmos 2044 in their blood plasma, homogenates of liver, skeletal muscles and myocardium there were determined the parameters of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL) and system of antioxidant defense: content of dienic conjugates (DC), malonic dialdehyde (MDA), schiff bases (SB), tocopherol (TF), total antioxidative activity (AOA, only in plasma), activity of antioxidative enzymes (only in tissues) superoxide (SOD), catalase, glutathione-peroxidase (GP), glutathione-reductase (GR). In the animal liver there was a decrease in SB content and an increase of SOD, catalase and GP activities. Skeletal muscles exhibited a reduced SB concentration. In myocardium there was a reduction of DC and SB levels, activity of GR with an increase of TF concentration, activity of SOD and catalase. In the blood plasma there occurred a decline of SB and TF contents and an elevation of MDA and total AOA concentrations. The authors drew a conclusion about a compensated process of POL in the tested animals and about the relation of the observed changes with body response to the final phase of the space mission and acute gravitational stress during a readaptation to the Earth environments. On the basis of the analysis of similar data from shorter-duration space experiments, the noted changes in the parameters of the system of POL and antioxidant defense are considered a universal response which does not directly depend on duration of the orbital phase of a space mission.

  20. Impact of Software Settings on Multiple-Breath Washout Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Selina; Singer, Florian; Latzin, Philipp; Yammine, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Multiple-breath washout (MBW) is an attractive test to assess ventilation inhomogeneity, a marker of peripheral lung disease. Standardization of MBW is hampered as little data exists on possible measurement bias. We aimed to identify potential sources of measurement bias based on MBW software settings. Methods We used unprocessed data from nitrogen (N2) MBW (Exhalyzer D, Eco Medics AG) applied in 30 children aged 5–18 years: 10 with CF, 10 formerly preterm, and 10 healthy controls. This setup calculates the tracer gas N2 mainly from measured O2 and CO2concentrations. The following software settings for MBW signal processing were changed by at least 5 units or >10% in both directions or completely switched off: (i) environmental conditions, (ii) apparatus dead space, (iii) O2 and CO2 signal correction, and (iv) signal alignment (delay time). Primary outcome was the change in lung clearance index (LCI) compared to LCI calculated with the settings as recommended. A change in LCI exceeding 10% was considered relevant. Results Changes in both environmental and dead space settings resulted in uniform but modest LCI changes and exceeded >10% in only two measurements. Changes in signal alignment and O2 signal correction had the most relevant impact on LCI. Decrease of O2 delay time by 40 ms (7%) lead to a mean LCI increase of 12%, with >10% LCI change in 60% of the children. Increase of O2 delay time by 40 ms resulted in mean LCI decrease of 9% with LCI changing >10% in 43% of the children. Conclusions Accurate LCI results depend crucially on signal processing settings in MBW software. Especially correct signal delay times are possible sources of incorrect LCI measurements. Algorithms of signal processing and signal alignment should thus be optimized to avoid susceptibility of MBW measurements to this significant measurement bias. PMID:26167682

  1. Alterations in glomerular and tubular dynamics at 1 and 14 days simulated microgravity and after acute return to orthostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.; Mendonca, Margarida M.

    1995-01-01

    Head-down tilt (HDT) is utilized to simulate microgravity and produces a cephalad fluid shift, which results in alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance. These changes in volume homeostasis are due, in part, to alterations in multiple volume control mechanisms in which renal function is a major participant. We have previously demonstrated that glomerular filtration rate increases early in HDT and eventually returns to values not different from non-tilt measurements. This early increase in glomerular filtration rate was also demonstrated during days 2 and 8 of the SLS-1 mission. However, urine flow and electrolyte excretion does not parallel the alternations in glomerular filtration rate and the site of this change in nephron fluid reabsorption pattern has not been previously examined. Through determination of the location of alterations in tubular fluid reabsorption within the nephron, a more detailed hypothesis can be forwarded as to which specific neuro-humoral agents participating in control or renal function in microgravity conditions. the importance of this type of examination is that measurements in circulating neuro-humoral agents and urinary excretion patterns alone are not accurate predictors of how renal functional response may alter to head-down tilt or other models of simulated weightlessness. To examine this issue, renal micropuncture techniques were utilized in Munich-Wistar rats submitted 24 hour and 14 day head-down tilt, measuring all the determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration and obtaining data regarding segmental tubular fluid reabsorption. Following these measurements, the rats were returned to an orthostatic position and after 60 minutes, the measurements were repeated.

  2. Effects of 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Cui, Jian; Levine, Benjamin D.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) reduces adrenergic and nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Additionally, an exercise countermeasure group was included to identify whether exercise during bed rest might counteract any vasoconstrictor deficits that arose during HDBR. Twenty-two subjects underwent 14 days of strict 6 degrees HDBR. Eight of these 22 subjects did not exercise during HDBR, while 14 of these subjects exercised on a supine cycle ergometer for 90 min a day at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum. To assess alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness, intradermal microdialysis was used to locally administer norepinephrine (NE), while forearm skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored over microdialysis membranes. Nonlinear regression modeling was used to identify the effective drug concentration that caused 50% of the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response (EC(50)) and minimum values from the SkBF-NE dose-response curves. In addition, the effects of HDBR on nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstriction were assessed via the venoarteriolar response of the forearm and leg. HDBR did not alter EC(50) or the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction to exogenous NE administration regardless of whether the subjects exercised during HDBR. Moreover, HDBR did not alter the forearm venoarteriolar response in either the control or exercise groups during HDBR. However, HDBR significantly reduced the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the venoarteriolar response in the leg, and this response was similarly reduced in the exercise group. These data suggest that HDBR does not alter cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous NE administration, whereas cutaneous vasoconstriction of the leg due to the venoarteriolar response is reduced after HDBR. It remains unclear whether attenuated venoarteriolar responses in the lower limbs contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance after bed rest and

  3. Multiparametric temporal analysis of the Caco-2/TC7 demonstrated functional and differentiated monolayers as early as 14 days of culture.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Perrine; Bricks, Thibault; Vidal, Guillaume; Jacques, Sébastien; Anton, Pauline M; Leclerc, Eric

    2015-05-25

    Reducing the differentiation period for obtaining an in vitro intestinal barrier model is required to reduce the duration and cost for drug screening assays. In this frame, the Caco-2/TC7 subclone differentiation state was investigated from day 0 (D0) to day 32 (D32). As such, the expression of 45 genes (including cell junction, cell polarization, cell functionality, drug transport and metabolism genes) was followed throughout the 32 days. In parallel, the monolayer polarization and the formation of the cellular junctions were characterized by the immuno-staining of occludin, claudin-1 and actin proteins. The cell monolayer permeability was analyzed via transepithelial electric resistance measurements and paracellular transport of Lucifer Yellow. The P-gp efflux efficiency was assessed by rhodamine 123 transport. Alkaline phosphate activity was quantified to assess the cell differentiation. Three stages of differentiation were observed using the clustering of principal component analysis of the RTqPCR data and the overall assays. From D0 to D10, cells were in a proliferation stage and under-differentiated; from D14 to D21 a stable differentiation stage was reached; from D25 to D32 the epithelium seemed to enter into a post-differentiated stage. This study demonstrates that Caco-2/TC7 cells are functional and ready for use in drug screening permeability assays from 14 days in culture when compared with conventional 21 days for Caco-2 cells. In addition, this study provides a refined set of data allowing temporal and multi scale investigations, due to the intracellular kinetics and mRNA levels that can be correlated with membrane protein kinetics and functional extracellular activities. Therefore, shorter time in culture combined with a better knowledge of the cells during the time in culture will in turn help to improve the quality and cost of Caco-2/TC7 assays for drug development.

  4. Inhomogeneity of pulmonary ventilation during sustained microgravity as determined by single-breath washouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. Kim; Elliott, Ann R.; Deutschman, Robert A., III; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to cause inhomogeneity of ventilation. Nongravitational factors are also recognized, but their relative contribution is not understood. We therefore studied ventilatory inhomogeneity during sustained microgravity during the 9-day flight of Spacelab SLS-1. All seven crew members performed single-breath nitrogen washouts. They inspired a vital capacity breath of 100% oxygen with a bolus of argon at the start of inspiration, and the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were controlled at 0.5 l/s. Control measurements in normal gravity (1 G) were made pre- and postflight in the standing and supine position. Compared with the standing 1-G measurements, there was a marked decrease in ventilatory inhomogeneity during microgravity, as evidenced by the significant reductions in cardiogenic oscillations, slope of phase III, and height of phase IV for nitrogen and argon. However, argon phase IV volume was not reduced, and considerable ventilatory inhomogeneity remained. For example, the heights of the cardiogenic oscillations during microgravity for nitrogen and argon were 44 and 24%, respectively, of their values at 1 G, whereas the slopes of phase III for nitrogen and argon were 78 and 29%, respectively, of those at 1 G. The presence of a phase IV in microgravity is strong evidence that airway closure still occurs in the absence of gravity. The results were qualitatively similar to those found previously during short periods of 0 G in parabolic flight.

  5. Amphetamine-evoked rotation requires newly synthesized dopamine at 14 days but not 1 day after intranigral 6-OHDA and is consistently dissociated from sensorimotor behavior.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Melanie A; Marsh, Steven T; Hutchings, Janet E; Castañeda, Eddie

    2009-06-01

    Immediately after unilateral, intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), amphetamine (AMPH) evokes "paradoxical" contraversive rotation, whereas 14 days later, AMPH evokes the traditional ipsiversive rotation used to model the chronic Parkinsonian state. In this study, the hypothesis was that accelerated dopamine (DA) synthesis ipsilateral to the lesion augments cytoplasmic DA to produce paradoxical rotation. Therefore, the sensitivity to synthesis inhibition of AMPH-evoked rotation at 1 or 14 days after 6-OHDA was assessed. To determine the functional status that might be reflected by paradoxical rotation, sensorimotor abilities were examined at 1 and 14 days following unilateral 6-OHDA using the elevated swing, paw placement, grip strength, ladder walking, somatosensory neglect, and cylinder tests. At 14 days after 6-OHDA when AMPH-evoked ipsiversive rotation is mediated by the intact hemisphere, rotation was dose-dependently reduced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) inhibition with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT) or dopa decarboxylase (DDC) inhibition with 3-hydroxybenzyl hydrazine (NSD-1015), indicating dependence upon newly synthesized DA. Conversely, at 1 day after 6-OHDA, paradoxical rotation, presumably mediated by the treated hemisphere, was completely resistant to synthesis blockade, indicating an abundant supply of intracellular DA that is independent from synthesis rates. Sensorimotor behaviors were not correlated with AMPH-evoked rotation. The present data do not support the hypothesis that enhanced DA synthesis is required to express paradoxical rotation. Therefore, alternative mechanisms that may enhance cytoplasmic DA to produce paradoxical rotation are discussed. PMID:19378464

  6. Decrease in the number of progenitors of fibroblasts (CFUf) in bone marrow of rats after a 14-day flight onboard the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite.

    PubMed

    Vacek, A; Bueverova, E I; Michurina, T V; Rotkovská, D; Serova, L V; Bartonícková, A

    1990-01-01

    A decrease in the number of progenitors of fibroblasts (CFUf) was found in bone marrow of rats that underwent a 14-day flight in the state of weightlessness onboard the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, immediately after flight, when compared with rats maintained in control conditions of terrestrial gravitation. These changes may be explained by the action of specific factors of microgravitation.

  7. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  8. Plume washout around a major coal-fired power plant: results of a single storm event

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N. C.J.; Lindberg, S. E.; Saylor, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry from a 0.67-cm rain event in areas upwind and downwind of a 3160 MW coal-fired power plant indicated significantly higher sulfate and nitrate deposition rates in the target area, but no significant differences in H/sup +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, or trace metal deposition rates or in concentrations of any components between target and control areas. Plume washout of sulfate in the target area exhibited a maximum deposition rate approx. 45% above the mean deposition rate of the control area at a site 12 km from the stack and for a plume residence time of approx. 1 to 2 h. Aerosol washout calculations suggested that approx. 70% of the observed excess deposition rate of sulfate could be attributed to sulfate aerosol; however, the variability in rainfall intensity makes it impossible to ascribe all of the difference in sulfate deposition to plume washout alone.

  9. Washout resistance of fast-setting pozzolan cement under various root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ga-Yeon; Park, Su-Jung; Heo, Seok-Mo; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Fast-setting pozzolan cement (Endocem, Maruchi) was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various root canal irrigants on the washout of Endocem in comparison to the previously marketed mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot; Dentsply) in a furcal perforation model. Materials and Methods ProRoot and Endocem were placed into acrylic molds on moist Oasis. Each mold was then immediately exposed to either physiologic saline, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) under gentle shaking for five minutes. Washout testing was performed by scoring scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Results Endocem exhibited higher washout resistance compared to ProRoot, especially in the NaOCl group. Conclusions These results suggest that Endocem can be considered a useful repair material for furcal perforation, especially in a single-visit scenario. PMID:24303361

  10. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  11. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

    2005-01-30

    This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

  12. Washout after lobectomy: is water more effective than normal saline in preventing local recurrence?

    PubMed

    Tsakok, Teresa; Tsakok, Maria; Damji, Charlene; Watson, Robert

    2012-02-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'is water washout more effective than normal saline washout after lobectomy in preventing local recurrence?' Altogether more than 48 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Tumour cell 'spillage' after cancer resection is linked to a worse prognosis, so washout to minimize contamination is an established surgical technique. While the mechanical effects of lavage are well validated, the differential cytocidal effects of water versus saline as irrigation fluids are not. There are currently no studies addressing this issue in the thoracic surgery setting, after lung cancer lobectomy. However, the majority of relevant papers describe the use of basic in vitro methods and animal models to produce data that can conceivably be extrapolated to the clinical question in hand. The number of studies is small, and some have technical limitations. While two of the better-designed experiments suggest that water exerts a superior cytocidal effect on tumour cells, data from other studies are somewhat unimpressive, with two studies reporting that water washout controls tumour growth to a lesser extent than saline. This, together with the complete paucity of clinical trials on the subject, leads us to conclude that water is unlikely to represent a superior irrigation fluid in lung cancer patients after lobectomy. PMID:22159256

  13. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekdash, O.; Norcross, J.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, and dizziness. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device, would not impede suit ventilation delivery, and is placed directly in the breathing path of the user.

  14. The washout of combustion-generated hydrogen chloride. [rocket exhaust raindrop scavenging quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.; Hrdina, D.; Knutson, E. O.

    1980-01-01

    The coefficient for the washout from a rocket exhaust cloud of HCl generated by the combustion of an ammonium perchlorate-based solid rocket propellant such as that to be used for the Space Shuttle Booster is determined. A mathematical model of HCl scavenging by rain is developed taking into account rain droplet size, fall velocity and concentration under various rain conditions, partitioning of exhaust HCl between liquid and gaseous phases, the tendency of HCl to promote water vapor condensation and the concentration and size of droplets within the exhaust cloud. The washout coefficient is calculated as a function of total cloud water content, total HCl content at 100% relative humidity, condensation nuclei concentration and rain intensity. The model predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in scavenging tests with solid rocket exhaust and raindrops of different sizes, and the large reduction in washout coefficient at high relative humidities predicted by the model is not observed. A washout coefficient equal to 0.0000512 times the -0.176 power of the mass concentration of HCl times the 0.773 power of the rainfall intensity is obtained from the experimental data.

  15. Inert gas washout: theoretical background and clinical utility in respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Goldman, Michael D; Gustafsson, Per M

    2009-01-01

    Inert gas washout was first described more than 60 years ago and 2 principal tests have been developed from it: the single breath and multiple breath washout (MBW) techniques. The invention of fast responding gas analysers almost 60 years ago and small computers 30 years later have facilitated breath-by-breath analysis and the development of sophisticated analysis techniques. It is now possible to detect not only the degree of pulmonary ventilation inhomogeneity, but also to gain important insight into the location of the underlying disease process. While single breath washout requires a full vital capacity effort, tidal breathing during the multiple breath test requires minimal co-operation and co-ordination, and is feasible in subjects of all ages. Available MBW normative data from parameters, such as the lung clearance index, appears to vary minimally with age, making MBW particularly useful to follow children longitudinally. Multiple breath inert gas washout has demonstrated improved sensitivity, in comparison to spirometry, in the early detection of a number of important disease processes, including cystic fibrosis. Despite this, these important techniques remain under-utilised in the clinical setting and there is a lack of commercially available devices currently available. The recent resurgence of research in this area has produced a large number of important studies and a pronounced international interest has developed in these techniques. This review article will provide an overview of the theoretical background of inert gas washout and analysis indices, review important physiological and clinical insights gained from research to date (as well as from our own experience) to illustrate its utility, and outline the challenges that lie ahead in incorporating these techniques into the mainstream clinical setting. PMID:19521061

  16. Analysis of metabolic washout of positron emitters produced during carbon ion head and neck radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Helmbrecht, Stephan; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Parodi, Katia; Didinger, Bernd; Debus, Jürgen; Kunath, Daniela; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Particle Therapy Positron Emission Tomography (PT-PET) is a suitable method for verification of therapeutic dose delivery by measurements of irradiation-induced β{sup +}-activity. Due to metabolic processes in living tissue β{sup +}-emitters can be removed from the place of generation. This washout is a limiting factor for image quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a washout model obtained by animal experiments is applicable to patient data.Methods: A model for the washout has been developed by Mizuno et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(15), 2269–2281 (2003)] and Tomitani et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(7), 875–889 (2003)]. It is based upon measurements in a rabbit in living and dead conditions. This model was modified and applied to PET data acquired during the experimental therapy project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany. Three components are expected: A fast one with a half life of 2 s, a medium one in the range of 2–3 min, and a slow component of the order of 2–3 h. Ten patients were selected randomly for investigation of the fast component. To analyze the other two components, 12 one-of-a-kind measurements from a single volunteer patient are available.Results: A fast washout on the time scale of a few seconds was not observed in the patient data. The medium processes showed a mean half life of 155.7 ± 4.6 s. This is in the expected range. Fractions of the activity not influenced by the washout were found.Conclusions: On the time scale of an in-beam or in-room measurement only the medium-time washout processes play a remarkable role. A slow component may be neglected if the measurements do not exceed 20 min after the end of the irradiation. The fast component is not observed due to the low relative blood filled volume in the brain.

  17. No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence supports that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lowered risk of chronic diseases included coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. One potential mechanism for the protective properties of whole grains is their antioxidant content. The aim of this study was to compare differences in antioxidant measures when subjects consumed either refined or whole grain diets. Methods Twenty healthy subjects took part in a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study. Subjects consumed either a refined grain or whole grain diet for 14 days and then the other diet for the next 14 days. Male subjects consumed 8 servings of grains per day and female subjects consumed 6 servings of grains per day. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of each diet. Antioxidant measures included oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in blood, and isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. Results The whole grain diet was significantly higher in dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, selenium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and cystine compared to the refined grain diet. Despite high intakes of whole grains, no significant differences were seen in any of the antioxidant measures between the refined and whole grain diets. Conclusions No differences in antioxidant measures were found when subjects consumed whole grain diets compared to refined grain diets. PMID:20302646

  18. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  19. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  20. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy. PMID:26841375

  1. [Determination of ratios of acid pollutant washout in the center of Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Patier, R; Esteban Lefler, M; De la Serna, J; Diez Hernandez, P

    1990-01-01

    Samples were simultaneously taken of precipitation and atmospheric aerosol in two (rural and urban) stations, during 1986 and 1987, in which sulphates, nitrates and chlorides were analyzed by ionic chromatography. The wet deposition of the S and N composites were greater in the urban than in the rural area, and opposite was true for the chlorides. Regarding the aerosols, the average biennial concentrations of the anions studied were greater urban than in the rural area. Based on the figures obtained for the precipitation and the atmospheric aerosols, the washout ratios of each anion and the non-marine sulphates were determined. Both stations that the sulphates as a whole and the non-marine sulphates had very similar washout ratios while those of nitrates were greater in the rural area. The potential regressions between the rates at which they were washed away and the volume of precipitations reveal excellent correlation coefficients.

  2. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy.

  3. Model simulations of rainout and washout from a warm stratiform cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xing, Lin; Chameides, William L.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent cloud model with parameterized microphysics is used to investigate the processes which control the rainout and washout of soluble gases from warm, precipitating stratiform clouds. Calculations are presented simulating the distributions of soluble species within and below the cloud layer and in the precipitating raindrops as a function of time and species' solubility. Calculations indicate that for species with low solubility, wet removal processes are relatively slow and thus do not significantly affect the species' gas-phase abundance. As a result, the removal of low-solubility species by rainout and washout is controlled by thermodynamic processes with the concentration of the species in cloud and rainwater largely determined by the species' solubility. For highly soluble species on the other hand, dissolution into cloud droplets and removal in rain is quite rapid and the abundance of highly soluble species within and below the cloud falls rapidly as soon as the precipitation begins.

  4. Ventilatory inhomogeneity determined from multiple-breath washouts during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Paiva, Manuel; West, John B.

    1995-01-01

    We used multiple-breath N2 washouts (MBNW) to study the homogeneity of ventilation in four normal humans (mean age 42.5 yr) before, during, and after 9 days of exposure to microgravity on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Subjects performed 20-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 700 ml and 12-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 1,250 ml. Six indexes of ventilatory inhomogeneity were derived from data from (1) distribution of specific ventilation (SV) from mixed-expired and (2) end-tidal N2, (3) change of slope of N2 washout (semilog plot) with time, (4) change of slope of normalized phase III of successive breaths, (5) anatomic lead dead space, and (6) Bohr dead space. Significant ventilatory inhomogeneity was seen in the standing position at normal gravity (1 G). When we compared standing 1 G with microgravity, the distributions of SV became slightly narrower, but the difference was not significant. Also, there were no significant changes in the change of slope of the N2 washout, change of normalized phase III slopes, or the anatomic and Bohr dead spaces. By contrast, transition from the standing to supine position in 1 G resulted in significantly broader distributions of SV and significantly greater changes in the changes in slope of the N2 washouts, indicating more ventilatory inhomogeneity in that posture. Thus these techniques can detect relatively small changes in ventilatory inhomogeneity. We conclude that the primary determinants of ventilatory inhomogeneity during tidal breathing in the upright posture are not gravitational in origin.

  5. Plume washout from a major coal-fired power plant: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Saylor, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    A precipitation chemistry network (approx. 300 km/sup 2/) consisting of 19 automatic collectors was installed around a 3200-MW coal-fired power plant located in northwest Georgia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the local plume washout from two 300-m smokestacks. Rain samples and plume directions for a single storm (December 13, 1979) were analyzed. The maximum target area deposition rates for sulfate and nitrate were found to be approx. 45% above the mean deposition rate of the control area (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, 1.23 +- 0.14; NO/sub 3//sup -/, 0.65 +- 0.09 nmol cm/sup -2/ h/sup -1/). The maximum deposition rates for sulfate and nitrate were reached for a plume residence time of approx. 1 h at a site approx. 12 km SE of the power plant. Aerosol washout modeling suggested that approx. 70% of the observed excess deposition rate could be attributed to sulfate aerosol derived from the plume. However, nitrate aerosol modeling could account for only 36% of the observed excess nitrate deposition rate. The variability in rainfall intensity makes it impossible to ascribe all of the differences in sulfate and nitrate deposition to plume washout alone.

  6. Analytic model for washout of HCl(g) from dispersing rocket exhaust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    The potential is investigated that precipitation scavenging of HCl from large solid rocket exhaust clouds may result in unacceptably acidic rain in the Cape Canaveral, Florida, area before atmospheric dispersion reduces HCl concentrations to safe limits. Several analytic expressions for HCl(g) and HCl(g + aq) washout are derived; a geometric mean washout coefficient is recommended. A previous HCl washout model is refined and applied to a space shuttle case (70 t HCl exhausted up to 4 km) and eight Titan 3 (60 percent less exhaust) dispersion cases. The vertical column density (sigma) decays were deduced by application of a multilayer Gaussian diffusion model to seven standard meteorological regimes for overland advection. The Titan 3 decays of sigma and initial rain pH differed greatly among regimes; e.g., a range of 2 pH units was spanned at x 100 km downwind and t = 2 hr. Environmentally significant pH's .5 for infrequent exposures were shown possible at X = 50 km and t 5 hr for the two least dispersive Titan 3 cases. Representative examples of downwind rainwater pH and G(X) are analyzed. Factors affecting the validity of the results are discussed.

  7. Bayesian population analysis of a washin-washout physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for acetone

    SciTech Connect

    Moerk, Anna-Karin; Jonsson, Fredrik; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to derive improved estimates of population variability and uncertainty of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model parameters, especially of those related to the washin-washout behavior of polar volatile substances. This was done by optimizing a previously published washin-washout PBPK model for acetone in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The sensitivity of the model parameters was investigated by creating four different prior sets, where the uncertainty surrounding the population variability of the physiological model parameters was given values corresponding to coefficients of variation of 1%, 25%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. The PBPK model was calibrated to toxicokinetic data from 2 previous studies where 18 volunteers were exposed to 250-550 ppm of acetone at various levels of workload. The updated PBPK model provided a good description of the concentrations in arterial, venous, and exhaled air. The precision of most of the model parameter estimates was improved. New information was particularly gained on the population distribution of the parameters governing the washin-washout effect. The results presented herein provide a good starting point to estimate the target dose of acetone in the working and general populations for risk assessment purposes.

  8. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time. PMID:27203467

  9. Microcrustacea in flowing water - experimental-analysis of washout times and a field-test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    1. Flow-chamber experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of microcrustacea to maintain position in moving water. These results were compared to distributions of zooplankton and water velocity in a stream pool to determine the relationship of animal density to water movement and swimming ability.^2. Cladocerans exhibited negative rheotaxis (directed behaviour against a current) but poor ability to maintain position at velocities >2.5 Cm s-1. Daphnia and scapholeberis were better at avoiding washout than moina and diaphanosoma. At velocities 2.5 Cm s-1, scapholeberis >3.2 Cm s-1 and eucyclops >7.75 Cm s-1. Washout time of daphnia and scapholeberis was positively related to body size and negatively to water velocity and possession of eggs. Washout was inversely related to water velocity for eucyclops.^4. Highest densities of microcrustacea in a stream pool were found in non-flowing or downstream zones of the pool. Benthic (hydracarina, harpacticoid copepods, ostracods) and fast-swimming (cyclopoids) forms were most common in flowing zones. Facultatively benthic cladocera were abundant in regions of no flow. Rotifers and immature copepods were most abundant at the downstream end of the pool.^5. Behavioural mechanisms for remaining in stream pools at times of high flow appear to include: (i) flow avoidance (simocephalus, chydorus, scapholeberis and cyclopoids), (ii) use of benthic habitat (ostracods, harpacticoids, hydracarina), (iii) strong swimming ability (cyclopoids).

  10. Evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in lung regions showing isolated xenon-133 ventilation washout defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Sood, K.B.; Shirazi, P.; Pal, I. )

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 washout phase imaging is often used to help determine whether the etiology of a perfusion defect is embolic or due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary blood flow patterns associated with isolated defects on xenon washout images. Scintigraphic lung studies were reviewed until 100 cases with abnormal ventilation results were obtained. Ventilation abnormalities were compared with the corresponding perfusion scan results at the same anatomic site. Of the 208 individual lung regions with xenon abnormalities, 111 showed isolated washout defects (that is, with normal washin). Ninety-four of these 111 sites showed either normal perfusion or a small, nonsegmental corresponding perfusion defect. Three segmental perfusion defects were noted in association with isolated xenon retention. In each of these cases, however, the patient was felt actually to have pulmonary embolism. Thus, it is recommended that, for interpretation of scintigraphic images in the assessment of pulmonary embolism, lung pathology associated with isolated xenon retention not be considered a potential cause for large or segmental perfusion defects.

  11. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, I; Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout in a space suit to reduce the risks associated with manned operations in space suits. Symptoms of elevated CO2 levels range from reduced cognitive performance and headache to unconsciousness and death at high levels of CO2. Because of this, NASA imposes limits on inspired CO2 levels for space suits when they are used in space and for ground testing. Testing and/or analysis must be performed to verify that a space suit meets CO2 washout requirements. Testing for developmental space suits has traditionally used an oronasal mask that collects CO2 samples at the left and rights sides of the mouth. Testing with this mask resulted in artificially elevated CO2 concentration measurements, which is most likely due to the dead space volume at the front of the mask. The mask also extends outward and into the supply gas stream, which may disrupt the washout effect of the suit supply gas. To mitigate these problems, a nasal cannula was investigated as a method for measuring inspired CO2 based on the assumptions that it is low profile and would not interfere with the designed suit gas flow path, and it has reduced dead space. This test series compared the performance of a nasal cannula to the oronasal mask in the Mark III space suit. Inspired CO2 levels were measured with subjects at rest and at metabolic workloads of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Workloads were achieved by use of an arm ergometer or treadmill. Test points were conducted at air flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute, with a suit pressure of 4.3 psid. Results from this test series will evaluate the accuracy and repeatability across subjects of the nasal cannula collection method, which will provide rationale for using a nasal cannula as the new method for measuring inspired CO2 in a space suit. Proper characterization of sampling methods and of suit CO2 washout capability will better inform requirements definition and verification

  12. All-oral therapy with nucleotide inhibitors sofosbuvir and GS-0938 for 14 days in treatment-naive genotype 1 hepatitis C (nuclear).

    PubMed

    Lawitz, E J; Rodriguez-Torres, M; Denning, J; Mathias, A; Mo, H; Gao, B; Cornpropst, M T; Berrey, M M; Symonds, W T

    2013-10-01

    Sofosbuvir and GS-0938 are distinct nucleotide analogues with activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vitro. We evaluated the antiviral activity and safety of sofosbuvir and GS-0938 alone and in combination in HCV genotype 1 patients. In this double-blind study, 40 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned to 4 treatment cohorts: (i) GS-0938 for 14 days, (ii) GS-0938 for 7 days followed by GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 7 days, (iii) sofosbuvir for 7 days followed by GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 7 days and (iv) GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 14 days. In each arm, 8 patients received active drug and 2 placebo. After 7 days of dosing, patients in all 4 dose groups experienced substantial reductions in HCV RNA, with median declines (Q1, Q3) of -4.50 (-4.66, -4.24) in Cohort 1, -4.55 (-4.97, -4.13) in Cohort 2, -4.65 (-4.78, -4.17) in Cohort 3 and -4.43 (-4.81, -4.13) in Cohort 4; patients receiving placebo had essentially no change in HCV RNA (+0.07 log(10) IU/mL). Seven days after the end of treatment, the proportions of patients with HCV RNA <15 IU/mL were 4 (50%), 8 (100%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) for Cohorts 1-4, respectively, vs 0 for placebo. No viral breakthrough or resistance mutations were observed. No serious adverse events or Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were reported. Sofosbuvir and GS-0938-alone and in combination--were well tolerated and led to substantial reductions in viral load. Sofosbuvir is undergoing further investigation as a possible backbone of an all-oral regimen for chronic HCV.

  13. Compliance with 14-day primaquine therapy for radical cure of vivax malaria--a randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing unsupervised with supervised treatment.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Toby; Rab, Mohammad Abdur; Ahmadzai, Hayat; Durrani, Naeem; Fayaz, Mohammad; Kolaczinski, Jan; Rowland, Mark

    2004-03-01

    The only available treatment that can eliminate the latent hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria is a 14 d course of primaquine (PQ). A potential problem with long-course chemotherapy is the issue of compliance after clinical symptoms have subsided. The present study, carried out at an Afghan refugee camp in Pakistan, between June 2000 and August 2001, compared 14 d treatment in supervised and unsupervised groups in which compliance was monitored by comparison of relapse rates. Clinical cases recruited by passive case detection were randomised by family to placebo, supervised, or unsupervised groups, and treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg) over 3 days to eliminate erythrocytic stages. Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency were excluded from the trial. Cases allocated to supervision were given directly observed treatment (0.25 mg PQ/kg body weight) once per day for 14 days. Cases allocated to the unsupervised group were provided with 14 PQ doses upon enrollment and strongly advised to complete the course. A total of 595 cases were enrolled. After 9 months of follow up PQ proved equally protective against further episodes of P. vivax in supervised (odds ratio 0.35, 95% CI 0.21-0.57) and unsupervised (odds ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.59) groups as compared to placebo. All age groups on supervised or unsupervised treatment showed a similar degree of protection even though the risk of relapse decreased with age. The study showed that a presumed problem of poor compliance may be overcome with simple health messages even when the majority of individuals are illiterate and without formal education. Unsupervised treatment with 14-day PQ when combined with simple instruction can avert a significant amount of the morbidity associated with relapse in populations where G6PD deficiency is either absent or readily diagnosable. PMID:15024927

  14. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  15. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J.; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in–wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe–wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit. PMID:27730167

  16. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian M.; Norcross, Jason; Bekdash, Omar; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A space suit must provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout inside the helmet to prevent symptoms of hypercapnia. In the past, an oronasal mask has been used to measure the inspired air of suited subjects to determine a space suit's CO2 washout capability. While sufficient for super-ambient pressure testing of space suits, the oronasal mask fails to meet several human factors and operational criterion needed for future sub-ambient pressure testing (e.g. compatibility with a Valsalva device). This paper describes the evaluation of a nasal cannula as a device for measuring inspired air within a space suit. Eight test subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to achieve target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 British thermal units per hour (BTU/hr), at flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM). Each test configuration was conducted twice, with subjects instructed to breathe either through their nose only, or however they felt comfortable. Test data shows that the nasal cannula provides more statistically consistent data across test subjects than the oronasal mask used in previous tests. The data also shows that inhaling/exhaling through only the nose provides a lower sample variance than a normal breathing style. Nose-only breathing reports better CO2 washout due to several possible reasons, including a decreased respiratory rate, an increased tidal volume, and because nose-only breathing directs all of the exhaled CO2 down and away from the oronasal region. The test subjects in this study provided feedback that the nasal cannula is comfortable and can be used with the Valsalva device.

  17. Association Between Cardiovascular and Intraocular Pressure Changes in a 14-Day 6 deg Head Down Tilt (HDT) Bed Rest Study: Possible Implications in Retinal Anatomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita; Zanello, Susana; Yarbough, Patrice; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2013-01-01

    Visual symptoms and intracranial pressure increase reported in astronauts returning from long duration missions in low Earth-orbit are thought to be related to fluid shifts within the body due to microgravity exposure. Because of this possible relation to fluid shifts, studies conducted in head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest are being monitored for potential changes in ocular health. These measures will also serve to determine whether HDT is a suitable ground-based analog to model subclinical cardiovascular and ocular changes that could shed light on the etiology of the VIIP syndrome observed in spaceflight. Sixteen healthy normotensive (12M, 4F, age range 29-54 years), non-smoker and normal weight subjects, volunteered to participate in a 14 day 6 deg head HDT study conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU). This facility provides standard bed rest conditions (diet, wake/sleep time, time allowed in sunlight) during the time that the subjects stay at the FARU. Cardiovascular parameters were obtained in supine posture at BR-5, BR+0, and BR+3 and ocular monitoring was performed weekly. Intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from pre-bed rest BR-3) to the third day into bed rest (BR+3). Values reached a plateau towards the end of the bed rest phase (BR10) and decreased within the first three days of recovery (BR+2) returning to levels comparable to baseline at BR-3. As expected, most cardiovascular parameters were affected by 14 days of HDT bed rest. Plasma volume decreased as a result of bed rest but recovered to baseline levels by BR+3. Indications of cardiovascular deconditioning included increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, and a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output between BR-5 and BR+3. Due to the experimental design of this study, we were not able to test the hypothesis that fluid shifts might be involved in the IOP increase during the bed rest phase, since cardiovascular measures were not available for those

  18. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties ofmore » steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.« less

  19. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T.; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce with negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Further, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims’ daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to sub-types of female rape victims. PMID:24731112

  20. Growth and maturational changes in dense fibrous connective tissue following 14 days of rhGH supplementation in the dwarf rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Orth, Michael W.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on patella tendon (PT), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) on collagen growth and maturational changes in dwarf GH-deficient rats. Twenty male Lewis mutant dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to Dwarf + rhGH (n = 10) and Dwarf + vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt twice daily for 14 days. rhGH administration stimulated dense fibrous connective tissue growth, as demonstrated by significant increases in hydroxyproline specific activity and significant decreases in the non-reducible hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) collagen cross-link contents. The increase in the accumulation of newly accreted collagen was 114, 67, and 117% for PT, MCL, and LCL, respectively, in 72 h. These findings suggest that a short course rhGH treatment can affect the rate of new collagen production. However, the maturation of the tendon and ligament tissues decreased 18-25% during the rapid accumulation of de novo collagen. We conclude that acute rhGH administration in a dwarf rat can up-regulate new collagen accretion in dense fibrous connective tissues, while causing a reduction in collagen maturation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Effects of 14 days of spaceflight and nine days of recovery on cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The cross-sectional areas and succinate dehydrogenase activities of L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after nine days of recovery. The mean and distribution of the cross-sectional areas were similar to age-matched, ground-based controls for both the spaceflight and for the spaceflight plus recovery groups. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in spaceflight compared to aged-matched control rats, whereas the mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was similar in age-matched control and spaceflight plus recovery rats. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups. The reduction in the oxidative capacity of a subpopulation of sensory neurons having relatively large cross-sectional areas immediately following spaceflight and the sustained depression for nine days after returning to 1 g suggest that the 0 g environment induced significant alterations in proprioceptive function.

  2. Quantitative changes of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14-day hindlimb unloading by tail suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating quantitatively gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. A reduction in the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-containing terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system of hindlimb-suspended animals, it is suggested that the unloading due to hindlimb suspension alters afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the reduction in immunoreactivity of local circuit GABAergic neurons and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  3. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Space Suit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Paul, Thomas; Norcross, Jason; Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Swickrath, Mike

    2015-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a portable life support subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide (CO2) delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the space suit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a space suit. A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) was developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  4. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  5. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  6. Multiple breath washout analysis in infants: quality assessment and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulou, Pinelopi; Egger, Barbara; Lurà, Marco; Usemann, Jakob; Schmidt, Anne; Gorlanova, Olga; Korten, Insa; Roos, Markus; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Infant multiple breath washout (MBW) testing serves as a primary outcome in clinical studies. However, it is still unknown whether current software algorithms allow between-centre comparisons. In this study of healthy infants, we quantified MBW measurement errors and tried to improve data quality by simply changing software settings. We analyzed best quality MBW measurements performed with an ultrasonic flowmeter in 24 infants from two centres in Switzerland with the current software settings. To challenge the robustness of these settings, we also used alternative analysis approaches. Using the current analysis software, the coefficient of variation (CV) for functional residual capacity (FRC) differed significantly between centres (mean  ±  SD (%): 9.8  ±  5.6 and 5.8  ±  2.9, respectively, p  =  0.039). In addition, FRC values calculated during the washout differed between  -25 and  +30% from those of the washin of the same tracing. Results were mainly influenced by analysis settings and temperature recordings. Changing few algorithms resulted in significantly more robust analysis. Non-systematic inter-centre differences can be reduced by using correctly recorded environmental data and simple changes in the software algorithms. We provide implications that greatly improve infant MBW outcomes' quality and can be applied when multicentre trials are conducted. PMID:26849570

  7. Penile xenon (/sup 133/Xe) washout: a rapid method of screening for vasculogenic impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Wilbur, H.J.; Kang, S.A.; Flesh, L.; Bennett, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radioactive inert gas xenon (/sup 133/Xe) is a well-established isotopic indicator used to assess vascular status in many organ systems. Xenon-133 was used to evaluate male impotence. Xenon-133 was injected subcutaneously at the level of the coronal sulcus in the detumescent state. Using the gamma camera, sequential images were obtained and computer-generated curves calculated. The clearance time for 50 per cent washout of the injected /sup 133/Xe (T1/2) was then calculated for each patient, as well as a control group. Preliminary findings indicate a correlation with such established techniques of evaluating erectile impotence as history, physical examination, penile pulse Doppler tracings, and brachial-penile blood pressure index. The xenon-133 washout study was a rapid, minimally invasive, reproducible, and cost-effective method of screening those impotent patients for vasculogenic etiology of their erectile impotence. We recommend the addition of this method to the surgeon engaged in the care of impotent males.

  8. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  9. Determination of washout performance of various monochrome displays under simulated flight ambient and solar lighting conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Robertson, James B.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    The aircraft cockpit ambient lighting simulation system (ACALSS) has been developed to study display readability and associated pilot/vehicle performance effects in a part-task simulator cockpit. In the study reported here, the ACALSS was used to determine the illumination levels at which subjects lose the ability to maintain aircraft states when using three display technologies as display media for primary flight displays: a standard monochrome EL (electroluminescent) flat-panel, a laboratory-class monochrome CRT, and an enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel. The multivariate statistical technique of modified profile analysis was used to test for performance differences between display devices as functions of illumination levels. The standard monochrome EL flat-panel display began to washout after the 2500 foot-candle level of illumination. The monochrome CRT began to washout after the 5500 foot-candle level of illumination. No performance decrements by increased illumination up to the 12,000 foot-candle level were found for the enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel display. What was not anticipated was that half the subjects would subjectively prefer the CRT over the enhanced-brightness EL, even though their performance errors would have indicated the opposite.

  10. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, dizziness, and in severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and death. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Prior work conducted by the EPL examined several different wearable, respirator style, masks that could be used to sample air from the vicinity surround the nose and mouth of a suited test subject. Previously published studies utilized these masks, some being commercial products and some novel designs, to monitor CO2 under various exercise and flow conditions with mixed results for repeatability and/or consistency between subjects. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device that is placed directly in the flow path of the user as they breathe. A nasal cannula was used to sample air inhaled by the test subjects during both rest and exercise conditions. Eight subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to reach target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid for all tests, with supply flow rates of 6, 4, and 2 actual cubic feet per minute depending on the test condition. Each test configuration was conducted twice with subjects breathing

  11. Bacterial load and inflammation in fetal tissues is not dependent on IL-17a or IL-22 in 10-14 day pregnant mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Faith, Nancy G.; Steinberg, Howard; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we first assessed the effect of intragastric infection of pregnant mice with Listeria monocytogenes on relative expression of select genes associated with T cell subsets. Relative gene expression was moderately increased in placental tissues for IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17a, IL-22, CD3, and FoxP3. To assess the roles of IL-17a and IL-22 in resistance to listeriosis during pregnancy, we compared the severity of maternal and fetal infection in IL-17a(−/−), IL-22(−/−), and IL-17a(−/−)/IL-22(−/−) mice with that of wild type C57BL/6 mice. Intragastric infection with modest numbers of bacterial cells (105 CFU) caused reproducible maternal and fetal infection in all four mouse strains. We recovered greater numbers of CFU from the bloodstream of pregnant IL-22(−/−) mice than pregnant wild type mice. Otherwise we found no significant difference in bacterial load in maternal or fetal tissues (spleen, liver, fetoplacental units) from pregnant IL-17a(−/−), IL-22(−/−), or IL-17a(−/−)/IL-22(−/−) or wild type mice. Nor did we observe histopathologic differences in severity of inflammation in maternal or fetal tissues from the various groups of mice. Although IL-17a and IL-22 are up-regulated in placental tissue, our study suggests that antibacterial resistance and the host inflammatory response are not dependent on IL-17a or IL-22 during infection of mice with L. monocytogenes at 10-14 days of gestation. PMID:23178254

  12. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to

  13. [The washout in emergency surgery of the colon. A technical note].

    PubMed

    Peppas, C; D'Ambrosio, R; Rapicano, G; De Rosa, G; Romagnuolo, G; Martino, R; Martino, A

    1996-12-01

    The authors report their experience in the treatment of 179 cases of colonic neoplasm between January 1985 and August 1992. Particularly, they emphasize the advantages of one-stage colectomy with anastomosis because of an obstructing carcinoma of the left colon, used on 41 cases. This treatment can be practicable by using the intraoperative "wash-out" technique. The one-stage colectomy with anastomosis can be advisable because the long survival can be compared to that deriving from the non obstructing carcinoma. Moreover this technique offers several advantages such as the one-stage treatment, the absence of colostomy, the improvement of the cost-benefit relationship, etc. On 41 cases treated by this technique, the authors lament only one decease caused by a total dehiscence of the anastomosis, notwithstanding reintervention. Moreover, 9 cases of partial dehiscence were treated by NPT (Total Parenteral Nutrition) except one which demanded a reintervention. PMID:9064569

  14. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  15. Fast real-time moment-ratio analysis of multibreath nitrogen washout in children.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R; Meister, B

    1985-10-01

    To apply real-time moment-ratio analysis to multibreath N2-washout curves (MBNW) from children, a new processor-controlled device was constructed. Flow and fractional N2 concentration (FN2) were each sampled by 200 Hz. An electromagnetic triple-valve system, with an instrumental dead space of 36 ml and a valve resistance of 0.3 cmH2O . l-1 . s, was connected in series with a pneumotachograph and an N2 analyzer (Ohio 720) placed next to the mouthpiece. A FORTRAN/MACRO program on a PDP 11/23 computer enabled measurement of inspiratory and expiratory flow and FN2 sampling by a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The fast real-time digital processing of the N2 and flow signals incorporated filtering, delay compensation, and corrections for the effects of changes in gas composition and temperature. MBNW dynamics of the lungs were studied in 17 healthy and 28 asthmatic children and in 16 patients with cystic fibrosis, evaluating the moment ratios of the washout curves as indices of the ventilation characteristics. Intrasubject variability of the moment ratios (m1/m0, m2/m0) and determination of functional residual capacity (FRC) varied between 6.3 and 14.7% (depending on which parameter is considered) and was comparatively lower than other indices previously investigated in adults. In addition, the sensitivity of the moment ratios for discriminating different stages of ventilation inhomogeneity was superior to other indices. m2/m0 is closely related to the simultaneously measured airway resistance, and the ratio between cumulative expired volume and FRC is correlated with the ratio between residual volume and total lung capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  17. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed by calcitonin washout from a thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Umut; Gursoy, Alptekin; Ozdemir, Handan; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-07-01

    Serum calcitonin is a tumor marker used in the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin washout evaluation is a new method used for suspicious thyroid nodules and lymph nodes. Limited clinical data are present about the efficacy of this method. A 61-year-old female patient with known Hashimoto's thyroditis and an 8-mm hypoechoic nodule was presented with one previously benign fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). On referral to our department, she had a moderately high-serum calcitonin level, and we repeated the FNAC that was reported as nondiagnostic. We performed FNAC for the third time together with calcitonin washout evaluation from the thyroid nodule. The FNAC was again nondiagnostic, but the calcitonin washout level from the thyroid nodule was 152.569 pg/mL. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin washout evaluation may be a useful method in the differential diagnosis of patients with thyroid nodules having moderately high-serum calcitonin levels.

  18. Compartmental analysis of washout effect in rat brain: in-beam OpenPET measurement using a 11C beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kinouchi, Shoko; Ikoma, Yoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekazu; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-12-01

    In-beam positron emission tomography (PET) is expected to enable visualization of a dose verification using positron emitters (β+ decay). For accurate dose verification, correction of the washout of the positron emitters should be made. In addition, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index, but modeling for this has not been studied yet. In this paper, therefore, we applied compartment analyses to in-beam PET data acquired by our small OpenPET prototype, which has a physically opened field-of-view (FOV) between two detector rings. A rat brain was located at the FOV and was irradiated by a 11C beam. Time activity curves of the irradiated field were measured immediately after the irradiations, and the washout rate was obtained based on two models: the two-washout model (medium decay, k2m; slow decay, k2s) developed in a study of rabbit irradiation; and the two-compartment model used in nuclear medicine, where efflux from tissue to blood (k2), influx (k3) and efflux (k4) from the first to second compartments in tissue were evaluated. The observed k2m and k2s were 0.34 and 0.005 min-1, respectively, which was consistent with the rabbit study. Also k2m was close to the washout rate in cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by dynamic PET with 15O-water, while, k2, k3, and k4 were 0.16, 0.15 and 0.007 min-1. Our present work suggested the dynamics of 11C might be relevant to CBF or permeability of a molecule containing 11C atoms might be regulated by a transporter because the k2 was relatively low compared with a simple diffusion tracer.

  19. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  20. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  1. Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet

  2. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were

  3. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were

  4. Effect of two β-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Anwander, Helen; Egger, Andrea; Buehler, Tania; Kreis, Roland; Decombaz, Jacques; Boesch, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle and chronic β-alanine (BA) supplementation can increase carnosine content. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared two different 8-week BA dosing regimens on the time course of muscle carnosine loading and 8-week washout, leading to a BA dose-response study with serial muscle carnosine assessments throughout. Thirty-one young males were randomized into three BA dosing groups: (1) high-low: 3.2 g BA/day for 4 weeks, followed by 1.6 g BA/day for 4 weeks; (2) low-low: 1.6 g BA/day for 8 weeks; and (3) placebo. Muscle carnosine in tibialis-anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles was measured by 1H-MRS at weeks 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16. Flushing symptoms and blood clinical chemistry were trivial in all three groups and there were no muscle carnosine changes in the placebo group. During the first 4 weeks, the increase for high-low (TA 2.04 mmol/kgww, GA 1.75 mmol/kgww) was ~twofold greater than low-low (TA 1.12 mmol/kgww, GA 0.80 mmol/kgww). 1.6 g BA/day significantly increased muscle carnosine within 2 weeks and induced continual rises in already augmented muscle carnosine stores (week 4-8, high-low regime). The dose-response showed a carnosine increase of 2.01 mmol/kgww per 100 g of consumed BA, which was only dependent upon the total accumulated BA consumed (within a daily intake range of 1.6-3.2 g BA/day). Washout rates were gradual (0.18 mmol/kgww and 0.43 mmol/kgww/week; ~2%/week). In summary, the absolute increase in muscle carnosine is only dependent upon the total BA consumed and is not dependent upon baseline muscle carnosine, the muscle type, or the daily amount of supplemented BA.

  5. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  6. Optical spectroscopy of the bladder washout fluid to optimize fluorescence cystoscopy with Hexvix®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martoccia, Carla; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Jichlinski, Patrice; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence cystoscopy enhances detection of early bladder cancer. Water used to inflate the bladder during the procedure rapidly contains urine, which may contain fluorochromes. This frequently degrades fluorescence images. Samples of bladder washout fluid (BWF) or urine were collected (15 subjects). We studied their fluorescence properties and assessed changes induced by pH (4 to 9) and temperature (15°C to 41°C). A typical fluorescence spectrum of BWF features a main peak (excitation/emission: 320/420 nm, FWHM=50/100 nm) and a weaker (5% to 20% of main peak intensity), secondary peak (excitation/emission: 455/525 nm, FWHM=80/50 nm). Interpatient fluctuations of fluorescence intensity are observed. Fluorescence intensity decreases when temperature increases (max 30%) or pH values vary (max 25%). Neither approach is compatible with clinical settings. Fluorescence lifetime measurements suggest that 4-pyridoxic acid/riboflavin is the most likely molecule responsible for urine's main/secondary fluorescence peak. Our measurements give an insight into the spectroscopy of the detrimental background fluorescence. This should be included in the optical design of fluorescence cystoscopes. We estimate that restricting the excitation range from 370-430 nm to 395-415 nm would reduce the BWF background by a factor 2.

  7. Rapid radiotracer washout from the heart: effect on image quality in SPECT performed with a single-headed gamma camera system.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M K; Cho, D S

    1992-06-01

    Technetium-99m-teboroxime demonstrates high extraction and rapid washout from the myocardium. To evaluate the feasibility of performing SPECT with this agent using a single-headed gamma camera system, a series of phantom studies were performed that simulated varying degrees of washout from normal and "ischemic" regions of the myocardium. In the absence of ischemic regions, short axis profiles were relatively unaffected by washout of less than 50% of activity over the duration of a SPECT acquisition. However, significant corruption of the SPECT data was observed when large (greater than a factor of 2) differences existed in the washout of activity from normal and "ischemic" myocardium. This corruption was observed with 30%-40% washout of activity from normal regions of the heart. Based on published washout rates, these results indicate that clinical studies with 99mTc-teboroxime may need to be completed within 2-4 min to order to prevent degradation of image quality due to differential washout effects.

  8. Special report on the data collection programs for the ground based nitrogen washout experiment. Volume 1: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bueker, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nitrogen Washout System measures nitrogen elimination on a breath basis from the body tissues of a subject breathing pure oxygen. The system serves as a prototype for a Space Shuttle Life Sciences experiment and in the Environmental Physiology Laboratory. Typically, a subject washes out body nitrogen for three hours while breathing oxygen from a mask enclosed in a positive-pressure oxygen tent. A nitrogen washout requires one test operator and the test subject. A DEC LSI-11/02 computer is used to (1) control and calibrate the mass spectrometer and Skylab spirometer, (2) gather and store experimental data and (3) provide limited real time analysis and more extensive post-experiment analysis. Five programs are used to gather and store the experimental data and perform all the real time control and analysis.

  9. Technical Note: Implementation of biological washout processes within GATE/GEANT4—A Monte Carlo study in the case of carbon therapy treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Rovira, I. Jouvie, C.; Jan, S.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The imaging of positron emitting isotopes produced during patient irradiation is the only in vivo method used for hadrontherapy dose monitoring in clinics nowadays. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the metabolic decay processes (biological washout). In this work, a generic modeling of washout was incorporated into the GATE simulation platform. Additionally, the influence of the washout on the β{sup +} activity distributions in terms of absolute quantification and spatial distribution was studied. Methods: First, the irradiation of a human head phantom with a {sup 12}C beam, so that a homogeneous dose distribution was achieved in the tumor, was simulated. The generated {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O distribution maps were used as β{sup +} sources in a second simulation, where the PET scanner was modeled following a detailed Monte Carlo approach. The activity distributions obtained in the presence and absence of washout processes for several clinical situations were compared. Results: Results show that activity values are highly reduced (by a factor of 2) in the presence of washout. These processes have a significant influence on the shape of the PET distributions. Differences in the distal activity falloff position of 4 mm are observed for a tumor dose deposition of 1 Gy (T{sub ini} = 0 min). However, in the case of high doses (3 Gy), the washout processes do not have a large effect on the position of the distal activity falloff (differences lower than 1 mm). The important role of the tumor washout parameters on the activity quantification was also evaluated. Conclusions: With this implementation, GATE/GEANT 4 is the only open-source code able to simulate the full chain from the hadrontherapy irradiation to the PET dose monitoring including biological effects. Results show the strong impact of the washout processes, indicating that the development of better models and measurement of biological washout data are

  10. Modification of the open circuit N2 washout technique for measurement of functional residual capacity in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, R; Suska, A; Volbracht, A; Brune, T; Jorch, G

    1997-06-01

    We compared the standard nitrogen (N2) washout technique for measuring functional residual capacity (FRC) with a modified technique that uses a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) at different ratio instead of pure oxygen. The tests were made with a standard lung function system equipped with an ultraviolet (UV) analyzer for measurement of N2 concentrations in the expired gas. We examined models of "spontaneous breathing" and "mechanical ventilation," each with volumes of FRC in the range of a premature and a newborn lung (20-80 ml), using both techniques at different baseline inspired oxygen concentrations (FIO2). Correlations between known and measured volumes were high and identical for the two techniques (r = 0.996), and the mean error was not significantly different from zero (P = 0.111). Measurements of FRC in 6 infants gave a correlation coefficient of r = 0.989 between the two techniques; reproducibility, as measured by the coefficient of variation, was high, showing no significant differences between both techniques (P = 0.792). However, values of individual infants were different (P = 0.011), and the slope of the regression line relating measurements by the 2 techniques was 1.04, with an intercept on the y-axis at 1.46. We conclude that FRC can be measured with the modified N2 washout technique, using heliox as a washout gas. Volumes can be measured with high precision and reproducibility, even in premature infants with low lung volumes and/or high baseline FIO2. A correction factor may be necessary to equate FRC measurements made by oxygen-N2 vs. heliox-N2 washouts. Hyperoxemia and hypoxemia can be avoided by admixing different flows of oxygen to a standard heliox mixture.

  11. Transversal stiffness and beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 content of the M. soleus fibers in the conditions of a 3-day reloading after 14-day gravitational unloading.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyze the structural changes in different parts of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus of muscle fibers by measuring their transversal stiffness by atomic force microscopy in a three-day reloading after a 14-day gravity disuse, which was carried out by hind-limbs suspension. The object of the study was the soleus muscle of the Wistar rat. It was shown that after 14 days of disuse, there was a reduction of transversal stiffness of all points of the sarcolemma and contractile apparatus. Readaptation for 3 days leads to complete recovery of the values of the transversal stiffness of the sarcolemma and to partial value recovery of the contractile apparatus. The changes in transversal stiffness of sarcolemma correlate with beta-actin and alpha-actinin-4 in membrane protein fractions.

  12. Development and Validation of a Space Suit Helmet Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekdash, O.; Norcross, J.; Meginnis, I.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Korona, F. A.; Abercromby, A. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Providing adequate washout of carbon dioxide (CO2) from within a space suit helmet is essential to maintaining a safe operating environment for astronauts using space suits. A valid and reliable method for quantification of inspired CO2 inside space suits is required to ensure the health and performance of suited crewmembers. With this objective, several different methods for measuring the concentration of CO2 in a space suit helmet were evaluated. A nasal cannula was compared with respirator style masks worn by suited test subjects, with air drawn into gas analyzers to measure the concentration of CO2 in the immediate vicinity of the mouth and nose. The respirator style masks, some being commercially available products and some novel designs, did not provide repeatable results based on initial pilot testing in three subjects. Based on the analysis of those studies, the decision was made to down-select to a commercially available nasal cannula as the primary sampling device to be used in follow-on testing in the MKIII (n = 8) and Z2 (n = 6) prototype space suits, with five subjects performing tests in both suits allowing for repeated measures comparisons. Subjects were tasked with achieving target metabolic rates of 293, 586, and 879 Watts (1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/h) and at air supply flow rates of 3.4, 6.8, and 10.2 Am(sup 3)/hr. (2, 4, and 6 ACFM). Each test condition was performed twice; once with subjects instructed to breathe however they felt comfortable, and once with subjects instructed to breathe only through their nose. Inspired CO2 values were determined by the lowest points, or troughs, within each breath of the respiratory trace. This method provides multiple inspired CO2 samples at known metabolic rates for each test condition and provides a larger data set for analysis than possible through gross averaging of the minimum inspired CO2. Results indicate that reliable measures are achievable under both breathing conditions but that restricting subjects

  13. [Measurement of functional residual capacity by nitrogen washout during mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Saito, Y; Ogawa, H; Akata, N; Nishino, Y; Kosaka, Y

    1998-02-01

    A medical gas analyzer AMIS 2000 SP, which is a mass spectrometer, incorporating a fractional residual capacity (FRC) measuring program based on a nitrogen washout method, has been introduced recently. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and the reproductivity of the FRC measuring system in a clinical situation. FRC was measured by this system connected to a ventilator (Bennet 7200ae). Our study examined; 1) the accuracy of the measurement using a syringe. 2) the difference in two consecutive measurements in the same subject during mechanical ventilation, and 3) the correlation between the measured and the predicted value calculated with Gorldman's formula in 18 subjects during ventilation. The first study has showed an excellent correlation (y = 0.953x + 0.092, r = 0.996, P < 0.001) or y = 0.909x + 0.132 (r = 0.999, P < 0.001) with a tidal volume of 400 ml or 500 ml, respectively) between the measured value and the syringe capacity. Reproductivity was proved by the linear regression (y = 0.977x + 0.024, r = 0.998, P < 0.001) between the two consecutive measurements. A good correlation was shown between the measured values and the predicted values (y = 0.656x - 0.415, r = 0.849, P < 0.0001). These results showed good reliability and reproductivity of our FRC measuring system. It is concluded that the FRC measurements using AMIS2000SP system can be used in clinical respiratory managements in ICU.

  14. A Functional Mathematical Model to Simulate the Single-Breath Nitrogen Washout

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, Paolo; Brighenti, Chiara; Gnudi, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to reproduce and interpret the influence of pulmonary inhomogeneities on the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. The model is characterized by two parallel zones. In each zone, the upper airways are described by a Rohrer resistor. Intermediate airways are represented as a collapsible segment, the volume of which depends on transmural pressure. Smaller airways are described by a resistance which increases when transpulmonary pressure decreases. The respiratory region is modeled as a Voigt element. Three different conditions were simulated: a reference case, characterized by airway-parameter values for normal conditions, and two pathological states corresponding to different levels of disease. In the reference case, a straight line was a good approximation of SBNW phase III and the last point of departure of the nitrogen trace from this line unambiguously identified the onset of phase IV. The slope of phase III rose with disease severity (from a 1.1% increase in nitrogen concentration per 1000 ml of expired volume in the reference case to 3.6% and 7.7% in the pathological cases) and the distinction between phases III and IV became less evident. The results obtained indicate that the slope of phase III depends primarily on nitrogen-concentration differences between lung zones, as determined by different mechanical properties of the respiratory airways. In spite of the simplified representation of the lungs, the similarity of the simulation results to actual data suggests that the proposed model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes observed during SBNW in normal and pathological patients. PMID:24044025

  15. Diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence: Combination of penile xenon-133 washout and papaverine tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.N.; Liu, R.S.; Yu, P.C.; Chang, L.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Kuo, J.S.

    1989-07-01

    The present study evaluates both penile xenon-133 washout (XWT) and papaverine tests (PT) in the diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence. XWT was accomplished by subcutaneous injection of xenon-133 (1-2 mCi in 0.1 mL saline solution) into the dorsal coronal prepuce. Abnormal XWT was suggested in patients whose clearance time (T1/2) was longer than 7.5 minutes and whose penile blood flow rate (Q) was less than 6 mL/100 g tissue/min. PT was done by intracavernous injection of papaverine (60 mg in 20 mL normal saline). Abnormal PT was indicated in patients whose onset of full erection was more than ten minutes after papaverine injection and whose duration of erection was less than one hour. Ten young and 11 older normal volunteers were examined with XWT only; all showed normal results. A total of 60 impotent patients were examined with both XWT and PT and were classified into four groups: in 2 patients (3.3%) both XWT and PT were normal (group I); in 8 (13.3%) XWT was abnormal and PT normal (group II); in 14 (23.3%) XWT was normal and PT abnormal (group III); and in 36 (60%) both XWT and PT were abnormal (group IV). On further examination with bilateral hypogastric arteriography in 10 XWT-abnormal patients and on surgical correction of abnormal curvature in 5 XWT-abnormal patients, all (100%) were proved to have penile arterial insufficiency. Erection cavernosography performed in 15 PT-abnormal patients confirmed penile venous insufficiency in 80 percent. We conclude both XWT and PT are simple and effective for evaluation of the penile arterial blood flow and venous competence, respectively.

  16. A Realistic Validation Study of a New Nitrogen Multiple-Breath Washout System

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Florian; Houltz, Birgitta; Latzin, Philipp; Robinson, Paul; Gustafsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Background For reliable assessment of ventilation inhomogeneity, multiple-breath washout (MBW) systems should be realistically validated. We describe a new lung model for in vitro validation under physiological conditions and the assessment of a new nitrogen (N2)MBW system. Methods The N2MBW setup indirectly measures the N2 fraction (FN2) from main-stream carbon dioxide (CO2) and side-stream oxygen (O2) signals: FN2 = 1−FO2−FCO2−FArgon. For in vitro N2MBW, a double chamber plastic lung model was filled with water, heated to 37°C, and ventilated at various lung volumes, respiratory rates, and FCO2. In vivo N2MBW was undertaken in triplets on two occasions in 30 healthy adults. Primary N2MBW outcome was functional residual capacity (FRC). We assessed in vitro error (√[difference]2) between measured and model FRC (100–4174 mL), and error between tests of in vivo FRC, lung clearance index (LCI), and normalized phase III slope indices (Sacin and Scond). Results The model generated 145 FRCs under BTPS conditions and various breathing patterns. Mean (SD) error was 2.3 (1.7)%. In 500 to 4174 mL FRCs, 121 (98%) of FRCs were within 5%. In 100 to 400 mL FRCs, the error was better than 7%. In vivo FRC error between tests was 10.1 (8.2)%. LCI was the most reproducible ventilation inhomogeneity index. Conclusion The lung model generates lung volumes under the conditions encountered during clinical MBW testing and enables realistic validation of MBW systems. The new N2MBW system reliably measures lung volumes and delivers reproducible LCI values. PMID:22558338

  17. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  18. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing. PMID:26429136

  19. Reproducibility of multiple breath washout indices in the unsedated preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Sinhal, Sanjay; Galati, John; Baldwin, David N; Stocks, Janet; Pillow, J Jane

    2010-01-01

    Multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) is gaining popularity for measurements of resting lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity. Test reproducibility is an important determinant of the clinical applicability of diagnostic tests. The between-test reproducibility of variables derived from MBW tests in newborn infants is unknown. We aimed to determine the within-test repeatability and short-term between-test reproducibility of MBW variables in unsedated preterm infants. We hypothesized that measurements obtained within a 3-day interval in clinically stable preterm infants would be reproducible and suitable for use as an objective clinical outcome measurement. In this cross-sectional observational study, clinically stable hospitalized preterm infants whose parents had given informed consent for MBW studies were tested twice within 72 hr during quiet, unsedated sleep. Functional residual capacity (FRC), lung clearance index (LCI), and the first and second to zeroeth moment ratios (M(1):M(0); M(2):M(0)) were computed from MBW traces obtained using a mainstream ultrasonic flowmeter and 4% sulphur hexafluoride (MBW(SF6)). Within-test repeatability and between-test reproducibility were determined. Within-test repeatability (expressed as a coefficient of variability (C(v))) for differences between two and four replicate measurements on the same test occasion, were 9.3% (FRC), 9.0% (LCI), 7.6% (M(1):M(0)), and 15.6% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. The within-test C(v)'s were not statistically different to the between-tests C(v)'s, which were 7.7% (FRC), 10.3% (LCI), 6.1% (M(1):M(0)), and 13.0% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. Among unsedated preterm infants, between-test reproducibility over a 3-day interval was similar to within-test repeatability. The wide limits of agreement may limit the application of these measures to detect a clinically significant change in condition in small preterm infants. PMID:20025050

  20. Fast washout of TL-201 from infarct area: Sign of reestablished coronary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.; Brown, K.A.; Clements, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    Relative fast (F) washout (WO) of Tl-201 from an area of myocardial infarction (MI) occasionally can be demonstrated by quantitative analysis of exercise (EX) scans. Recently FWO was reported in predischarge EX-Tl-201 scans in patients (PTS) who had thrombolysis in evolving acute MI. It was suggested that FWO indicated reestablished blood flow to the MI region. Since thrombolysis may also occur spontaneously, we tested the hypothesis that when FWO occurs in PTS with natural course of prior MI, the infarct coronary artery is patent. Of 150 consecutive PTS who had quantitative EX-Tl-201 scans and coronary angiography (CA), 71 PTS had prior Q-wave MI on ECG. In normal subjects, Tl-201 WO is almost uniform throughout the heart and mean (+- SD) variability is 17 +- 7%. FWO is defined as WO in MI area exceeding mean variability + SD (=32%) compared to WO in adjacent normal myocardium. Of 71 PTS with MI, FWO occurred in 9 (12%) PTS. Mean WO in MI areas was 64 +- 15% vs 36 +- 9% (p<0.01) in normal myocardium. Of the remaining 62 PTS, 37 had normal WO (fixed defect), 25 had low WO (partial filling-in). Of 9 PTS with FWO, 8 had 100% stenosis of infarct vessel on CA; one PT had 90% stenosis. All 9 PTS had moderate to severe left ventricular regional wall motion abnormality. Thus, 1) FWO appears not to be related to reestablish flow, as evidenced by persistent coronary artery occlusion and regional dysfunction, 2) Alternative pathophysiologic explanation for FWO should be considered. However, artefactual increase of calculated WO on the basis of interpolative background correction may provide a potential simple explanation.

  1. In vitro and in vivo studies of boron neutron capture therapy: boron uptake/washout and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Ballarini, F; Boninella, A; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Coppola, A; Di Liberto, R; Dionigi, P; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron uptake and washout associated with cell survival studies can be of great help in developing clinical applications. In this work, boron uptake and washout were characterized both in vitro for the DHDK12TRb (DHD) rat colon carcinoma cell line and in vivo using rats bearing liver metastases from DHD cells. Despite a remarkable uptake, a large boron release was observed after removal of the boron-enriched medium from in vitro cell cultures. However, analysis of boron washout after rat liver perfusion in vivo did not show a significant boron release, suggesting that organ perfusion does not limit the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The survival of boron-loaded cells exposed to thermal neutrons was also assessed; the results indicated that the removal of extracellular boron does not limit treatment effectiveness if adequate amounts of boron are delivered and if the cells are kept at low temperature. Cell survival was also investigated theoretically using a mechanistic model/Monte Carlo code originally developed for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and extended here to cell death; good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental data was obtained.

  2. In vitro and in vivo studies of boron neutron capture therapy: boron uptake/washout and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Ballarini, F; Boninella, A; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Coppola, A; Di Liberto, R; Dionigi, P; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron uptake and washout associated with cell survival studies can be of great help in developing clinical applications. In this work, boron uptake and washout were characterized both in vitro for the DHDK12TRb (DHD) rat colon carcinoma cell line and in vivo using rats bearing liver metastases from DHD cells. Despite a remarkable uptake, a large boron release was observed after removal of the boron-enriched medium from in vitro cell cultures. However, analysis of boron washout after rat liver perfusion in vivo did not show a significant boron release, suggesting that organ perfusion does not limit the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The survival of boron-loaded cells exposed to thermal neutrons was also assessed; the results indicated that the removal of extracellular boron does not limit treatment effectiveness if adequate amounts of boron are delivered and if the cells are kept at low temperature. Cell survival was also investigated theoretically using a mechanistic model/Monte Carlo code originally developed for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and extended here to cell death; good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental data was obtained. PMID:21133762

  3. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  4. Reverse and pseudo redistribution of thallium-201 in healed myocardial infarction and normal and negative thallium-201 washout in ischemia due to background oversubtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.; Raff, U.; Jain, R.

    1988-09-15

    While the interpolative background subtraction used in quantitative planar thallium scanning can significantly overestimate the background overlying the heart, the effects of background oversubtraction on quantitative analysis have not been well defined. A mathematical model that relates myocardial washout determined using interpolative background subtraction to true myocardial washout is presented. The model was validated using phantoms and applied to myocardial and pulmonary thallium kinetic data in 100 patients, 85 with and 15 without coronary artery disease. The model showed that when using interpolative background subtraction, measured washout equals true washout in normally perfused myocardium; however, depending on the relation between myocardial and pulmonary thallium clearance, myocardial washout in ischemic regions and areas of infarction can be substantially over- or underestimated. Based on generally accepted quantitative criteria, this incorrect washout determination can at times lead to misdiagnosis of infarction as ischemia and ischemia as normally perfused tissue. It can also cause both ''reverse redistribution'' and ''pseudo redistribution'' of thallium in myocardial infarction in the absence of a physiologic basis.

  5. A Novel Physiological Investigation of the Functional Residual Capacity by the Bias Flow Nitrogen Washout Technique in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Mohy G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The dynamic functional residual capacity (FRCdyn), the lung volume most routinely measured in infants, is an unreliable volume landmark. In addition to the FRCdyn, we measured the (passive) static FRC (FRCst) by inducing a brief post-hyperventilation apnea (PHA) in 33 healthy infants aged 7.4–127.2 weeks. A commercial system for nitrogen (N2) washout to measure FRC, and a custom made system to monitor and record flow and airwayopening pressure signals in real-time were used in unison. Infants were manually hyperventilated to induce a PHA. After the last passive expiration, FRCst was estimated by measuring the volume of N2 expired after end-passive expiratory switching of the inspired gas from room air to 100% oxygen during the post-expiratory apneic pause. Repeatable intrasubject FRCst and FRCdyn measurements overlapped in most infants including the younger ones (P = 0.2839). Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) FRCst was 21.1 (20.0–22.3), and error-corrected FRCdyn was 21.4 (20.4–22.4) ml/kg. Mean (washout time [t]) tFRCst was longer than tFRCdyn 60 sec (95% CI 55–65) versus 47 sec (95% CI 43–51) (P<0.0001). The FRC and washout time were dependent on body length, weight and age. We conclude that the FRCst is not different from the FRCdyn in infants. The FRCst is a reliable volume landmark because the PHA stabilizes the end-expiratory level by potentially abolishing the sedated infant’s breathing strategies. The FRCst lacks potential sources of errors and disadvantages associated with measuring the FRCdyn. The findings cast significant doubt on the traditional physiology of air trapping in healthy infants’ lungs. PMID:19499588

  6. Decrease in the number of progenitors of erythrocytes (BFUe, CFUe), granulocytes and macrophages (GM-CFC) in bone marrow of rats after a 14-day flight onboard the Cosmos-2044 Biosatellite.

    PubMed

    Vacek, A; Michurina, T V; Serova, L V; Rotkovská, D; Bartonícková, A

    1991-01-01

    A decrease in the number of progenitors of erythrocytes (BFUe, CFUe) and of granulocytes and macrophages (GM-CFC) in bone marrow was found in rats exposed to microgravitation during a 14-day flight onboard the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite when compared to control rats maintained under conditions of gravitation on the ground. The number of progenitors of both lineages of haemopoiesis was also decreased in synchronous control rats, thus suggesting that the pool of progenitors is influenced also by the action of the nonspecific space flight factors.

  7. Expiratory washout versus optimization of mechanical ventilation during permissive hypercapnia in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richecoeur, J; Lu, Q; Vieira, S R; Puybasset, L; Kalfon, P; Coriat, P; Rouby, J J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three ventilatory techniques for reducing PaCO2 in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with permissive hypercapnia: (1) expiratory washout alone at a flow of 15 L/min, (2) optimized mechanical ventilation defined as an increase in the respiratory frequency to the maximal rate possible without development of intrinsic positive end- expiratory pressure (PEEP) combined with a reduction of the instrumental dead space, and (3) the combination of both methods. Tidal volume was set according to the pressure-volume curve in order to obtain an inspiratory plateau airway pressure equal to the upper inflection point minus 2 cm H2O after setting the PEEP at 2 cm H2O above the lower inflection point and was kept constant throughout the study. The three modalities were compared at the same inspiratory plateau airway pressure through an adjustment of the extrinsic PEEP. During conventional mechanical ventilation using a respiratory frequency of 18 breaths/min, respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 = 84 +/- 24 mm Hg and pH = 7.21 +/- 0.12) was observed. Expiratory washout and optimized mechanical ventilation (respiratory frequency of 30 +/- 4 breaths/min) had similar effects on CO2 elimination (DeltaPaCO2 = -28 +/- 11% versus -27 +/- 12%). A further decrease in PaCO2 was observed when both methods were combined (DeltaPaCO2 = -46 +/- 7%). Extrinsic PEEP had to be reduced by 5.3 +/- 2.1 cm H2O during expiratory washout and by 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm H2O during the combination of the two modes, whereas it remained unchanged during optimized mechanical ventilation alone. In conclusion, increasing respiratory rate and reducing instrumental dead space during conventional mechanical ventilation is as efficient as expiratory washout to reduce PaCO2 in patients with severe ARDS and permissive hypercapnia. When used in combination, both techniques have additive effects and result in PaCO2 levels close to normal values. PMID:10390383

  8. Uptake and washout of borocaptate sodium and borono-phenylalanine in cultured melanoma cells: a multi-nuclear NMR study.

    PubMed

    Panov, V; Salomon, Y; Kabalka, G W; Bendel, P

    2000-07-01

    The cellular uptake and washout of the two principal boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and borono-phenylalanine (BPA), were monitored on-line, noninvasively, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The uptake and washout of inorganic borate (B(i)) was also followed for comparison. M2R mouse melanoma cells grown on polystyrene microspheres were perfused inside the NMR sample tube. (11)B NMR was used to detect the presence of B(i), BSH and BPA, and (19)F NMR was applied to detect fluorinated BPA ((19)F-BPA). The results revealed chemical modifications of BSH due to spontaneous formation of the borocaptate dimer, BSSB, in the culture medium. BPA readily formed a complex with glucose contained in the culture medium but was also converted in the cells to a yet unidentified compound in a reaction that probably involves the hydrolysis of BPA and the release of B(i). The cellular accumulation ratio for BPA was significantly higher than 1 and was also significantly higher than that for BSH. On the other hand, the cellular retention time observed for BSH was much longer than for BPA, indicating a strong trapping of BSH in cells.

  9. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Kanne, Bryan; Korona, Adam; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  10. Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal inflow and outflow during early tumescence

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.N.; Graham, M.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout is a new technique that measures both corporal arterial inflow and venous sinusoidal outflow during early tumescence in patients with erectile dysfunction. Fourteen patients were studied using 99mTc-RBCs to measure inflow and 133Xe or 127Xe in saline to measure outflow. Tumescence was induced by injecting papaverine intracorporally. Peak corporal rates corrected for inflow (r = 0.88) and uncorrected for outflow (r = 0.91) and change in volume over 2 min centered around peak inflow (r = 0.96) all correlated with angiography. Outflow measurements did not correlate with intracorporal resistance. Thus, outflow rates alone could not be used to predict venous sinusoidal competence. Normal inflow rate is greater than 20 ml/min; probable normal 12-20; indeterminate inflow 7-12; and abnormal inflow less than 7 ml/min. Technetium-99m radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout can be performed together and both provide a method for simultaneously evaluating the relationship between corporal inflow and outflow rates in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  11. Association between Irrigation Fluids, Washout Volumes and Risk of Local Recurrence of Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 427 Cases and 492 Controls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Wang, Ke; He, Jianjun; Chen, Wuke; Liu, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Rectal washout can prevent local recurrence after anterior resection of rectal cancer. Few studies have focused particularly on the association between irrigation fluids volume or agents and the risk of local recurrence after anterior resection of rectal cancer. Objective To estimate the association between irrigation fluids types, volumes of rectal washout and risk of local recurrence after anterior resection for cancer. Data Sources Relevant studies were identified by a search of Medline, Embase, Wiley Online Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Register, Wanfang databases and Google Website from their inception until October 18,2013. Study Selection Studies reporting the association between rectal washout types and volumes and risk of local recurrence after anterior resection for cancer were included. Interventions Eligible studies used rectal washout. Control groups were defined as no washout. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Random-effects model were used to obtain summary estimates of RR and 95% CI, with Stata version 11 and RevMan 5.2.5 softwares used. The quality of report was appraised in reference to the MINORS item. Results Of the 919 rectal cancer patients in 8 included studies, a total of 61(6.64%) cases of local recurrence were reported, with a pooled RR 0.51 (95%CI = 0.28–0.92, P = 0.03). The RRs 0.37 and 0.39 in normal saline and washout volume (≥1500 ml normal saline) subgroup, respectively, indicated that rectal washout with normal saline, or ≥1500 ml in volume could significantly reduce local recurrence (LR) rate (95% CI = 0.17–0.79, P = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.18–0.87, P = 0.02) after anterior resection for cancer. Limitation The included studies were non-randomized observational studies, with diversity of study designs. Conclusion Rectal washout with normal saline alone can reduce the risk of local recurrence in patients with resectable rectal cancer

  12. Estimation of the in situ degradation of the washout fraction of starch by using a modified in situ protocol and in vitro measurements.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, L H; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-09-01

    The in situ degradation of the washout fraction of starch in six feed ingredients (i.e. barley, faba beans, maize, oats, peas and wheat) was studied by using a modified in situ protocol and in vitro measurements. In comparison with the washing machine method, the modified protocol comprises a milder rinsing method to reduce particulate loss during rinsing. The modified method markedly reduced the average washout fraction of starch in these products from 0.333 to 0.042 g/g. Applying the modified rinsing method, the fractional degradation rate (k d ) of starch in barley, oats and wheat decreased from on average 0.327 to 0.144 h-1 whereas for faba beans, peas and maize no differences in k d were observed compared with the traditional washing machine rinsing. For barley, maize and wheat, the difference in non-fermented starch in the residue between both rinsing methods during the first 4 h of incubation increased, which indicates secondary particle loss. The average effective degradation of starch decreased from 0.761 to 0.572 g/g when using the new rinsing method and to 0.494 g/g when applying a correction for particulate matter loss during incubation. The in vitro k d of starch in the non-washout fraction did not differ from that in the total product. The calculated ratio between the k d of starch in the washout and non-washout fraction was on average 1.59 and varied between 0.96 for oats and 2.39 for maize. The fractional rate of gas production was significantly different between the total product and the non-washout fraction. For all products, except oats, this rate of gas production was larger for the total product compared with the non-washout fraction whereas for oats the opposite was observed. The rate of increase in gas production was, especially for grains, strongly correlated with the in vitro k d of starch. The results of the present study do not support the assumption used in several feed evaluation systems that the degradation of the washout fraction of

  13. A model validation study of the washout/rainout contribution of sulfate and nitrate in wet deposition compared with precipitation chemistry data in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, Mizuo; Aikawa, Masahide

    2015-09-01

    We simulated washout/rainout ratios of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- and NO3- using a chemical transport model and compared the estimates with precipitation measurements sampled at 0.5/1 mm intervals at sites located in Kobe (urban), Toyo-oka (suburban), and Tamba (rural) cities, Japan. The 25th and 75th percentile range of the simulated washout contributions was 30-70%. The simulated washout contribution range of NO3- (40-70%) was greater than that of nss-SO42 - (30-60%). There was good agreement between the simulated and observed values, and the observed washout contribution of NO3- was also greater than that of SO42-. The simulated washout contribution range was higher (60-75%) in emission source regions and lower (40-55%) in downwind areas. The wet deposition process is one of the key causes of uncertainty in chemical transport modeling. Comparing model results with such high-frequency precipitation chemistry data has been extremely rare. Thus the current study is providing useful information for evaluating and improving wet deposition modeling and for the better understanding of the wet deposition mechanism.

  14. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C.

  15. A new double-tracer gas single-breath washout to assess early cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Abbas, Chiara; Casaulta, Carmen; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), tests for ventilation inhomogeneity are sensitive but not established for clinical routine. We assessed feasibility of a new double-tracer gas single-breath washout (SBW) in school-aged children with CF and control subjects, and compared SBW between groups and with multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW). Three SBW and MBNW were performed in 118 children (66 with CF) using a side-stream ultrasonic flowmeter setup. The double-tracer gas containing 5% sulfur hexafluoride and 26.3% helium was applied during one tidal breath. Outcomes were SBW phase III slope (SIII(DTG)), MBNW-derived lung clearance index (LCI), and indices of acinar (S(acin)) and conductive (S(cond)) ventilation inhomogeneity. SBW took significantly less time to perform than MBNW. SBW and MBNW were feasible in 109 (92.4%) and 98 (83.0%) children, respectively. SIII(DTG) differed between children with CF and controls, mean±sd was -456.7±492.8 and -88.4±129.1 mg·mol·L(-1), respectively. Abnormal SIII(DTG) was present in 36 (59%) children with CF. SIII(DTG) was associated with LCI (r= -0.58) and S(acin) (r= -0.58), but not with S(cond). In CF, steeply sloping SIII(DTG) potentially reflects ventilation inhomogeneity near the acinus entrance. This tidal SBW is a promising test to assess ventilation inhomogeneity in an easy and fast way. PMID:22599360

  16. Special Report on the Data Collection Programs for the Ground Based Nitrogen Washout Experiment. Volume 2 - Detailed Program Descriptions, Listings, Examples and Hardware Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Personal data input, decompression data, nitrogen washout, nitrogen data, and update computer programs are described. Input data and formats; program output, reports, and data; program flowcharts; program listings; sample runs with input and output pages; hardware operation; and engineering data are provided.

  17. Risk assessment for the Explosive Washout Lagoons (Site 4), Umatilla Depot Activity Hermiston, Oregon. Final report, Mar 91-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Leinbach, A.; Enright, A.M.; Eaton, W.; Lemont, S.

    1992-03-01

    This document is the Risk Assessment (RA) for the Explosive Washout Lagoons (Site 4) at Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA). The purpose of this RA is to address the potential future health risks posed by explosives-contaminated soil and groundwater associated with Site 4 in the absence of remediation, and to identify safe residual explosives concentrations (remedial action criteria) in soil if remediation is determined to be a requirement. This RA is not intended to address the remediation of contaminated groundwater; contaminated groundwater is addressed only to the extent that contaminants in Site 4 soil are affecting groundwater quality. The potential remediation of contaminated groundwater will be addressed in the installation-wide Baseline RA for UMDA. Based on the available data, explosives contamination appears to be widespread in soil near the lagoons and in groundwater at distances of over 650 yards from the lagoons. Three future land use scenarios-residential, light industrial, and military-and four potential future exposure pathways-soil ingestion, dust inhalation, dermal contact with soil, and groundwater ingestion-were evaluated in the RA to estimate potential future carcinogenic hazards. The results of RA indicate that remediation may be a requirement for soil at Site 4; therefore, remedial action criteria for soil were developed.

  18. Multiple-Breath Washout as a Lung Function Test in Cystic Fibrosis. A Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Milla, Carlos; Aurora, Paul; Davies, Jane C; Davis, Stephanie D; Hall, Graham L; Heltshe, Sonya; Latzin, Philipp; Lindblad, Anders; Pittman, Jessica E; Robinson, Paul D; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Singer, Florian; Starner, Tim D; Ratjen, Felix; Morgan, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) is a lung function parameter derived from the multiple-breath washout (MBW) test. Although first developed 60 years ago, the technique was not widely used for many years. Recent technological advances in equipment design have produced gains in popularity for this test among cystic fibrosis (CF) researchers and clinicians, particularly for testing preschool-aged children. LCI has been shown to be feasible and sensitive to early CF lung disease in patients of all ages from infancy to adulthood. A workshop was convened in January 2014 by the North American Cystic Fibrosis Foundation to determine the readiness of the LCI for use in multicenter clinical trials as well as clinical care. The workshop concluded that the MBW text is a valuable potential outcome measure for CF clinical trials in preschool-aged patients and in older patients with FEV1 in the normal range. However, gaps in knowledge about the choice of device, gas, and standardization across systems are key issues precluding its use as a clinical trial end point in infants. Based on the current evidence, there are insufficient data to support the use of LCI or MBW parameters in the routine clinical management of patients with CF. PMID:26075554

  19. A semiconductor silicon PIN diode matrix detector for measurement of 133Xe washout in small regional skin areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J H; Sørensen, J L; Hauge, E N; Sejrsen, P; Bojsen, J

    1993-05-01

    Local variations in microvascularization are expected in lesions and lesion-free skin of patients with pressure sores. To investigate these variations, methods for studies of the regional blood flow rate within small skin areas are needed. Regional blood flow can be estimated by measuring the washout of 133Xe from the tissue. This study describes a 2 x 12 Si PIN diode matrix detector capable of 133Xe detection, and equipped with a collimator to improve the spatial resolution. Thus the regional blood flow in subcutaneous skin areas down to about 2 cm2 can be investigated when the atraumatic epicutaneous labelling technique is used. The capability of the matrix detector and its collimator is described by laboratory investigations. In pilot investigations three normal subjects and three paraplegics with pressure sores were studied. In each individual study the detector matrix was divided into six square areas containing four diode detectors each. Thus six 133Xe disappearance rate constants from adjacent subcutaneous tissue could be determined simultaneously. PMID:8334415

  20. Use of lung pressure-volume curves and helium-sulphur hexafluoride washout to detect emphysema in subjects with mild airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R Petrik; Hunter, D; Pride, N B

    1981-01-01

    Mild abnormalities of peripheral lung function can be detected by simple methods, but it remains difficult to determine when these changes are the result of emphysema rather than disease of the airways. We have compared the value of measurements of lung distensibility and a multibreath test of helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) washout in distinguishing between six men with mild impairment of airway function caused by asthma (group A) and six men with similar airway function but probable widespread emphysema (group E). In group E there were striking abnormalities in the static pressure-volume curve of the lungs (reduced lung recoil pressures, increased chord compliance, increased shape factor) and the relation between maximum expiratory flow and lung recoil pressure fell within the normal range. In group A there were only minor abnormalities in lung distensibility and maximum expiratory flow was reduced at a standard lung recoil pressure. In addition carbon monoxide transfer coefficient was reduced in group E but normal in group A. Normal values for He-SF6 washout were similar to those previously described. Differences in He-SF6 washout between group A and group E men were small and in part accounted for by differences in functional residual capacity. In subjects with lung disease, end-tidal He and SF6 concentrations during washout were erratic and it was sometimes impossible to define a crossover point. We conclude that in our hands this technique is less useful for detecting acinar disease than are measurements of lung distensibility or carbon monoxide transfer. Considerable changes in lung distensibility may occur at an early stage in the natural history of emphysema and are readily distinguishable from the small changes that occur in mild asthma. Images PMID:7292378

  1. Use of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout to predict viability in liver cancers treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Hyunjin

    2013-04-01

    Liver cancers are very common in Korea and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is commonly used to diagnose them. This study improves the diagnosis of liver cancer by using a novel parametric image combining various phases of dynamic CT imaging. The objective of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout (AEEW) obtained by image registration and dynamic subtraction in predicting tumor viability in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Forty patients who had forty-seven iodized-oil defect areas (IODAs) in HCCs treated with TACE were included. These patients were divided into two groups, one group with viable tumors (n = 27) and the other group with non-viable tumors (n = 20) in the IODAs. All the patients underwent triple-phase CT before and after TACE. The attenuation differences of the IODAs between the arterial and the equilibrium phases were measured and compared between two groups. Quantitative AEEW color maps of the whole liver were created from the triple-phase CT image by using prototype research software. Two radiologists independently analyzed following two sets of image: one with standard tri-phase CT images and the other with tri-phase CT images and quantitative AEEW color map images. The diagnostic performances in terms of mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying viable or non-viable tumors by using quantitative AEEW color map images in addition to tri-phase CT was larger than the performance obtained using tri-phase CT only. In conclusion, quantitative AEEW color map images improve the diagnostic performances of multiphasic CT for determining the viability of the IODA in a HCC treated with TACE.

  2. Optimization of the accuracy of retention and washout measurements of 99mTc-Sestamibi from breast tumours using an anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Christopher; Griffiths, Peter A.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying the retention or washout of 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) in breast tumours in vivo may provide a basis for predicting the chemotherapy response. The aim of this study is to investigate the variations and limitations of the different methods used to quantify these parameters. A phantom was developed that allowed the modelling of MIBI pharmacokinetics in both the breast tumour and normal breast tissue. Washout and retention were calculated from tumour uptake values based on (1) background corrected counts or (2) total counts in the tumour region of interest (ROI), or (3) tumour to background ratios (TBR), or (4) normalized TBR (nTBR). Method 1 was the most accurate method of quantification whilst method 3 was the most inaccurate. The accuracy of method 1 was independent of the times at which images were acquired, but three sources of error are identified involving incorrect background selection, ROI reproducibility and inconsistent temporal separation of images. In conclusion, background subtracted tumour counts should be used in the calculation of MIBI retention or washout. Accurate results are dependent on selecting the appropriate background, drawing consistent ROIs and using reproducible time intervals between images.

  3. Abilities of candesartan and other AT(1) receptor blockers to impair angiotensin II-induced AT(1) receptor activation after wash-out.

    PubMed

    Kiya, Yoshihiro; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Matsuo, Yoshino; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Saku, Keijiro

    2012-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) binds to Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor and evokes cell signaling, and subsequently stimulates vasoconstriction and cell proliferation, which eventually lead to cardiovascular disease. Since most AT(1) receptor blockers (ARBs) have molecular (differential) effects, we evaluated the specific features of candesartan and compared the abilities of candesartan and other ARBs (olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan, irbesartan and losartan) to bind to and activate AT(1) receptors using a cell-based wash-out assay. Each ARB blocked Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and inositol phosphate production to different degrees after wash-out. In addition, a small difference in the molecular structure, i.e. a carboxyl group, between candesartan and candesartan-7H was associated with a difference in the degree of this blocking effect. In addition, interaction between Gln(257) in the AT(1) receptor and the carboxyl group of candesartan may be partially associated with the effect of candesartan after wash-out. Although our findings regarding the molecular effects of ARB are based on basic research, these findings may lead to an exciting new area in the clinical application of ARBs. PMID:21824992

  4. Effect of epidural saline washout on regression of sensory and motor block after epidural anaesthesia with 2% lidocaine and fentanyl in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Park, E Y; Kil, H K; Park, W S; Lee, N-H; Hong, J-Y

    2009-03-01

    Seventy elderly males received lumbar epidural anaesthesia with 12 ml of 2% lidocaine containing fentanyl 50 mug. At the end of transurethral surgery, the washout group (n = 33) received an epidural bolus of 30 ml saline while the control group (n = 34) did not. Mean (SD) times to 1-grade (17.2 (11.9) vs 32.7 (11.3) min) and 2-grade regression (23.8 (12.2) vs 56.0 (23.9) min) of motor block, 3-dermatomal sensory regression (31.4 (11.6) vs 42.2 (14.4) min for cold and 30.8 (15.6) vs 40.6 (14.2) min for pinprick), and regression to S1 (57.7 (16.1) vs 76.2 (20.2) min for cold and 56.8 (17.3) vs 69.2 (16.2) min for pinprick) were significantly shorter in the washout group than the control group. There were no differences in postoperative pain scores and side effects between the two groups. We concluded that epidural washout facilitates regression of both motor and sensory block following epidural anaesthesia without reducing the postoperative analgesic benefit.

  5. Preventing a Washout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Dave

    1996-01-01

    Offers ideas for locating a roof leak. Discusses why many leaks originate in the roof's base flashings and the importance of knowing the roof's material makeup. Advocates keeping a roof-leak history and gives advice on performing inspections to check for leaks. Discusses how to find small holes in roofs. (RJM)

  6. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products Consumption as a Direct Modulator of Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Humans: A Study Protocol for a Double-Blind, Randomized, Two Period Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Courten, Maximilian PJ; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Walker, Karen Z; Forbes, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed during the processing, storage, and cooking of foods. As part of a western diet, AGEs are consumed in excess and impair glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the absence of diabetes, AGE-mediated decreases in insulin sensitivity and signaling have been postulated. However, randomized studies to test this relationship in humans are limited. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether dietary consumption of AGEs will decrease insulin sensitivity in healthy overweight adults. A secondary aim is to determine the effects of dietary AGEs on insulin secretion, circulating soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammation markers. Methods Overweight, but otherwise healthy, non-diabetic adults (N=20) aged 18-50 years old will complete a randomized cross-over design intervention study alternating low and high (4-fold increase) AGE diets (2-week duration). At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review including an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and anthropometric measures and questionnaires assessing diet, physical activity, and general wellness. Each test diet will be followed for 14 days, followed by a 4-week washout period before commencement of the second alternate dietary period. Energy, macronutrient, and AGE intake will be calculated for each dietary period. Additionally, the AGE content of foods used in the study will be measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. All measurements will be repeated at the beginning and end of each dietary period. Primary and secondary outcomes will be expressed as a change over the dietary period for insulin sensitivity, secretion, anthropometric parameters, sRAGE, and inflammation markers and compared by paired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The study will be completed in early 2016. Conclusion The proposed trial will provide much

  7. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  8. Effects of dipyridamole and aminophylline on hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 washout in the setting of a critical coronary stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Granato, J.E.; Watson, D.D.; Belardinelli, L.; Cannon, J.M.; Beller, G.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the interaction of intravenous dipyridamole and aminophylline on thallium-201 transport kinetics, regional myocardial blood flow and systemic hemodynamics in the presence of a critical coronary artery stenosis. In 12 dogs with a critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, arterial pressure decreased from a mean value (+/- SEM) of 107 +/- 6 to 94 +/- 3 mm Hg and distal left anterior descending artery pressure decreased from 70 +/- 7 to 55 +/- 4 mm Hg after intravenous administration of dipyridamole. In the left anterior descending perfusion zone, the endocardial/epicardial flow ratio decreased from 0.70 to 0.36 and the intrinsic thallium washout rate was significantly prolonged. Intravenous aminophylline reversed the dipyridamole-induced systemic hypotension and transmural coronary steal and restored the thallium washout rate to baseline values. In six other dogs, aminophylline alone resulted in no alterations in systemic and coronary hemodynamics or regional myocardial blood flow. As expected, dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and coronary steal were prevented by aminophylline pretreatment. These data show that in a canine model of partial coronary stenosis, systemic hypotension, adverse regional flow effects and prolonged thallium-201 washout consequent to intravenously administered dipyridamole are promptly reversed by intravenous aminophylline administration. Aminophylline alone had no significant hemodynamic and coronary flow effects. This study provides further insight into the altered thallium kinetics occurring as a consequence of dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and suggests that the prompt reversal of symptoms and signs of ischemia with aminophylline in patients receiving intravenous dipyridamole for clinical imaging studies probably reflects the reversal of transmural coronary steal.

  9. Isotropic, anisotropic, and borehole washout analyses in Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II, Alaminos Canyon well 21-A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of three-dimensional seismic amplitude mapping, several gas hydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two of the prospects were drilled as part of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Program Leg II in May 2009, and a suite of logging-while-drilling logs was acquired at each well site. Logging-while-drilling logs at the Alaminos Canyon 21–A site indicate that resistivities of approximately 2 ohm-meter and P-wave velocities of approximately 1.9 kilometers per second were measured in a possible gas-hydrate-bearing target sand interval between 540 and 632 feet below the sea floor. These values are slightly elevated relative to those measured in the hydrate-free sediment surrounding the sands. The initial well log analysis is inconclusive in determining the presence of gas hydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because large washouts in the target interval degraded well log measurements. To assess gas-hydrate saturations, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities is required. To meet this need, a method is presented that models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with seawater (drilling fluid). Owing to the anisotropic nature of this geometry, the apparent anisotropic resistivities and velocities caused by the vertical layer are used to correct measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis of the washout-corrected well logs, the gas-hydrate saturation at well site AC21–A was estimated to be in the range of 13 percent. Because gas hydrates in the vertical fractures were observed, anisotropic rock physics models were also applied to estimate gas-hydrate saturations.

  10. Quantification of regional fractional ventilation in human subjects by measurement of hyperpolarized 3He washout with 2D and 3D MRI.

    PubMed

    Horn, Felix C; Deppe, Martin H; Marshall, Helen; Parra-Robles, Juan; Wild, Jim M

    2014-01-15

    Multiple-breath washout hyperpolarized (3)He MRI was used to calculate regional parametric images of fractional ventilation (r) as the ratio of fresh gas entering a volume unit to the total end inspiratory volume of the unit. Using a single dose of inhaled hyperpolarized gas and a total acquisition time of under 1 min, gas washout was measured by dynamic acquisitions during successive breaths with a fixed delay. A two-dimensional (2D) imaging protocol was investigated in four healthy subjects in the supine position, and in a second protocol the capability of extending the washout imaging to a three-dimensional (3D) acquisition covering the whole lungs was tested. During both protocols, subjects were breathing comfortably, only restricted by synchronization of breathing to the sequence timings. The 3D protocol was also successfully tested on one patient with cystic fibrosis. Mean r values from each volunteer were compared with global gas volume turnover, as calculated from flow measurement at the mouth divided by total lung volume (from MRI images), and a significant correlation (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) was found. The effects of gravity on R were investigated, and an average decrease in r of 5.5%/cm (Δr = 0.016 ± 0.006 cm(-1)) from posterior to anterior was found in the right lung. Intersubject reproducibility of r imaging with the 2D and 3D protocol was tested, and a significant correlation between repeated experiments was found in a pixel-by-pixel comparison. The proposed methods can be used to measure r on a regional basis. PMID:24311749

  11. Effect of cement washout on loosening of abutment screws and vice versa in screw- and cement- retained implant-supported dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the abutment screw stability of screw- and cement-retained implant-supported dental prosthesis (SCP) after simulated cement washout as well as the stability of SCP cements after complete loosening of abutment screws. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six titanium CAD/CAM-made implant prostheses were fabricated on two implants placed in the resin models. Each prosthesis is a two-unit SCP: one screw-retained and the other cemented. After evaluating the passive fit of each prosthesis, all implant prostheses were randomly divided into 3 groups: screwed and cemented SCP (Control), screwed and noncemented SCP (Group 1), unscrewed and cemented SCP (Group 2). Each prosthesis in Control and Group 1 was screwed and/or cemented, and the preloading reverse torque value (RTV) was evaluated. SCP in Group 2 was screwed and cemented, and then unscrewed (RTV=0) after the cement was set. After cyclic loading was applied, the postloading RTV was measured. RTV loss and decementation ratios were calculated for statistical analysis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in RTV loss ratio between Control and Group 1 (P=.16). No decemented prosthesis was found among Control and Group 2. CONCLUSION Within the limits of this in vitro study, the stabilities of SCP abutment screws and cement were not significantly changed after simulated cement washout or screw loosening. PMID:26140172

  12. Studies on 133Xe wash-out from human skin: quantitative measurements of blood flow in normal and corticosteroid-treated skin.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, J K; Wadskov, S

    1977-04-01

    Blood flow was measured by the 133Xe technique in normal and corticosteroid-treated skin. Epicutaneous and intracutaneous methods of tracer application were compared in normal skin. The two labeling methods were equally suitable for measuring cutaneous blood flow provided calculations in both cases were based on a biexponential resolution of the wash-out curve in its cutaneous and subcutaneous components and provided the traumatic hyperemia phase was considered, when intracutaneous application of the tracer was used. Results were invalidated if calculations were based on initial slope of the wash-out curves.Topical application of beta-methasone valerate in a reduction in cutaneous blood flow as measured by the intracutaneous technique with curve resolution, whereas no effect could be demonstrated when calculations were based on the initial slopes of the curves. The 133Xe technique is a simple and reliable method for measuring cutaneous blood flow, which might prove useful in estimations of penetration ability and potency of topical corticosteroids.

  13. Accumulation and washout of 99mTc-sestamibi in osteoarthritic subchondral bone may indicate increased osteoclastic activity accompanying microfractures: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Ebine, Masato

    2016-01-01

    We show for the first time that imaging of osteoarthritic subchondral bone with 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) may be a valuable diagnostic tool to assess the severity of subchondral sclerosis. This is a report on a patient who had osteoarthritis of both knees and where MIBI was accumulated in the lesion sites. Due to the accumulation of MIBI in the bone, we believe that excessive stress had been applied to the bone and microfractures had activated bone remodeling. Typically, MIBI accumulation is not observed in the bone, but MIBI is believed to exhibit high accumulation where there is an increased presence of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclasts absorb calcium, consequently causing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which may decrease the ability to retain MIBI and enhance washout. Pathological examination of the tissues of this case confirmed an abundance of osteoclasts. This suggests that using MIBI may be useful for determining the increased presence of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  14. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  15. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  16. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air and precipitation of the Pearl River Delta, South China: annual washout ratios and depositional rates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Guan, Yu-Feng; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2009-12-15

    On the basis of a one-year (from October 2006 to September 2007) sampling campaign, 34 air samples and 23 bulk precipitation samples were collected in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Fifteen tri- to deca-BDE congeners (sum of which is defined as Sigma15PBDE) were detected in more than 70% of the samples. In three urban-rural regions, Sigma15PBDE concentrations ranged from 77 to 372 pg/m3 in air (particulate + vapor) and 1.98 to 15.5 ng/L in rain (particle+dissolved) from Dongguan, from 195 to 1450 pg/m3 in air and 4.71 to 17.2 ng/L in rain from Shunde, and from 23.7 to 148 ng/L in rain from Guangzhou. Among the BDE congeners, BDE-209 was the predominant component. Linear correlations between the gas-particle partition coefficients (Kp) and the subcooled vapor pressures (P(O/L)) of individual BDE congeners were observed for both the wet and dry seasons, but the slopes (-0.572 to -0.525) of the fitted equations all substantially deviated from equilibrium condition (slope = -1). The total washout ratio by bulk rainfalls was determined to be 2 x 103 for tri-BDEs and 6 x 104 for BDE-209. The estimated annual dry and wet depositional rates were 6720 and 2460 kg/yr, respectively, for BDE-209, and 7270 and 2940 kg/yr for Sigma15PBDE in the PRD, indicating a dominant pathway for PBDEs input into the PRD soil and aquatic environments.

  17. An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections with an unusually long incubation period.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John T; Matyas, Bela T; Fontana, John; DeGroot, Mary Ann; Beuchat, Larry R; Hoekstra, Michael; Friedman, Cindy R

    2012-03-01

    A 1998 investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections among children tasting unpasteurized milk during tours of a dairy farm demonstrated a distribution of unusually long incubation periods (median, 8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6-14 days). Bacterial isolates were highly acid tolerant and contained genes associated with protection against destructive phagocytic reactive oxygen intermediates. We hypothesize that exposure to low-dose oral inoculum of a pathogen with these properties could have contributed to cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis with the longest incubation period reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  18. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  19. On the choice of the optimal periodic operation for a continuous fermentation process.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, G; Crescitelli, S; Maffettone, P L; Grosso, M

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the impact of the forcing waveform on the productivity of a continuous bioreactor governed by an unstructured, nonlinear kinetic model. The (periodic) forcing is applied on the substrate concentration in the feed. To this end, some alternative waveforms commonly encountered in practice are evaluated and their performance is compared. An analytical/numerical approach is used. The preliminary analytical step is based on the π-criterion that gives useful information for small amplitudes. The extension to larger amplitudes, when significant improvements are expected, is then performed through a continuation-optimization procedure. It is found that the choice of the specific waveform has an impact on the performance of the process and there is no unique best forcing for any process condition, but its choice depends on the operating parameters and the forcing amplitude and frequency values. Further, the influence of the waveform functions on the wash-out conditions are extensively examined. The analysis shows that all the waveforms examined in this work may lead to significant enlargement of the nontrivial regime with respect to a steady state operation. In particular, square-wave forcing leads in practice to the extinction of the wash-out conditions for any feed substrate concentration and for a well defined choice of the forcing parameters.

  20. Silicones used in permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes to reduce the fading and color change process of dyed hair occurred by wash-out or UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    Different kinds of silicones were incorporated directly into permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes. To ensure that the silicone was deposited to the hair fibers Si deposition was measured. Hair treated with a silicone free control or the silicone modified hair dyes was tested for color and lightness change (fading) by washing the treated tresses several times and measuring the color change. In a second experiment, hair treated with permanent hair dye was treated with UV radiation to show if silicones can reduce the color change initiated by UV light. The influence of the silicones to dry combing forces of permanent dyed hair untreated and treated with UV was also investigated. The tests showed that dimethiconol/dimethicone mixtures can reduce the washout of hair colorant clearly and silicone resins like trimethylsiloxysilcate or propylphenylsilsesquioxane are able to decrease the color change occurred by UV radiation in dyed hair.

  1. Explosive washout lagoons soils operable unit supplemental investigation technical and environmental management support of installation restoration technology development program, Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston. Oregon. Phase 2. Final Draft report, May 1991-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Raymondi, R.

    1992-04-15

    As part of an ongoing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Umatilla Army Depot, the soils of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at that installation were assigned as an operable unit for a possible expedited remedial action. Additional sampling was conducted to determine the explosives concentrations at depth beneath the lagoons, and to verify the absence of other contaminants. Explosives contamination was found from the ground surface to the groundwater at 47 feet. Concentrations were much higher in the top 3 feet than in the soil beneath that. Other organic contamination was not present; some metals were elevated slightly above background. The results of the study are being used in a feasibility study of remedial action alternatives.

  2. Explosives Washout Lagoons Soils Operable Unit supplemental investigation technical and environmental management support of installation-restoration technology development program, Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final report, May 91-May 92

    SciTech Connect

    Raymondi, R.

    1992-04-15

    As part of an ongoing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Umatilla Army Depot, the soils of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at that installation were assigned as an operable unit for a possible expedited remedial action. Additional sampling was conducted to determine the explosives concentrations at depth beneath the lagoons, and to verify the absence of other contaminants. Explosives contamination was found from the ground surface to the groundwater at 47 feet. Concentrations were much higher in the top 3 feet than in the soil beneath that. Other organic contamination was not present; some metals were elevated slightly above background. The results of the study are being used in a feasibility study of remedial action alternatives.

  3. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  4. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  5. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  6. Saturn's variable radio period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    Temporal modulations in radio emissions are often used to determine the rotation rate of the emitting body. The rotation period (presumably) of Jupiter's interior was established in this way [Burke et al., 1962] and has recently been refined by Higgins et al. [1997]. Rotation periods for the remainder of the outer planet gas giants were determined from Voyager planetary radio astronomy observations. Similar techniques have been applied to astrophysical objects, including pulsars, for which the radio period is assumed to be the rotation period of the neutron star. In 2001, however, this simple relation between the radio period and rotation period became suspect, at least for the case of Saturn. Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] reported that the radio period of Saturn had changed by as much as 1% from that determined by Voyager and, further, exhibited variations on time scales of years. More recently, Cassini observations indicate that the Saturn kilometric radiation is modulated with a period longer than that observed by Voyager and that this period is variable on a time scale of a year or less. The recent Higgins et al. result suggests that Jupiter's period is steady, within measurement accuracy. There are no additional measurements from Uranus or Neptune with which to look for time variations in their radio periods. For conservation of energy and angular momentum reasons, true variations of the rotation period of Saturn's deep interior are not believed to be a viable explanation for the variation in radio period, hence, it would appear that there is some disconnection of the radio period from the rotation period in the case of Saturn. One possible contributing factor may be that since Saturn's magnetic field is very accurately aligned with its rotational axis, there is no first-order beaming effect caused by the wobbling of the magnetic field, contrary to the situation at the other magnetized planets. Another explanation suggested by Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] and

  7. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  8. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  9. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  10. Vitamin E delivery to human skin by a rinse-off product: penetration of alpha-tocopherol versus wash-out effects of skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, S; Tavakkol, A; Polefka, T G; Nabi, Z; Elsner, P; Thiele, J J

    2005-01-01

    alpha-Tocopherol, the major biologically active form of vitamin E, represents a frequently added lipophilic compound of skin care products. Despite its emerging use in rinse-off formulations, little is known on its efficacy with respect to its deposition or its antioxidant potential in human skin. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the single use of an alpha-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off product provides effective deposition of alpha-tocopherol on human stratum corneum. To test this, forearm skin of 13 volunteers was washed either with an alpha-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off product (test product, TP) or with an alpha-tocopherol-free vehicle control (control product, CP) (contralateral arm) using a standardized wash protocol. Thereafter, skin surface lipids were extracted with pure ethanol after the wash procedure as well as after 24 h. Additionally, one group of volunteers was subjected to irradiation of their forearms with low-dose UVA (8 J/cm(2)) prior to lipid extraction. Skin lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection for vitamin E and UV detection for squalene (SQ) and squalene monohydroperoxide. The results of this in vivo study demonstrated that (1) while CP treatment lowers, TP treatment strongly increases alpha-tocopherol levels of skin barrier lipids; (2) increased vitamin E deposition levels were maintained for a period of at least 24 h, and (3) TP treatment significantly inhibited photooxidation of SQ. In conclusion, the use of alpha-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off products may help to maintain the integrity of the skin barrier by providing protection against photooxidative stress at the level of skin surface lipids.

  11. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  12. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  13. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  14. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  15. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  16. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  17. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  18. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  19. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  20. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  1. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  2. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  3. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  4. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  5. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  6. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous periodic hypothermia is a rare syndrome of recurrent, centrally mediated hypothermia without an identifiable systemic cause or brain lesion. Most patients defend a temporarily lowered temperature "set point" during episodes of hypothermia, despite manifesting many well-known systemic consequences of core temperature hypothermia. No case of death directly attributable to an episode of spontaneous periodic hypothermia has been reported, although many of the serious systemic effects of hypothermia have been documented in these cases, so it is not unlikely that death may occur. The syndrome's cause, and that of Shapiro syndrome, remains unknown. Pharmacologic trials to date have been only modestly successful. Anticonvulsant agents, clonidine, and cyproheptadine appear the most likely to succeed, with cyproheptadine being a reasonable first choice. Given that the term "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" describes a syndrome, and not a pathophysiologic mechanism, it is likely to encompass a common eventuality, arrived at via several different pathways. One can postulate mechanisms such as structural abnormalities, trauma, infection, irritation, and degeneration involving strategic locations which create a focus for epileptic or other periodic dysfunction whose scope involves the centers for thermoregulation. The existence of 2 distinct, oppositional thermoregulatory centers would allow for speculation of similar mechanisms accounting for cases of both periodic hypo- and hyperthermia (61). Postmortem data regarding the hypothalamic and surrounding areas from future cases of Shapiro syndrome and spontaneous periodic hypothermia would be of great interest. Further, more sensitive in vivo testing methods are clearly needed. The role of PET or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) performed acutely during an episode remains to be characterized (64, 103, 105). The term

  7. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  8. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  9. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  10. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  11. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  12. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  13. Anisotropic models to account for large borehole washouts to estimate gas hydrate saturations in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II Alaminos 21 B well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of 3-D seismic amplitude mapping, several gashydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon (AC) area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two locations were drilled as part of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (JIP Leg II) in May of 2009 and a comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs were acquired at each well site. LWD logs indicated that resistivity in the range of ~2 ohm-m and P-wave velocity in the range of ~1.9 km/s were measured in the target sand interval between 515 and 645 feet below sea floor. These values were slightly elevated relative to those measured in the sediment above and below the target sand. However, the initial well log analysis was inconclusive regarding the presence of gashydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because largewashouts caused by drilling in the target interval degraded confidence in the well log measurements. To assess gashydratesaturations in the sedimentary section drilled in the Alaminos Canyon 21B (AC21-B) well, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities was developed. The proposed method models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with sea water (drilling fluid) and the apparent anisotropic resistivity and velocities caused by a vertical layer are used to correct the measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis, the average gashydratesaturation in the target sand section in the AC21-Bwell can be constrained to the range of 8–28%, with 20% being our best estimate.

  14. Chronic preexposure to methylphenidate cross-sensitizes methamphetamine in male Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Rosine, Bobbi Jo; Levi Bolin, B; Akins, Chana K

    2009-07-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of exposure to methylphenidate increasing later risk of drug abuse. The objective of this study was to investigate whether chronic preexposure to methylphenidate would induce cross-sensitization to a subsequent methamphetamine challenge in male Japanese quail. Male quail were treated intraperitoneally with either 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg methylphenidate or saline for 14 days. After a 14-day washout period, birds were challenged with 5.6 mg/kg of methamphetamine. Methylphenidate-induced behavioral sensitization was not evident after 14 days of preexposure. However, locomotor activity was greater during the methamphetamine challenge in birds that were preexposed to a high dose of methylphenidate. The findings suggest that chronic preexposure to methylphenidate may be sufficient to alter later responding to methamphetamine, regardless of whether preexposure resulted in behavioral sensitization.

  15. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  17. [Cognitive disorders and its correction in the acute period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, S V; Mozheĭko, E Iu; Levin, O S; Koriagina, T D; Chernykh, T V; Berezovskaia, M A

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using of original stimulating programs for correction of memory decline, attention impairment and optical-spatial gnosis disorders was evaluated in 100 post stroke patients with the degree of cognitive decline from mild cognitive impairment to mild dementia in the acute period of stroke. In addition to traditional methods of treatment, we applied training using computer programs within 20-30 minutes daily 5 times a week during 14 days. Efficiency of treatment was measured by the MMSE, the FAB, the Clock drawing test, Shulte's tables and a letter correction test. After the treatment, the statistically significant improvement of cognitive functions was found in the group of patients receiving the correction with computer programs. PMID:23390653

  18. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  19. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  20. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  1. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  2. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  3. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  4. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  5. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  6. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods. PMID

  7. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  8. [Bibliometry of biomedical periodicals].

    PubMed

    Similowski, T; Derenne, J P

    1995-01-01

    Bibliometry or the science citation index is a quantitative evaluation of periodical literature, biomedical or others. It depends above all on an analysis of citations which allows for a calculation of different indices characterising and classifying journals (number of articles published, frequency of citation, impact, topicality...). The applications of bibliometry are varied from the administration of library collections to the appreciation of the significance of a review in its own speciality area. By extension the bibliometry index are sometimes used to evaluate the importance of a discipline in the literature, the place of a nation within a discipline, the significance of certain opinions or the quality of research. The intrinsic limits of bibliometry are such that this last application should be handled with caution. In effect, various biases can mechanically affect the value of different indices and particularly the fact that an article appearing in a prestigious review should not prejudge its quality such as the relevance of the question posed, the validity of the methodology employed or the accuracy of the results. For this, the study of citations is insufficient and some qualitative or semi-quantitative criteria bearing on the contents of the article should be used (critical reading, gate analysis, etc.) This general review has, as its aim, to expose both the definitions and limits of bibliometry illustrating them with some information calculated from the principal respiratory journals.

  9. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Tabbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of astronauts' visual changes have raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings include globe flattening with hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, it is hypothesized that, in predisposed individuals, hypertension in the brain may follow cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight. This possible mechanism of ocular changes may also apply to analogous cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) or pseudotumor cerebri on Earth patients. Head-down t ilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. Previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) but the conditions of bed rest varied among experiments, making it difficult to compare data and draw conclusions. For these reasons, vision evaluation of bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies since 2010, in an attempt to monitor vision health in subjects subjected to bed rest. Vision monitoring is thus currently performed in all NASA-conducted bed rest campaigns

  10. Increased beta-adrenergic responsiveness induced by 14 days exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1995-01-01

    Increased sensitivity of end-organ responses to neuroendocrine stimuli as a result of prolonged exposure to the relative inactivity of microgravity has recently been hypothesized. This notion is based on the inverse relationship between circulating norepinephrine and beta-adrenoreceptor sensitivity. The beta-adrenoreceptor activity is reduced in individuals who have elevated plasma norepinephrine as a result of regular exposure to upright posture and physical exercise. In contrast, adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity has been reported in patients with dysautonomias in which circulating catecholamines are absent or reduced. Taken together, these studies and the observation that circulating plasma norepinephrine has been reduced during spaceflight and in groundbased simulations of microgravity prompt the suggestion that adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity may be a consequence of the adaptation to spaceflight. We conducted an experiment designed to measure cardiovascular responses to adrenoreceptor agonists in human subjects before and after prolonged exposure to 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that adaptation to microgravity increases adrenoreceptor responsiveness, and that this adaptation is associated with reduced levels of circulating norepinephrine.

  11. Systemic toxicity of coal liquefaction products: results of a 14-day dermal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Yagminas, A.; De Vries, P.A.; Villeneuve, D.C.

    1988-03-01

    Increasing energy demands, coupled with rising prices and an unstable world oil market have stimulated international interest in developing alternative sources of fuel. Direct coal liquefaction processes (CLP) hold great potential for Canada because of its large coal reserves. The conversion of coal to liquefied fuels results in many fractions of differing hydrocarbon content and includes many toxic substances such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Since the major route of occupational exposure would be via the dermal route and since studies of systemic toxicity following dermal exposure are lacking, preliminary studies were conducted on the toxicity of SRC-II process coal liquefaction products applied dermally to the rat. Samples of the light (L), intermediate (I), and heavy, (H) fractions produced during the SRC-II coal liquefaction process, were kindly provided by the Sandwell Beak Research Group (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada). Diesel Fuel (D) was purchased from an Esso Gasoline Station. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 +/- 25 grams were used.

  12. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  13. Stroke risk in the early period after carotid related symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsantilas, P; Kühnl, A; Kallmayer, M; Knappich, C; Schmid, S; Kuetchou, A; Zimmermann, A; Eckstein, H H

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend performing carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid disease as soon as possible after the neurological index event. However, early stroke risk has not been well documented for this patient group. We therefore conducted a systematic analysis of the current literature on the recurrent risk of ischemic events in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis. Systematic review was performed by searching the MEDLINE® database from 1950 until June 8, 2015 (key words: cerebral ischemia, transient ischemic attack, amaurosis fugax, stroke, symptomatic carotid stenosis, recurrent risk, outcome, prognosis, follow-up, cohort and natural history). All studies reporting stroke risks in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis after neurologic index events within a period of 7 days were included. Cumulative stroke risks with 95% confidence intervals after a neurologic index event were recalculated at 2-3, 7, 14 and 30 days and a meta-analysis including an analysis of heterogeneity were performed using the statistical package R and Excel for Mac 2003. Ten studies with a total number of 2634 patients were included. Results of an overall stroke risk were as follows: 2.0-17.2% at 2-3 days, 0-22.1% at 7 days, 0-29.6% at 14 days and 0-11.1% at 30 days in patients with a symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis. The pooled stroke risk in the six studies with active follow-up was 6.0% (95% CI 2.4-14.4) at 2-3 days, 10.9% (6.1-18.7) at 7 days and 17.6% (9.7-29.9) at 14 days. Pooled stroke risk in the three studies with uncensored populations was even higher with 6.4% (1.5-23.8%) at 2-3 days, 19.5% (12.7-28.7) at 7 days and 26.1% (20.6-32.5%) at 14 days. Significant heterogeneity (P<0.001) could be explained by the different inclusion criteria and the study's design. Retrospective studies with passive follow-up had the lowest stroke risk whereas prospective studies with active follow-up and without bias through early intervention by carotid

  14. Patterns of gene expression in the sheep heart during the perinatal period revealed by transcriptomic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Rabaglino, M. Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Wood, Charles E.; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Septa from sheep hearts at 130 days gestation, term, and 14-day-old lambs were used to model the changes in gene expression patterns during the perinatal period using Agilent 15k ovine microarrays. We used Bioconductor for R to model five major patterns of coexpressed genes. Gene ontology and transcription factor analyses using Webgestalt modeled the biological significances and transcription factors of the gene expression patterns. Modeling indicated a decreased expression of genes associated with anatomical development and differentiation during this period, whereas those associated with increased protein synthesis and growth associated with maturation of the endoplasmic reticulum rose to term but did not further increase from the near term expression. Expression of genes associated with cell responsiveness, for example, immune responses, decreased at term but expression returned by postnatal day 14. Changes in genes related to metabolism showed differential substrate-associated patterns: those related to carbohydrate metabolism rose to term and remained stable thereafter, whereas those associated with fatty acid oxidation facility rose throughout the period. The timing of many of these maturational processes was earlier in relation to birth than in the rodent. The importance of the transcription factors, estrogen-related receptors, and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog was also highlighted in the pattern of gene expression during development of the perinatal sheep heart. PMID:26126790

  15. Patterns of gene expression in the sheep heart during the perinatal period revealed by transcriptomic modeling.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elaine M; Rabaglino, M Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Wood, Charles E; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Septa from sheep hearts at 130 days gestation, term, and 14-day-old lambs were used to model the changes in gene expression patterns during the perinatal period using Agilent 15k ovine microarrays. We used Bioconductor for R to model five major patterns of coexpressed genes. Gene ontology and transcription factor analyses using Webgestalt modeled the biological significances and transcription factors of the gene expression patterns. Modeling indicated a decreased expression of genes associated with anatomical development and differentiation during this period, whereas those associated with increased protein synthesis and growth associated with maturation of the endoplasmic reticulum rose to term but did not further increase from the near term expression. Expression of genes associated with cell responsiveness, for example, immune responses, decreased at term but expression returned by postnatal day 14. Changes in genes related to metabolism showed differential substrate-associated patterns: those related to carbohydrate metabolism rose to term and remained stable thereafter, whereas those associated with fatty acid oxidation facility rose throughout the period. The timing of many of these maturational processes was earlier in relation to birth than in the rodent. The importance of the transcription factors, estrogen-related receptors, and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog was also highlighted in the pattern of gene expression during development of the perinatal sheep heart.

  16. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    PubMed Central

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  17. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Piroon, Tipapun; Chaisri, Wasana; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI) and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM). Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1), during the dry period (P2), and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3), using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS) in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows. PMID:26949960

  18. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  19. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  20. Evolutionary ecology of periodical insects.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Simon, C

    1994-12-01

    To be periodical, a species must have a fixed life cycle length and adults must appear synchronously, reproduce only once, and die. The consequence of this life history is that, at a given location, adults of a periodical species will be absent or rare in some years and abundant in others. The relative scarcity of periodical Insect species suggests that periodicity does not evolve easily. The major obstacle to its evolution is selection favoring life cycles In which the offspring of any given female appear over a two- or three-year period. Chance events which disrupt this 'bet-hedging' strategy set the stage for periodicity. Mathematical models predict that, given certain initial conditions, intraspecific competition and predation favor its development. Recent studies suggest that periodicity is rarely perfect but that it can persist in the face of limited gene flow through time.

  1. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  2. Fractional-period excitations in continuum periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Nicolin, A.; Chin, J. K.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the generation of fractional-period states in continuum periodic systems. As an example, we consider a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical-lattice potential. We show that when the potential is turned on nonadiabatically, the system explores a number of transient states whose periodicity is a fraction of that of the lattice. We illustrate the origin of fractional-period states analytically by treating them as resonant states of a parametrically forced Duffing oscillator and discuss their transient nature and potential observability.

  3. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  4. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  5. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  6. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  7. Assessing Periodicity of Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W.; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the “unfolding” procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA. PMID:20948585

  8. Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Chen, Chiao-Ming; Hu, Shene-Pin; Kan, Nai-Wen; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) on the immune response and the modulation of that response in 15 basketball players during a training period. They completed the 7-week study consisted of a run-in period (week 1), a PSPLs diet (200 g PSPLs/d; weeks 2, 3), a washout period (weeks 4, 5), and a control diet (low polyphenols content and carotenoid content adjusted to the same level as that of PSPLs diet; weeks 6 and 7). Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results showed that the plasma polyphenols concentration increased significantly in the PSPLs period. Compared with the control period, the PSPLs consumption produced a significant increase in the proliferation responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cytotoxic activity of nature killer (NK) cells, and secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma. However, no significant increase in the secretion of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), interleukin (IL)-2, or interleukin-4 was observed after PSPLs consumption. In conclusion, consumption of a PSPLs diet for 2 weeks can modulate the immune response of basketball players during a training period.

  9. Effects of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds may persist in the post fledging period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) typically decreases the number of host juveniles that fledge: however, little information exists regarding the effect of cowbird parasitism during the post-fledging period. We monitored 115 Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) nests in 2006–2008 in northcentral Minnesota, six of which were parasitized. We used radiotelemetry to monitor movements of 36 Ovenbird fledglings (nine additional fledglings depredated <24 hrs after fledging were excluded from the movement analysis) from non-parasitized nests and one fledgling from a parasitized nest. Clutch sizes and productivity were lower in parasitized Ovenbird nests than non-parasitized nests, similar to populations at other locations. The fledgling we tracked from a parasitized nest (in 2008) died after 26 days. It was the only fledgling in our study that died (n  =  20) with no sign of predation and an empty stomach. That fledgling took 12 days to travel >50 m from its nest and 25 days to travel >100 m from its nest. Fledglings from non-parasitized broods tracked for ≥25 days during 2008 (n  =  16) took 4.1 ± 0.71 and 9.5 ± 1.14 days to travel the same distances. Our observations suggest that negative effects of brood parasitism may persist into the post-fledging period, possibly confirming observations of cowbird-only survival compiled from the literature.

  10. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  11. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR 58449 (Sept. 24, 2010). On December 20, 2010, the Postal Service...

  12. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  13. Latino Periodicals: A Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerena, Salvador, Ed.; Pisano, Vivian M., Ed.

    This guide is a collection development tool of national scope for librarians who need in-depth coverage of Latino periodicals suitable for public, school, and academic libraries. Periodicals evaluated include general interest and popular magazines and newspapers that appeal to Spanish-speaking, bilingual, and English-speaking library patrons and…

  14. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  15. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Proposed Changes in Analytical Principles (Proposals Four-Eight), August 8, 2011 (Petition). Proposal...

  16. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  17. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  18. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  19. NIMBUS-7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) observations of solar UV spectral irradiance variations caused by solar rotation and active-region evolution for the period November 7, 1978 - November 1, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Repoff, T. P.; Donnelly, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of temporal variations of the solar UV spectral irradiance over several days to a few weeks in the 160-400 nm wavelength range are presented. Larger 28-day variations and a second episode of 13-day variations occurred during the second year of measurements. The thirteen day periodicity is not a harmonic of the 28-day periodicity. The 13-day periodicity dominates certain episodes of solar activity while others are dominated by 28-day periods accompanied by a week 14-day harmonic. Techniques for removing noise and long-term trends are described. Time series analysis results are presented for the Si II lines near 182 nm, the Al I continuum in the 190 nm to 205 nm range, the Mg I continuum in the 210 nm to 250 nm range, the MgII H & K lines at 280 nm, the Mg I line at 285 nm, and the Ca II K & H lines at 393 and 397 nm.

  20. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  1. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  2. Cyclical Period Changes in Short-Period Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Borges, B. W.; Bond, H. E.; Jablonski, F.; Steiner, J. E.; Grauer, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    The observed-minus-calculated (O-C) diagrams of the eclipse timings of three dwarf novae of the SU UMa sub-class are presented and discussed. The (O-C) diagrams cover 28 24 and 15 years respectively for Z~Cha V2051~Oph and V4140~Sgr and show clear orbital period changes. Z~Cha shows conspicuous cyclical changes of period 28+/-2 yr and amplitude 60+/-12 s. V2051~Oph shows a cyclical period change of period 22+/-2 yr and amplitude 17+/-3 s. The (O-C) diagram of V4140~Sgr shows less convincing evidence but can also be explained in terms of a cyclical period modulation with an amplitude of about 16s and a time scale of 6.9+/-0.3 years. The best explanation for these observations is that of a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star modulating its radius and consequently the mass transfer rate and the orbital separation on time scales of years. These results support the recent findings of Ak Ozkan & Mattei that the quiescent magnitudes and outburst interval of a sample of dwarf novae (including many SU UMa stars) show cyclical variations produced by solar-type magnetic activity cycles. Our results also confirm that the fully-convective secondary stars of these short period binaries still possess non-negligible magnetic fields.

  3. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Rules Concerning Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... waiver request. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to address a recent Postal...

  4. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing Systems... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement...). Proposal Sixteen: proposed productivity measurement for Flats Sequencing System. Proposal...

  5. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  6. Period Adjustment of TT Scuti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederbloom, Steve E.

    1985-12-01

    The RR Lyrae variable TT Scuti was studied using photographic photometry. The O-C data show a possible downwards curve, which would indicate a decreasing period, but the results are not conclusive. New linear elements are: JD(max) = 2439384.915 + 0.45293855 E. A limit for the maximum rate of change of the period is -0.03 +/- 0.04 cycles per million years.

  7. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  8. Shortened strongyle-type egg reappearance periods in naturally infected horses treated with moxidectin and failure of a larvicidal dose of fenbendazole to reduce fecal egg counts.

    PubMed

    Rossano, M G; Smith, A R; Lyons, E T

    2010-10-29

    Deworming horses with anthelmintics that have activity against encysted small strongyle larvae (L(3) and L(4)) is a common practice in parasite control programs. The two drugs currently available for this use are moxidectin (MOX) administered in a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg and fenbendazole (FBZ) given at the larvicidal dose (10mg/kg for 5 days). Here, we report the efficacy of MOX and the larvicidal dose of FBZ for reducing counts of strongyle-type eggs per gram of feces in naturally infected horses. Fecal egg counts (FECs) of 15 yearlings were observed following deworming. On day 0, 6 of the 15 yearlings were administered a larvicidal dose of FBZ; 14 days later, all 15 yearlings received MOX at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg. Feces were collected on day 0 for pre-treatment egg counts. Feces were collected at weekly intervals thereafter during FEC observation periods. FECs of FBZ-treated horses were compared at day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. The difference in means pre- and post-treatment with FBZ was not statistically significant (p=0.65). On days 0 and 42 of the MOX treatment observation period the mean FEC of the yearlings that had not received the FBZ treatment did not differ significantly from that of the FBZ-treated yearlings. MOX was effective in reducing fecal egg counts to 0 EPG for 21 days. At day 35 all but 2 of the yearlings had some eggs present (range=4-361 EPG) and at day 42 all but 1 yearling had eggs present (range=3-432 EPG). At day 42 the group mean FEC reduction had fallen from 100% to 67%. Results of this study do not support the use of the larvicidal dose of FBZ for small strongyle control. Larger field studies will be needed to investigate whether egg reappearance periods are shortening for MOX-treated horses.

  9. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  10. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  11. Last menstrual period provides the best estimate of gestation length for women in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Haas, Jere D; Grajéda, Ruben; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2006-07-01

    The accurate estimation of gestational age in field studies in rural areas of developing countries continues to present difficulties for researchers. Our objective was to determine the best method for gestational age estimation in rural Guatemala. Women of childbearing age from four communities in rural Guatemala were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. Gestational age at birth was determined by an early second trimester measure of biparietal diameter, last menstrual period (LMP), the Capurro neonatal examination and symphysis-fundus height (SFH) for 171 women-infant pairs. Regression modelling was used to determine which method provided the best estimate of gestational age using ultrasound as the reference. Gestational age estimated by LMP was within +/-14 days of the ultrasound estimate for 94% of the sample. LMP-estimated gestational age explained 46% of the variance in gestational age estimated by ultrasound whereas the neonatal examination explained only 20%. The results of this study suggest that, when trained field personnel assist women to recall their date of LMP, this date provides the best estimate of gestational age. SFH measured during the second trimester may provide a reasonable alternative when LMP is unavailable. PMID:16879501

  12. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  13. Rotational Period of 2770 Tsvet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Papini, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    Photometric observations of main-belt asteroid 2770 Tsvet were made over three nights during 2014 March. Lightcurve analysis shows a synodic period P = 7.82 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude A = 0.47 ± 0.03 mag.

  14. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May 25, 2010, at 22-24 (Order No. 465). Order... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing...

  15. On Some Periodic Toda Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Kac, M.; Van Moerbeke, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A discrete version of Floquet's theory is developed and applied to a system of non-linear differential equations related to the periodic Toda lattice. A special solution previously found by Toda is thus seen to fit into the formalism of inverse scattering problems. PMID:16592244

  16. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  17. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  18. Quantifying periodicity in omics data.

    PubMed

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively.

  19. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  20. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  1. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E; Hall, David G; Dawson, William O; Shatters, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These 'Las-exposed' psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1-42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7-14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49-59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8-29% of the psyllids were infected following 1-14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14-28 days padp for nymphs and 21-35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when acquired by adults

  2. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E.; Hall, David G.; Dawson, William O.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These ‘Las-exposed’ psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1–42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7–14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49–59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8–29% of the psyllids were infected following 1–14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14–28 days padp for nymphs and 21–35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when

  3. Acquisition, Replication and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following Various Acquisition Periods on Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Ramos, John E; Hall, David G; Dawson, William O; Shatters, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. Thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (AAP) by nymphs and adults of D. citri on Las acquisition, multiplication and inoculation/transmission. D. citri nymphs or adults (previously non-exposed to Las) were caged on Las-infected citrus plants for an AAP of 1, 7 or 14 days. These 'Las-exposed' psyllids were then transferred weekly to healthy citrus or orange jasmine plants, and sampled via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis 1-42 days post-first access to diseased plants (padp); all tested nymphs became adults 7-14 days padp. Our results indicate that following 1 or 7 day AAP as nymphs 49-59% of Las-exposed psyllids became Las-infected (qPCR-positive), whereas only 8-29% of the psyllids were infected following 1-14 day AAP as adults. Q-PCR analysis also indicated that Las titer in the Las-exposed psyllids (relative to that of the psyllid S20 ribosomal protein gene) was: 1) significantly higher, and increasing at a faster rate, following Las acquisition as nymphs compared to that following Las acquisition as adults; 2) higher as post-acquisition time of psyllids on healthy plants increased reaching a peak at 14-28 days padp for nymphs and 21-35 days padp for adults, with Las titer decreasing or fluctuating after that; 3) higher with longer AAP on infected plants, especially with acquisition as adults. Our results strongly suggest that Las multiplies in both nymphs and adults of D. citri but attains much higher levels in a shorter period of time post-acquisition when acquired by nymphs than when acquired by adults

  4. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  5. Professional support requirements and grief interventions for parents bereaved by an unexplained death at different time periods in the grief process.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rebecca A; D'Andrea, Livia M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study examines the support needs and grief interventions professional and bereaved parents believed were helpful during different time periods in the grief process: the first 72 hours, first three to 14 days, and two weeks and beyond. Ten professionals from the following disciplines were interviewed: emergency communications, emergency medical technician, police, fireman, detective, social worker funeral director chaplain, peer support leader, and bereavement organization. Five parents and one grandparent bereaved by Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood (SUDC) were interviewed. This study identified 13 support need and grief interventions: contact support people, emotional and cognitive regulation, preliminary information on cause of death, time with deceased child, accommodate and advocate, human compassion and support, describe timeline and process, referrals and resources, affordable and easy access to services, communication and follow-up, community experience, professional mental health support, and memorialize. Recommendations are provided on ways to improve services to newly bereaved parents.

  6. Periodic Structures in Optical Fibres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan Paul

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work presented in this thesis concerns techniques for the formation of periodic structures in optical fibres. Two different methods of producing such structures are studied in detail. The first of these involves a breakdown mechanism (known as the 'fibre fuse') that permanently damages the core glass in a periodic manner leaving it unable to guide light. The dynamics of this mechanism are studied, with a view to controlling it for the production of interactive grating structures. It is determined that, due to a sharp rise in fibre absorption with temperature, a thermal shock -wave, with a typical thermal gradient of several hundred degrees Kelvin per micron, forms and travels along the fibre, heating the core glass to such an extent that damage occurs. The periodicity of the resultant damage arises from thermal focusing and defocusing of light in the region of this shock-wave. The second method makes use of the photorefractivity observed in certain germanosilicate fibres on exposure to moderate intensity blue light of wavelength ~480nm or UV light ~240nm. A single-mode fibre transmission filter is demonstrated for the first time, produced by exposing a fibre Sagnac loop mirror to 488nm holographic fringes. Average index changes are shown to occur if such fibres are exposed to spatially uniform blue or UV light, indicating that grating formation is by a different mechanism to the local charge separation which occurs in photorefractive crystals. The various characteristics of these average index changes are measured and analysed, with the conclusion that they result from defect centre formation, driven by two photon absorption with blue light, or single photon absorption with UV light. Associated birefringence changes are also measured and are exploited in a hi-bi fibre to periodically perturb the birefringence axes, producing a narrow-line transmission filter.

  7. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  8. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  9. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  10. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  11. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  12. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  13. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  14. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  15. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  16. 7 CFR 930.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.7 Section 930.7...

  17. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  18. Quasi-periodic spatiotemporal filtering.

    PubMed

    Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282

  19. Permeability relation for periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A; Bergman, D J

    1998-01-01

    The permeability relation for periodic porous media is studied with respect to other petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time. All these quantities were computed for periodic structures of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic arrays of touching and overlapping spheres. The formation factors were calculated by using a method which is based on a Fourier-space representation of an integral equation for the electric potential in a two-component composite. The nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time for the case where surface-enchanced relaxation plays a dominant role is known to be V P/rho S (VP is the pore volume, S is the pore surface, is the surface relaxation strength) when rho is not too large. Previously calculated permeabilities for these structures from the literature were used for correlation studies with other petrophysical parameters. Various correlation schemes among these quantities, such as k = aTbFc, and k = aTb phi c, were investigated, where k is permeability, T is the NMR relaxation time, phi is the porosity, and F is the formation factor. PMID:9803908

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of untreated and drug-treated differentiated HepaRG cells over a 2-week period.

    PubMed

    Savary, Camille C; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Aubry, Marc; Jossé, Rozenn; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hewitt, Philip; Guillouzo, André

    2015-12-25

    Previous works have shown that differentiated human HepaRG cells can exhibit drug metabolism activities close to those of primary human hepatocytes for several weeks at confluence. The present study was designed to evaluate their long-term functional stability and their response to repeated daily drug treatments over a 14-day period, using a transcriptomic approach. Our data show that less than 1% of the expressed genes were markedly deregulated over this two weeks period and mainly included down-regulation of genes related to the cell cycle and from 3 days, overexpression of genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. After daily treatment with the three PPAR agonists, fenofibrate, troglitazone and rosiglitazone qualitative and/or quantitative changes in gene profiling were observed depending on the compound and duration of treatment. The highest increase in the number of deregulated genes as a function of drug treatment was seen with rosiglitazone. The most up-regulated genes common across the three compounds were mainly related to lipid and xenobiotic metabolisms. All the data support the conclusion that human HepaRG cells have an exceptional functional stability at confluence and that they are suitable for investigations on chronic effects of drugs and other chemicals.

  1. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  2. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  3. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Boz, Adil; Duman, Ozgur; Aydin, Funda; Haspolat, Senay

    2008-12-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with Shapiro syndrome without corpus callosum agenesis. A 4-year-old-girl was admitted to the hospital with complaints of sweating, cooling, and drowsiness that continued during the last week of her admission. Attacks occurred almost daily, and lasted for about 1 hour. All laboratory findings, as well as Holter and echocardiography results, were normal. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intact corpus callosum, and electroencephalography obtained during an attack revealed normal findings. However, technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission computed tomography indicated increased perfusion in the right thalamus, basal ganglia, and inferior frontal areas during a hypothermic period. Although oxcarbazepine reduced the frequency of attacks, they were not halted completely. The patient responded better to carbamazepine. PMID:19027594

  4. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  6. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  7. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7...

  8. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  9. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  10. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on March 1 of one year and ending on the last day of February of the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7...

  11. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  12. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7...

  13. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  14. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  15. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  16. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  17. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  18. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  19. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  20. Periodic motion near the surface of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Hengnian

    2015-12-01

    We are interested in the periodic motion and bifurcations near the surface of an asteroid. The gravity field of an irregular asteroid and the equation of motion of a particle near the surface of an asteroid are studied. The periodic motions around the major body of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra and the OSIRIS-REx mission target-asteroid 101955 Bennu are discussed. We find that motion near the surface of an irregular asteroid is quite different from the motion near the surface of a homoplastically spheroidal celestial body. The periodic motions around the asteroid 101955 Bennu and 216 Kleopatra indicate that the geometrical shapes of the orbits are probably very sophisticated. There exist both stable periodic motions and unstable periodic motions near the surface of the same irregular asteroid. This periodic motion which is unstable can be resonant or non-resonant. The period-doubling bifurcation and pseudo period-doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits coexist in the same gravity field of the primary of the triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra. It is found that both of the period-doubling bifurcations of periodic orbits and pseudo period-doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits have four different paths. The pseudo period-doubling bifurcation found in the potential field of primary of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra shows that there exist stable periodic orbits near the primary's equatorial plane, which gives an explanation for the motion stability of the triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra's two moonlets, Alexhelios and Cleoselene.

  1. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  2. Effects of 14-day oral low dose selenium nanoparticles and selenite in rat—as determined by metabolite pattern determination

    PubMed Central

    Loeschner, Katrin; Skov, Kasper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Larsen, Erik H.; Mortensen, Alicja; Lam, Henrik R.; Frandsen, Henrik L.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element with a small difference between physiological and toxic doses. To provide more effective and safe Se dosing regimens, as compared to dosing with ionic selenium, nanoparticle formulations have been developed. However, due to the nano-formulation, unexpected toxic effects may occur. We used metabolite pattern determination in urine to investigate biological and/or toxic effects in rats administered nanoparticles and for comparison included ionic selenium at an equimolar dose in the form of sodium selenite. Low doses of 10 and 100 fold the recommended human high level were employed to study the effects at borderline toxicity. Evaluations of all significantly changed putative metabolites, showed that Se nanoparticles and sodium selenite induced similar dose dependent changes of the metabolite pattern. Putative identified metabolites included increased decenedioic acid and hydroxydecanedioic acid for both Se formulations whereas dipeptides were only increased for selenite. These effects could reflect altered fatty acid and protein metabolism, respectively. PMID:27781177

  3. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  4. Improvement of the lung function of horses with heaves by treatment with a botanical preparation for 14 days.

    PubMed

    Anour, R; Leinker, S; van den Hoven, R

    2005-12-01

    The effects of an oral preparation containing a mixture of extracts from yellow gentian, garden sorrel, cowslip, verbena and common elder on the lung function of nine horses suffering from heaves were determined in a longitudinal crossover study. The horses were divided at random into a group of five (group 1) and a group of four (group 2). The horses in group 1 were each given 15 tablets of the preparation twice daily, while the horses in group 2 were left untreated. Fourteen days later, the horses in group 2 were given the same course of treatment while the horses in group 1 were left untreated. On being subjected to a histamine inhalation provocation test, five of eight horses tested appeared to be hyperresponsive to histamine. The treatment decreased the histamine sensitivity of three of them; it also caused a significant decrease in maximal intrapleural pressure difference of all the horses. The treatment had no significant effects on the clinical signs, the mucociliary activity or the cytology of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the horses.

  5. Low eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori with triple 7-14 days and quadriple therapy in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gumurdulu, Yuksel; Serin, Ender; Özer, Birol; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Ozsahin, Kursat; Cosar, Arif Mansur; Gursoy, Murat; Gur, Gurden; Yilmaz, Ugur; Boyacioglu, Sedat

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) shows variation among countries and regimens of treatment. We aimed to study the eradication rates of different regimens in our region and some factors affecting the rate of eradication. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four H pylori positive patients (68 males, 96 females; mean age: 48 ± 12 years) with duodenal or gastric ulcer without a smoking history were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment regimens. Omeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, amoxicillin 1 g were given twice daily for 1 week (Group I) and 2 weeks (Group II). Patients in Group III received bismuth subsitrate 300 mg, tetracyline 500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg four times daily in addition to Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily. Two biopsies each before and after treatment were obtained from antrum and corpus, and histopathologically evaluated. Eradication was assumed to be successful if no H pylorus was detected from four biopsy specimens taken after treatment. The effects of factors like age, sex, H pylori density on antrum and corpus before treatment, the total H pylori density, and the inflammation scores on the rate of H pylori eradication were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall eradication rate was 42%. The rates in groups II and III were statistically higher than that in group I (P < 0.05). The rates of eradication were 24.5%, 40.7% and 61.5% in groups I, II and III, respectively. The eradication rate was negatively related to either corpus H pylori density or total H pylori density (P < 0.05). The median age was older in the group in which the eradication failed in comparison to that with successful eradication (55 yr vs 39 yr, P < 0.001). No correlation between sex and H pylori eradication was found. CONCLUSION: Our rates of eradication were significantly lower when compared to those reported in literature. We believe that advanced age and high H pylori density are negative predictive factors for the rate of H pylori eradication. PMID:14991935

  6. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  7. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Davis-Street, Janis E; Fesperman, J Vernell; Smith, Myra D; Rice, Barbara L; Zwart, Sara R

    2004-07-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures. PMID:15226467

  8. The effect of IDS (immediate dentin sealing) on dentin bond strength under various thermocycling periods

    PubMed Central

    Leesungbok, Richard; Lee, Sang-Min; Park, Su-Jung; Lee, Suk-Won; Lee, Do Yun; Im, Byung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) on bond strength of ceramic restoration under various thermocycling periods with DBA (dentin bonding agent system). MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular third molars were divided into 5 groups (1 control and 4 experimental groups) of 10 teeth. We removed enamel layer of sound teeth and embedded them which will proceed to be IDS, using All Bond II. A thermocycling was applied to experimental groups for 1, 2, 7, 14 days respectively and was not applied to control group. IPS Empress II for ceramic was acid-etched with ceramic etchant (9.5% HF) and silane was applied. Each ceramic disc was bonded to specimens with Duo-link, dual curable resin cement by means of light curing for 100 seconds. After the cementation procedures, shear bond strength measurement and SEM analysis of the fractured surface were done. The data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between 4 experimental groups and control group, however the mean value started to decrease in group 7d, and group 14d showed the lowest mean bond strength in all groups. Also, group 7d and 14d showed distinct exposed dentin and collapsed hybrid layer was observed in SEM analysis. CONCLUSION In the present study, it can be concluded that ceramic restorations like a laminate veneer restoration should be bonded using resin cement within one week after IDS procedure. PMID:26140174

  9. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (P<0.05) foetuses per ewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. PMID:26454684

  10. Dearth of short-period Neptunian exoplanets: A desert in period-mass and period-radius planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, T.; Holczer, T.; Faigler, S.

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have reported a significant dearth of exoplanets with Neptune mass and radius with orbital periods below 2-4 d. This cannot be explained by observational biases because many Neptunian planets with longer orbital periods have been detected. The existence of this desert is similar to the appearance of the so-called brown-dwarf desert that suggests different formation mechanisms of planets and stellar companions with short orbital periods. Similarly, the Neptunian desert might indicate different mechanisms of formation and evolution for hot Jupiters and short-period super-Earths. We here follow a previous study and examine the location and shape of the desert in both the period-mass and period-radius planes, using the currently available large samples of planets. The desert in the period-mass plane has a relatively sharp upper edge, with a planetary mass that is inversely proportional to the planetary orbital period, while the lower, somewhat blurred, boundary is located along masses that are apparently linearly proportional to the period. The desert in the period-radius plane of the transiting planets is less clear. It seems as if the radius along the upper boundary is inversely proportional to the period to the power of one-third, while the lower boundary shows a radius that is proportional to the period to the power of two-thirds. The combination of the two upper bounds of the desert, in the period-mass and period-radius planes, yields a planetary mass-radius relation of Rp/RJup ≃ (1.2 ± 0.3)(Mp/MJup)0.27 ± 0.11 for 0.1 ≲ Mp/MJup ≲ 1. The derived shape of the desert, which might extend up to periods of 5-10 d, could shed some light on the formation and evolution of close-in planets.

  11. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  12. Periodic behavior in a random environment.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, H A

    1994-04-01

    Animals' tendency to search periodically in temporally random environments was studied by presenting rats with random-interval (RI) 60-s and 120-s schedules. Power spectra revealed a periodicity of responding of 20-50 s for all animals regardless of condition. A second periodicity of 5-10-s was strongest under the RI 60-s schedule. Optimality theory suggests that periodic responding is better than random responding in obtaining food sooner on average, but the theory does not account for multiple periodicities. These multiple periodicities also cannot be explained by a single-oscillator, information-processing version of scalar expectancy theory (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1992) or by the behavioral theory of timing (P.R. Killeen & J. G. Fetterman, 1988). The periodicities are consistent with a connectionist version of scalar expectancy theory that has nonscalar emergent properties, including multiple periodicities that are not proportional to the rate of random events.

  13. 25 CFR 140.11 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is the owner or beneficial owner or holds a use right to the land on which the business is to be... land on which the business is to be conducted. The license period shall correspond to the period of...

  14. Continuing Diversity: A Column of Periodical Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juedes, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents brief reviews of four periodicals that address diversity themes. Periodicals reviewed are: "Parabola: The Magazine of Myth and Traditions,""Race, Sex & Class: An Interdisciplinary Journal,""Third Force," and "Rhythm Music Magazine." Purchase information is included. (GR)

  15. 75 FR 65677 - Periodic Reporting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... periodic reporting of service performance measurement for Applications and Mailing Permits, pursuant to... performance measurement reporting requirements. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically via the Commission's... Exception from Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurement, September 30, 2010 (Request); see...

  16. The two periods of TT ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Smak, J.; Hessman, F. V.

    1985-05-01

    To clarify the spectroscopic period and demonstrate that the spectroscopic and photometric periods are distinct, velocities of the cataclysmic variable TT Ari in its high and intermediate photometric states are obtained. Evidence for periodicity is found near the period of Cowley et al. (1975) in both the high-state and intermediate-state velocities and in a reanalysis of the Cowley et al. velocities no evidence is found for periodicity near the photometric period. Since no single period fits all the data well and since the original Cowley et al. period fits all the high-state data quite well, it is shown that the velocities change phase between the high and the intermediate states. Results indicate that the intermediate-state velocities lag the high-state velocities by 0.28 of a cycle and that in the high-state data, the gamma velocities tend to be systematically lower for the high-order Balmer lines.

  17. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  18. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  19. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  20. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  1. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  2. Study of gratings with variable periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Toxqui-López, Santa; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Ordoñez-Padilla, Manuel Jorge; Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical study with sinusoidal amplitude diffraction gratings, elaborated with variable periods is shown. The diffraction pattern behavior and the symmetry degree of the gratings were observed. The grating period is increased, fringe to fringe, starting with a small period and ending with a big period that is; the grating edge, start with high spatial frequency and finish with low spatial frequency. This gratings modulation causes a widening in the diffracted orders.

  3. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  4. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. Method: observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. Results: in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. Conclusion: anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. PMID:27305181

  5. [Morphology and development of the veins of the uterus in cattle during the fetal and neonatal periods].

    PubMed

    Wyrost, P; Molenda, O; Radek, J; Radek, T

    1990-03-01

    A total of 101 specimens were used; they came from 89 fetuses (4th to 40th week of gestation) and 12 neonates (1 to 14 days old). The age of the fetuses was determined according to the method of Kantorova (1960). The uterine veins were filled with latex using an automatic injection apparatus of our own construction. The study showed that blood left the uterus of the examined animals through constantly present veins (Ramus uterinus venae ovaricae, V. uterina and Ramus uterinus venae vaginalis) as well as through a number of inconstant veins to which belonged the Vv. vaginales accessoriae craniales et caudales. The constant uterine veins and their branches differed from their adult counterparts by being morphologically more differentiated, especially by having more branches of which some disappeared with time. The uterine veins developed toward the end of the fetal period. They arose either from the most caudal Vv. mesonephridicae lumbales (V. ovarica and its branches), or from the segmental, visceral veins of the pelvis (V. uterina and Vv. vaginales). PMID:2375507

  6. Length of the memory retention period depends on the extent of protein synthesis in the terrestrial slug Limax.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota

    2016-09-01

    The terrestrial slug Limax can form an odor-aversion memory by the single simultaneous presentation of a food odor and an aversive stimulus. We have previously demonstrated that the long-term retention of this memory was impaired by a high-dose injection of a protein synthesis inhibitor 30min prior to the conditioning. However, the onset of amnesia was delayed if the dose of the inhibitor was reduced or a less potent protein synthesis inhibitor was used. We thus speculated that the persistence of memory depends on the amount of newly synthesized protein following learning. In the present study, we further elaborated on this idea by injecting a high dose of anisomycin at different timings before or after conditioning, and tested the memory retention at 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14days after the conditioning. We found that the injection of anisomycin 6h before, or 1h after the conditioning had no effect on memory retention for 7days, and an injection at 30min before and just following the conditioning impaired the memory retention at 3days. Interestingly, the injection at 3h before and 30min after the conditioning did not impair the retention at 3days but did impair retention at 7days. Taking into account the time course of protein synthesis inhibition in the brain, our results further support the idea that the memory retention period is dependent on the amount of protein synthesized following memory acquisition. PMID:27497918

  7. Trends in synoptic circulation and precipitation in the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, in the period 1958-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2016-03-01

    The hydroclimate of the Snowy Mountains, south-east Australia (SEA), is influenced by tropical and extra-tropical synoptic scale weather systems. Accordingly, it is sensitive to any changes in the mid-latitude westerly wind belt, the dominant driver of precipitation in winter, and the entrainment of moisture from tropical latitudes, particularly during the warmer months of the austral summer. The region has historically observed a cool-season (April-October) dominated precipitation regime. However, evidence is presented of a decline in precipitation during the autumn and spring transition months. Autumn precipitation is particularly important for crop sowing and agricultural production in the Murray-Darling Basin downstream of the Snowy Mountains, whilst spring precipitation influences snowmelt and water storage replenishment in the Snowy Mountains. Instead, we show a change in the annual precipitation distribution is evident, with an increase in precipitation during warmer months. Trend analyses for the period 1958-2012 show a decrease in annual frequency of precipitation days capable of generating inflows to the catchments of the Snowy Mountains of - 1.4 days per decade on average, whilst the precipitation they generate has increased by + 5.7 mm per decade. These results align with climate change projections that precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense.

  8. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  9. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  10. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  11. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  13. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  14. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  15. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  16. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  17. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  18. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  19. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  20. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  1. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  3. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  4. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  5. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  6. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  7. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County...

  8. 12 CFR 226.7 - Periodic statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH... periodic rates apply to different types of transactions, the types of transactions to which the periodic... amount(s) of any other type of finance charge. If there is more than one periodic rate, the amount of...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  11. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  12. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  13. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  15. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  16. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  17. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  18. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  19. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  20. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  1. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  2. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  3. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  4. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  5. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  6. 14 CFR 325.6 - Periodic reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic reviews. 325.6 Section 325.6... REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.6 Periodic reviews. (a) The Department will start a periodic review of essential air service within 1 year of the date of the previous determination...

  7. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, the FAA reviews and makes a decision on an application...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  13. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  14. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  15. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  16. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  17. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  18. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... body. Periodic testing must be conducted pursuant to either paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... assessment body for periodic testing to the applicable children's product safety rules at least once...

  19. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... body. Periodic testing must be conducted pursuant to either paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... assessment body for periodic testing to the applicable children's product safety rules at least once...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  1. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  3. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  4. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  5. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  6. A highly specific test for periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  7. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  8. Sawtooth period control by power modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, Menno; Schuster, Eugenio; de Baar, Marco; Felici, Federico; Heemels, Maurice; Gomes, Alexander; Goodman, Tim; Kim, Doohyun; Sauter, Olivier; Vandersteen, Gerd; Witvoet, Gert; Lennholm, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is foreseen that long sawtooth oscillations will occur during ITER H-mode scenarios leading to confinement loss and even disruptions. Sawtooth period control is therefore crucial. Most sawtooth period control approaches depend on changing the deposition location of electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) near r(q =1). In contrast to this, several TCV and AUG experiments with fixed ECCD deposition location show that ECCD power modulation, either periodic or feedback controlled, can lead to fast and reliable period control. To understand this nonlinear phenomenon, a reduced and `hybrid' reset model has been derived that models the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis reveals that the sawtooth period can be controlled by power modulation, even in the case of significant model uncertainties or when there is a significant lengthening effect of the fast particles on the sawtooth period, as there will be in ITER. The model can also be used to design period control using ICRH influencing this fast particle effect.

  9. Talbot effect of quasi-periodic grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Furui; Wang, Junhong; Teng, Shuyun

    2013-07-20

    Theoretic and experimental studies of the Talbot effect of quasi-periodic gratings are performed in this paper. The diffractions of periodic and quasi-periodic square aperture arrays in Fresnel fields are analyzed according to the scalar diffraction theory. The expressions of the diffraction intensities of two types of quasi-periodic gratings are deduced. Talbot images of the quasi-periodic gratings are predicted to appear at multiple certain distances. The quasi-periodic square aperture arrays are produced with the aid of a liquid crystal light modulator, and the self-images of the quasi-periodic gratings are measured successfully in the experiment. This study indicates that even a structure in short-range disorder may take on the self-imaging effect in a Fresnel field. PMID:23872752

  10. Long periodic terms in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-06-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  11. Chronic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels and calcium-ATPase lengthens the period of hepatic clock gene Per1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role played by calcium as a regulator of circadian rhythms is not well understood. The effect of the pharmacological inhibition of the ryanodine receptor (RyR), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), and endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), as well as the intracellular Ca2+-chelator BAPTA-AM was explored on the 24-h rhythmicity of the liver-clock protein PER1 in an experimental model of circadian synchronization by light and restricted-feeding schedules. Methods Liver explants from Period1-luciferase (Per1-luc) transgenic rats with either free food access or with a restricted meal schedule were treated for several days with drugs to inhibit the activity of IP3Rs (2-APB), RyRs (ryanodine), or SERCA (thapsigargin) as well as to suppress intracellular calcium fluctuations (BAPTA-AM). The period of Per1-luc expression was measured during and after drug administration. Results Liver explants from rats fed ad libitum showed a lengthened period in response to all the drugs tested. The pharmacological treatments of the explants from meal-entrained rats induced the same pattern, with the exception of the ryanodine treatment which, unexpectedly, did not modify the Per1-luc period. All effects associated with drug application were reversed after washout, indicating that none of the pharmacological treatments was toxic to the liver cultures. Conclusions Our data suggest that Ca2+ mobilized from internal deposits modulates the molecular circadian clock in the liver of rats entrained by light and by restricted meal access. PMID:21740569

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence enhances sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in adulthood, even after a long period of abstinence.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; dela Peña, Irene Joy; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; dela Peña, Ike; Shin, Chan Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of enhanced vulnerability to the motivational properties of tobacco/cigarette smoking. Several studies have suggested that smoking initiation during this period will more likely lead to long-lasting cigarette or nicotine addiction. In the present study, we investigated the influences of adolescent cigarette smoke or nicotine exposure on the rewarding effects of nicotine, particularly whether these influences persist even after a long period of abstinence. Towards this, adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke or nicotine, for 14 days, and then were subjected to a 1-month abstinence period. Thereafter, the rewarding effects of nicotine were evaluated through the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Even after a 1-month abstinence period, rats pre-exposed to either nicotine or cigarette smoke demonstrated enhanced CPP for the higher dose (0.6 mg/kg) of nicotine. Notably, cigarette smoke-preexposed adolescent rats, now adults, showed CPP for both 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg dose of nicotine. Moreover, only these rats (pre-exposed to cigarette smoke during adolescence) showed significant acquisition and maintenance of nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) SA. These results suggest that cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence enhances sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in adulthood, even after a long period of abstinence. This may be a factor in the high rates of nicotine addiction and dependence observed in smokers who started during adolescence. More importantly, our findings highlight the enduring consequences of adolescent-onset cigarette smoking and the need to protect this vulnerable population.

  13. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  14. HeteroGenome: database of genome periodicity

    PubMed Central

    Chaley, Maria; Kutyrkin, Vladimir; Tulbasheva, Gayane; Teplukhina, Elena; Nazipova, Nafisa

    2014-01-01

    We present the first release of the HeteroGenome database collecting latent periodicity regions in genomes. Tandem repeats and highly divergent tandem repeats along with the regions of a new type of periodicity, known as profile periodicity, have been collected for the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We obtained data with the aid of a spectral-statistical approach to search for reliable latent periodicity regions (with periods up to 2000 bp) in DNA sequences. The original two-level mode of data presentation (a broad view of the region of latent periodicity and a second level indicating conservative fragments of its structure) was further developed to enable us to obtain the estimate, without redundancy, that latent periodicity regions make up ∼10% of the analyzed genomes. Analysis of the quantitative and qualitative content of located periodicity regions on all chromosomes of the analyzed organisms revealed dominant characteristic types of periodicity in the genomes. The pattern of density distribution of latent periodicity regions on chromosome unambiguously characterizes each chromosome in genome. Database URL: http://www.jcbi.ru/lp_baze/ PMID:24857969

  15. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  16. Cyclical period changes in Z Chamaeleontis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Jablonski, F.; Oliveira, E.; Vrielmann, S.; Woudt, P. A.; Catalán, M. S.

    2002-09-01

    We report the identification of cyclical changes in the orbital period of the eclipsing dwarf nova Z Cha. We used times of mid-eclipse collected from the literature and our new eclipse timings to construct an observed-minus-calculated diagram covering 30 yr of observations (1972-2002). The data present cyclical variations that can be fitted by a linear plus sinusoidal function with period 28 +/- 2 yr and amplitude 1.0 +/- 0.2 min. The statistical significance of this period by an F-test is larger than 99.9 per cent. The derived fractional period change, ΔP/P= 4.4 × 10-7, is comparable to that of other short-period cataclysmic variables (CVs), but is one order of magnitude smaller than those of the long-period CVs. Separate fits to the first and second halves of the data lead to ephemerides with quite different cycle periods and amplitudes, indicating that the variation is not sinusoidal or, most probably, is not strictly periodic. The observed cyclical period change is possibly caused by a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star. An incremental variation in the Roche lobe of the secondary star of is required in order to explain both the observed period change and the modulation of the quiescent brightness previously reported by Ak, Ozkan & Mattei.

  17. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  18. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  19. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  20. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  1. Lightcurve and Rotation Period of 1044 Teutonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Alberto Silva; Ferreira, Diogo Henrique; Dos Santos, Tarcio Henrique Ribeiro; Novaes, Alberto Brum

    2008-03-01

    The minor planet 1044 Teutonia was observed 2007 June 8-9 UT, during 3.7h, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The synodic period from the collected data are best fit by a period 2.84 ± 0.04 h and with an amplitude of 0.20 ± 0.03. However, the period of 3.153 ± 0.003 reported by Behrend et al. (2006) cannot be eliminated.

  2. Preparing to perform: periodization and dance.

    PubMed

    Wyon, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the historical and current literature on periodization in sport before applying the concept to dance from scientific and anecdotal points of view. Preparing the dancer through the use of a periodization model, in a professional or vocational setting, will potentially help prevent overtraining and its link to injury, while improving the dancer's readiness to perform optimally. Practical examples of tapering and periodization of training are discussed for companies and vocational schools.

  3. Coherent peculiar velocities and periodic redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.T.; Steinhardt, P.J.; Turner, M.S. Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia Chicago Univ., IL )

    1991-01-01

    A coherent, sinusoidal peculiar velocity field of 0.003 amplitude and wavelength of 128/h Mpc could explain the apparent redshift periodicity seen in the recent pencil-beam survey of Broadhurst et al. (1990). Such a peculiar velocity field could arise if the power spectrum of density perturbations has a strong feature at about this wavelength. This explanation has additional predictions: the phase, period, and strength of the periodicity should vary in different directions; the strength of the periodicity should decrease at higher redshifts; and there should be more thin structures perpendicular to the line of sight than parallel to it. 28 refs.

  4. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  5. Strange attractors and their periodic repetition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiudong; Oksasoglu, Ali

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present some important findings regarding a comprehensive characterization of dynamical behavior in the vicinity of two periodically perturbed homoclinic solutions. Using the Duffing system, we illustrate that the overall dynamical behavior of the system, including strange attractors, is organized in the form of an asymptotic invariant pattern as the magnitude of the applied periodic forcing approaches zero. Moreover, this invariant pattern repeats itself with a multiplicative period with respect to the magnitude of the forcing. This multiplicative period is an explicitly known function of the system parameters. The findings from the numerical experiments are shown to be in great agreement with the theoretical expectations. PMID:21456842

  6. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR NATIVE AMERICANS, NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  12. Doppler effects on periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetosphere of Saturn exhibits a wide variety of periodic phenomena in magnetic fields, charged particles, and radio emissions. The periodicities are observed from a moving spacecraft, so an issue arises about the periodicities being influenced by the Doppler effects. Doppler effects can be investigated using models of the periodicities and then flying the spacecraft through the model, effectively measuring any Doppler phenomena with the simulation. Using 200 days of typical elliptical orbits from the Cassini mission at Saturn, three models were tested: an azimuthal wave (or "searchlight") model, a radial wave (or "pond ripple") model, and a model of an outwardly traveling spiral wave. The azimuthal wave model produced virtually no Doppler effects in the periodicities because its wave vector is nearly perpendicular to the spacecraft trajectory. The radial wave model generated strong Doppler effects of an upshifted and a downshifted signal (a dual period) on either side of the true period, because the wave vector is either parallel or antiparallel to the spacecraft trajectory. Being intermediate to the searchlight and radial waves, the spiral wave produced Doppler effects but only for low wave speeds (<10 RS/h). For higher wave speeds the Doppler effects were not as clear. The Doppler effects can be mitigated by employing only observations beyond ~15 RS where the spacecraft speed is low compared to the wave speed. The observed periodicities over the same 200 day interval do not show evidence of Doppler effects but generally display a single feature at the expected ~10.7 h period.

  13. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  18. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  19. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  20. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  1. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  2. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  3. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  4. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  5. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  6. Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Adam, Comp.

    This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

  7. Prospectus for a Chicano Periodical Index Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabran, Richard

    Seven Southwest Chicano library units propose to collaborate in the first cycle of the development and production of a Chicano Periodical Index. The units intend to provide library users with an indexing system which would improve access of Chicano periodical publications and to provide a model index for future development. The proposed project…

  8. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  9. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  10. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  11. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  12. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  13. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. Link to an amendment published at 79...

  14. 47 CFR 27.13 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false License period. 27.13 Section 27.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.13 License period. (a) 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360...

  15. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  16. 45 CFR 1336.51 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project period. 1336.51 Section 1336.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS Financial Assistance Provisions § 1336.51 Project period. The Notice...

  17. Local field effects in periodic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    In this article we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of periodic metamaterials taking into account the so-called local field effect, caused by interaction between single particles the material consists of. We also consider the spatial dispersion effects. As a result, generalized Clausius-Mossotti techniques have been extended to the case of periodic metamaterials; permittivity tensor and permeability tensor were obtained.

  18. Deterministic weak localization in periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Tian, C; Larkin, A

    2005-12-01

    In some perfect periodic structures classical motion exhibits deterministic diffusion. For such systems we present the weak localization theory. As a manifestation for the velocity autocorrelation function a universal power law decay is predicted to appear at four Ehrenfest times. This deterministic weak localization is robust against weak quenched disorders, which may be confirmed by coherent backscattering measurements of periodic photonic crystals.

  19. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Periodicals Mail'' published by the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 41989-41991) is revised to... March 27, 1995, the Postal Service published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029... Part 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION: Final rule; revised....

  20. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... the 12-month period beginning on March 1 of one year and ending on the last day of February of...

  1. Periodically correlated processes and their stationary dilations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miamee, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    An explicit form for a stationary dilation for periodically correlated random processes is obtained. This is then used to give spectral conditions for a periodically correlated process to be non-deterministic, purely deterministic, minimal, and to have a positive angle between its past and future.

  2. Orbital period changes of YY Coronae Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-06-01

    By using all available times of light minimum, the orbital period changes of a W UMa eclipsing binary YY CrB have been investigated. Two possible orbital period variations are found: (1) a secular period decrease with a rate of dP/dt = -6.727 × 10-7 d yr-1, on which a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of P = 12.68 yr is superposed, or (2) an abrupt period change with a sudden period decrease of -0.7862 s around the year 2005. The secular period decrease is discussed in terms of (1) the mass transfer from the more massive companion to the less massive one with a mass transfer rate of dM2/dt = 2.8096 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1, and (2) the mass loss via stellar wind from the system. The sinusoidal oscillatory can be interpreted as a result of the magnetic activity cycles of the system. In addition, the abrupt period decrease of the system might be due to the sudden mass transfer between the components.

  3. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  4. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  5. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  6. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  7. 42 CFR 413.340 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transition rate. Beginning with an SNF's first cost reporting period beginning on or after July 1, 1998... cost reporting period. The facility-specific rate is computed based on the SNF's Medicare allowable... covered SNF services (other than those services described in § 411.15(p)(2) of this chapter)...

  8. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  9. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in "J Chem Educ" 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students'…

  10. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  11. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  12. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  13. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  14. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo...

  15. Depression in Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression. PMID:21206814

  16. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  17. 24 CFR 886.332 - Rehabilitation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rehabilitation period. 886.332... Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.332 Rehabilitation period. (a) Immediate start of rehabilitation after sales closing. After the execution of the Agreement and the sales...

  18. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  19. 42 CFR 1008.3 - Effective period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective period. 1008.3 Section 1008.3 Public... ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.3 Effective period. The provisions in this part are applicable to requests for advisory opinions submitted on or after February 21, 1997, and before August...

  20. Uniform period spacings in white dwarf models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of g-mode oscillations in white dwarfs are investigated analytically. Numerical results of period-spacing computations for DOV, DAV, and DBV models are presented in tables, and the relationships between period spacings and the composition and structure of the stellar atmospheres are discussed.