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Sample records for 14-home marketing incentive

  1. 41 CFR 302-14.5 - Under what circumstances will I receive a home marketing incentive payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... independent marketing efforts; (d) You transfer the residence to the relocation services company; (e) Your... will I receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.5 Section 302-14.5 Public Contracts and... 14-HOME MARKETING INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Payment of Incentive to the Employee § 302-14.5 Under...

  2. 41 CFR 302-14.2 - What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.2 Section 302-14.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 14-HOME...

  3. 41 CFR 302-14.4 - Must my agency pay me a home marketing incentive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must my agency pay me a home marketing incentive? 302-14.4 Section 302-14.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 14-HOME...

  4. Do Market Incentives Crowd Out Charitable Giving?

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.

    2013-01-01

    Donations and volunteerism can be conceived as market transactions with a zero explicit price. However, evidence suggests people may not view zero as just another price when it comes to pro-social behavior. Thus, while markets might be expected to increase the supply of assets available to those in need, some worry such financial incentives will crowd out altruistic giving. This paper reports laboratory experiments directly investigating the degree to which market incentives crowd out large, discrete charitable donations in a setting related to deceased organ donation. The results suggest markets increase the supply of assets available to those in need. However, as some critics fear, market incentives disproportionately influence the relatively poor. PMID:24348002

  5. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  6. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Congestion has become one of the most important factors leading to patient dissatisfaction and doctor-patient conflicts in the medical market of China. In this study, we explore the causes and effects of structural congestion in the Chinese medical market from an incentive structure perspective. Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital, and have driven medical staff and patients to higher-level hospitals, reinforcing an incentive structure in which congestion in higher-level hospitals and idle resources in lower-level hospitals coexist. The existing incentive structure has led to cost increases and degradation of human capital and specific factor effects. Recent reforms to reduce congestion in the Chinese medical market were not effective. Most of them had no impact on and did not involve the existing distorted incentive structure. Future reforms should consider rebalancing expectations for medical quality, free flow of human capital and price regulation reforms to rebuild a new incentive structure.

  8. Models of financial markets with extensive participation incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Zhang, Y.-C.

    2008-02-01

    We consider models of financial markets in which all parties involved find incentives to participate. Strategies are evaluated directly by their virtual wealth. By tuning the price sensitivity and market impact, a phase diagram with several attractor behaviors resembling those of real markets emerge, reflecting the roles played by the arbitrageurs and trendsetters, and including a phase with irregular price trends and positive sums. The positive sumness of the players’ wealth provides participation incentives for them. Evolution and the bid-ask spread provide mechanisms for the gain in wealth of both the players and market makers. New players survive in the market if the evolutionary rate is sufficiently slow. We test the applicability of the model on real Hang Seng Index data over 20 years. Comparisons with other models show that our model has a superior average performance when applied to real financial data.

  9. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  10. Understanding the Complexities of Subnational Incentives in Supporting a National Market for Distributed Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Doris, E.; Getman, D.

    2014-09-01

    Subnational policies pertaining to photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased in volume in recent years and federal incentives are set to be phased out over the next few. Understanding how subnational policies function within and across jurisdictions, thereby impacting PV market development, informs policy decision making. This report was developed for subnational policy-makers and researchers in order to aid the analysis on the function of PV system incentives within the emerging PV deployment market. The analysis presented is based on a 'logic engine,' a database tool using existing state, utility, and local incentives allowing users to see the interrelationships between PV system incentives and parameters, such as geographic location, technology specifications, and financial factors. Depending on how it is queried, the database can yield insights into which combinations of incentives are available and most advantageous to the PV system owner or developer under particular circumstances. This is useful both for individual system developers to identify the most advantageous incentive packages that they qualify for as well as for researchers and policymakers to better understand the patch work of incentives nationwide as well as how they drive the market.

  11. Marketing Schools: Consumer Goods and Competitive Incentives for Consumer Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Effective school-choice plans depend on the quality of information available to families. Examining the promotional materials provided by different schools in a highly competitive and diverse urban area tells us not only about the quality of that information but also how schools respond to competitive incentives. This analysis outlines an economic…

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Incentives to Form Agricultural Marketing Pools.

    PubMed

    Hoffman; Libecap; Shachat

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents theoretical extensions and laboratory tests of Hoffman and Libecap's (1994) model of individual firms' incentives to form agricultural marketing pools. The key incentives are lower variance in output prices and economies in scale in marketing. This paper extends the model by formulating the pooling problem as a game of incomplete information in which firms have heterogeneous and private risk attitudes. An experiment is conducted to test the theoretical implications of this model. Statistical analysis of the experimental data supports the model predictions of pooling rates, but also reveals that subjects form systematic probability biases and do not behave as strategically as the model suggests. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. 41 CFR 302-14.3 - Am I eligible to receive a home marketing incentive payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Am I eligible to receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.3 Section 302-14.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES...

  14. 41 CFR 302-14.100 - How should we administer our home marketing incentive payment program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How should we administer our home marketing incentive payment program? 302-14.100 Section 302-14.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  15. Competitive Incentives and the Education Market: How Charter Schools Define Themselves in Metropolitan Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers often advance charter schools as an education reform model that can offer more diverse educational alternatives for families. Yet, as these schools compete for students, questions arise about how they respond to the competitive incentives in differentiating themselves through marketing distinct options for learners. The way these…

  16. Implementing a Farmers’ Market Incentive Program: Perspectives on the New York City Health Bucks Program

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Holly; Olsho, Lauren; Jernigan, Jan; Farris, Rosanne; Walker, Deborah Klein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction One strategy for lowering the prevalence of obesity is to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables through farmers’ markets. However, little has been documented in the literature on the implementation of such efforts. To address this gap, the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) sponsored an evaluation of the New York City Health Bucks program, a farmers’ market coupon incentive program intended to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved neighborhoods while supporting local farmers. Methods We conducted a process evaluation of Health Bucks program implementation. We interviewed 6 farmer/vendors, 3 market managers, and 4 program administrators, and collected data on site at 86 farmers’ markets, including surveys of 81 managers and 141 farmer/vendors on their perspectives on promotion and redemption of the incentive coupons; knowledge and attitudes regarding the program; experiences with markets and products; and facilitators and barriers to program participation. Results Results indicate that respondents view Health Bucks as a positive program model. Farmers’ market incentive coupon programs like Health Bucks are one strategy to address the problem of obesity and were associated with higher fruit and vegetable access and purchases in low-income communities. Conclusions This evaluation identified some areas for improving implementation of the Health Bucks program. Farmers’ market incentive programs like Health Bucks may be one avenue to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables among low-income persons. Further research is needed to assess the potential effects of these programs on access and health outcomes. PMID:23987251

  17. Water scarcity, market-based incentives, and consumer response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, K.; Chermak, J. M.; Brookshire, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the future viability of many regions will depend in large part on how efficiently resources are utilized. A key factor to this success will be a thorough understanding of consumers and the characteristics that drive their water use. In this research test and find support for the hypothesis that residential water consumers are heterogeneous. We combine experimental and survey responses to test for statistically significant consumer characteristics that are observable factors of demand for water. Significant factors include "stage of life" (i.e., student versus workforce versus retired), as well as various social and cultural factors including age, ethnicity, political affiliation and religious affiliation. Identification of these characteristics allows us to econometrically estimate disaggregated water demand for a sample of urban water consumers in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The results provide unique parameter estimates for different consumer types. Using these results we design an incentive compatible, non-linear pricing program that allows individual consumers to choose a fixed fee/commodity charge from a menu that not only allows the individual to maximize his or her utility, while meeting the conservation goals of the program. We show that this program, with the attention to consumer differences is more efficient than the traditional "one size fits all" programs commonly employed by many water utilities.

  18. Ramsey pricing and supply-side incentives in physician markets.

    PubMed

    Wedig, G J

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, I develop a theory of optimal prices using a relative value scale where there are fixed costs of medical practice. I consider a regulator constrained to set prices in excess of marginal cost, in markets where physicians can create demand at the margin. Under these conditions, basing prices on physician costs alone is shown to be suboptimal. Instead, prices should anticipate the behavior of physicians by setting profit margins highest for services least susceptible to demand creation. This is equivalent to a form of Ramsey pricing, used in this case to minimize the deadweight loss of oversupply.

  19. Incentives for new antibiotics: the Options Market for Antibiotics (OMA) model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat resulting from the convergence of biological, economic and political pressures. Investment in research and development of new antimicrobials has suffered secondary to these pressures, leading to an emerging crisis in antibiotic resistance. Methods Current policies to stimulate antibiotic development have proven inadequate to overcome market failures. Therefore innovative ideas utilizing market forces are necessary to stimulate new investment efforts. Employing the benefits of both the previously described Advanced Market Commitment and a refined Call Options for Vaccines model, we describe herein a novel incentive mechanism, the Options Market for Antibiotics. Results This model applies the benefits of a financial call option to the investment in and purchase of new antibiotics. The goal of this new model is to provide an effective mechanism for early investment and risk sharing while maintaining a credible purchase commitment and incentives for companies to ultimately bring new antibiotics to market. Conclusions We believe that the Options Market for Antibiotics (OMA) may help to overcome some of the traditional market failures associated with the development of new antibiotics. Additional work must be done to develop a more robust mathematical model to pave the way for practical implementation. PMID:24199835

  20. Dynamics of Aviation Biofuel Investment, Incentives, and Market Growth: An Exploration Using the Biomass Scenario Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Newes, Emily

    2016-10-25

    The Federal Aviation Administration promotes the development of an aviation biofuel market, and has pursued a goal of 1 billion gallons of production annually by 2018. Although this goal is unlikely to be met, this analysis applies the Biomass Scenario Model to explore conditions affecting market growth, and identifies policy incentive and oil price conditions under which this level of production might occur, and by what year. Numerous combinations of conditions that are more favorable than current conditions can reach the goal before 2030.

  1. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  2. Market reforms and public incentives: finding a balance in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Nordyke, Robert J; Peabody, John W

    2002-03-01

    The Republic of Macedonia is undertaking sweeping reforms of its health sector. Funded by a World Bank credit, the reforms seek to improve the efficiency and quality of primary health care (PHC) by significantly strengthening the role of the market in health care provision. On the supply-side, one of the key reform proposals is to implement a capitation payment system for PHC physicians. By placing individual physicians on productivity-based contracts, these reforms will effectively marketize all PHC provision. In addition, the Ministry of Health is considering the sale or concessions of public PHC clinics to private groups, indicating the government's commitment to marketization of health care provision. Macedonia is in a unique position to develop a new role for the private sector in PHC provision. The private provision of outpatient care was legalized soon after independence in 1991; private physicians now account for nearly 10% of all physicians and 22% of PHC physicians. If the reforms are fully realized, all PHC physicians-over 40% of all physicians-will be financially responsible for their clinical practices. This study draws on Macedonia's experience with limited development of private outpatient care starting in 1991 and the reform proposals for PHC, finding a network of policies and procedures throughout the health sector that negatively impact private and public sector provision. An assessment of the effects that this greater policy environment has on private sector provision identifies opportunities to strategically enhance the reforms. With respect to established market economies, the study finds justification for a greater role for government intervention in private health markets in transition economies. In addition to micro-level payment incentives and administrative controls, marketization in Central and Eastern Europe requires an examination of insurance contracting procedures, quality assurance practices, public clinic ownership, referral

  3. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents' living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization. Comparatively, the organic waste recycling sector is less driven by market mechanisms. Competition from chemical fertilizers and fossil fuels is fierce and hinders the development of market opportunities for compost and renewable energy. Nevertheless commercial production of compost and biogas from organic municipal waste is formalized and benefiting from policy incentives.

  4. 41 CFR 302-14.5 - Under what circumstances will I receive a home marketing incentive payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances will I receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.5 Section 302-14.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  5. 41 CFR 302-14.6 - How much may my agency pay me for a home marketing incentive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much may my agency pay me for a home marketing incentive? 302-14.6 Section 302-14.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES...

  6. 41 CFR 302-14.7 - Are there tax consequences when I receive a home marketing incentive payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there tax consequences when I receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.7 Section 302-14.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  7. 41 CFR 302-14.101 - What policies must we establish to govern our home marketing incentive payment program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What policies must we establish to govern our home marketing incentive payment program? 302-14.101 Section 302-14.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  8. 41 CFR 302-14.102 - What factors should we consider in determining whether to establish a home marketing incentive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What factors should we consider in determining whether to establish a home marketing incentive payment program? 302-14.102 Section 302-14.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...

  9. Comparing Farmers’ Market Revenue Trends Before and After the Implementation of a Monetary Incentive for Recipients of Food Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Mattison-Faye, Amy; Alia, Kassandra; Guest, M. Aaron; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the influence of an intervention to increase fruit and vegetable purchases at farmers’ markets for recipients of food assistance, Shop N Save (SNS), on revenue trends at a farmers’ market located at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in rural South Carolina. We compared revenue trends for 20 weeks before the intervention (2011) and 20 weeks after (2012). Methods SNS provided one $5 monetary incentive per week to customers spending $5 or more in food assistance at the farmers’ market. SNS was available to any farmers’ market customer using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and/or Senior or WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) vouchers. Sales receipts were recorded for each transaction at the farmers’ market to document payment type and the cost of the purchase. All SNS participants completed a one-time enrollment survey. Results A total of 336 customers self-enrolled in SNS from June through October 2012. Most SNS participants were female, African American, and patients at the FQHC. In total, the use of all forms of food assistance (SNAP, WIC, and FMNP) at the farmers’ market increased significantly after the intervention (from 10% before, to 25% after, P = .003). Senior FMNP vouchers and SNAP usage increased the most. Conclusion Interventions that provide incentives to recipients of food assistance programs at farmers’ markets are a viable strategy for increasing food assistance usage and revenue. PMID:24854238

  10. Monetary Matched Incentives to Encourage the Purchase of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables at Farmers Markets in Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jennifer; Penn, Tanya; Hedges, Susan; Ortwine, Kristine; Mei, Anchi; Delaney, Tracy; Wooten, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Farmers market programs may increase access to more healthful foods and reduce the high prevalence of obesity in low-income communities. The objective of this study was to examine outcomes of the Fresh Fund farmers market program serving low-income neighborhoods in San Diego, California. Methods Through its Farmers Market Fresh Fund Incentive Program, the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency offered monetary incentives to government nutrition assistance recipients to purchase fresh produce at 5 farmers markets. Participants enrolled at participating markets from June 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011; they completed baseline and follow-up surveys of daily consumption and weekly spending on fruits and vegetables. We examined enrollment, participation, participant health perceptions, and vendor revenue. Results During the study period, 7,298 eligible participants enrolled in Fresh Fund; most (82%) had previously never been to a farmers market. Among 252 participants with matched surveys at baseline and 12-month follow-up, the proportion who reported their diet to be “healthy” or “very healthy” increased from 4% to 63% (P < .001); nearly all (93%) stated that Fresh Fund was “important” or “very important” in their decision to shop at the farmers market. Vendors reported that 48% of all market revenue they received was received through the Fresh Fund program. At 2 markets, revenue from June 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012, increased by 74% and 68% compared with revenue from June 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Conclusion Participants in the Fresh Fund program self-reported increases in daily consumption and weekly spending on fruits and vegetables, and vendors at participating farmers markets also increased their revenue. PMID:24229571

  11. The Relationship of Financial Incentives and Consumers' Willingness to Disclose Information to eCommerce Marketers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourhosseini, Parissa

    2009-01-01

    In this study the problem examined was a lack of research based information on the degree to which incentives can be used to encourage consumers to volunteer private information. The purpose of this study was to determine if monetary incentives would be a beneficial means to increase consumers' involvement in eCommerce and thereby boost the growth…

  12. School Choice and Competitive Incentives: Mapping the Distribution of Educational Opportunities across Local Education Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Gulosino, Charisse; Weitzel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Competition sparked by school choice is expected to generate greater educational opportunities, particularly for disadvantaged students. The premise is that competitive incentives will change the organizational behavior of schools (and districts, dioceses, etc.) in ways that will lead to more equitable access for students across varied and often…

  13. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers’ markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, April B.; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants’ diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Methods: Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Results: Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Conclusion: Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance. PMID:27123431

  14. Policy Incentives and the Extension of Mortgage Credit: Increasing Market Discipline for Subprime Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xudong; Bostic, Raphael W.

    2009-01-01

    The lax underwriting in non-prime mortgage markets is widely perceived as one cause of the recent difficulties in the housing market. Policymakers are currently considering moves such as enforcing more careful underwriting to provide additional discipline to mortgage markets. This research explores the possibility of another approach to supplement…

  15. Portfolio-Scale Optimization of Customer Energy Efficiency Incentive and Marketing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-535

    SciTech Connect

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-02-17

    North East utility National Grid (NGrid) is developing a portfolio-scale application of OpenStudio designed to optimize incentive and marketing expenditures for their energy efficiency (EE) programs. NGrid wishes to leverage a combination of geographic information systems (GIS), public records, customer data, and content from the Building Component Library (BCL) to form a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) input file that is consumed by an OpenStudio-based expert system for automated model generation. A baseline model for each customer building will be automatically tuned using electricity and gas consumption data, and a set of energy conservation measures (ECMs) associated with each NGrid incentive program will be applied to the model. The simulated energy performance and return on investment (ROI) will be compared with customer hurdle rates and available incentives to A) optimize the incentive required to overcome the customer hurdle rate and B) determine if marketing activity associated with the specific ECM is warranted for that particular customer. Repeated across their portfolio, this process will enable NGrid to substantially optimize their marketing and incentive expenditures, targeting those customers that will likely adopt and benefit from specific EE programs.

  16. 41 CFR 302-14.103 - What factors should we consider in determining the amount of a home marketing incentive payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What factors should we consider in determining the amount of a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.103 Section 302-14.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES...

  17. Incentives for School Diversification: Competition and Promotional Patterns in Local Education Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Reforms using market-style mechanisms of parental choice and competition between schools are intended to leverage change by compelling schools to diversify options and increase effectiveness. Yet, some research challenges those assumptions, suggesting that schools in competitive climates are more likely to focus on image management to attract a…

  18. The relationship between health plan advertising and market incentives: evidence of risk-selective behavior.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ateev; Grier, Sonya; Dudley, R Adams

    2006-01-01

    Medicare beneficiaries are now facing advertising from an unprecedented number of health plans that are offering prescription drug coverage. Previous Medicare managed care efforts have been undermined by risk selection, the practice of enrolling healthier and therefore less costly patients. In this study we explore how the content of health plan advertising is related to the competitiveness of the health plan market. We find that increased competition is associated with greater use of advertising that targets healthier patients.

  19. Addressing government and market failures with payment incentives: Hospital reimbursement reform in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie; Eggleston, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of provider payment policy as an instrument for addressing government and market failures and controlling costs in the health sector, particularly in developing countries. We empirically evaluate the impact of provider payment reform in Hainan province, China, on expenditures for different categories of services that had been subject to distorted prices under fee-for-service. Using a pre-post study design with a control group, we analyze two years of claims data to assess the impact of a January 1997 change to prospective payment for a sub-sample of the hospitals. This difference-in-difference empirical strategy allows us to isolate the supply-side payment reform effects from demand-side policy interventions. We find that prepayment is associated with a slower increase in spending on expensive drugs and high technology services, compared to fee-for-service. The fact that payment reform is associated with reduced growth in spending on the most expensive drugs is particularly encouraging, given that drugs account for a remarkably high percentage of both the level and growth of aggregate health expenditure in China. Payment reform can be an effective policy instrument for correcting market failures and adverse side effects of government health sector interventions (such as distorted prices to assure access to basic services), both of which can lead to excessive health care expenditure growth. Such health spending growth can have a particularly high opportunity cost for developing countries.

  20. Financial incentives, competition and a two tier service: lessons from the UK National Health Service internal market.

    PubMed

    Milne, Robin G; Torsney, Ben

    2003-04-01

    The experience of General medical practitioner (GP) fundholding is analysed for evidence of the response by family doctors to financial incentives. An analysis of consultant outreach, the local provision of out-patient services, in Scotland finds little evidence of a response, based on comparing the experience of fundholders with non-fundholders. At least in the case of hospital based services, financial incentives seem to be of secondary importance. Financial incentives for such services depend on consultant compliance which, arguably, was missing when it came to creating a two-tier service which deliberately favoured patients from fundholding practices.

  1. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  2. Teacher Pension Incentives and Labor Market Behavior: Evidence from Missouri Administrative Teacher Data. Conference Paper 2009-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael; Ehlert, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Policy discussions about teacher quality and teacher "shortages" often focus on recruitment and retention of young teachers. However, attention has begun to focus on the incentive effects of teacher retirement benefit systems, particularly given their rising costs and the large unfunded liabilities. In this paper we analyze accrual of…

  3. If 'atypical' neuroleptics did not exist, it wouldn't be necessary to invent them: perverse incentives in drug development, research, marketing and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2005-01-01

    Perverse incentives in drug development, research, marketing and clinical usage can be illustrated by considering the example of the so-called 'atypical' neuroleptics which have grown to become a standard - indeed expanding - part of psychiatric practice despite their probable inferiority to older sedative agents. There is now ample evidence to suggest that neuroleptics (aka. anti-psychotics and major tranquillizers) are dangerous drugs, and patients' exposure to them should be minimized wherever possible. This clinical imperative applies whether neuroleptics are of the traditional type or atypical variety, albeit for different reasons since the traditional agents are neurotoxic, while atypicals are mainly metabolic poisons. Usage of traditional neuroleptics seems indeed to be declining progressively, but the opposite seems to be happening for 'atypicals', and new indications for these drugs are being promoted. Yet the atypical neuroleptics are a category of pharmaceuticals which are close to being un-necessary since there are safer, cheaper and pleasanter substitutes, such as benzodiazepines and the sedative antihistamines (e.g. promethazine). If 'atypical' neuroleptics did not exist, it would not be necessary to invent them. Analysis of how such expensive, dangerous and inferior drugs as the 'atypicals' have nevertheless come to dominate clinical practice casts light on the perverse incentives which now motivate the pharmaceutical industry in an era of massive state regulation. The lack of positive incentives to deploy off-patent drugs is longstanding, but there is a new disincentive in the widespread but erroneous belief that only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide valid 'evidence' of effectiveness. Consequently, those who control RCTs now control clinical practice. It sometimes makes commercial sense to develop and market new drugs that are inferior to existing agents, since new drugs are patent-protected and can be promoted on the back of a mass

  4. Nursing home performance under case-mix reimbursement: responding to heavy-care incentives and market changes.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M A; Freeman, J W; Kirby, E C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of case mix-adjusted reimbursement policy and market factors on nursing home performance. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Data from Medicaid certification inspection surveys, Medicaid cost reports, and the Kentucky State Center for Health Statistics for the years 1989 and 1991, to examine changes in nursing home performance stemming from the adoption of case mix-adjusted reimbursement in 1990. STUDY DESIGN: In addition to cross-sectional regressions, a first-difference approach to fixed-effects regression analyses was employed to control for facility differences that were essentially fixed during the survey years and to estimate the effects of time-varying predictors on changes in facility expenditures, efficiency, and profitability. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Facilities that increased the proportion of Medicaid residents and eliminated excess capacity experienced higher profitability gains during the beginning phase of case-mix reimbursement. Having a heavy-care resident population was positively related to expenditures prior to reimbursement reform, and it was negatively related to expenditures after the case-mix reimbursement policy was introduced. While facility-level changes in case mix had no reliable influence on costs or profits, nursing homes showing an increased prevalence of poor-quality nursing practices exhibited increases in efficiency and profitability. At the market level, reductions in excess or empty nursing home beds were accompanied by a significant growth in home health services. Moreover, nursing homes located in markets with expanding home health services exhibited higher increases in costs per case-mix unit. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the reimbursement system appear to reward a cost minimization orientation with potentially detrimental effects on quality of care. These effects, exacerbated by a supply-constrained market, may be mitigated by policies that encourage the expansion of home health service

  5. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  6. Incentives for health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  7. Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Christopher L.

    At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of

  8. A Study of the School Principal Labor Market in Arkansas: Implications for Incentive-Based Compensation Policies to Improve Principal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Improving principal quality in Arkansas may be a partial solution to the public policy problem of low performing public schools. Just as policymakers in other states are beginning to explore incentive-based compensation policies to improve principal quality, education policymakers in Arkansas should look to these policies as a way to align goals…

  9. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  10. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... specific impacts, and these impacts ] affect a host of non-market valued attributes ecosystem services... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 636 RIN 0578-AA49 Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION:...

  11. A Bermuda Triangle of Policy? "Bad Jobs", Skills Policy and Incentives to Learn at the Bottom End of the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; James, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A focus of Government policy has been the need to ensure that those at the lower end of the labour market invest in their human capital through re-engaging with learning, which has been assumed to enable progress into better-paid employment. This article explores the problems created by "bad jobs" and the evidence for the existence of a…

  12. Crime and Economic Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Meghir, Costas

    2004-01-01

    The role that economic incentives play in determining crime rates is explored. A number of experiments were carried out with different wage measures and the result that incentives were the most important factor was reinforced by the strong impact of crime of deterrence measures and of a measure of the returns to crime.

  13. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  14. Using an incentive spirometer

    MedlinePlus

    do Nascimento Jr P, Módolo NSP, Andrade S, et al. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Sys Rev . Published online February 8, ...

  15. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    Performance • Superior weapon systems • Cost, Schedule, Performance challenges • Acquisition Improvement & Workforce Incentives • Academic ...statistical difference but both showed a 22% improvement in performance Academic Research on Incentives • Mark Huselid in The Impact of Human Resource...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition University ,9820 Belvoir Road ,Fort Belvoir,VA,22060 8

  16. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  17. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  18. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  19. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  20. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  1. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, C. G.; Wiser, Ryan; Rai, Varun

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  2. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  3. Incentive Funding Meets Incentive-Based Budgeting: Can They Coexist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Two major developments in the financial management of higher education have occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of government and incentive-based budgeting on the part of institutions. Both are based on fiscal incentives. Despite their several inherent and interconnected similarities, incentive…

  4. Cooperative Performance Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what is known about cooperative performance incentive (CPI) plans, which are award programs that offer teachers and other school staff pay bonuses for achievement of specific schoolwide educational objectives. The paper describes and compares existing CPI models worldwide, analyzes their impact on student learning and school practices,…

  5. Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banashak, Joan M.

    The Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan represents a set of goals and action strategies for implementing the school improvement plan of the Fairway Elementary School in Miramar, Florida, where instructional time was being lost due to disruptive student behavior, and where behavioral infractions were not always dealt with quickly or…

  6. Incentives for Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  7. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  8. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  9. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F.; McColl, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics? Methods We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Results Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Conclusions Cash or shopping voucher

  10. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  11. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  12. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  13. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations.

  14. Economic incentives: Options for environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize that careful examination of the costs and benefits of further policy action, and of incentives as a way to achieve policy goals, is needed in each case to identify cost-effective program designs and efficient program targets. Because further evaluation is needed, this report does not endorse any of the incentives it describes. The authors hope that this report will encourage more focused study and discussion of these and other incentives. This report reflects what has been learned from EPA's past analyses of incentive approaches, and is intended to encourage new efforts toward creative use of incentives. They encourage debate on these ideas, as well as suggestions for other applications of incentives. Incentives addressed include municipal solid waste incentives, global climate change incentives, water resource incentives, and multimedia incentives.

  15. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  16. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  17. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  18. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (P<.05). Spirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  19. Distributed Solar Incentive Programs: Recent Experience and Best Practices for Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Reger, A.; Heeter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Based on lessons from recent program experience, this report explores best practices for designing and implementing incentives for small and mid-sized residential and commercial distributed solar energy projects. The findings of this paper are relevant to both new incentive programs as well as those undergoing modifications. The report covers factors to consider in setting and modifying incentive levels over time, differentiating incentives to encourage various market segments, administrative issues such as providing equitable access to incentives and customer protection. It also explores how incentive programs can be designed to respond to changing market conditions while attempting to provide a longer-term and stable environment for the solar industry. The findings are based on interviews with program administrators, regulators, and industry representatives as well as data from numerous incentive programs nationally, particularly the largest and longest-running programs. These best practices consider the perspectives of various stakeholders and the broad objectives of reducing solar costs, encouraging long-term market viability, minimizing ratepayer costs, and protecting consumers.

  20. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  1. Toward a more stable blood supply: charitable incentives, donation rates, and the experience of September 11.

    PubMed

    Sass, Reuben G

    2013-01-01

    Although excess blood collection has characterized U.S. national disasters, most dramatically in the case of September 11, periodic shortages of blood have recurred for decades. In response, I propose a new model of medical philanthropy, one that specifically uses charitable contributions to health care as blood donation incentives. I explain how the surge in blood donations following 9/11 was both transient and disaster-specific, failing to foster a greater continuing commitment to donate blood. This underscores the importance of considering blood donation incentives. I defend charitable incentives as an alternative to financial incentives, which I contend would further extend neoliberal market values into health care. I explain my model's potential appeal to private foundations or public-private partnerships as a means for expanding both the pool of blood donors and the prosocial benefit of each act of blood donation. Finally I link my analysis to the empirical literature on blood donation incentives.

  2. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    PubMed

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  3. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  4. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs. PMID:26464014

  5. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  6. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  7. One Size Does Not Fit All: Personalized Incentives in Military Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    bonuses, as well as two-sided matching problems for internal labor markets. Myung’s other areas of continued research are in game theory, organizational...of surveyed workers say that incentives are very important in their decision to accept or reject a job” (p. 8). According to the Bureau of Labor and...cost of delivery . The main difficulty when designing a universal incentive package is determining which NMIs to include. With a universal

  8. State Incentive Funding: Leveraging Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the debate on the use of state-level initiatives as levers to effect fundamental changes in higher education. It provides several perspectives on the use of incentive/enhancement programs to achieve state higher education goals. The concept of budgetary leverage is outlined, and the growth in enhancement programs…

  9. Motivating employees: an incentive program.

    PubMed

    Barczewski, R W; Michelson, L D

    1991-01-01

    Motivating employees is a challenging and critical task for all managers--no matter what the field. Robert Barczewski, M.B.A., and Linda Michelson describe how a successful incentive program at the Washington University School of Medicine was developed.

  10. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  11. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  12. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...

  13. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  14. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  15. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  16. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to... Secondary Education (Attention: Teacher Incentive Fund Comments), U.S. Department of Education, 400...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  1. Recycle of plastics from auto shredder residue: incentives and barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the work that has been done recently in the area of plastics recycling has focused on technological questions, and to a great extent this work has been successful. However, the degree to which recycling processes will be adopted by the market place will depend not only on technological developments but also on non-technological incentives and barriers to recycle. This paper focuses on waste plastics from the residue of auto shredders and discusses the incentives and barriers to the recycling of these plastics from three main perspectives: (1) the physical composition of shredder residue; (2) the private firm that operates a shredder and the firm that might utilize shredder residue in a recycling operation; and (3) society, which may or may not have an incentive to promote a level of recycle greater than the level provided by private firms. From each perspective significant incentives, as well as barriers, are identified that may have a pronounced impact on the degree to which plastics from shredder residue are ultimately disposed or recycled. 31 references, 5 tables.

  2. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  3. Issues in Water Quality Trading: Perspectives on the Market-Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Market mechanisms and incentives can play an important role in addressing environmental problems. Potential advantages of using market-based approaches include reducing the costs of meeting environmental goals and encouraging innovation. One market mechanism that has been promo...

  4. Do you know the fair market value of quality?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jen

    2009-10-01

    To develop a physician compensation package that includes fair-market-value incentive payments for their efforts to improve healthcare quality, a hospital first needs to: Evaluate current market data on quality incentive payments. Be familiar with the existing regulatory guidelines related to paying for quality. Understand the requirements for complying with the regulations.

  5. Quantifying State-Policy Incentives for the Renewable Energy Investor

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Olama, Mohammed M.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Malinchik, Sergey; Ives, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach to quantifying renewable energy policy for a decision maker/investor. The novelty of the idea lies in the construction of a computational model - a rule-based system - to interpret state incentives and mandates and evaluate the influence of state policies on renewable energy investment. Using this analysis tool, we are able to understand the bias of some states towards certain renewable technologies and also identify profitable markets for investment - both long and short-term. We also demonstrate how our ability to estimate the expected return of a proposed project in the form of tax credits and incentives, can be leveraged while planning to invest on large renewable power generation projects.

  6. Pharmacogenomics, genetic tests, and patent-based incentives.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics promises to revolutionize medicine by using genetic information to guide drug therapy. Genetic tests should help doctors improve drug safety and efficacy by better matching patients and drugs. This chapter evaluates the effectiveness of patent-based incentives to create genetic tests, and considers the optimal mix of public and private sector pharmacogenomic research and development (R&D). Drug patent owners have a strong incentive to develop genetic tests that predict adverse drug reactions and allow them to market drugs that otherwise would be shelved. Incentives are also strong for genetic tests that are created as part of the drug development process. Incentives tend to be weaker for genetic tests that are used in conjunction with existing drugs. Drug patent owners might gain or lose profit from the introduction of genetic tests into existing drug markets. Profits may fall because of lost sales, or profits may rise because drugs are more valuable to appropriate patients, and because drugs become more differentiated. Public sector R&D should target genetic tests that are likely to be underprovided by the private sector because private returns are low relative to social returns, or private costs are high relative to social costs. Private returns are relatively low when the rate of adoption of a genetic test is apt to be low, when test results increase consumer heterogeneity and consumer bargaining power, and when a test reveals information relevant to the use of more than one drug. Private costs are relatively high when test innovators need to obtain costly patent and trade secret licenses.

  7. Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

    1981-06-01

    The conclusions of each of three previous non-US incentives volumes and the conclusions of the comparisons volume which looks at incentives in four countries including the United States are summarized. Summaries of the patterns of incentive actions in France, West Germany, and Japan are presented first, followed by a summary of the four-country comparisons volume itself. Suggestions for solar policy which are based on the comparison of incentive actions in the four countries are presented. The definitions and methods used in each of the single-country studies are explained in detail in those volumes. A brief explanation of the procedures is offered. Each volume was divided into three parts: a survey of current thought about incentives for solar energy production; a view of the energy incentive landscape for one particular year; and an analysis of the major energy forms (nuclear, hydro, coal, electricity, oil, and gas) along the path from exploration to waste management, including the costs of incentives at each step in constant national currency. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: taxation, disbursements, requirements traditional services, nontraditional services, and market activities.

  8. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  9. Benefits of Government Incentives for Reusable Launch Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph W.; Prince, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Many exciting new opportunities in space, both government missions and business ventures, could be realized by a reduction in launch prices. Reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs have the potential to lower launch costs dramatically from those of today's expendable and partially-expendable vehicles. Unfortunately, governments must budget to support existing launch capability, and so lack the resources necessary to completely fund development of new reusable systems. In addition, the new commercial space markets are too immature and uncertain to motivate the launch industry to undertake a project of this magnitude and risk. Low-cost launch vehicles will not be developed without a mature market to service; however, launch prices must be reduced in order for a commercial launch market to mature. This paper estimates and discusses the various benefits that may be reaped from government incentives for a commercial reusable launch vehicle program.

  10. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  11. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  12. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and...

  13. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and...

  14. Drug versus vaccine investment: a modelled comparison of economic incentives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Investment by manufacturers in research and development of vaccines is relatively low compared with that of pharmaceuticals. If current evaluation technologies favour drugs over vaccines, then the vaccines market becomes relatively less attractive to manufacturers. Methods We developed a mathematical model simulating the decision-making process of regulators and payers, in order to understand manufacturers’ economic incentives to invest in vaccines rather than curative treatments. We analysed the objectives and strategies of manufacturers and payers when considering investment in technologies to combat a disease that affects children, and the interactions between them. Results The model confirmed that, for rare diseases, the economically justifiable prices of vaccines could be substantially lower than drug prices, and that, for diseases spread across multiple cohorts, the revenues derived from vaccinating one cohort per year (routine vaccination) could be substantially lower than those generated by treating sick individuals. Conclusions Manufacturers may see higher incentives to invest in curative treatments rather than in routine vaccines. To encourage investment in vaccines, health authorities could potentially revise their incentive schemes by: (1) committing to vaccinate all susceptible cohorts in the first year (catch-up campaign); (2) choosing a long-term horizon for health technology evaluation; (3) committing higher budgets for vaccines than for treatments; and (4) taking into account all intangible values derived from vaccines. PMID:24011090

  15. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 51 - Examples of Economic Incentive Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... different basic program designs. This section describes common types of EIP's that have been implemented... time. The common feature of such programs is that sources have an ongoing incentive to reduce pollution... could be allowed to participate in a common emissions trading market. Programs involving...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 51 - Examples of Economic Incentive Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... different basic program designs. This section describes common types of EIP's that have been implemented... time. The common feature of such programs is that sources have an ongoing incentive to reduce pollution... could be allowed to participate in a common emissions trading market. Programs involving...

  17. The Relationship of Institutional Incentives and Students' Decisions to Enroll in a Technical Postsecondary Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    As of 2012, 35,064 Missourians have filed for unemployment benefits and technical institutes are providing training that is becoming vitally important to secure employment in the 21st century. Marketing as a way of attracting prospective students to attend a vocational college is dependent on recruitment incentives. Consequently, the purpose of…

  18. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provides an incentive to the patient to improve his or her ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 75 FR 30007 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Teacher Incentive Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84.385 and 84.374. AGENCY... FY 2010 (NIA) for the Teacher Incentive Fund. This notice makes a correction to the May 21 NIA....

  20. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed. PMID:16812421

  1. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  2. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  3. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  4. 12 CFR 708a.311 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.311 Section 708a.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS BANK... raffle, every reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to...

  5. Building on Student Achievement through Incentive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Saneik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if incentive programs like Renaissance impact high school students and faculty. Incentives can go a long way for students in schools. At Lehigh Senior High School (LSHS), for example, students were introduced to the Renaissance Program this school year, by receiving goodies. Coupons at Dairy Queen,…

  6. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  7. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  9. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  10. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to its members must...

  11. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  12. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  13. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  14. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  15. Incentive spirometer for bedside studies.

    PubMed

    Scheinhorn, D J; Warner, W; Ellis, E

    1982-06-01

    We evaluated an incentive spirometer (IS) for monitoring changes in lung function in hospitalized patients. Accuracy and reproducibility of IS measurements of known volumes were adequate (r = 0.87). Flow dependency was demonstrated but was not significant in the clinically useful range. Reproducibility of IS measurements in five normal subjects was good, with a small training effect uncovered. In 15 patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease, change in IS values closely correlated with spirometrically measured changes in volume and flows (best correlation: IS versus FEV1/FVC%, r = 0.98) and in peak flow. The performance of the IS as tested and its availability in most hospitals outweigh its limitations. We advocate its use as an adjunct in monitoring progress of hospitalized patients with obstructive lung disease.

  16. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  17. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  18. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  19. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, K.A. ); South, D.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  20. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  1. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  2. USING MARKET INCENTIVES TO PROMOTE DECENTRALIZED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and widespread stream ecosystem impairment. While centralized stormwater management can minimize large fluctuations in stream flows and flooding risk to urban areas, this approac...

  3. An Incentive-Based Employee Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1981-01-01

    As part of an incentives plan, Davidson Louisiana, Inc., a building products distributor, conducts a unique employee physical fitness program in which the participants are rewarded with credit toward expense paid vacations around the world. (JN)

  4. What nurses want: the nurse incentives project.

    PubMed

    Wieck, K Lynn; Dols, Jean; Northam, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Today's nurse executives are struggling with leadership challenges of managing the multigenerational workforce, financial imperatives to deliver better care for lower costs, and competition to provide the optimal work environment to retain nurses. The purpose of the Nurse Incentives Project was to determine satisfaction with current employment incentives and potential managerial actions which might decrease or delay turnover by registered nurses. This study spawned recommendations regarding the role of incentives in designing an environment where benefits and perks will be seen as incentives to stay and thrive in the current nursing workplace. The results show that nurses know what they want. Attention to generational priorities and flexible benefits programs may help to create the cohesive work environment that nurses seek. Investment into creating delivery arenas where satisfied nurses are caring for satisfied patients is a worthwhile goal.

  5. Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jack, B Kelsey; Kousky, Carolyn; Sims, Katharine R E

    2008-07-15

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) policies compensate individuals or communities for undertaking actions that increase the provision of ecosystem services such as water purification, flood mitigation, or carbon sequestration. PES schemes rely on incentives to induce behavioral change and can thus be considered part of the broader class of incentive- or market-based mechanisms for environmental policy. By recognizing that PES programs are incentive-based, policymakers can draw on insights from the substantial body of accumulated knowledge about this class of instruments. In particular, this article offers a set of lessons about how the environmental, socioeconomic, political, and dynamic context of a PES policy is likely to interact with policy design to produce policy outcomes, including environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and poverty alleviation.

  6. Capitation and fee-for-service dental benefit plans: economic incentives, utilization, and service-mix.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, T J; Guay, A H; Heffley, D R

    1988-04-01

    Insurance carriers, corporations, and labor groups are actively developing and marketing dental capitation benefit plans. Incentives to both dentists and patients in these plans differ from those in the traditional fee-for-service system used with conventional benefit plans. This paper describes the likely effects of these incentive differences on utilization and service-mix patterns in both systems. Data for a large (approximately 10,000), homogenous group of subscribers are presented and discussed. Faced with a dual option, at no cost to the employee, 60% of the subscribers chose the fee-for-service plan, and 40% chose the capitation plan. Observed differences in the utilization and mix of services between the two plans cannot be explained solely in terms of dentists' responses. Employee response to altered economic incentives appears to be strong.

  7. Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jack, B. Kelsey; Kousky, Carolyn; Sims, Katharine R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) policies compensate individuals or communities for undertaking actions that increase the provision of ecosystem services such as water purification, flood mitigation, or carbon sequestration. PES schemes rely on incentives to induce behavioral change and can thus be considered part of the broader class of incentive- or market-based mechanisms for environmental policy. By recognizing that PES programs are incentive-based, policymakers can draw on insights from the substantial body of accumulated knowledge about this class of instruments. In particular, this article offers a set of lessons about how the environmental, socioeconomic, political, and dynamic context of a PES policy is likely to interact with policy design to produce policy outcomes, including environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and poverty alleviation. PMID:18621696

  8. Modeling the U.S. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2010-09-01

    Global rooftop PV markets are growing rapidly, fueled by a combination of declining PV prices and several policy-based incentives. The future growth, and size, of the rooftop market is highly dependent on continued PV cost reductions, financing options, net metering policy, carbon prices and future incentives. Several PV market penetration models, sharing a similar structure and methodology, have been developed over the last decade to quantify the impacts of these factors on market growth. This study uses a geospatially rich, bottom-up, PV market penetration model--the Solar Deployment Systems (SolarDS) model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory--to explore key market and policy-based drivers for residential and commercial rooftop PV markets. The identified drivers include a range of options from traditional incentives, to attractive customer financing options, to net metering and carbon policy.

  9. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentive. 1852... 1852.216-88 Performance incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(f), insert the following clause: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware...

  11. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentive... 1852.216-88 Performance incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(f), insert the following clause: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware...

  13. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  14. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  15. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  16. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  17. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment pool for the fiscal year, multiplied by the State incentive payment share for the fiscal year. (b) The incentive payment pool is: (1) $422,000,000 for fiscal year 2000; (2) $429,000,000 for fiscal year 2001;...

  18. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is...

  19. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is...

  20. 45 CFR 305.36 - Incentive phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive phase-in. 305.36 Section 305.36 Public... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.36 Incentive phase-in... year 2000, a State will receive two-thirds of what it would have received under the incentive...

  1. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  2. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Berthelsen, Kasper K; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.

  3. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  4. Learning Political Science with Prediction Markets: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Cali Mortenson; Sami, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Prediction markets are designed to aggregate the information of many individuals to forecast future events. These markets provide participants with an incentive to seek information and a forum for interaction, making markets a promising tool to motivate student learning. We carried out a quasi-experiment in an introductory political science class…

  5. Competitive Electricity Markets and System Reliability: The Case for New England's Proposed Locational Capacity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, John G.; Felder, Frank A.

    2005-10-01

    Clear evidence exists that the existing wholesale markets in New England are failing to provide sufficient incentives to invest. The ISO-NE LICAP proposal is designed to ensure that New England markets attract sufficient generation resources to protect reliability while being mindful of the added cost burden that it will produce.

  6. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Brix, V.L.

    1980-02-01

    Solar energy's share in the national energy budget has caused policy makers to speculate on the reasons for the large difference between present and potential use. Complex technical, economic, legal, institutional, and political interrelationships appear and an attempt is made to present an understanding of that relationship and to enhance the design of solar energy policy. Federal incentives that have been previously used on other energy sources are examined and the report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. The chapters presented are: A Theoretical Approach to Analyzing Incentives for Energy Production; Generic Analysis of Energy Incentives; Nuclear Energy Incentives; Hydroenergy Incentives; Coal Energy Incentives; Oil Energy Incentives; Natural Gas Energy Incentives; and Electricity. Conclusions with respect to solar energy policy for each of these are summed. (MCW)

  7. [The bitter pay back--perverse financial incentives in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Berden, H J J M Bart; Baart, A J Andries

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the stimuli that arise from the current design of the healthcare system. Hospital care is fragmented into an endless series of interventions and subsidiary interventions that are parts of chains, lines of care, care trajectories and care protocols. Each intervention has its own logic and quality standards. And each of these interventions not only bears an estimate of the intensity of care but increasingly a price tag as well. These interventions are vitally important because they form the basis for the declarations of costs. Consequently this set-up provides a perverse incentive that elicits greed and meanness. Three factors underlying this are discussed in this article: a meritocratic culture, Taylorism in the care process and misplaced market thinking.

  8. Achieving the Space Vision through Government Incentives and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, David P.

    2005-02-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle family must be developed and operated at much lower cost levels than current vehicles in order to win public support, while providing a higher level of safety. The Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is under contract to NASA show how this can be accomplished through government incentives for the development of privately-owned infrastructure that sells services to both government and commercial space customers. This markets-based approach rewards companies that focus on delivering affordable products quickly, rather than on following elaborate government-supervised processes. The architecture developed by t/Space also eliminates the need to develop heavy-lift vehicles and lunar landers, cutting in half NASA's projected cost for the first human return to the Moon.

  9. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    PubMed

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  10. Incentive spirometry: its value after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gale, G D; Sanders, D E

    1980-09-01

    Treatment with intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) and incentive spirometry (I.S.) was compared in 109 patients after heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Assessment was done by measurement of vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension and identification of the radiological signs of atelectasis. All patients were instructed pre-operatively in the treatment which was to be used. Vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension while breathing air for the first three postoperative days and the incidence of atelectasis showed no significant difference between groups. Ten minutes after treatment the arterial oxygen tension fell, but this was only statistically significant after I.P.P.B. At 60 minutes the arterial oxygen tension had returned to pretreatment level in both groups. The use of the incentive spirometer four times daily is no better than I.P.P.B., in preventing atelectasis after open-heart surgery. Possibly incentive spirometer treatment given more frequently may be more effective.

  11. Toward Incentives for Military Transformation: A Review of Economic Models of Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (to care for sick people, for example, or serve the country) o Peer pressure and mutual monitoring o A corporate culture of hard...local labor market conditions. The recent evidence suggests that factors like peer pressure and the need to pool risks in a team may improve performance...discourage free riding and encourage individual effort is to employ a variety of implicit incentives. For example, it can encourage peer pressure and

  12. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate.

  13. Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

    1981-09-01

    This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

  14. Membership within the Nonpareil Marketing Group: Examination of an unclassified accession

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California almonds are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance to facilitate promotion and sale. Market prices for Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) kernels are 30% higher than for almonds in other marketing groups. Accordingly, there is economic incentive for breeders ...

  15. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  16. Incentives for Cheating Given Imperfect Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-10-01

    The incentives for cheating given imperfect detection can be discussed within the context of first strike stability. The cost reduction due to is balanced against the sanctions that would be imposed if cheating was detected. For small political sanctions, the optimum level is at high levels of cheating. For large sanctions, the optimum is at quite low levels, which discourages cheating.

  17. 36 CFR 906.7 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.7 Incentives. (a) At the request of the developer, the... the developer's compliance with the goals set forth in the approved Affirmative Action Plan... the developer 120 days to achieve at least that level of compliance. If, at the end of that 120...

  18. Incentives in IT Yield Success at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes the role of information technology (IT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, explaining that attention to the unique characteristics of an MIT education and incentives for sustainable change are central to its IT efforts. Discusses various IT initiatives, such as Project Athena, provision on campus, international efforts, and…

  19. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS Conversion of Insured Credit Unions to Mutual Savings Banks § 708a.12 Voting..., § 708a.12 was redesignated as § 708a.112, effective Jan. 27, 2011....

  20. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  1. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  2. Rewarding Excellence: Teacher Compensation and Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Kristen J.

    This monograph provides information on the many aspects of teacher compensation and incentive plans, focusing on those programs that seek to attract and retain high-quality teachers in the profession. Information was synthesized from reports provided by various school districts around the nation. The monograph presents state-by-state data on…

  3. Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. 1981 Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of 47 college programs recognized for awards in the National Association of College and University Officers/U. S. Steel Foundation Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program are given. They include awards for: shower stall repair; chemical waste exchange; vibrating alarms for hearing-imparied; self-funding insurance consortium;…

  4. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  5. Motivation and Incentives in Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Eugene A.

    Except for several Human Resources Research Organization studies of the military, no systematic study has been made of the effects of attitudes and incentives on manpower availability. One such study explored the effects of early Army experience in the career orientation of Army recruits and found that early positive motivation for service was…

  6. High-Performance Government: Structure, Leadership, Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    responses to incentive systems vary as a function of school and classroom context characteristics, including the ability lev- els of students in their... management approaches that af- ford agencies far more flexibility and responsiveness in packaging at- tractive job offers at the entry level, while...with lean, senior management levels, composed of operating agencies sharing similar substantive responsibilities . Government leaders would have the

  7. Employment Testing and Incentives To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    Employment tests predict job performance because they measure or are correlated with a large set of malleable developed abilities, which are causally related to productivity. Our economy currently under-rewards the achievements that are measured by these tests. Consequently, economic incentives to study hard in high school are minimal, and this…

  8. Incentives, School Organization and Teacher Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    In order for teacher compensation to serve as an incentive that reinforces broader organizational goals, the norms of the compensation structure must be aligned with the norms of the school organization. The first section of this paper presents a brief overview of changes in teacher compensation from 1820 to 1950. It describes how such changes…

  9. Teacher Incentives: A Tool for Effective Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Teacher incentive systems enable school districts to address the current concerns of their constituencies: teachers' concern with salaries, administrators' concern for attracting good people into the teaching profession, and community concern that increased expenditures for teacher salaries have not improved education. Accordingly, this handbook…

  10. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  11. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  12. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    PubMed

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates.

  13. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  14. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  15. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  16. Glossary – dCHPP (CHP Policies and incentives database)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This glossary provides descriptions of the policy and incentive types included in the CHP Partnership's CHP Policies and incentives database (dCHPP), as well as the frequency with which the EPA updates each type.

  17. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This document lists some of the federal incentives available to manufacturers of wind energy equipment. These incentives were authorized by or expanded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  18. Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163124.html Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies Many may not ... HealthDay News) -- A quick chat with low-income families about financial incentives to eat more fruits and ...

  19. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... establishing the final contract price by a formula based on the relationship of final negotiated total cost to total target cost. Fixed-price incentive contracts are covered in subpart 16.4, Incentive Contracts....

  20. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  1. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  2. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  3. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any later than CY 2016. (2) Subsequent annual payment years. (i) For subsequent payment years, payment... receiving incentive payments for any year after FY 2016, and after FY 2016, a hospital may not receive an incentive payment unless it received an incentive payment in the prior fiscal year. (6) Prior to FY...

  4. The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Douglas P.

    The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

  5. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  10. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  11. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  12. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  13. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  14. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  15. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incentive payments to EPs. 495.102 Section 495.102... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicare Program § 495.102 Incentive payments to EPs. (a) General...) Increase in incentive payment limit for EPs who predominantly furnish services in a geographic HPSA. In...

  16. 33 CFR 402.5 - New Business Incentive Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Business Incentive Program..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TARIFF OF TOLLS § 402.5 New Business Incentive Program (a) To be eligible for the rebate applicable under the New Business Incentive Program, a carrier must submit an...

  17. 33 CFR 402.5 - New Business Incentive Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Business Incentive Program..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TARIFF OF TOLLS § 402.5 New Business Incentive Program (a) To be eligible for the rebate applicable under the New Business Incentive Program, a carrier must submit an...

  18. 75 FR 36395 - Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies... 2009, the Federal Reserve issued and requested comment on Proposed Guidance on Sound Incentive.... In addition, because sound incentive compensation practices are important to protect the safety...

  19. 45 CFR 96.87 - Leveraging incentive program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 97-35 (42 U.S.C. 8626a). (2)(i) The only entities eligible to receive leveraging incentive funds from... period for which leveraging incentive funds are sought; and tribes and tribal organizations described in... under section 2602(b) in the award period, will receive leveraging incentive funds allocable to them...

  20. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  1. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  2. Outcome-based and Participation-based Wellness Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Barleen, Nathan A.; Marzec, Mary L.; Boerger, Nicholas L.; Moloney, Daniel P.; Zimmerman, Eric M.; Dobro, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether worksite wellness program participation or achievement of health improvement targets differed according to four incentive types (participation-based, hybrid, outcome-based, and no incentive). Methods: The study included individuals who completed biometric health screenings in both 2013 and 2014 and had elevated metrics in 2013 (baseline year). Multivariate logistic regression modeling tested for differences in odds of participation and achievement of health improvement targets between incentive groups; controlling for demographics, employer characteristics, incentive amounts, and other factors. Results: No statistically significant differences between incentive groups occurred for odds of participation or achievement of health improvement target related to body mass index, blood pressure, or nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Given the null findings of this study, employers cannot assume that outcome-based incentives will result in either increased program participation or greater achievement of health improvement targets than participation-based incentives. PMID:28146041

  3. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision-making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in sixty-four adolescents (13-17-year-olds) and forty-two young adults (18-29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade task. Notably, measures were implemented to minimize age-related differences in reward valuation and potentially confounding motivation effects. Incentives affected antisaccade metrics differently across the age groups. Younger adolescents generated more errors than adults on reward trials, but all groups performed well on loss trials. Adolescent saccade latencies also differed from adults across the range of reward trials. Overall, results suggest persistent immaturities in the integration of reward and inhibitory control processes across adolescence. PMID:22540668

  4. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  5. Tropical forest preservation using economic incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T. ); Cale, W.G. Jr. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors address the problem of deforestation of the tropical forests in terms of economic factors. They outline the global effects, such as hydrological and climatological changes, that apparently small scale deforestation has, when the forest is destroyed in many different places. The authors suggest that industrialized nations should offer economic incentives for tropical nations to save their forests, since all the world will suffer the effects of tropical deforestation.

  6. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C

    2014-09-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment.

  7. A new device of incentive spirometry.

    PubMed

    Su, M Y; Chiang, C D; Huang, W L; Li, S J; King, S L; P'eng, F K

    1991-10-01

    Incentive spirometry is a feedback system to encourage patients to take a deep breath and produce a sustained maximal inspiration (SMI) for the primary purpose of opening and stabilizing atelectatic areas of the lung. However, currently available incentive devices are not reusable, expensive, and emphasize inspiratory effort only. We have designed a new device of incentive spirometer based on pursed-lip breathing technique. The device consists of a piece of paper hanging on a frame. The patient is instructed to take a deep and slow inspiration followed by holding the breath for 5 seconds. Then, using pursed-lip technique, the patient generates a flow to keep the paper attached to a bar as long as possible. The duration of paper blowing is recorded and is compared with vital capacity. In the present study 96 cases were recorded. Vital capacity was correlated well with paper blowing time (multiple regression test r = 0.87, p less than 0.0001). The advantages of our device include (1) reusibility and less cost, (2) equal emphasis of both inspiration and expiration, and (3) being especially helpful for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). This is a preliminary result and further clinical study is needed.

  8. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms.

  9. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  10. An Experiment on Prediction Markets in Science

    PubMed Central

    Almenberg, Johan; Kittlitz, Ken; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Prediction markets are powerful forecasting tools. They have the potential to aggregate private information, to generate and disseminate a consensus among the market participants, and to provide incentives for information acquisition. These market functionalities can be very valuable for scientific research. Here, we report an experiment that examines the compatibility of prediction markets with the current practice of scientific publication. We investigated three settings. In the first setting, different pieces of information were disclosed to the public during the experiment. In the second setting, participants received private information. In the third setting, each piece of information was private at first, but was subsequently disclosed to the public. An automated, subsidizing market maker provided additional incentives for trading and mitigated liquidity problems. We find that the third setting combines the advantages of the first and second settings. Market performance was as good as in the setting with public information, and better than in the setting with private information. In contrast to the first setting, participants could benefit from information advantages. Thus the publication of information does not detract from the functionality of prediction markets. We conclude that for integrating prediction markets into the practice of scientific research it is of advantage to use subsidizing market makers, and to keep markets aligned with current publication practice. PMID:20041139

  11. Smart computer-assisted markets.

    PubMed

    McCabe, K A; Rassenti, S J; Smith, V L

    1991-10-25

    The deregulation movement has motivated the experimental study of auction markets designed for interdependent network industries such as natural gas pipelines or electric power systems. Decentralized agents submit bids to buy commodity and offers to sell transportation and commodity to a computerized dispatch center. Computer algorithms determine prices and allocations that maximize the gains from exchange in the system relative to the submitted bids and offers. The problem is important, because traditionally the scale and coordination economies in such industries were thought to require regulation. Laboratory experiments are used to study feasibility, limitations, incentives, and performance of proposed market designs for deregulation, providing motivation for new theory.

  12. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  13. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    auction clearing prices, and in some cases, even significantly suppresses them. The institution of auction-based carbon markets in the already-concentrated energy sector can further strengthen the market position of dominant firms who can leverage energy-emissions market linkages to their operational advantage. Chapter 3: Regulatory Mechanisms and Policy Approaches. Contemporary deregulated electricity markets are defined by a complex array of multi-settlement markets, with additional market-based mechanisms designed, to a large extent, to limit the exercise of market power by dominant firms. On top of the already complex nature of these markets, policymakers are also adding market-based mechanisms to curtail greenhouse gases. Key linkages exist between electricity and emissions markets that may be utilized by dominant firms. This chapter provides an analysis of three specific policy mechanisms that are utilized in contemporary markets to effectively reduce the incentive of dominant firms to exercise market power. These include convergence bidding, consignment auctions and multilevel holding accounts.

  14. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  15. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  16. [Postoperative respiratory therapy using incentive spirometry].

    PubMed

    Mang, H; Weindler, J; Zapf, C L

    1989-04-01

    The optimal methods of prophylaxis and therapy of postoperative respiratory complications in surgical patients are still open to discussion. In spite of numerous recent clinical investigations, there is still no specific and universally acceptable therapeutic concept. In our department, we identify patients at risk of pulmonary complications by adequate screening, i.e. medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and spirometry. In the postoperative period there are a sequence of stages starting with early mobilization, respiratory therapy (including incentive spirometry and IPPB), and when necessary, controlled mechanical ventilation. We have measured and documented the flows and volumes required of patients using various types of incentive spirometer. In addition, we review on the literature and describe our experience with the technique, handling, and organization of sustained maximal inspiration (SMI). After thoracic or major upper abdominal surgery, all lung volumes decrease due to impairment of rib cage movement, changes in chest wall muscle tone, an increase in lung recoil, and airway closure. At the end of each expiration some of the smallest airways collapse either partly or totally. This process continues to some extent until, normally, a deep breath recruits the alveoli. Sighs to the limit of total lung capacity or oscillations of the expiratory baseline ought to be responsible for this effect in healthy humans; the same purpose is intended in incentive spirometry. For this therapy, it is mandatory that the central airways are not occluded by mucus and that the patient is able to breath volumes exceeding his normal tidal volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  18. Institutions, incentives and the future of fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Ray; Orensanz, J. M. (Lobo); Parma, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries around the world are managed with a broad range of institutional structures. Some of these have been quite disastrous, whereas others have proven both biologically and economically successful. Unsuccessful systems have generally involved either open access, attempts at top-down control with poor ability to monitor and implement regulations, or reliance on consensus. Successful systems range from local cooperatives to strong governmental control, to various forms of property rights, but usually involve institutional systems that provide incentives to individual operators that lead to behaviour consistent with conservation. PMID:15744918

  19. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    SciTech Connect

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  20. Incentive Pay for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Career Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    attracting and retaining pilots and sensor operators.” This mono- graph addresses this subject using an econometric model of officer and enlisted...Incentive Pays Evaluating incentive pays requires estimates of their effect on retention and their cost. We used an econometric model of officer and...theoretical overview of how and why pilots and SOs should receive incentive pays. Additionally, the Air Force was tasked with using an econometric

  1. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  2. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    PubMed

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  3. The Use of Financial Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Patrick, Mollie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and world. Despite the availability of numerous therapies for smoking cessation, additional efficacious interventions are greatly needed. We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating financial incentives for smoking cessation and discuss the parameters important for ensuring the efficacy of incentive interventions for smoking cessation. Methods Published studies that evaluated the impact of incentives to promote smoking cessation and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Results Incentives are efficacious for promoting smoking abstinence across the general population of smokers as well as substance abusers, adolescents, patients with pulmonary disease, patients with serious mental illness and other challenging subgroups. To develop and implement an effective incentive treatment for smoking, special attention should be paid to biochemical verification of smoking status, incentive magnitude and the schedule of incentive delivery. Conclusion Consistent with the extensive literature showing that incentives are effective in reducing illicit drug use, a large body of evidence supports their effectiveness in reducing smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for smoking cessation across clinical settings and populations. PMID:22525802

  4. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  5. Financial incentives for healthy behavior: ethical safeguards for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Karsten; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2013-06-01

    Economic incentives to promote healthy behavior are becoming increasingly common and have been suggested as an approach to decreasing healthcare costs. Ethical concerns about programs with such incentives are that they may contribute to inequities, be coercive, interfere with therapeutic relationships, undermine personal responsibility for health, and decrease social solidarity. Additionally, they may be a source of stigma or discrimination, promote dependence, and be unfair for those already engaged in targeted health behaviors or those who cannot fulfill the incentivized behaviors. Incentive programs need to incorporate appropriate safeguards to monitor these risks and support fairness in offering economic incentives to promote healthy behavior.

  6. Alternative approaches to environmental regulation: Prescription, process, incentives and space

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic, comparative analysis of several approaches to environmental regulation and planning. These include such approaches as prescription (Command-Control), process (EMS), incentives (Market Mechanisms), and space (New Urbanism). The wider analysis is timely given the attention that has been recently directed toward such new approaches as Environmental Management Systems (EMS) under ISO 14001. This paper will initially examine the aim, purpose, requirements, and outcomes of each of these alternative regimes. Doing this in terms of common considerations will facilitate a constructive analysis across all regimes. In turn, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches will be analyzed. Relevant examples will be utilized to illustrate points. Rather than emphasizing the merits or demerits of one approach vs. another, it will be shown that a more constructive strategy would be to consider contextual factors when determining which regime or combination of regimes to apply. In this way, better guidance can be provided when considering possible regulatory alternatives thereby contributing to the more effective attainment of environmental planning goals.

  7. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  8. A utility that believes in incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    PSI Energy, not so long ago a ship in distress, is developing internal practices and regulatory proposals designed to provide incentives at every level of the company. When Jim Rogers can to PSI Energy (then Public Service Co. of Indiana) in 1988 as chairman, president and chief executive officer, he faced a difficult task. First, he had to rebuild the financial health of a utility that had virtually all its common equity wiped out by the write-off of the abandoned Marble Hill nuclear project, in which the company had 83% interest. Second, he had to restore the company's public image and the credibility gap between PSI and most of its stakeholders. Lastly, he had to restore the pride and energy of a work force that had been beaten down by over ten years of dealing with the Marble Hill problem. This article discusses the changes implemented at PSI that have involved not only various proposals to regulators for more incentive-based regulatory mechanisms, but also innovations in how employee performance is measured and rewarded. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Hips and hearts: the variation in incentive effects of insurance across hospital procedures.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Denise; Fiebig, Denzil G; Suziedelyte, Agne

    2014-09-01

    The separate identification of effects due to incentives, selection and preference heterogeneity in insurance markets is the topic of much debate. In this paper, we investigate the presence and variation in moral hazard across health care procedures. The key motivating hypothesis is the expectation of larger causal effects in the case of more discretionary procedures. The empirical approach relies on an extremely rich and extensive dataset constructed by linking survey data to administrative data for hospital medical records. Using this approach we are able to provide credible evidence of large moral hazard effects but for elective surgeries only.

  10. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand; Rue du Can, Stephane de la; Phadke, Amol

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  11. Effects of government incentives on wind innovation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês; Hounshell, David

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, state and federal governments have considered or implemented a range of policies to create more sustainable energy generation systems in response to concerns over climate change, security of fuel supply, and environmental impacts. These policies include both regulatory instruments such as renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and market incentives such as tax credits. While these policies are primarily geared towards increasing renewable generation capacity, they can indirectly affect innovation in associated technologies through a ‘demand-pull’ dynamic. Other policies, such as public research and development (R&D) funding, directly incentivize innovation through ‘technology-push’ means. In this letter, we examine these effects on innovation in the United States wind energy industry. We estimate a set of econometric models relating a set of US federal and state policies to patenting activity in wind technologies over the period 1974-2009. We find that RPS policies have had significant positive effects on wind innovation, whereas tax-based incentives have not been particularly effective. We also find evidence that the effects of RPS incentives differ between states. Finally, we find that public R&D funding can be a significant driver of wind innovation, though its effect in the US has been modest.

  12. Free market environmentalism

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.; Leal, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Free Market Environmentalism by Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal is a call to action rather than an empirical study. These authors argue that the environment and the market are inextricably connected in a positive rather than negative way. In their view, individual property owners, who are in a position and have an incentive to obtain time- and place-specific information about their resource endowments, are better suited than centralized bureaucracies to manage resources. Government should strive as much as possible to encourage and facilitate the working of the market through the enforcement of property rights, including clearly specified titles, strict liability rules and adjudication of disputed property rights in court. Markets could then be created in a variety of environmental policy domains. For example, Yellowstone National park currently has a problem with migrating bison who wander off the park premises and infect the cattle of adjoining ranches with deadly viruses. To Anderson and Leal, this problem could be solved if park officials owned the bison and could be sued for damages. Overfishing could be solved through the allocation of property rights to specific people who would be allowed to trade their rights. This property rights model is applied to a wide variety of environmental circumstances and problems including land policy, outdoor recreation, energy development, groundwater pollution, garbage disposal, and global warming.

  13. Payment systems and incentives in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein

    2016-11-03

    In this commentary, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following incentive-based remuneration systems in dentistry: fee-for-service remuneration, per capita remuneration, a mixed payment system (a combination of fee-for-service remuneration and per capita remuneration) and pay-for-performance. The two latter schemes are fairly new in dentistry. Fee-for-service payments secure high quality, but lead to increased costs, probably due to supplier-induced demand. Per capita payments secure effectiveness, but may lead to under-treatment and patient selection. A mixed payment scheme produces results somewhere between over- and under-treatment. The prospective component (the per capita payment) promotes efficiency, while the retrospective component (the fee-for-service payment) secures high quality of the care that is provided. A pay-for-performance payment scheme is specifically designed towards improvements in dental health. This is done by linking provider reimbursements directly to performance indicators measuring dental health outcomes and quality of the services. Experience from general health services is that pay-for-performance payment has not been very successful. This is due to significant design and implementation obstacles and lack of provider acceptance. A major criticism of all the incentive-based remuneration schemes is that they may undermine the dentists' intrinsic motivation for performing a task. This is a crowding-out effect, which is particularly strong when monetary incentives are introduced for care that is cognitively demanding and complex, for example as in dentistry. One way in which intrinsic motivation may not be undermined is to introduce a fixed salary component into the remuneration scheme. Dentists would then be able to choose their type of contract according to their abilities and their preferences for nonmonetary rewards as opposed to monetary rewards. If a fixed salary component cannot be introduced into the remuneration

  14. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA.... Within twelve months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD the final tax incentives... Renewal Community. (c) Community participation. The CoRA must ensure that the preliminary and final...

  15. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA.... Within twelve months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD the final tax incentives... Renewal Community. (c) Community participation. The CoRA must ensure that the preliminary and final...

  16. Encouraging Contributions in Learning Networks Using Incentive Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, H. G. K.; Burgos, D.; Tattersall, C.; Brouns, F.; Kurvers, H.; Koper, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate incentive mechanisms to increase active participation in Learning Networks (LNs). The LN under study is LN4LD, an LN for the exchange of information about the IMS Learning Design specification. We examine how to encourage learners in LN4LD to contribute their knowledge, and whether incentive mechanisms can increase the level of…

  17. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  18. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  19. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  20. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.45 Forestry Incentives Program...

  1. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  2. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  3. Technology Incentives: Motivating Teachers to Attend Professional Development Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Technology incentives are a great way to motivate teachers to learn to use technology. Polk County Schools in Florida has proven that technology incentives work to their advantage. A highlight that motivates Polk County teachers, is that a technology coaching program is in place to assist teachers at different schools. In this article, the author…

  4. 1985 Winners of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. Tenth Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Fifty-two cost reduction efforts on college and university campuses are described, as part of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program sponsored by the National Association of College and University Business Officers and the United States Steel Foundation. The incentive program is designed to stimulate cost-effective ideas and awareness of the…

  5. 48 CFR 3416.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 3416.402-2 Section 3416.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...-2 Performance incentives. (b) Award-term contracting may be used for performance-based contracts...

  6. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may not begin receiving payments any later than CY 2016. (2) Subsequent annual payment years. (i) For... after FY 2016, and after FY 2016, a hospital may not receive an incentive payment unless it received an incentive payment in the prior fiscal year. (6) Prior to FY 2016, payments can be made to an...

  7. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (other than a facilities contract) is contemplated: Incentive Fee (JUN... determined as provided in this contract. (b) Target cost and target fee. The target cost and target fee... (d) below. (1) Target cost, as used in this contract, means the estimated cost of this contract...

  8. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (other than a facilities contract) is contemplated: Incentive Fee (JUN... determined as provided in this contract. (b) Target cost and target fee. The target cost and target fee... (d) below. (1) Target cost, as used in this contract, means the estimated cost of this contract...

  9. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (other than a facilities contract) is contemplated: Incentive Fee (JUN... determined as provided in this contract. (b) Target cost and target fee. The target cost and target fee... (d) below. (1) Target cost, as used in this contract, means the estimated cost of this contract...

  10. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar incentives of the contract. To that end, when performance, design-to-cost, or similar targets are set...

  11. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  12. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  13. Bioethical Issues in Providing Financial Incentives to Research Participants.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-24

    Offering research subjects financial incentives for their participation is a common practice that boosts recruitment but also raises ethical concerns, such as undue inducement, exploitation, and biased enrollment. This article reviews the arguments for providing participants with financial incentives, ethical concerns about payment, and approaches to establishing appropriate compensation levels. It also makes recommendations for investigators, institutions, and oversight committees.

  14. Incentives: Getting and Keeping Workers Involved in Health Promotion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, James F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)

  15. Early-Retirement Incentive Programs for Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 115 medical schools concerning early retirement benefits and incentives for faculty found that defined-contribution plans were preferred and were available at 37 percent of institutions. Incentive programs were used by 70 percent of schools during 1987-91. However, few early retirements have occurred. Program characteristics,…

  16. Individual Teacher Incentives, Student Achievement and Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Pedro S.

    2010-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding the potential of teacher incentives to improve student achievement. In fact, teacher incentives, either individual or collective, may improve student achievement if they succeed in aligning the public or social goals with the goals of the teacher. However, an approach in which reward is based on outputs can…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support in Incentive Grant Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' perceptions of administrative support in incentive grant schools. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of participation in an incentive grant on the perceived level of administrative support. The research questions were as follows: 1) Do teachers who are participating…

  18. Creating Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett; Eckert, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring that all students in America's public schools are taught by good teachers is an educational and moral imperative. Teacher incentive proposals are rarely grounded on what high-quality research indicates are the kinds of teacher incentives that lead to school excellence and equity. Few of the current approaches to creating teacher…

  19. Offering Financial Incentives to Increase Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication

    PubMed Central

    Highton-Williamson, Elizabeth; Barnicot, Kirsten; Kareem, Tarrannum; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Financial incentives for medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders are controversial. It is not yet known whether fears expressed by clinicians are borne out in reality. We aimed to explore community mental health clinicians’ experiences of the consequences of giving patients with psychotic disorders a financial incentive to take their depot medication. We implemented descriptive and thematic analyses of semistructured interviews with the clinicians of patients assigned to receive incentives within a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-nine clinicians were interviewed with regard to the effect of the incentives on 73 of the 78 patients allocated to receive incentives in the trial. Most commonly, the clinicians reported benefits for clinical management including improved adherence, contact, patient monitoring, communication, and trust (n = 52). Positive effects on symptoms, insight, or social functioning were reported for some (n = 33). Less commonly, problems for patient management were reported (n = 19) such as monetarization of the therapeutic relationship or negative consequences for the patient (n = 15) such as increased drug and alcohol use. Where requests for increased money occurred, they were rapidly resolved. It seems that, in most cases, the clinicians found that using incentives led to benefits for patient management and for patient health. However, in 33% of cases, some adverse effects were reported. It remains unclear whether certain clinical characteristics are associated with increased risk for adverse effects of financial incentives. The likelihood of benefit versus the smaller risk for adverse effects should be weighed up when deciding whether to offer incentives to individual patients. PMID:25692797

  20. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  1. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  2. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  3. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  4. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  5. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... utilization plan for achieving the State and local commitments made at the time of application as required by... authorized to assist the CoRA in preparing the required tax incentives utilization plans. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization...

  6. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... utilization plan for achieving the State and local commitments made at the time of application as required by... authorized to assist the CoRA in preparing the required tax incentives utilization plans. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization...

  7. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... utilization plan for achieving the State and local commitments made at the time of application as required by... authorized to assist the CoRA in preparing the required tax incentives utilization plans. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization...

  8. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  9. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  10. School and Teacher Performance Incentives: The Latin American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…

  11. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  12. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  13. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  14. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  15. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  16. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  17. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  18. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  19. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  20. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Games with Incentives," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the Modelling and Control of National Economies, Washington, D. C., June 1983...34Robustness of Incentive Policies in Team Problems with Discrepancies in Goal Perceptions," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the

  1. Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. K.

    1981-11-01

    Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated utilization rate with the proper incentives.

  2. Using Incentives To Promote Employee Health. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…

  3. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives for RDAP participation. 550.54 Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An...

  4. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for RDAP participation. 550.54 Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An...

  5. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar incentives of the contract. To that end, when performance, design-to-cost, or similar targets are set and incentivized, the targets of such incentives affected by the VECP are not to be adjusted because of...

  6. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  7. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  8. Incentive motivation is associated with striatal dopamine asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wong, Christopher; Volkow, Nora D

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in modulating incentive motivation, expressed behaviorally as approach behavior. EEG studies report association between approach behavior and asymmetric pattern of activation in anterior cortical regions (as measured by the inverse of EEG alpha power). Therefore, individual differences in incentive motivation may reflect asymmetries in dopaminergic systems. We examined this hypothesis by studying the relationship between self-reported degree of incentive motivation, and asymmetry of D2 receptor availability in healthy volunteers. Nineteen healthy participants were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride to assess the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in left and right striatum. Incentive motivation was assessed by the Achievement scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The Achievement score was negatively correlated with the Asymmetry Index ([R-L]/[R+L]) of D2 receptor availability (r=-.721, p=.001), suggesting that greater positive incentive motivation is associated with higher receptor availability in the left relative to the right hemisphere.

  9. 75 FR 51188 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Addition of Incentive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... of Incentive for Regulatory Flexibility for Its Environmental Stewardship Program AGENCY... (SIP) to add ] incentives for regulatory flexibility for participants in its Environmental Stewardship... criteria, these establishments receive program incentives including regulatory flexibility,...

  10. Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1981-11-01

    Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated solar utilization rate with the proper incentives. In the first example the consumer's utility function guarantees some purchases of solar energy. In the second example, the consumer's utility function allows for no solar purchases because utility is derived only from the amount of energy used and not from the source of the energy. The two examples discuss both subsidy and tax incentives, with the best control over control use coming from fossil fuel taxes dependent upon the amount of solar energy used. Future work will expand this static analysis to develop time varying incentives along a time and quantity dependent learning curve for the solar industry.

  11. Physicians' financial incentives in five dimensions: a conceptual framework for HMO managers.

    PubMed

    Magnus, S A

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual framework for HMO managers who are evaluating physicians' financial incentives proposes that the incentives vary along five dimensions: (1) the percentage of the physician's income at stake, (2) the organizational level, (3) the synergy between multiple financial incentives, (4) the synergy between financial and nonfinancial incentives, and (5) signaling effects. Managers can apply this framework to assess the intensity of physicians' financial incentives and to devise better incentives.

  12. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  13. Financial incentives to improve progression through the HIV treatment cascade

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Wilson, David; Taaffe, Jessica; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review We reviewed recent literature on conditional and unconditional financial incentives for their impact on improving movement through the HIV care cascade and HIV prevention. Recent findings Concepts from behavioral economics may help improve engagement in HIV care by addressing upstream structural risk factors for HIV, such as poverty, or by providing conditional rewards for immediate, measurable outcomes related to HIV care. Incentives have been shown to increase uptake of HIV testing. Yet, few studies to date focus on linkage to care: one large US-based randomized trial failed to show an effect of incentives; a smaller trial showed improved linkage to care among drug users, but no difference in virologic suppression. Several small US-based studies have shown an impact of financial incentives on antiretroviral therapy adherence, but without durability beyond the incentive period. HIV prevention has the most robust evidence for decreasing HIV risk-taking behavior among adolescents and may serve as a model for research on the care cascade. Summary Financial incentives show promise for improving engagement in HIV testing, care, and prevention. Understanding the durability, scalability, ease of implementation, and cost-effectiveness of these different approaches will be critical for maximizing the impact of incentives in curtailing the HIV epidemic. PMID:26371461

  14. The use of incentives to reinforce medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Objective Poor medication adherence is a longstanding problem, and is especially pertinent for individuals with chronic conditions or diseases. Adherence to medications can improve patient outcomes and greatly reduce the cost of care. The purpose of the present review is to describe the literature on the use of incentives as applied to the problem of medication adherence. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed empirical evaluations of incentives provided to patients contingent upon medication adherence. Results This review suggests that incentive-based medication adherence interventions can be very effective, but there are few controlled studies. The studies on incentive-based medication adherence interventions most commonly feature patients taking medication for drug or alcohol dependence, HIV, or latent tuberculosis. Across studies that reported percent adherence comparisons, incentives increased adherence by a mean of 20 percentage points, but effects varied widely. Cross-study comparisons indicate a positive relationship between the value of the incentive and the impact of the intervention. Post-intervention evaluations were rare, but tended to find that adherence effects diminish after the interventions are discontinued. Conclusions Incentive-based medication adherence interventions are promising but understudied. A significant challenge for research in this area is the development of sustainable and cost-effective long-term interventions. PMID:22580095

  15. A strategy for controlling the marketing of tobacco products: a regulated market model

    PubMed Central

    Borland, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To outline a novel strategy for controlling the tobacco market. Arguments: More comprehensive controls over the tobacco market are essential and long overdue. Effective controls need to encourage the development of less harmful products; control commercial communication to ensure that potential harms are highlighted relative to any benefits; and provide mechanisms to move consumers away from tobacco use, or at least towards less harmful alternatives. Achieving this by regulating the existing industry is one strategy. This paper puts the case for an alternative: to have marketing controlled by an agency (called here the Tobacco Products Agency, or TPA) which tendered to manufacturers for product and which distributed to retailers in ways that reduce incentives to bend or break the law. The TPA would be backed by legislation that made tobacco a controlled substance with possession sale and use only allowed as permitted by the regulations, which in reality would be only as provided by the TPA. Conclusions: The overall effect of such a model, which we call a "regulated market model", would be to eliminate most of the incentives and remaining opportunities for commercial promotion of tobacco and to create incentives to encourage the development of less harmful tobacco products. Such a model preserves the competition inherent in a free market, but directs it towards the challenge of reducing the harm from tobacco use. PMID:14660771

  16. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: AReview of Current Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-11-12

    Some stakeholders continue to voice concerns about the performance of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, particularly because these systems typically receive financial support through ratepayer- or publicly-funded programs. Although much remains to be understood about the extent and specific causes of poor PV system performance, several studies of the larger programs and markets have shed some light on the issue. An evaluation of the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s Emerging Renewables Program, for example, found that 7% of systems, in a sample of 95, had lower-than-expected power output due to shading or soiling (KEMA 2005). About 3% of a larger sample of 140 systems were not operating at all or were operating well below expected output, due to failed equipment, faulty installation workmanship, and/or a lack of basic maintenance. In a recent evaluation of the other statewide PV incentive program in California, the Self-Generation Incentive Program, 9 of 52 projects sampled were found to have annual capacity factors less than 14.5%, although reasons for these low capacity factors generally were not identified (Itron 2005). Studies of PV systems in Germany and Japan, the two largest PV markets worldwide, have also revealed some performance problems associated with issues such as shading, equipment and installation defects, inverter failure, and deviations from module manufacturers' specifications (Otani et al. 2004, Jahn & Nasse 2004). Although owners of PV systems have an inherent incentive to ensure that their systems perform well, many homeowners and building operators may lack the necessary information and expertise to carry out this task effectively. Given this barrier, and the responsibility of PV incentive programs to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should (and often do) play a critical role in promoting PV system performance. Performance-based incentives (PBIs), which are based on actual energy production rather than

  17. Marketing by managing relationships.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1984-10-01

    As competition increases and funding tightens, hospitals will have to realize that marketing largely is the managing of relationships--relationships between health care consumers and the provider. Prospective payment will make a hospital's fiscal viability increasingly sensitive to volume; stable profitability will depend on a steady level of patient utilization. And to ensure stable utilization, the hospital must create a base of loyal patients. Four marketing strategies can help to build this client base: 1. Create a strong care of essential services focused on the most significant customer needs. 2. Customize relationships by tailoring specific services to specific market segments' special needs. 3. Augment the basic service by offering extras and amenities. 4. Offer price incentives for people to become loyal customers. At least four types of patient loyalty exist, and a hospital should concentrate on fostering one or more types among its patients. Service loyalty occurs when a person always goes to the same provider for the same service. Provider loyalty exists when a person seeks a diversity of related services from the same provider. Family loyalty occurs when an entire family uses a particular provider. Organizational loyalty exists when an entire organization is oriented--through a contract or preferred provider arrangement, for example--toward a specific provider.

  18. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  19. A Project to Develop a Marketing Plan in Support of William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Fort Bliss, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    stressed by the Texas Hospital Association (1982), "the key to success in applying and understanding the marketing mix lies in the concept of rightness...alternatives 8. Develop the marketing mix 9. Select a strategy option Phase III (Finalization)’ 10. Design the tactics 11. Present the plan 12. Write the plan...usage incentive Marketing mix Product, price, distribution [place], marketing communication [promotion] Contingency strategies Marketing Budget (How Much

  20. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  1. Seeking innovation: incentive funding for biodefense biotechs.

    PubMed

    Nolan, John M; Samad, Emad U; Jindra, Lawrence F; Brozak, Stephen G

    2010-12-01

    In the current venture capital climate, it is easier to secure funding for late-stage, next-in-class therapeutic agents than for early-stage opportunities that have the potential to advance basic science and translational medicine. This funding paradigm is particularly problematic for the development of "dual-use" biothreat countermeasures such as antibiotics, vaccines, and antitoxins that target pathogens in novel ways and that have broad public health and biodefense applications. To address this issue, we propose the creation of the Drug Development Incentive Fund (DDIF), a novel funding mechanism that can stimulate the development of first-in-class agents that also possess the capability to guard against potential biothreats. This program would also support greater synergies between public funding and private venture investment. In a single act, this organization would secure science of national importance from disappearing, invest in projects that yield significant public health returns, advance the promises of preclinical and early phase research, revitalize biopharmaceutical investment, and create valuable innovation-economy jobs.

  2. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  3. Risk and markets for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Bendor, Todd K; Riggsbee, J Adam; Doyle, Martin

    2011-12-15

    Market-based environmental regulations (e.g., cap and trade, "payments for ecosystem services") are increasingly common. However, few detailed studies of operating ecosystem markets have lent understanding to how such policies affect incentive structures for improving environmental quality. The largest U.S. market stems from the Clean Water Act provisions requiring ecosystem restoration to offset aquatic ecosystems damaged during development. We describe and test how variations in the rules governing this ecosystem market shift risk between regulators and entrepreneurs to promote ecological restoration. We analyze extensive national scale data to assess how two critical aspects of market structure - (a) the geographic scale of markets and (b) policies dictating the release of credits - affect the willingness of entrepreneurs to enter specific markets and produce credits. We find no discernible relationship between policies attempting to ease market entry and either the number of individual producers or total credits produced. Rather, market entry is primarily related to regional geography (the prevalence of aquatic ecosystems) and regional economic growth. Any improvements to policies governing ecosystem markets require explicit evaluation of the interplay between policy and risk elements affecting both regulators and entrepreneurial credit providers. Our findings extend to emerging, regulated ecosystem markets, including proposed carbon offset mechanisms, biodiversity banking, and water quality trading programs.

  4. Parabolic trough solar power for competitive U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-07-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 190. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a results of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive US power market.

  5. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Henry W. Price

    1998-11-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.

  6. 42 CFR 495.106 - Incentive payments to CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computers and associated hardware and software, necessary to administer certified EHR technology as defined... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE... of certified EHR technology for a qualifying CAH means the reasonable acquisition costs incurred...

  7. 42 CFR 495.106 - Incentive payments to CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computers and associated hardware and software, necessary to administer certified EHR technology as defined... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE... of certified EHR technology for a qualifying CAH means the reasonable acquisition costs incurred...

  8. The Assessment of Risk in Educational Incentive Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a stochastic model and subsequent risk analysis that should enable an administrator to evaluate an incentive contract. A numerical illustration points out the types of issues that can be addressed by the model. (Author/IRT)

  9. Retaining rural doctors: doctors' preferences for rural medical workforce incentives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Scott, Anthony; McGrail, Matthew; Humphreys, John; Witt, Julia

    2014-11-01

    Many governments have implemented incentive programs to improve the retention of doctors in rural areas despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness. This study examines rural general practitioners' (GPs') preferences for different types of retention incentive policies using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). In 2009, the DCE was administered to a group of 1720 rural GPs as part of the "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study. We estimate both a mixed logit model and a generalized multinomial logit model to account for different types of unobserved differences in GPs' preferences. Our results indicate that increased level of locum relief incentive, retention payments and rural skills loading leads to an increase in the probability of attracting GPs to stay in rural practice. The locum relief incentive is ranked as the most effective, followed by the retention payments and rural skills loading payments. These findings are important in helping to tailor retention policies to those that are most effective.

  10. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compilation, management information systems, post-program followup activities, and research and evaluation... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for incentive... Corps Center may be used for the administrative costs of establishing and maintaining systems...

  11. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compilation, management information systems, post-program followup activities, and research and evaluation... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for incentive... Corps Center may be used for the administrative costs of establishing and maintaining systems...

  12. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compilation, management information systems, post-program followup activities, and research and evaluation... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for incentive... Corps Center may be used for the administrative costs of establishing and maintaining systems...

  13. 33 CFR 402.6 - Volume Rebate Incentive program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Volume Rebate Incentive program: (1) A shipper/receiver in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway System must submit to the Manager for approval, before June 30th of every season, the commodity,...

  14. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar... rewarded under a value engineering clause....

  15. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar... rewarded under a value engineering clause....

  16. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  17. A Systematic Review of Financial Incentives for Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S.; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized, controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand upon previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including RCTs, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based upon the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus and whether incentives took the form of assets or savings. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with eleven finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short-term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors even as policymakers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  18. Feedback, Goal Setting, and Incentives Effects on Organizational Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    feedback, 711, duning te feedback plus goal setting ist tiNe , a 7 Am Incentives we*e added. The positive effects lasted ever tim, aid cuntiues i f s...the mean increase was 751 over baseline. Whm incentives were added to that, the mean Increase was 76% over baseline. The positive effects lasted over...universal concern for some time. Enhancing productivity has implications for our quality of life, our economy, and our competitive position in the world

  19. 5 CFR 576.103 - Offering Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offering Voluntary Separation Incentive... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY SEPARATION INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments § 576.103 Offering Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments to employees. (a) Agencies may...

  20. 5 CFR 576.102 - Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment... SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY SEPARATION INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments § 576.102 Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment implementation plans. (a) In accordance with section...

  1. 5 CFR 576.105 - Existing Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Existing Voluntary Separation Incentive... SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY SEPARATION INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments § 576.105 Existing Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment authorities. As provided in section 1313(a)(3)...

  2. 48 CFR 16.402-4 - Structuring multiple-incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structuring multiple... multiple-incentive contracts. A properly structured multiple-incentive arrangement should— (a) Motivate the... results may not be attainable for each of the incentive areas, all multiple-incentive contracts...

  3. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods: A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results: At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions: Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to inform

  4. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background & Objectives: Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods: A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results: At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions: Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to

  5. Marketing and social change: the parallels.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, G

    1995-01-01

    Social marketing became respectable only in the late 1970s in places like Indonesia, Brazil, Egypt, Honduras, and Gambia. In practice social change and marketing are both about modifying group behavior. Social change provides opportunities for marketing, which is the process that identifies the unmet consumer need and satisfies it at a profit. Social research and production technologies are involved in market segmentation, target group selection, pricing, distribution, selling, and promotion. The crucial, people-centered and community-based characteristic of marketing is its social relevance. Marketing is a neutral methodology and social marketing is its adaptation to social imperatives. Among a set of underlying ideas related to marketing is the primacy of the consumer in all marketing decisions. Marketing clusters are a way of analyzing a situation, making a product, and pricing and distributing it. Demand is the driving force behind marketing with the components of price, performance, and decision. The benefit obtained from the product must justify the price. Advertising is commercial mass persuasion, the centerpiece of promotion; it is also needed for marketing communications. Promotional tools include special price offers, merchandizing, and dealer incentive schemes. Straightforward information rarely causes lasting behavioral changes. In a Bangladeshi community, 90% of women could have correct knowledge about oral rehydration salts, yet only 8% of them might actually use them correctly. Information that is resisted does not work, yet huge amounts of money go into producing manuals, leaflets, radio programs, and posters. The issues of distribution and competition are often neglected in social marketing programs. Other deficiencies are failure to monitor, evaluate, and innovate. To be successful, social marketing must aim at a 100% conversion of the market actors. Some successes of the social marketing approach include: a nutrition education and behavior change

  6. 41 CFR 302-14.1 - What is a “homesale program'?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a âhomesale program'? 302-14.1 Section 302-14.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 14-HOME MARKETING INCENTIVE...

  7. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  8. Realignment of incentives for health-care providers in China.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie Chi-Man; Hsiao, William; Meng, Qingyue; Chen, Wen; Sun, Xiaoming

    2010-03-27

    Inappropriate incentives as part of China's fee-for-service payment system have resulted in rapid cost increase, inefficiencies, poor quality, unaffordable health care, and an erosion of medical ethics. To reverse these outcomes, a strategy of experimentation to realign incentives for providers with the social goals of improvement in quality and efficiency has been initiated in China. This Review shows how lessons that have been learned from international experiences have been improved further in China by realignment of the incentives for providers towards prevention and primary care, and incorporation of a treatment protocol for hospital services. Although many experiments are new, preliminary evidence suggests a potential to produce savings in costs. However, because these experiments have not been scientifically assessed in China, evidence of their effects on quality and health outcome is largely missing. Although a reform of the provider's payment can be an effective short-term strategy, professional ethics need to be re-established and incentives changed to alter the profit motives of Chinese hospitals and physicians alike. When hospitals are given incentives to achieve maximum profit, incentives for hospitals and physicians must be separated.

  9. [Financial incentives in workers' health management].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2008-01-01

    In the countries of the European Union, several million workers meet with an accident every year. In the national economy, the costs of accidents at work and occupational diseases are born by different institutions in different proportions, and they are estimated at several percent of the gross domestic product of each of these countries. The issue concerning economic consequences of occupational diseases and accidents at work has been emphasized in the section on health and safety at work of the Community Strategy for 2007-2012. Bearing this in mind, the need have arose to strengthen the efficiency of legal instruments and economic stimuli to motivate actions aimed at improving work conditions. Economic stimuli and legal instruments complement each other in the process of motivating various institutions. The following kinds of economic stimuli have been distinguished: subsidies, grants and financial assistance of the state and stimuli incorporated into tax and insurance systems. Economic evaluation at the information, allocation and educational levels, being an economic tool, may support policymakers who can use this tool to asses economic efficiency of decisions made in the area of health and safety of workers as well as to asses economic consequences of the functioning of legal instruments. The aim of the project, implemented under the Seventh Framework Program by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, is to promote the system of economic stimuli understood as an incentive to undertake actions for the improvement of work conditions. Owing to this project the discussion forum, addressed to relevant and interested social partners, will be established, and experts in the field will assist in determining directions of further actions aimed at advancing motivation systems.

  10. Motivating effort: a theoretical synthesis of the self-sufficiency and two-market theories.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kai Chi; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G

    2012-12-01

    We conducted two experimental studies to examine the effect of introducing social and monetary incentives on participants' (1) effort and (2) willingness to participate in a study. We found that extra credit invoked both communal sharing (CS, social reward) and market pricing (MP, monetary reward) schemas, thus leading to higher willingness to participate and greater effort in an experiment compared to an equivalent cash reward. Consistent with the potential combinational nature of different labour markets proposed by the relational theory, our results suggest that the labour market framework of monetary versus social incentive is not mutually exhaustive of all types of incentive, and the combinational effect created by introducing both labour markets may be the best motivator.

  11. The Impact of New College Graduates on Intrastate Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial issue in the debate on state support for higher education is the extent that a state's production of college graduates affects the state's education attainment. The view that many new graduates take their state-supported degrees to labor markets in other states undermines states' incentives to promote wider access to college. This study…

  12. USES OF MARKETING TECHNIQUES THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, Michael P.

    1983-01-01

    The use of marketing techniques by government agencies to provide more efficient and effective dissemination of their information is a fairly recent development. A recessive economy, and increased scrutiny of operations have become a powerful incentive to maximize revenues and minimize expenses wherever possible as long as the primary mission of public service is satisfactorily met.

  13. Marketing Strategies for Changing Times. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilms, Wellford W., Ed.; Moore, Richard W., Ed.

    This collection of essays discusses ways in which community colleges and proprietary schools have been able to cope with changes in employer and student markets. The collection includes: (1) "Marching to the Market: A New Tune for Training Organizations," by Wellford W. Wilms; (2) "California's Employment Training Panel: Creating Incentives for…

  14. Incentive Contracting For Venture Capital Fund Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisen, Dietmar P. J.

    2009-09-01

    It is well-known in the VC literature that VCs should provide so-called value-adding activities that nurture their venture companies. This paper presents a model of the VC market that takes account of the so-called carried interest on the choice of the risk level and actions. We determine the optimal actions of the fund managers and what would be the desired actions of the fund's investors. Conflicts of interest between the parties will be documented.

  15. Market empowerment of the patient: the French experience.

    PubMed

    Batifoulier, Philippe; Domin, Jean-Paul; Gadreau, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    Through analysis of the French experience, this article explores the way economic policy has sought to encourage active, well-informed patients by giving them market power. The new status of the patient as consumer is based on two foundations: the endeavour to build a healthcare market and the activation of demand-based policies. The keystone of this new system is a conception of the market as a process constructed by economic policy. Recent measures such as the standardization of care and the introduction of incentives to respect a treatment pathway then constitute effective levers to establish a free-market rationale.

  16. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  17. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  18. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity.

  19. Incentive-Based Primary Care: Cost and Utilization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Context: In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. Objective: To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. Design: The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010–2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Main Outcome Measures: Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). Results: After controlling for patients’ age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Conclusion: Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization. PMID:26263389

  20. Incentive Mechanisms for Mobile Music Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furini, Marco; Montangero, Manuela

    The mobile digital world is seen as an important business opportunity for two main reasons: the widespread usage of cellphones (more than two billions [30], most of them with sound features) and the pervasiveness of mobile technologies. As a result, music industry and telecoms are bringing the successful Internet-based music market strategy into the mobile scenario: record labels are setting up agreements with cellphone network providers (Sprint, Verizon, Vodafone, Orange just to name a few) to offer a download music service also in the mobile scenario. The strategy is to use wireless channels to distribute music contents in the attempt of replicating the success of the Internet-based download scenario.

  1. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  2. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.

  3. Incentive motivation is associated with striatal dopamine asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wong, Christopher; Volkow, Nora D

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in modulating incentive motivation, expressed behaviorally as approach behavior. EEG studies report association between approach behavior and asymmetric pattern of activation in anterior cortical regions (as measured by the inverse of EEG alpha power). Therefore, individual differences in incentive motivation may reflect asymmetries in dopaminergic systems. We examined this hypothesis by studying the relationship between self-reported degree of incentive motivation, and asymmetry of D2 receptor availability in healthy volunteers. Nineteen healthy participants were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride to assess the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in left and right striatum. Incentive motivation was assessed by the Achievement scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The Achievement score was negatively correlated with the Asymmetry Index ([R−L]/[R+L]) of D2 receptor availability (r = −.721, p =.001), suggesting that greater positive incentive motivation is associated with higher receptor availability in the left relative to the right hemisphere. PMID:17868972

  4. Motivating employees through incentives: productive or a counterproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Qayum, Mehran; Sawal, Shefa Haider; Khan, Hassan Mehmood

    2014-05-01

    The disparity between human resource in health and provision of health services is a growing concern worldwide. Many developing countries are facing this crisis and therefore human resource in health is considered a high priority on their agenda.This imbalance between supplies of human resource is exacerbated by migration of health workers in many countries. Understanding the motivational factor is an important aspect to retain the migrating health workforce. This paper analyses the role of financial and non financial incentives in motivating the health work force. A review of available literature was conducted to understand the role of motivational factor in retaining health workforce. A review of current literature found that an incentive plays a key role in motivating a health worker. Financial incentives are useful in improving the compliance to standard policies and procedures. Comprehensive integrated incentive system approach should be established to develop a sustainable health workforce with required skill. Likewise monetary incentives should be linked to adherence to provincial and national guidelines and procedures. Sustainability could be ensured by commitment of government, political will and involvement of key stakeholders and decision makers.

  5. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Ing, E.T.C.

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  6. Financial Recruitment Incentive Programs for Nursing Personnel in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana

    2015-03-01

    Financial incentives are increasingly offered to recruit nursing personnel to work in underserved communities. The authors describe and compare the characteristics of federal, provincial and territorial financial recruitment incentive programs for registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), registered practical nurses or registered psychiatric nurses. The authors identified incentive programs from government, health ministry and student aid websites and by contacting program officials. Only government-funded recruitment programs providing funding beyond the normal employee wages and benefits and requiring a service commitment were included. The authors excluded programs offered by hospitals, regional or private firms, and programs that rewarded retention. All provinces and territories except QC and NB offer financial recruitment incentive programs for RNs; six provinces (BC, AB, SK, ON, QC and NL) offer programs for NPs, and NL offers a program for LPNs. Programs include student loan forgiveness, tuition forgiveness, education bursaries, signing bonuses and relocation expenses. Programs target trainees, recent graduates and new hires. Funding and service requirements vary by program, and service requirements are not always commensurate with funding levels. This snapshot of government-funded recruitment incentives provides program managers with data to compare and improve nursing workforce recruitment initiatives.

  7. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  8. Improving medicaid health incentives programs: lessons from substance abuse treatment research.

    PubMed

    Hand, Dennis J; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-06-01

    This commentary addresses the efforts of Medicaid programs in several US states to employ financial incentives to increase healthy behavior among their beneficiaries. While these Medicaid incentive programs have been successful at boosting rates of less effortful behaviors, like semiannual dental visits, they have fallen short in promoting more complex behaviors, like smoking cessation, drug abstinence, and weight management. Incentives have been extensively studied as a treatment for substance use disorders for over 20years, with good success. We identify two variables shown by meta-analysis to moderate the efficacy of incentive interventions in substance abuse treatment, the immediacy of incentive delivery and size (or magnitude) of the incentive, that are lacking in current Medicaid incentive program. We also offer some guidance on how these moderating variables could be addressed within Medicaid programs. This is a critical time for such analysis, as more than 10 states are employing incentives in their Medicaid programs, and some are currently reevaluating their incentive strategies.

  9. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  10. A Study on the Self-Adaption Incentive Performance Salary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanming; Wang, Yang

    In project managing, the performance salary management mode is often used to motivate project managers and other similar staff to improve performance or reduce the cost. But the engineering activities who own a lot of internal and external uncertain factors can not be known by the principle. It is difficult for to develop a suitable incentive target to project managers etch. This paper thinks that the manager self master the maximum of information on engineering activities. So this paper sets up an incentive model: the project managers themselves report performance objectives; owner gives the managers reward or punishment combined with their reported performance and actual performance. The model to ensure that the project manager is only accurate self reported its results to get the maximum profit. At the same time, it cans incentive managers to improve performance or reduce the cost. This paper focuses on setting up the model, analyzing the model parameters. And cite an example analyze them.

  11. Segmentation of hospital markets: where do HMO enrollees get care?

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Shea, J A; Chen, W

    1997-01-01

    Commercially insured and Medicare patients who are not in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) tend to use different hospitals than HMO patients use. This phenomenon, called market segmentation, raises important questions about how hospitals that treat many HMO patients differ from those that treat few HMO patients, especially with regard to quality of care. This study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery found no evidence that HMOs in southeast Florida systematically channel their patients to high-volume or low-mortality hospitals. These findings are consistent with other evidence that in many areas of the country, incentives for managed care plans to reduce costs may outweigh incentives to improve quality.

  12. A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1995-10-01

    In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

  13. Four proposals for market-based health care system reform.

    PubMed

    Sumner, W

    1994-08-01

    A perfectly free, competitive medical market would not meet many social goals, such as universal access to health care. Micromanagement of interactions between patients and providers does not guarantee quality care and frequently undermines that relationship, to the frustration of all involved. Furthermore, while some North American health care plans are less expensive than others, none have reduced the medical inflation rate to equal the general inflation rate. Markets have always fixed uneven inflation rates in other domains. The suggested reforms could make elective interactions between patients and providers work more like a free market than did any preceding system. The health and life insurance plan creates cost-sensitive consumers, informed by a corporation with significant research incentives and abilities. The FFEB proposal encourages context-sensitive pricing, established by negotiation processes that weigh labor and benefit. Publication of providers' expected outcomes further enriches the information available to consumers and may reduce defensive medicine incentives. A medical career ladder would ease entry and exit from medical professions. These and complementary reforms do not specifically cap spending yet could have a deflationary impact on elective health care prices, while providing incentives to maintain quality. They accomplish these ends by giving more responsibility, information, incentives, and choice to citizens. We could provide most health care in a marketlike environment. We can incorporate these reforms in any convenient order and allow them to compete with alternative schemes. Our next challenge is to design, implement, and evaluate marketlike health care systems.

  14. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    alternative incentive approaches on utility shareholders and customers if energy efficiency is implemented under various utility operating, cost, and supply conditions.We used and adapted a spreadsheet-based financial model (the Benefits Calculator) which was developed originally as a tool to support the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE). The major steps in our analysis are displayed graphically in Figure ES- 1. Two main inputs are required: (1) characterization of the utility which includes its initial financial and physical market position, a forecast of the utility?s future sales, peak demand, and resource strategy to meet projected growth; and (2) characterization of the Demand-Side Resource (DSR) portfolio ? projected electricity and demand savings, costs and economic lifetime of a portfolio of energy efficiency (and/or demand response) programs that the utility is planning or considering implementing during the analysis period. The Benefits Calculator also estimates total resource costs and benefits of the DSR portfolio using a forecast of avoided capacity and energy costs. The Benefits Calculator then uses inputs provided in the Utility Characterization to produce a ?business-as usual? base case as well as alternative scenarios that include energy efficiency resources, including the corresponding utility financial budgets required in each case. If a decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism are instituted, the Benefits Calculator model readjusts the utility?s revenue requirement and retail rates accordingly. Finally, for each scenario, the Benefits Calculator produces several metrics that provides insights on how energy efficiency resources, decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism impacts utility shareholders (e.g. overall earnings, return on equity), ratepayers (e.g., average customer bills and rates) and society (e.g. net resource benefits).

  15. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  16. Incentives, reproductive behavior, and integrated community development in Asia.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1982-05-01

    Surveying experience with incentives, disincentives, and integrated community development approaches in selected Asian countries, this overview defines concepts, notes policy trends, and discusses ethical and legal constraints, psychosocial and socioeconomic aspects, and cultural-environmental influences on reproductive behavior. Major emphasis is on experience reported from China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Findings to date suggest that, to be successful, programs using incentives, disincentives, and integrated community development approaches will have to be formulated as consistent, clearly defined, and well-communicated policies, responsive to development needs and sensitive to local autonomy and values, with dynamic leadership to obtain and nurture continued policy backing.

  17. The disproportionate burden of HIV and STIs among male sex workers in Mexico City and the rationale for economic incentives to reduce risks

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Badial-Hernández, Florentino; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this article is to present the rationale and baseline results for a randomized controlled pilot trial using economic incentives to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among male sex workers (MSWs) in Mexico City. Methods Participants (n=267) were tested and treated for STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV) and viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C), received HIV and STI prevention education and were randomized into four groups: (1) control, (2) medium conditional incentive ($50/six months), (3) high conditional incentive ($75/six months) and (4) unconditional incentive ($50/six months). In the conditional arms, incentives were contingent upon testing free of new curable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) at follow-up assessments. Results Participants’ mean age was 25 years; 8% were homeless or lived in a shelter, 16% were unemployed and 21% lived in Mexico City less than 5 years. At baseline, 38% were living with HIV, and 32% tested positive for viral hepatitis or at least one STI (other than HIV). Participants had a mean of five male clients in the previous week; 18% reported condomless sex with their last client. For 37%, sex work was their main occupation and was conducted mainly on the streets (51%) or in bars/discotheques (24%) and hotels (24%). The average price for a sex transaction was $25 with a 35% higher payment for condomless sex. Conclusions The findings suggest that economic incentives are a relevant approach for HIV prevention among MSWs, given the market-based inducements for unprotected sex. This type of targeted intervention seems to be justified and should continue to be explored in the context of combination prevention efforts. PMID:25399543

  18. The new nordic diet – consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic Diet (NND) has been developed as a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet based on products from the Nordic region. The objective of the study is to investigate economic consequences for the consumers of the NND, compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD). Methods Combine quantity data from a randomized controlled ad libitum dietary 6 month intervention for central obese adults (18–65 years) and market retail price data of the products consumed in the intervention. Adjust consumed quantities to market price incentives using econometrically estimated price elasticities. Results Average daily food expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when adjusting for energy content of the diet). Adjusting for price incentives in a real market setting, the estimated cost of the Average Danish Diet is reduced by 2.50 DKK (ADD-m), compared to the unadjusted ADD-i diet, whereas the adjusted cost of the New Nordic Diet (NND-m) is reduced by about 3.50 DKK, compared to the unadjusted NND-i. The distribution of food cost is however much more heterogeneous among consumers within the NND than within the ADD. Conclusion On average, the New Nordic Diet is 24–25 per cent more expensive than an Average Danish Diet at the current market prices in Denmark (and 16–17 per cent, when adjusting for energy content). The relatively large heterogeneity in food costs in the NND suggests that it is possible to compose an NND where the cost

  19. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.

    2012-09-01

    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.

  20. The UK pharmaceutical market. An overview.

    PubMed

    Towse, A

    1996-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) accounts for more than 98% of the UK prescription medicines market, which is the sixth largest pharmaceutical market in the world. Most of this market is driven by the UK's approximately 35,000 general practitioners (GPs). It is an open market, with most leading foreign pharmaceutical companies having a strong presence. While the growth rate of this market has been decelerating, it remains one of the fastest growing components of NHS expenditure. The NHS does not operate any kind of national reimbursement list, but the UK government has adopted several means to keep medicines expenditure under control. These include cash incentives and constraints for GPs relating to expenditure on medicines, individual quarterly updates on GP prescribing, the publication of a list of medicines that cannot be prescribed by GPs, the switching of some prescription-only medicines to over-the-counter medicines, and a co-payment system. The main form of economic regulation in the UK, however, remains the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS). This limits the rate-of-return on capital attributable to medicines sales to the NHS, with the intended rate-of-return being equal to that of UK industry overall. The pharmaceutical industry has generally performed relatively well in the UK market, managing to preserve incentives to innovation. This reflects the fact that UK GPs have been able to maintain their clinical freedom, as well as government recognition of the economic contribution made by the pharmaceutical industry. Current issues of interest in the UK pharmaceutical market context include the future of the PPRS, the debates over the imposition of a national formulary and generic substitution, and over parallel trade, the potential impact of managed-care protocols and computer-based prescribing on pharmaceutical expenditures, and possible political changes.

  1. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902.71 Section 902.71 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  2. Promoting Population Stabilization: Incentives for Small Families. Worldwatch Paper 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith

    A wide variety of incentive and disincentive programs are presented in an effort to stabilize the population and prevent bankruptcy of physical, economic, and social resources, particularly in countries like India and China. Following an introduction, the document discusses several programs, including (1) the use of small one-time payments for…

  3. Economic incentives to promote innovation in healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Luft, Harold S

    2009-10-01

    Economics influences how medical care is delivered, organized, and progresses. Fee-for-service payment encourages delivery of services. Fee-for-individual-service, however, offers no incentives for clinicians to efficiently organize the care their patients need. Global capitation provides such incentives; it works well in highly integrated practices but not for independent practitioners. The failures of utilization management in the 1990s demonstrated the need for a third alternative to better align incentives, such as bundling payment for an episode of care. Building on Medicare's approach to hospital payment, one can define expanded diagnosis-related groups that include all hospital, physician, and other costs during the stay and appropriate preadmission and postdischarge periods. Physicians and hospitals voluntarily forming a new entity (a care delivery team) would receive such bundled payments along with complete flexibility in allocating the funds. Modifications to gainsharing and antikickback rules, as well as reforms to malpractice liability laws, will facilitate the functioning of the care delivery teams. The implicit financial incentives encourage efficient care for the patient; the episode focus will facilitate measuring patient outcomes. Payment can be based on the resources used by those care delivery teams achieving superior outcomes, thereby fostering innovation improving outcomes and reducing waste.

  4. Teacher Incentives: Goals, Strategies, Assumptions and Their Feasibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia C.

    This presentation discusses strategies upon which to base teacher incentives, and also assumptions within these strategies. The first strategy, influencing teacher turnover rates so that good teachers remain in the profession longer and poor teachers leave teaching sooner, includes consideration of occupational rewards, career structure, benefits,…

  5. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  6. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  7. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  8. 42 CFR 413.177 - Quality incentive program payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.177 Quality incentive program payment. (a) With respect to renal dialysis services as defined under § 413.171 of this part, in the...

  9. 47 CFR 1.2209 - Disbursement of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disbursement of incentive payments. 1.2209 Section 1.2209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Competitive Bidding Proceedings Broadcast Television Spectrum Reverse Auction §...

  10. The Effects of Incentives in Acquisition Competition on Program Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Symposium, September 2012 Keywords: system dynamics, systems thinking , modeling, incentives, defense acquisition, competition The Effects of...acquisition. Systems Thinking One technique that is useful for analyzing complex systems with these characteristics is systems thinking , a method...rooted in the system dynamics work pioneered by Dr. Jay W. Forrester at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Forrester, 1971). Systems thinking views

  11. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  12. Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: A behavioural study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Graham K; Clark, Luke; Corlett, Philip R; Blackwell, Andrew D; Cools, Roshan; Jones, Peter B; Robbins, Trevor W; Poustka, Luise

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that there are abnormalities in incentive motivational processing in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities, but few empirical studies have addressed this issue. Methods: We studied incentive motivation in 18 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service CAMEO and 19 control participants using the Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time Task, which measures motivationally driven behaviour. We also gathered information on participants' attentional, executive and spatial working memory function in order to determine whether any incentive motivation deficits were secondary to generalised cognitive impairment. Results: We demonstrated the anticipated "reinforcement-related speeding" effect in controls (17 out of 19 control participants responded faster during an "odd-one-out" task in response to a cue that indicated a high likelihood of a large points reward). Only 4 out of 18 patients showed this effect and there was a significant interaction effect between reinforcement probability and diagnosis on reaction time (F1,35 = 14.2, p = 0.001). This deficit was present in spite of preserved executive and attentional function in patients, and persisted even in antipsychotic medication free patients. Conclusion: There are incentive motivation processing abnormalities in first-episode psychosis; these may be secondary to dopamine dysfunction and are not attributable to generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:18466609

  13. 48 CFR 1552.216-78 - Award term incentive plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Award term incentive plan. 1552.216-78 Section 1552.216-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contract through a unilateral modification citing this clause. The Government will consult with...

  14. 48 CFR 1552.216-78 - Award term incentive plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Award term incentive plan. 1552.216-78 Section 1552.216-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contract through a unilateral modification citing this clause. The Government will consult with...

  15. 48 CFR 1552.216-78 - Award term incentive plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Award term incentive plan. 1552.216-78 Section 1552.216-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contract through a unilateral modification citing this clause. The Government will consult with...

  16. 48 CFR 1552.216-78 - Award term incentive plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Award term incentive plan. 1552.216-78 Section 1552.216-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... contract through a unilateral modification citing this clause. The Government will consult with...

  17. Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawer, Giselle; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models," (ED495138) and is an added resource for further information. This support document is divided into the following sections: (1) The Retail Industry--A Snapshot; (2) Case Studies--Hardware, Retail…

  18. Using Financial Incentives to Motivate Staff: A Program that Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, A. Brian; Lestina, Ray

    1986-01-01

    Explains Triton College's incentive/bonus system used to promote the involvement and retention of Employee Development Institute staff. The six-step system involves determining departmental profit, establishing minimum profit figures and bonus base, calculating the bonus pool, determining individual bonus shares, adding special programing bonuses,…

  19. 42 CFR 495.106 - Incentive payments to CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to CAHs. 495.106 Section 495.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  20. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to EPs. 495.102 Section 495.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  1. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid provider incentive payments. 495.310 Section 495.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD...

  2. 42 CFR 495.104 - Incentive payments to eligible hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to eligible hospitals. 495.104 Section 495.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD...

  3. The Work Incentive Program: Making Adults Economically Independent. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausner, Samuel Z.; And Others

    In an examination of the role of the Work Incentive (WIN) Program, particularly its training activities, in adult resocialization, data were gathered by questionnaires administered, one year apart, to a panel of husbandless mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and a panel of husbandless mothers who had participated in a…

  4. 48 CFR 1516.401-70 - Award term incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptance of contract deliverables. (c) The Award Term Incentive Plan sets forth the evaluation process, including the evaluation criteria and performance measures, and serves as the basis for award term decisions... prescribed performance measures, i.e., acceptable quality levels (AQL) which must be achieved by a...

  5. 38 CFR 21.256 - Incentives for employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.256 Incentives for employers. (a) General. VA may make payments to employers to enable a veteran who has been rehabilitated to employability to begin and maintain...

  6. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  7. Hospital responses to pay-for-performance incentives.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Kristin L; Nahra, Tammie A; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wheeler, John R C

    2006-05-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are complex organizations and, therefore, may face unique challenges in responding to financial incentives for quality. In this research, we explore the types of behavioural changes made by not-for-profit Michigan hospitals in response to a pay-for-performance system for quality. We also identify factors that motivate or facilitate changes in effort. We apply a conceptual framework based on agency theory to motivate our research questions. Using data derived from structured interviews and surveys administered to 86 hospitals participating in a pay-for-performance system, we compare hospitals reporting and not reporting behavioural changes. Separate analyses are performed for hospitals reporting structure-related changes and hospitals reporting process-related changes. Our findings confirm that hospitals respond to incentive payments; however, our findings also reveal that hospital responses are not universal. Rather, involvement by boards of trustees, willingness to exert leverage with physicians, and financial and competitive motivations are all associated with hospitals' behavioural responses to incentives. Results of this research will help inform payers and hospital managers considering the use of incentives about the nature of hospitals' responses.

  8. 75 FR 17861 - 2010 Standard Mail Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... 111 2010 Standard Mail Incentive Program AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is revising Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual... of Standard Mail letters and flats with mail volume exceeding their individual USPS...

  9. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  10. Incentives, Challenges, and Dilemmas of TANF: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares the incentives inherent in TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), the U.S. welfare system in place after the 1996 reforms, with those of TANF's predecessor, AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), using the experience in one state, Wisconsin, as an example. Is the new program successful in avoiding the "poverty…

  11. Incentives and Accountability: Instruments of Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the closing address delivered by Sir John Daniel of UNESCO at the Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) General Conference on "Incentives and Accountabilty: Instruments of Change in Higher Education," which was held at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris on…

  12. Teacher Incentive Fund: First Implementation Report, 2006 and 2007 Grantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Daniel C.; Gallagher, H. Alix; Yee, Kaily M.; Goss, G. Kyle; Campbell, Ashley Z.; Cassidy, Lauren J.; Mitchell, Nyema M.

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) supports projects that are designed to reform teacher and principal compensation. Initially, the Department of Education (the Department) made two rounds of awards, in 2006 and 2007, to a total of 34 grantees. The specific goals of TIF were to reward teachers and principals for improving student achievement,…

  13. 48 CFR 1552.216-77 - Award term incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Award term incentive. 1552.216-77 Section 1552.216-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  14. Characteristics of Teacher Incentive Pay Programs: A Statewide District Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Guodong; Akiba, Motoko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs used by midsize to large school districts in Missouri. Design/methodology/approach: This study primarily used the Teacher Compensation Programs (TCP) survey data. The TCP survey was developed by the authors to understand the nature and…

  15. Incentive-Elicited Mesolimbic Activation and Externalizing Symptomatology in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, James M.; Chen, Gang; Smith, Ashley R.; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Opponent-process theories of externalizing disorders (ExD) attribute them to some combination of overactive reward processing systems and/or underactive behavior inhibition systems. Reward processing has been indexed by recruitment of incentive-motivational neurocircuitry of the ventral striatum (VS), including nucleus accumbens…

  16. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to other incentives. 48.105 Section 48.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other...

  17. 10 CFR 452.6 - Incentive award terms and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION PRODUCTION INCENTIVES FOR CELLULOSIC BIOFUELS § 452.6... funds and the limitations in paragraph (c) of this section, an eligible cellulosic biofuels producer... years of operation of its eligible cellulosic biofuels production facility. (b) Failure to...

  18. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  19. Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "pay for performance" for public school teachers is once again growing in popularity and use. U.S. education is now at a critical juncture that requires thoughtful and informed consideration of this policy innovation. "Performance Incentives" offers the most up-to-date and complete analysis yet of the…

  20. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education…

  1. Incentives in Education Project, Impact Evaluation Report. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planar Corp., Washington, DC.

    This report describes results of a demonstration project carried out in four cities during 1971-72. The project aimed at exploring the feasibility and impact of two different forms of money incentives payments. In one form -- the "Teacher-Only" model -- the teachers in a school were offered a series of bonuses ranging from $150 to $600 per class…

  2. Career Education Incentive Act. Public Law 95-207.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Career Education Incentive Act (Public Law 95-207) authorizes a career education program for elementary and secondary schools, and for other purposes. It assists states and local education agencies and institutions of postsecondary education in making education as preparation for work both a major goal of all who teach and all who learn and a…

  3. The Impacts of Seed Grants as Incentives for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiches, James J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an assessment of North Carolina State University's Extension, Engagement, and Economic Development Seed Grant Program (2004-2009). The research questions addressed the extent to which the grants (1) stimulated faculty interest in the engagement and outreach mission of the university; (2) served as incentives for faculty…

  4. Proposed Legislation for Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauries, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the recommendations and findings in Dr. Barnett Berry's policy brief, the proposed set of legislative enactments presented in this paper offers both monetary incentives and positive working conditions requirements likely to further three goals: (a) cause more effective teachers to choose to work in high-need schools and fields, (b)…

  5. Monetary Incentives and Organizational Change in Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Carlos Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores and explains the organizational responses of Mexican public state universities to an ambitious incentive-based policy created by the federal government in 2001: "The Integral Program for Institutional Strengthening" ("PIFI"). Drawing upon literature on organizational-environmental relationships and on…

  6. Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawer, Giselle; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This report presents issues associated with incentives for training existing workers in small to medium-sized firms, identified through a small sample of case studies from the retail, manufacturing, and building and construction industries. While the majority of employers recognise workforce skill levels are fundamental to the success of the…

  7. Peripheral Pain Enhances the Effects of Incentive Downshifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Daniel, Alan M.; Davis, Jessica B.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2011-01-01

    Physical pain (induced by tissue damage) and psychological pain (induced by surprising incentive loss) share a set of common neural substrates, but little is known about their interactions. The present research studied such interactions using the formalin test to induce physical pain and consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) to induce…

  8. Perceptions of Educational Leaders of Incentive Pay Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Kena Lashel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the perceptions of educational leaders of incentive pay programs, including Missouri's Career Ladder Program were examined. A mixed-methods design provided a process by which student achievement, professional development, and the retention of high quality and effective teachers were viewed through the lens of Marzano's (2003)…

  9. 42 CFR 417.479 - Requirements for physician incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for physician incentive plans. 417.479 Section 417.479 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS...

  10. Increasing Educator Effectiveness: Lessons Learned from Teacher Incentive Fund Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Created by the U.S. Congress in 2006, the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) represents the first federal initiative targeted directly at state and district efforts to introduce performance measures into educator compensation. TIF responds to a growing body of evidence that existing pay structures do not respond to labor force realities or adequately…

  11. Giving University Students Incentives to Do Homework Improves Their Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Phanikiran; Lam, Dianne; Ho, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Past research has focused on either the positive influence of incentives on homework completion (Cullen, Cullen, Hayhow, & Plouffe, 1975) or the positive influence of homework completion on academic performance (Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006). Our study is one of the first to integrate these two streams of research to examine whether higher…

  12. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  13. School Incentive Programs and Children's Activities: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Amin, Sajeda

    2004-01-01

    To examine the impact of school incentive programs on children's time allocation, this article reports the authors' investigation of time-use data collected in two Bangladeshi villages in 1992, 1995, and 1996; in-depth interviews conducted in 1995; responses to two village censuses collected in 1992 and 1995; and data from an education survey…

  14. 48 CFR 819.7105 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incentives for prime contractor participation. 819.7105 Section 819.7105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Annual Conference. At the conclusion of each year in the Mentor-Protégé Program, mentor firms will...

  15. Reverse caps in Medicare encourage primary care, better align incentives.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    If your medical group is seeing specialty costs spiral out of control in Medicare, a reverse capitation arrangement may help. Paying primary care providers fee-for-service--and specialty providers capitation--may better align your group's incentives and promote better use of low-cost primary care services for seniors. See if the methodology is right for you.

  16. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... performance after delivery and acceptance, are separate from other incentives, such as cost or delivery... performance level. Discrete units of measurement based on the same performance parameter shall be identified... negative, and its associated unit of measurement should reflect the value to the Government of that...

  17. Incentives a Priority for New Secretary of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. Duncan's comments came in an interview in which he named as priorities reauthorization of the federal No…

  18. 48 CFR 1552.216-77 - Award term incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 120 days after an evaluation period. (f) Review process. The contractor may request a review of an... overall award term evaluation and award term decision. The Contracting Officer will unilaterally decide...., acceptable quality levels, set forth in the clause “Award Term Incentive Plan,” the Contracting Officer...

  19. 48 CFR 1516.401-70 - Award term incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptance of contract deliverables. (c) The Award Term Incentive Plan sets forth the evaluation process, including the evaluation criteria and performance measures, and serves as the basis for award term decisions... prescribed performance measures, i.e., acceptable quality levels (AQL) which must be achieved by a...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.216-77 - Award term incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than 120 days after an evaluation period. (f) Review process. The contractor may request a review of an... overall award term evaluation and award term decision. The Contracting Officer will unilaterally decide...., acceptable quality levels, set forth in the clause “Award Term Incentive Plan,” the Contracting Officer...

  1. Can Financial Incentives Enhance Educational Outcomes? Evidence from International Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in financial incentives to encourage students to attend school and to improve their academic achievement, graduation rates, and other outcomes. Conditional cash transfer programs in developing countries, especially PROGRESA in Mexico, have found positive effects on attendance in large-scale…

  2. Can Financial Incentives Enhance Educational Outcomes? Evidence from International Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in financial incentives to encourage students to attend school and to improve their academic achievement, graduation rates, and other outcomes. Conditional cash transfers programmes in developing countries, especially PROGRESA in Mexico, have found positive effects on attendance in large-scale…

  3. 48 CFR 1552.216-78 - Award term incentive plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Award term incentive plan. 1552.216-78 Section 1552.216-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... National Institutes of Health (NIH) Contractor Performance System (CPS) for this contract. The NIHCPS is...

  4. Using a Mnemonic to Develop Effective Incentive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbringer, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    Special educators frequently provide consultation for parents and general education teachers who are struggling to manage student behavior. One intervention often discussed is the use of rewards to increase student motivation. While research has shown that well-designed incentive systems can provide an effective intervention, poorly designed…

  5. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... relationship of total final negotiated cost to total target cost. The final price is subject to a price ceiling, negotiated at the outset. The two forms of fixed-price incentive contracts, firm target and successive... becomes apparent that final negotiated cost will be substantially different from the target cost....

  6. 48 CFR 1852.216-83 - Fixed price incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Price Incentive (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The Target profit of this contract is $___. The target price (target cost plus target profit) of this contract is $___. The cost sharing for target cost underruns is: Government ___percent; Contractor ___percent. The cost sharing...

  7. Clark's Triangle and Fiscal Incentives: Implications for Colleges'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    For nearly 35 year's Burton Clark's triangle has been used as a paradigm for describing, assessing, and comparing systems of postsecondary education (Clark, 1998, 2004). Two major developments in the fiscal management of post-secondary education occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of the state and…

  8. 42 CFR 414.92 - Electronic Prescribing Incentive Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... consolidated payment to the TIN holder of record. (ii) Applicable electronic prescribing percent. The... paragraph (c)(3) of this section), an individual eligible professional, as identified by a unique TIN/NPI... professional will receive only one electronic prescribing incentive payment per TIN/NPI combination for...

  9. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An inmate...) Consideration for the maximum period of time in a community-based treatment program, if the inmate is...

  10. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An inmate...) Consideration for the maximum period of time in a community-based treatment program, if the inmate is...

  11. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An inmate...) Consideration for the maximum period of time in a community-based treatment program, if the inmate is...

  12. The Impact of Incentives on Exercise Behavior: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Galarraga, Omar; Williams, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of reinforcing exercise behavior with material incentives is unclear. Purpose Conduct a systematic review of existing research on material incentives for exercise, organized by incentive strategy. Methods Ten studies conducted between January 1965 and June 2013 assessed the impact of incentivizing exercise compared to a non-incentivized control. Results There was significant heterogeneity between studies regarding reinforcement procedures and outcomes. Incentives tended to improve behavior during the intervention while findings were mixed regarding sustained behavior after incentives were removed. Conclusions The most effective incentive procedure is unclear given the limitations of existing research. The effectiveness of various incentive procedures in promoting initial behavior change and habit formation, as well as the use of sustainable incentive procedures should be explored in future research. PMID:24307474

  13. 75 FR 81885 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program'' that appeared in the July 28, 2010 Federal Register. DATES... 44314) the final rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record...

  14. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy production: an executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B. W.; Brenchley, D. L.; Brix, V. L.; Brown, M. L.; Cochran, K. E.; Cohn, P. D.; Cole, R. J.; Curry, M. G.; Davidson, R.; Easterling, J.; Emery, J. C.; Fassbender, A. G.; Fattorini, Jr. J S; Gordon, B.; Harty, H.; Mazzucchi, R.; Maurizi, A. R.; McClain, C.; Moore, D. D.; Sheppard, E. J.; Maxwell, J. H.; Solomon, S.; Sommers, P.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze past and present federal incentives to production of various energy sources and thereby assist the Division of Conservation and Solar Applications, Department of Energy, in the study and recommendation of federal incentives for the development of solar energy. The research was divided into five parts: a survey of current thought about incentives for solar energy production; the theoretical approach to analyzing and characterizing incentives; a generic view of the energy incentive creating landscape for 1978; analysis of the major energy sources (nuclear, hydro, coal, electricity, oil, and gas) along their trajectories from exploration to waste management, including their costs in 1978 dollars; and insights into potential incentives for solar policy. Economic, political, organizational, and legal viewpoints were considered in formulating the typology of incentives. Eight types of incentives were identified.

  15. Effectiveness of Using Incentives to Improve Parolee Admission and Attendance in Community Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Grossman, Jason; Veliz, Robert; Gregorio, Liliana; Warda, Umme S.; Van Unen, Kory; Knight, Chloe

    2017-01-01

    This study is a randomized effectiveness trial of the use of incentives to improve treatment utilization among parolees in community treatment. In prison, Admission phase parolees were randomized to Admission Incentive (N=31) or Education (N=29). Attendance phase parolees entering community treatment were randomized to Attendance Incentive (N=104) or Education (N=98). There was no main effect for incentives in either study phase. Neither admission to community treatment (Incentive 60%, Education 64%; p =.74), nor intervention completion (Incentive 22%; Education 27%; p =.46) appeared to be impacted. Time-in-treatment was predicted by age, first arrest age, and type of parole status (Cox regression p<.05), but not by treatment group. Providing incentives did not increase the likelihood that parolees enrolled in or stayed in community treatment. In light of this finding, criminal justice practitioners who are considering incentives to increase admission or retention should be aware that they may not produce the desired outcomes.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of financial incentives for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, Kevin G.; John, Leslie K; Troxel, Andrea B; Norton, Laurie; Fassbender, Jennifer; Loewenstein, George

    2012-01-01

    Context Identifying effective strategies for treating obesity is both a clinical challenge and a public health priority due to the health consequences of obesity. Objective To determine whether common decision errors identified by behavioral economists such as prospect theory, loss aversion, and regret could be used to design an effective weight loss intervention. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial in which participants were randomized to either usual care (weigh ins once a month) or one of two financial incentives arms. One incentive arm used deposit contracts in which participants put their own money at risk (matched 1:1 by the study) which they would lose if they failed to lose weight. The second used lottery-based incentives in which participants who met the weight loss target had each day a 1 in 5 chance of winning a small reward ($10) and a 1 in 100 chance of winning a large reward ($100). All participants were given a weight loss goal of 1 pound per week for 16 weeks, and results were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis of variance models. Setting Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Patients 57 patients with BMIs between 30-40 aged between 30 and 70, with no contraindications for study participation. Main Outcome Measures Weight loss after 16 weeks. Results Participants in both incentive groups lost significantly more weight than participants in the control group (3.9 pounds); (Lottery = 13.1 lbs; p-value for lottery vs. control .014; deposit contract = 14.0 lbs, p-value vs. control .003). 47.4% of deposit contract participants and 52.6% of lottery arm participants met the 16-pound weight loss goal compared to 10.5% in the control group (p-value 0.014.). By the end of 7 months, substantial amounts of weight were regained; however, incentive participants weighed significantly less than they did at the study start whereas controls did not. Low lost to follow-up rates (7.0%) during the weight loss phase of the study suggest that both

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Gross, Thomas; Lin, Zhenhong; Sullivan, John; Cleary, Timothy; Ward, Jake

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  18. Military Recruiting: Army National Guard Needs to Continue Monitoring, Collect Better Data, and Assess Incentives Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3...enlistment financial incentives programs. For this work, GAO reviewed DOD and ARNG recruiting policy and procedures and interviewed cognizant officials...understanding of available financial incentives. Financial incentives are a tool available to recruiters and agency policy states that incentives are available

  19. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Methods Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Results Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. Conclusions At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China’s health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation. PMID:23721212

  20. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  1. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  2. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  3. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  4. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  5. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  6. 48 CFR 216.405-1 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... Contracts 216.405-1 Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. See PGI 216.405-1 for guidance on the use of cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts....

  7. Effects of Strategy Training and Incentives on Students' Performance, Confidence, and Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of strategy instruction and incentives on performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy. Individuals (N = 107) in randomly assigned treatment groups received a multicomponent strategy instruction intervention, financial incentives for high performance, or both. The authors predicted that incentives would improve…

  8. 26 CFR 1.422-1 - Incentive stock options; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive stock options; general rules. 1.422-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-1 Incentive stock options... share of stock to an individual pursuant to the individual's exercise of an incentive stock option...

  9. 26 CFR 1.422-1 - Incentive stock options; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Incentive stock options; general rules. 1.422-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-1 Incentive stock options... share of stock to an individual pursuant to the individual's exercise of an incentive stock option...

  10. 26 CFR 1.422-1 - Incentive stock options; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive stock options; general rules. 1.422-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-1 Incentive stock options... share of stock to an individual pursuant to the individual's exercise of an incentive stock option...

  11. 26 CFR 1.422-1 - Incentive stock options; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive stock options; general rules. 1.422-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-1 Incentive stock options... share of stock to an individual pursuant to the individual's exercise of an incentive stock option...

  12. The Entrepreneurial Restructuring of Public Education: School Incentives and the Merit School Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Erling E.

    The findings of a pilot study of Pennsylvania's School Performance Incentive (SPI) program are presented in this report. School level incentive policies as elements of the entrepreneurial context of educational restructuring and an organizational model for an incentive-based merit system are also discussed. The study examines the effect of SPI on…

  13. Reflecting on Ten Years of Incentive Programs: The 1993 SREB Career Ladder Clearinghouse Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Lynn M.; Gaines, Gale F.

    This paper reflects on the evolution of teacher performance incentive policies and draws conclusions from 10 years of monitoring trends in performance incentive policies, from the explosion of interest in career ladder plans in the mid-1980s through teacher and school incentive programs tied to comprehensive restructuring initiatives in the early…

  14. The Effects of Incentives on Workplace Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condly, Steven J.; Clark, Richard E.; Stolovitch, Harold D.

    2003-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of all adequately designed field and laboratory research on the use of incentives to motivate performance is reported. Of approximately 600 studies, 45 qualified. The overall average effect of all incentive programs in all work settings and on all work tasks was a 22% gain in performance. Team-directed incentives had a…

  15. 14 CFR 1221.204 - Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards... NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor § 1221.204 Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board. The NASA Incentive Awards...

  16. 14 CFR 1221.204 - Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards... NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor § 1221.204 Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board. The NASA Incentive Awards...

  17. 14 CFR 1221.204 - Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards... NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor § 1221.204 Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board. The NASA Incentive Awards...

  18. 14 CFR 1221.204 - Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards... NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor § 1221.204 Proceedings of the NASA Incentive Awards Board. The NASA Incentive Awards...

  19. 42 CFR 414.67 - Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mental health HPSA are entitled to a 10 percent incentive payment above the amount paid for their... incentive payment in mental health HPSAs that do not overlap with primary care HPSAs are psychiatrists.) (d... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments for Health Professional...

  20. 26 CFR 1.422-3 - Stockholder approval of incentive stock option plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stockholder approval of incentive stock option... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-3 Stockholder approval of incentive stock option plans. This section addresses the stockholder approval of incentive stock...

  1. "Incentives for Managed Growth": A Case Study of Incentives-Based Planning and Budgeting in a Large Public Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; Lewis, Darrell R.; Kallsen, Lincoln; Holdsworth, Janet M.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Implementing an incentives-based budget system at a large public research university significantly redirected internal funds while producing notable organizational and financial surprises. For example, units did not increase their "hoarding" of students, contrary to some expectations. The findings point to several issues for further…

  2. The Edwards Aquifer Water Resource Conflict: USDA Farm Program resource-use incentives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Glenn D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarizes economic and hydrological analyses of the impacts of the 1990 and 1996 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm programs on irrigation water withdrawals from the Edwards Aquifer in south central Texas and on aquifer-dependent spring flows that support threatened and endangered species. Economic modeling, a regional producer behavioral survey, as well as institutional and farm characteristic analyses are used to examine likely irrigation water-use impacts. Hydrologie modeling is used to examine spring flow effects. Study results show that 1990 USDA commodity programs caused producers to require less irrigation water, in turn increasing rather than decreasing aquifer spring flows. Market economic factors are the dominant criteria influencing producer irrigation decisions. Farm-tenure arrangements and aquifer management responsibilities of the Edwards Aquifer Authority indicate that the 1996 Farm Act's PFC payment program will not cause an increase in irrigation withdrawals. Broader actions such as long-term water supply enhancement/conservation programs, dry-year water-use reduction incentives and water markets all provide tools for Edwards water-use conflict resolution. USDA farm programs do not apparently play a material part in the total debate.

  3. Policies to reduce heat islands: Magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Taha, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    A ``Cool Communities`` strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements, and shade trees, can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles (LA) by about $100 million (M), cool the air in the LA Basin (thereby saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning), and reduce smog exceedance by about 10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year. Trees are most effective if they shade buildings; but they are still very cost effective if they merely cool the air by evapotranspiration. Avoided peak power for air conditioning can be about 1.5GW (more than 15% of LA air conditioning). Extrapolated to the entire US, the authors estimate 20GW avoided and potential annual electricity savings of about $5--10B in 2015. To achieve these savings, they call for ratings and labels for cool materials, buildings` performance standards, utility incentive programs, and an extension of the existing smog-offset trading market (RECLAIM) to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. EPA can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional ``open market smog-offset trading credits``.

  4. Biosimilar competition in the United States: statutory incentives, payers, and pharmacy benefit managers.

    PubMed

    Falit, Benjamin P; Singh, Surya C; Brennan, Troyen A

    2015-02-01

    Widespread adoption of generic medications, made possible by the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, has contained the cost of small-molecule drugs in the United States. Biologics, however, have yet to face competition from follow-on products and represent the fastest-growing sector of the US pharmaceutical market. We compare the legislative framework governing small-molecule generics to that which regulates follow-on biologics, and we examine management tools that are likely to be most successful in promoting biosimilars' adoption. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act established an abbreviated pathway for follow-on biologics, but weak statutory incentives create barriers to entry. Many authors have raised concerns that competition under the biologics act may be weaker than that posed by small-molecule generics under Hatch-Waxman, in part because of legislative choices such as the absence of market exclusivity for the first biosimilar approved and a requirement that follow-on manufacturers disclose their manufacturing processes to the manufacturer of the reference product. Provider skepticism and limited competition from biosimilars will challenge payers and pharmacy benefit managers to reduce prices and maximize uptake of follow-on biologics. Successful payers and pharmacy benefit managers will employ various strategies, including tiered formularies and innovative fee schedules, that can control spending by promoting uptake of biosimilars across both the pharmacy and medical benefits.

  5. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  6. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  7. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  8. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  9. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  10. Analysis of the results of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1980-06-01

    The research program analyzed the Federal incentives used to stimulate nuclear, hydro, coal, gas, oil, and electricity production in order to supply what was learned to the selection of an incentives strategy to induce new energy production from renewable resources. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 examines the problem of estimating effects from a theoretical perspective. Methods of quantifying and identifying the many interactive effects of government actions are discussed. Chapter 3 presents a generic analysis of the result of Federal incentives. Chapters 4 through 9 deal with incentives to energy forms - nuclear, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and electricity. Chapter 10 summarizes the estimated results of the incentives, which are presented in terms of their quantity and price impacts. The incentive costs per million Btu of induced energy production is also discussed. Chapter 11 discusses the parity issue, that is an equivalence between Federal incentives to renewable resources and to traditional energy resources. Any analysis of incentives for solar needs will profit from an analysis of the costs of solar incentives per million Btu compared with those for traditional energy forms. Chapter 12 concludes the analysis, discussing the history of traditional energy incentives as a guide to solar-energy incentives. 216 references, 38 figures, 91 tables.

  11. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  12. Novel Incentives and Messaging in an Online College Smoking Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Sokol, Michael; Santamaria, Andrew; Bryant, Lawrence; Rodriguez, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college smokers. The incentives involved discounted or free goods and services from businesses proximal to each campus. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 122 current smokers recruited from 2 Southeastern US universities. The intervention involved health behavior monitoring, targeted messaging, and incentives for healthy goods and services versus the American Cancer Society’s Guide to Quitting Smoking online. Results The intervention achieved greater adherence and utilization (p’s < .001). Overall, 55.6% learned about a local business through this program. At end-of-treatment, intervention participants less frequently attempted to quit (p = .02) but smoked fewer cigarettes/day (p = .05). Both groups demonstrated significant end-of-treatment cessation rates. Conclusions This intervention demonstrated feasibility and acceptability. PMID:24933136

  13. Federal incentives for industrial modernization: Historical review and future opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sandra C.; Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Concerns over the aging of the U.S. aerospace industrial base led DOD to introduce first its Technology Modernization (Tech Mod) Program, and more recently the Industrial Modernization Incentive Program (IMIP). These incentives include productivity shared savings rewards, contractor investment protection to allow for amortization of plant and equipment, and subcontractor/vendor participation. The purpose here is to review DOD IMIP and to evaluate whether a similar program is feasible for NASA and other non-DOD agencies. The IMIP methodology is of interest to industrial engineers because it provides a structured, disciplined approach to identifying productivity improvement opportunities and documenting their expected benefit. However, it is shown that more research on predicting and validating cost avoidance is needed.

  14. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. )

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan's regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  15. Cooperation induced by wise incentive allocation in spontaneous institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Kun; Wang, Long; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2016-08-01

    Institutional incentives such as punishment and rewarding have recently received wide attention in resolving issues of public goods provision that requires collective cooperation. In this letter, we are interested in exploring the effect on cooperation of a spontaneous institution, which rewards its participants exclusively and also takes the social responsibility of punishing interior and exterior free-riders. Drawing support from evolutionary game theory, our results indicate that the splitting ratio of such institution funds plays a decisive role in determining the evolutionary outcome. Rewarding is essential in sustaining the institution, while a certain intensity of punishment ensures a high overall cooperation level. Our results may provide more insights into understanding the roles institutional incentives play in promoting social cooperation.

  16. Incentive spirometry decreases respiratory complications following major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Westwood, K; Griffin, M; Roberts, K; Williams, M; Yoong, K; Digger, T

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery. Chest physiotherapy aims to decrease the likelihood of these complications and hasten recovery. Exercises aimed at maximising inspiratory effort are the most beneficial for the patients. The incentive spirometer is a handheld device that patients use to achieve effective inspiration. In a nonrandomised pilot study of 263 patients we have found that the addition of the incentive spirometer, as part of an intensive post-operative physiotherapy programme, decreased the occurrence of pulmonary complications (6 vs 17%, p = 0.01) and length of stay on the surgical high dependency unit (3.1 vs 4 days p = 0.03). The two groups were comparable when age, sex, smoking history, the need for emergency surgery and post-operative analgesia were compared.

  17. Electric vehicles: The case for (and against) incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, A.

    1996-04-15

    This article, a review of the pros and cons regarding incentives for electric vehicles and utility involvement in EV programs, is based upon research supported by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency. It centers on various regulatory actions in the state and examines the impact on and efforts by Southern Califrnia Edison and their involvement in EV programs. Load impacts and the associated costs are examined, as are rate impacts. One possibility for funding utility-based EV programs would be to impose a tax on `dirty vehicles` and use the revenues to fund a rebate for EVs and other cleaner vehicles. Utility managers and regulators who are reluctant to see higher electric rates from other utility incentives would do well to support this approach as a means to support the sale of cleaner vehicles.

  18. Acid rain program offers free-market incentives, portends future regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cozza, A.; Faulkner, K.F. )

    1993-05-01

    The burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, results in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Such emissions and their by-products damage ecosystems and man-made materials, and threaten human health. In 1985, 23 million tons of SO[sub 2] and 19 million tons of NOx were emitted from US sources. Nearly 70% of the SO[sub 2] and almost 40% of the NOx emissions originated from electric utilities. Title IV of the CAA Amendments requires EPA to establish an acid rain program designed to reduce SO[sub 2] and NOx emissions from electric utility plants.

  19. MARKET INCENTIVES AND NONPOINT SOURCES: AN APPLICATION OF TRADABLE CREDITS TO URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess stormwater runoff can cause serious pollution, habitat degradation and flooding in cities where growth in impervious surface area (such as pavement, buildings, etc.) has created a situation where stormwater runoff routinely exceeds the normal capacity of natural and constr...

  20. Modeling the Impact of State and Federal Incentives on Concentrating Solar Power Market Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Short, W.; Mehos, M.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents methodology and results from the Regional Energy Deployment System Model (ReEDS) examining the ability of concentrating solar power (CSP), other renewables, and electricity storage to contribute to the U.S. electric sector.