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Sample records for 14-item oral health

  1. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  2. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  3. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  4. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  5. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  6. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  7. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  8. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  9. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  10. The paradox of better subjective oral health in older age.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E

    2011-11-01

    We analyzed data from the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health to investigate the paradoxical relationship of better subjective oral health in older adults compared with young or middle-aged adults. In interviews with 14,092 adults, prevalence of problems with eating or appearance was not significantly associated with age among dentate people with no denture(s). In contrast, among dentate denture-wearers, prevalence ranged from 18.7% in ≥ 65-year-olds to 46.7% in 25- to 34-year-olds (p < 0.01). Dentate interviewees (n = 3,724) underwent oral epidemiological examinations and completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, evaluating adverse impacts of oral conditions. In multivariable analysis, mean OHIP-14 scores were only weakly associated with age among people who had none of 5 clinical conditions [≥ 5 missing teeth, denture(s), untreated decay, moderate/severe periodontitis, toothache]. However, for people with ≥ 2 clinical conditions, there was a three-fold, inverse association between age and mean OHIP-14 scores (p < 0.01). The findings show that experience of oral disease is more deleterious to subjective oral health when it occurs early in adulthood than when it occurs in old age, a pattern that likely reflects high expectations of young generations and, conversely, great resilience in Australia's oldest generation. PMID:21917599

  11. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70.1% have periodontal disease. Periodontal Disease is higher in men than women, and greatest among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic blacks, and those with less than a high school education. Healthy People 2020 Works to Eliminate Oral Health ...

  12. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  13. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  14. Oral health during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries. PMID:18481562

  15. Oral health for older people.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Compared with previous generations, more older people have retained some or all of their teeth, but more than 40% of community-dwelling older people aged 75 and over have unmet oral health needs. However, the importance of oral health can be undervalued by healthcare professionals and older people. Three studies relating to oral health for older people are summarised. PMID:27573957

  16. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  17. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  18. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  19. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  20. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  1. No Mental Health without Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve

    2016-05-01

    The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802

  2. Oral health and older adults.

    PubMed

    DeBiase, Christina B; Austin, Shari L

    2003-01-01

    The population of individuals aged 65 and older is growing dramatically and is expected to increase 126% by 2011, compared to only a 42% rise in the population of the United States as a whole. The fastest growing segment of the older adult population is persons aged 85 and older (Figure 1). Although many members of this generation lead healthy independent lives, the challenge faced by oral health care professionals is providing care to the chronically ill and/or homebound or institutionalized older adult, particularly the oldest old and those with limited finances. Effective communication skills are essential when dealing with older adults and their families. Collaboration between medical/allied health professionals and oral health care professionals is also critical in order to accurately assess and manage the oral health needs of the aging patient. A preventive approach to oral health with sensitivity to the physical, mental, and social status of the patient is the focus of this course. Marketing strategies to alleviate common barriers to seeking oral health care among this age group are provided. PMID:12861793

  3. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  4. [Tobacco, snuff and oral health].

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Meurman, Jukka H; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause 6.3 million deaths annually worldwide. The use of snuff, differing from smoking, has significantly increased especially among the adolescents. Snuff powder contains 20-fold more nicotine compared to cigarettes, leading to strong nicotine addiction. In addition to cancer development, both smoking and snuff use exert other risks for oral health. Compared with non-smokers, smokers are at a 10-fold risk for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. Snuff causes oral mucosal changes, gingival recessions and root surface caries. Smoking induces systemic low-grade inflammation, which weakens defensive immune responses in oral mucosa, gingiva, gingival crevicular fluid and saliva. PMID:26677547

  5. Systemic diseases and oral health.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Mary; Lindefjeld Calabi, Kari A; San Martin, Laura

    2014-10-01

    The US population is at the beginning of a significant demographic shift; the American geriatric population is burgeoning, and average longevity is projected to increase in the coming years. Elder adults are affected by numerous chronic conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. These older adults need special dental care and an improved understanding of the complex interactions of oral disease and systemic chronic diseases that can complicate their treatment. Oral diseases have strong associations with systemic diseases, and poor oral health can worsen the impact of systemic diseases. PMID:25201543

  6. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  7. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  8. Association between oral health status and oral health-related quality of life among the prison inmate population of kanda model jail, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Fotedar, Shailee; Chauhan, Atul; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Manchanda, Kavita; Fotedar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The prison population is a challenging one with many health problems including oral health. In a country such as India, the information regarding the oral health status in prisoners is scant. So, a cross-sectional study was carried out among a 311 prison inmate population of Kanda model jail, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India, to assess the dental caries levels, periodontal health status, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Dental caries was present among 71.8% of the population and the mean decayed missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) of the population was 5.1 ± 2.1. Calculus was seen among 54.9% of the population. The mean severity score, summed for the 14 items in the scale was 14.57. Dental caries, periodontal disease, the number of missing teeth were significantly associated with OHRQoL. The population had a higher level of oral diseases and one half of the population reported that their oral condition had negatively impacted them in some way, thereby affecting their quality of life. PMID:27350711

  9. Correlation between upper limb function and oral health impact in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda C.; da Silva, Daniela F. T.; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.; Bussadori, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between upper limb impairment and oral health impact in individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were conducted with a sample of 27 stroke survivors with complete or partial hemiparesis with brachial or crural predominance. The 14-item short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile was used to evaluate perceptions of oral health. The Brazilian version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale was used to evaluate perceptions regarding quality of life. [Results] A statistically significant association was found between the upper extremity function subscale of the SSQOL-Brazil and the impact of oral health evaluated using the OHIP-14, with a strong correlation found for the physical pain subscale, moderate correlations with the functional limitation, psychological discomfort, physical disability, social disability and social handicap subscales as well as a weak correlation with the psychological disability subscale. Analyzing the OHIP-14 scores with regard to the impact of oral health on quality of life, the most frequent classification was weak impact, with small rates of moderate and strong impact. [Conclusion] Compromised upper limb function and self-perceived poor oral health, whether due to cultural resignation or functional disability, exert a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. PMID:26310352

  10. Correlation between upper limb function and oral health impact in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda C; da Silva, Daniela F T; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Bussadori, Sandra K

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between upper limb impairment and oral health impact in individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were conducted with a sample of 27 stroke survivors with complete or partial hemiparesis with brachial or crural predominance. The 14-item short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile was used to evaluate perceptions of oral health. The Brazilian version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale was used to evaluate perceptions regarding quality of life. [Results] A statistically significant association was found between the upper extremity function subscale of the SSQOL-Brazil and the impact of oral health evaluated using the OHIP-14, with a strong correlation found for the physical pain subscale, moderate correlations with the functional limitation, psychological discomfort, physical disability, social disability and social handicap subscales as well as a weak correlation with the psychological disability subscale. Analyzing the OHIP-14 scores with regard to the impact of oral health on quality of life, the most frequent classification was weak impact, with small rates of moderate and strong impact. [Conclusion] Compromised upper limb function and self-perceived poor oral health, whether due to cultural resignation or functional disability, exert a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. PMID:26310352

  11. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  12. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities. PMID:27348951

  13. Head Start Oral Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Reed, Rebecca; York, Jill; Dady, Nadege; Chaviano-Moran, Rosa; Jiang, Shuying; Holtzman, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Purpose A Head Start program located in Paterson, New Jersey considered establishing a school-based dental clinic to address unmet oral health needs such as access to care and the need for restorative treatment. The purpose of this study was to establish the oral health status of Head Start children, their treatment needs, and parents' interest and willingness to utilize a school-based dental clinic. Description School-based dental care has been used to address access to care issues, particularly among children who live in underserved areas. A 21 item survey was used to correlate the results of an oral exam performed on the Head Start children and the parents' preferences, beliefs and access patterns. Fisher's exact test and Chi squared test were used to study the association among variable with significance levels set at 0.05. Assessment The oral exam revealed a high caries rate amongst all of the children. Parental responses indicated strong support for the establishment of a school-based clinic and identified the need for further parental education. Having a regular source of care was found to be unrelated to treatment needs. Conclusion Further education of the parents regarding the child's oral health is critical to the success and viability of this school-based clinic. PMID:27017227

  14. General population norms of the Swedish short forms of oral health impact profile.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Hakeberg, M; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-04-01

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John et al. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N = 1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N = 1309) were on average 50·1 ± 17.4 years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r ≥ 0.97 for OHIP-S14, r ≥ 0.92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r ≥ 0.41). Reliability, measured with Cronbach's alpha (0.91 for OHIP-S14, 0.77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had ≥11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had ≥11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies. PMID:24447237

  15. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  16. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

  17. Oral health care during pregnancy recommendations for oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jayanth; Samelson, Renee

    2009-11-01

    Pregnancy is a unique time in a woman's life and is characterized by complex physiological changes. These changes can adversely affect oral health. Pregnancy is also an opportune time to educate women about preventing dental caries in young children, a common childhood problem. Although multiple studies have shown an association between periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as premature delivery and low birth weight, recent randomized clinical trials conducted in the United States failed to show that treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy improved birth outcomes. However, the studies confirmed the safety and effectiveness of providing oral health care during pregnancy. Pregnancy by itself is not a reason to defer routine dental care and necessary treatment for oral health problems. Diagnosis and treatment, including needed dental X-rays, can be undertaken safely during the first trimester of pregnancy. Needed treatment can be provided throughout the remainder of the pregnancy; however, the time period between the 14th and 20th week is considered ideal. PMID:20069785

  18. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  19. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  20. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is ...

  1. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  2. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  3. Health behavior models and oral health: a review.

    PubMed

    Hollister, M Catherine; Anema, Marion G

    2004-01-01

    Dental hygienists help their clients develop health promoting behaviors, by providing essential information about general health, and oral health in particular. Individual health practices such as oral self-care are based on personal choices. The guiding principles found in health behavior models provide useful methods to the oral health care providers in promoting effective individual client behaviors. Theories provide explanations about observable facts in a systematic manner. Research regarding health behavior has explored the effectiveness and applicability of various health models in oral health behavior modification. The Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change, Theory of Reasoned Action, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Sense of Coherence are examples of models that focus on individuals assuming responsibility for their own health. Understanding the strengths of each and their applicability to health behaviors is critical for oral health care providers who work with patients to adopt methods and modify behaviors that contribute to good oral health. This paper describes health behavior models that have been applied to oral health education, presents a critical analysis of the effectiveness of each model in oral health education, and provides examples of application to oral health education. PMID:16201062

  4. Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2008-10-01

    Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

  5. Oral Health in Women During Preconception and Pregnancy: Implications for Birth Outcomes and Infant Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Burton L.

    2006-01-01

    The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal oral flora is transmitted to the newborn infant, and increased cariogenic flora in the mother predisposes the infant to the development of caries. It is intriguing to consider preconception, pregnancy, or intrapartum treatment of oral health conditions as a mechanism to improve women's oral and general health, pregnancy outcomes, and their children's dental health. However, given the relationship between oral health and general health, oral health care should be a goal in its own right for all individuals. Regardless of the potential for improved oral health to improve pregnancy outcomes, public policies that support comprehensive dental services for vulnerable women of childbearing age should be expanded so that their own oral and general health is safeguarded and their children's risk of caries is reduced. Oral health promotion should include education of women and their health care providers ways to prevent oral disease from occurring, and referral for dental services when disease is present. PMID:16816998

  6. Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412

  7. Effectiveness of an educational video in improving oral health knowledge in a hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Kathuria, Vartika; Gupta, Tanupriya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prevention of oral diseases can be achieved by preventive measures. There is an educational component associated to the preventive aspect. Health education is a cornerstone to the success of a preventive programme. Health education has always been regarded as a primary tool in imparting awareness, bringing changes in healthy behaviors and improved life. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of an Educational Video in improving oral health knowledge of subjects in a hospital setting. Methodology: The study was conducted in Outpatient Department, CDER, AIIMS. This was a cross sectional interventional study. In the present study a total of 109 subjects were considered those who completed pre and post intervention questionnaire. In order to assess baseline oral health knowledge, a-14 itemed questionnaire was specially designed, based on the contents of video and was pre-tested on 10 patients. Pre-intervention knowledge was assessed and then the 30-minute video was shown. Following this, post-exposure knowledge was assessed using the same questionnaire. Change in the knowledge score amongst the subjects was assessed pre and post-intervention (showing the video film). Results: Paired t- test was used to analyze the data. Pre-intervention mean knowledge score was 9.49±2.09 which increased to 11.55±1.60 post-intervention; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It was found that increase in knowledge score was statistically significant after exposure to an educational video film in a hospital setting. Incorporation of video in imparting oral health education can be an effective tool in improving oral health knowledge, which can impact the oral health behavior of people and community. PMID:27433049

  8. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry in Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)

  9. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  10. Even small interventions can improve oral health.

    PubMed

    Vega, Lina; Carberry, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    When resources are scarce, authors of articles appearing in health publications have questioned the effectiveness of traditional interventions as a means of improving oral health. The experience in Delicias, Honduras, indicates that the principles of BPOC (Basic Package of Oral Care) may provide quicker and better results. PMID:24027899

  11. Oral health beliefs in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, T T; Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple regression analysis to examine sociodemographic predictors of perceived benefits of preventive practices. Race-ethnicity and age cohort were significant predictors among Baltimore and San Antonio adults. White adults and middle-aged persons in both research locations were more likely to believe in the benefit of preventive practices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, and better self-rated health were significant indicators of more positive oral health beliefs in every research location. Results also characterize persons who place lower value on preventive practices (i.e., males, less-educated persons, and those reporting poorer self-rated health). The design of effective dental public health messages and outreach efforts requires an analysis of the individual's health orientation and the factors influencing oral health beliefs. Oral health education interventions designed to improve health beliefs should contain an evaluation component for assessing the impact of education on health practices and oral health status. PMID:9549989

  12. Health-promoting schools: an opportunity for oral health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159

  13. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Barone, Lauren; Quinonez, Rocio B; Boulter, Suzanne; Mouradian, Wendy E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. (1) To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs). (2) To provide insight into COHAs' experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response). Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians' adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children's oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home. PMID:24228032

  14. Improving Children’s Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Casamassimo, P.S.; Lee, J.Y.; Marazita, M.L.; Milgrom, P.; Chi, D.L.; Divaris, K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations’ health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. PMID:25122218

  15. Need for Oral Health Policy in India

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, RS; Gupta, T

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases are a significant public health menace having a substantial impact on the quality of life which in turn affects the daily performance and general life satisfaction. There is a vast difference in health status including the oral health between urban and rural population of India and in other developing countries. The existing situation demands the formulation and implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to make it more affordable, and reachable. An extensive literature search was conducted using various search engines in order to include relevant information in the review. Number of keywords and their combinations were used in order to extract appropriate data. Finally 24 out of 35 articles were selected upon detailed reading. The present paper focusses on some of the important subjects that can be considered while formulation of a National Oral Health Policy for the benefits of both the dental profession and community as a whole. There is a need of dental health planners and policy makers that have relevant qualifications and training in public health dentistry to understand the unique needs and resources for the development of an effective oral health policy. Professional dental organizations can also support government programs to provide basic oral health needs of extensive underserved population of this country. PMID:27144077

  16. Need for Oral Health Policy in India.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, R S; Gupta, T

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases are a significant public health menace having a substantial impact on the quality of life which in turn affects the daily performance and general life satisfaction. There is a vast difference in health status including the oral health between urban and rural population of India and in other developing countries. The existing situation demands the formulation and implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to make it more affordable, and reachable. An extensive literature search was conducted using various search engines in order to include relevant information in the review. Number of keywords and their combinations were used in order to extract appropriate data. Finally 24 out of 35 articles were selected upon detailed reading. The present paper focusses on some of the important subjects that can be considered while formulation of a National Oral Health Policy for the benefits of both the dental profession and community as a whole. There is a need of dental health planners and policy makers that have relevant qualifications and training in public health dentistry to understand the unique needs and resources for the development of an effective oral health policy. Professional dental organizations can also support government programs to provide basic oral health needs of extensive underserved population of this country. PMID:27144077

  17. Integrating oral health into the interdisciplinary health sciences curriculum.

    PubMed

    Dolce, Maria C; Aghazadeh-Sanai, Nona; Mohammed, Shan; Fulmer, Terry T

    2014-10-01

    Oral health inequities for older adults warrant new models of interprofessional education and collaborative practice. The Innovations in Interprofessional Oral Health: Technology, Instruction, Practice and Service curricular model at Bouvé College of Health Sciences aims to transform health professions education and primary care practice to meet global and local oral health challenges. Innovations in simulation and experiential learning help to advance interprofessional education and integrate oral health care as an essential component of comprehensive primary health care. The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly clinic is an exemplary model of patient-centeredness and interprofessional collaborative practice for addressing unmet oral health needs of its patient population. PMID:25201545

  18. Psychometric Properties of Croatian and Slovenian Short Form of Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Rener-Sitar, Ksenija; Petričević, Nikola; Čelebić, Asja; Marion, Ljubo

    2008-01-01

    Aim To develop Croatian and Slovenian versions of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) Questionnaire. Methods The English original version of the OHIP questionnaire was translated into Croatian (OHIP-CRO14) and Slovenian (OHIP-SVN14) language by a forward-backward translation method. The psychometric properties of the OHIP-CRO14 and OHIP-SVN14 were tested. Concurrent validity was tested on 623 subjects (193 Croatian and 430 Slovenian), test-retest reliability on 115 subjects (55 Croatian and 60 Slovenian), internal consistency on 678 subjects (218 Croatian and 460 Slovenian), and responsiveness on 51 patients (21 Croatian and 30 Slovenian) in demand of treatment (toothache). Results Concurrent validity was confirmed by the association between the OHIP summary scores and self-reported oral health (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.40 to 0.60, P<0.001). Test-retest reliability showed high intraclass correlation (correlation coefficients, 0.79-0.94). Internal consistency showed high Cronbach α (0.77-0.91). Responsiveness was confirmed by a significant difference between the mean OHIP score at baseline and follow-up (P<0.001 for both Croatian and Slovenian patients) and high effect size in Croatian and Slovenian patients in demand of treatment (3.00 and 0.57, respectively). Conclusion Psychometric properties of OHIP-CRO14 and OHIP-SVN14 render these instruments suitable for the assessment of Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Croatia and Slovenia. PMID:18717001

  19. Oral health, oral health care and dental services--the consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, M J; Gilbert, L; Brand, A A

    1994-12-01

    As part of a National Oral Health Survey conducted in 1988/89, community knowledge of and attitudes towards oral health and oral health care were examined in the various population groups in South Africa. A wide range of issues were explored. These included amongst others, help-seeking and oral health behaviour, sources of health information and attitudes to dentists and dental care. Given the major political change that has recently occurred in the country, the results of the survey suggest that these findings could profitably be used in future dental personnel planning as well as in the re-structuring of the health services that is currently taking place. PMID:8613567

  20. Quality Improvement Efforts in Pediatric Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai

    2016-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and measurement are increasingly used in health care to improve patient care and outcomes. Despite current barriers in oral health measurement, there are nascent QI and measurement efforts emerging. This paper describes the role that QI and measurement can play in improving oral health care delivery in clinical practice by presenting a QI initiative that aimed to test and implement a chronic disease management approach to address early childhood caries. PMID:27265978

  1. Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M; Poulton, R

    2006-04-01

    According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health. PMID:16567555

  2. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  3. Oral health and elite sport performance

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  4. Ethical considerations in community oral health.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-05-01

    As the public's oral health care needs increase in complexity, there is renewed attention to the ethical dimensions of community oral health decision making and the development of public health ethics in teaching and research in dentistry. Despite their reduction globally, oral diseases persist with a particular distribution pattern that is a reflection of the increasingly widespread inequality in access to community oral health preventive and dental care. This is due to differences in the appropriateness, availability, accessibility, and acceptability of oral health education and the care provided. This article provides an overview of community oral health from an ethical perspective, including the importance of equity, human rights, and social justice in providing oral health care to the underserved. The need for a paradigm shift from highly technical and individualistic dental training curricula is discussed, together with the need to instill a holistic approach to ethical and social responsibility in new dental graduates. It concludes with some possible strategies, using the overarching principles of ethics and bioethics that are applicable to practice among vulnerable populations. PMID:25941240

  5. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668

  6. School based oral health promotional intervention: Effect on knowledge, practices and clinical oral health related parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gauba, Arjun; Bal, Ikreet Singh; Jain, Ashish; Mittal, Hitesh Chander

    2013-01-01

    Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student) and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine). Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP) regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and caries activity as per Modified Snyder's test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker's test, Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity. PMID:24403795

  7. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  8. Oral Health in Elders with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Campos, Camila Heitor; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate objectively and subjectively the oral health of elders with Parkinson's disease (PD), using clinical oral assessments and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Subjects included 37 removable prosthesis wearers, 17 with PD (mean age 69.59±5.09 years) and 20 without PD (mean age 72.00±5.69 years). The objective assessment included an evaluation of oral characteristics, including the number of remaining teeth, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), visible plaque index (VPI), salivary flow rate and removable prosthesis conditions. The subjective assessment included self-perception of oral health collected using the GOHAI index. The number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI, salivary flow rate and GOHAI data were compared between the groups using t-tests. Removable prosthesis conditions were analyzed using χ2 tests (p<0.05). There were no group differences in the number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI or salivary flow rate (p>0.05). Greater maxillary prosthesis defects were observed in the control group (p=0.037). GOHAI scores were low for the PD group and moderate for controls, yielding a group difference (p=0.04). In conclusion, elders with PD have similar oral health to controls. Although all elders had few remaining teeth, high DMFT and high VPI, PD elders had more negative self-perceptions of their oral health than did the controls. PMID:27224571

  9. Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... www. cdafoundation. org/ Learn/ EducationTraining/ PerinatalOralHealthEducation/ PatientEducationMaterial. aspx. Dental Care Before, During, and After Pregnancy (handout) produced by the South Carolina Department ...

  10. FastStats: Oral and Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Oral and Dental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... States, 2015, table 60 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Dental visits Percent of children aged 2-17 with ...

  11. An oral health program for children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Carol; Bachman, Jean; Casalone, Gregory G; Farberman, Susann; Fish, Anne

    2014-02-15

    Caries, the most infectious chronic disease of childhood in America, leads to health, learning, and quality-of-life issues. Using the Missouri Preventive Service Program model, a pilot oral health program for children from ages birth to 5 years in a rural health clinic was the first to implement the application of fluoride varnish. PMID:24441318

  12. Policies for Improving Oral Health in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinkhorn, Anthony S.; Downer, Martin C.; Drugan, Caroline S.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objective: The main purpose of this review was to rehearse the available evidence of good practice in dental public health in order to define policies that could improve oral health in the enlarged European Union and associated countries. Secondary objectives were to describe the basic principles of health service organisation and…

  13. Oral Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, L.; Broder, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relatively recent emergence over the past few decades, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has important implications for the clinical practice of dentistry and dental research. OHRQoL is a multidimensional construct that includes a subjective evaluation of the individual’s oral health, functional well-being, emotional well-being, expectations and satisfaction with care, and sense of self. It has wide-reaching applications in survey and clinical research. OHRQoL is an integral part of general health and well-being. In fact, it is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an important segment of the Global Oral Health Program (2003). This paper identifies the what, why, and how of OHRQoL and presents an oral health theoretical model. The relevance of OHRQoL for dental practitioners and patients in community-based dental practices is presented. Implications for health policy and related oral health disparities are also discussed. A supplemental Appendix contains a Medline and ProQuest literature search regarding OHRQoL research from 1990-2010 by discipline and research design (e.g., descriptive, longitudinal, clinical trial, etc.). The search identified 300 articles with a notable surge in OHRQoL research in pediatrics and orthodontics in recent years. PMID:21422477

  14. Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health.

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Dun, S N; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2008-01-26

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as 'ecstasy' or XTC, is frequently used by young adults in the major cities. Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals who use ecstasy. This review describes systemic and oral effects of ecstasy. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include xerostomia, bruxism, and an increased risk of developing dental erosion. Mucosal changes have also been reported. Recent use of ecstasy may interfere with dental treatment. Finally, the potential use of saliva for non-invasive detection of ecstasy is discussed. PMID:18268544

  15. [Ecstasy use and oral health].

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Dun, S N; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2007-02-01

    Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by young adults in the big cities.Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals that use XTC. This review of the literature describes the systemic and oral effects of XTC. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatreaemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include mucosal changes, xerostomia and an increased risk of developing dental erosion and bruxism. Finally, the potential use of saliva for detection of XTC is discussed. PMID:17361788

  16. A competency matrix for global oral health.

    PubMed

    Benzian, Habib; Greenspan, John S; Barrow, Jane; Hutter, Jeffrey W; Loomer, Peter M; Stauf, Nicole; Perry, Dorothy A

    2015-04-01

    The Lancet Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21(st) Century calls for enhancing health education for the needs and challenges of the 21st century to improve health status globally. To complement the Lancet report, this article makes recommendations for including core global health competencies in the education of health care professionals and specific groups of the public who are relevant to oral health in a global context in order to tackle the burden of oral diseases. Experts from various professional backgrounds developed global oral health competencies for four target groups: Group 1 was defined as dental students, residents/trainee specialists (or equivalent), and dentists; Group 2 was community health workers, dental hygienists, and dental therapists (or the equivalent); Group 3 was health professionals such as physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists; and Group 4 was non-health professionals in the public arena such as parents, teachers, decision makers, key opinion leaders, and health and consumer advocates. Key competencies for members of each of the four target groups are presented in a matrix. The suggested competency matrix shows that many other health professions and groups in society have potentially crucial roles in the prevention, control, and management of oral diseases globally. Workforce models including a wider range of professionals working together as a team will be needed to tackle the burden of oral diseases in an integrated way in the broader context of non-communicable diseases. Further discussion and research should be conducted to validate or improve the competencies proposed here with regard to their relevance, appropriateness, and completeness. PMID:25838005

  17. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  18. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  19. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

  20. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of dental care access? The Rural Health Information Hub provides two useful tools that may be useful when looking for additional strategies to address dental care access. RHIhub’s Rural Health ...

  1. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  2. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject to discussion by those bodies in 2007. At the EB120 and WHA60, the Member States agreed on an action plan for oral health and integrated disease prevention, thereby confirming the approach of the Oral Health Programme. The policy forms the basis for future development or adjustment of oral health programmes at national level. Clinical and public health research has shown that a number of individual, professional and community preventive measures are effective in preventing most oral diseases. However, advances in oral health science have not yet benefited the poor and disadvantaged populations worldwide. The major challenges of the future will be to translate knowledge and experiences in oral disease prevention and health promotion into action programmes. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme invites the international oral health research community to engage further in research capacity building in developing countries, and in strengthening the work so that research is recognized as the foundation of oral heath policy at global level. PMID:19046331

  3. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. PMID:27598787

  4. Health Literacy: A Pathway to Better Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta L.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Muller, Keith E.; Marks, John G.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether health literacy was associated with self-rated oral health status and whether the relationship was mediated by patient–dentist communication and dental care patterns. Methods. We tested a path model with data collected from 2 waves of telephone surveys (baseline, 2009–2010; follow-up, 2011) of individuals residing in 36 rural census tracts in northern Florida (final sample size n = 1799). Results. Higher levels of health literacy were associated with better self-rated oral health status (B = 0.091; P < .001). In addition, higher levels of health literacy were associated with better patient–dentist communication, which in turn corresponded with patterns of regular dental care and better self-rated oral health (B = 0.003; P = .01). Conclusions. Our study showed that, beyond the often-reported effects of gender, race, education, financial status, and access to dental care, it is also important to consider the influence of health literacy and quality of patient–dentist communication on oral health status. Improved patient–dentist communication is needed as an initial step in improving the population’s oral health. PMID:24832423

  5. Health Services and Women's Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mullane, Denis; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data on the relative levels of men's and women's dental health are scarce, but the available data do indicate differences in tooth loss and health-related behavior patterns. Better methods for recording and reporting this information are recommended. (MSE)

  6. Oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Bennadi, Darshana; Reddy, C. V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases and disorders that damage the mouth and face can disturb well-being and his self-esteem. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) is a relatively new but rapidly growing notion. The concept of OHRQOL can become a tool to understand and shape not only the state of clinical practice, dental research and dental education but also that of community at large. There are different approaches to measure OHRQOL; the most popular one is multiple item questionnaires. OHRQOL should be the basis for any oral health programme development. Moreover, research at the conceptual level is needed in countries where OHRQOL has not been previously assessed, including India. PMID:24478972

  7. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health].

    PubMed

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health. PMID:27180959

  8. Geriatric oral health: a review article.

    PubMed

    Razak, P Abdul; Richard, K M Jose; Thankachan, Rekha P; Hafiz, K A Abdul; Kumar, K Nanda; Sameer, K M

    2014-01-01

    Oral health is not separate from general health, but maintaining oral health is definitely difficult and different in old age. Even though, few elderly have physical and/or mental situation that call for particular interest in the dental workplace, one should not presume that all elderly community shares these circumstances. In order to achieve health, it is necessary to know few aspects of old age. In due course of old age body tissues get harder, collection of waste products in body cells and loss of lubrication leads to impaired functions of various organs. The design and implementation of comprehensive preventive dentistry protocols for elders presents the dental profession with many challenges. Although a specific protocol must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the individual patient, there are certain factors common to elderly segment of the population that may influence these protocols. PMID:25628498

  9. Geriatric Oral Health: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Razak, P Abdul; Richard, K M Jose; Thankachan, Rekha P; Hafiz, K A Abdul; Kumar, K Nanda; Sameer, K M

    2014-01-01

    Oral health is not separate from general health, but maintaining oral health is definitely difficult and different in old age. Even though, few elderly have physical and/or mental situation that call for particular interest in the dental workplace, one should not presume that all elderly community shares these circumstances. In order to achieve health, it is necessary to know few aspects of old age. In due course of old age body tissues get harder, collection of waste products in body cells and loss of lubrication leads to impaired functions of various organs. The design and implementation of comprehensive preventive dentistry protocols for elders presents the dental profession with many challenges. Although a specific protocol must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the individual patient, there are certain factors common to elderly segment of the population that may influence these protocols. PMID:25628498

  10. Probiotics and oral health: an update.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K; Kuttappa, M A; Prasana, K R

    2014-02-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms, principally bacteria, which, when ingested, confer health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. The main feld of research has been focussed on the gastro-intestinal tract. However, in the past few years probiotics have also been investigated from an oral health perspective and their use has shown promising results with respect to control of chronic conditions, such as dental caries, periodontitis, halitosis and candidial infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, hardly any randomised, controlled trials have been conducted on their action and application and studies on their effects on oral health are still in early stages. Hence, more research is needed before any evidence-based conclusions can be drawn. This paper considers some recent literature and insights on which further investigations could be based. PMID:24741843

  11. Effectiveness of Peer Group and Conventional Method (Dentist) of Oral Health Education Programme Among 12-15 year Old School Children - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Raju, Rekha; Bashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Education (OHE) in schools is routinely delivered by the dentist. Another approach which can be cost-effective, easily accessible and equally effective is the trained group of peer students. Aim The objective of the present study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of peer–led and conventional method (dentist-led), OHE on oral health status, oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 12-15 year old government school children in Bengaluru South Zone-I at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Materials and Methods The study population comprised of 450 subjects, 150 each in peer, dentist and control group. At baseline, a pre-tested 14 item questionnaire was used to assess the existing oral health knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices of the subjects. Clinical examination included recording of plaque index and gingival index, by a pre-calibrated examiner. OHE was provided by the peer group and dentist (using power-point presentation, chalk and talk presentation, using charts, posters, booklets and tooth brushing demonstration models). Data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square test. Results Both the peer-led and dentist-led OHE intervention were effective in improving oral health knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and oral health status at three and six months when compared to control group. The adolescents in the peer-led group, however, exhibited statistically better oral health behavior than their counterparts in the dentist-led group and control group. Conclusion The two educator-led strategies (peer group and dentist) had a modest effect on the outcome variables included in the study, the results provide some evidence to show that the peer-led strategy may provide a feasible and almost equally effective alternative to the traditional dentist led strategy of oral health education. PMID:27437345

  12. Oral health and the frailty syndrome.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, Michael I; Donnelly, Leeann R

    2016-10-01

    The frailty syndrome is an ever-growing area of study among older adults because of its association with an increased risk of falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, dependency and mortality. Frailty is neither a disease nor a disability but is better understood as a medical syndrome of multisystem dysregulation that results in a diminished ability to overcome everyday stressors. The prevalence of frailty in any given population can vary widely, in part because of the way in which it is defined and measured, but in general it is higher among women and in those with advanced age and declining health. Whilst it is largely understood that older adults will differ biologically, psychologically and socially, and that each of these domains can impact oral health, we are only beginning to investigate how the mouth is affected in frailty. Given that both hard and soft structures contribute to oral health and disease status among older adults with varying degrees of impairment and disability, frailty adds yet another dimension to be considered. This paper will discuss how frailty can influence and be influenced by oral disorders, as well as the potential relationship to oral neglect and the resultant consequences among this vulnerable population. PMID:27501496

  13. Impact of rare diseases in oral health

    PubMed Central

    Molina-García, Ana; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Posada-de la Paz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Rare diseases (RD) are those that present a lower prevalence than 5 cases per 10.000 population. The main objective of this review was to study the effect on oral health in rare diseases, while the secondary objective of the study is theme upgrade. Material and Methods Comparative observational case-control studies were analysed and a systematic review was conducted in PubMed. Each rare disease listed on the statistical data record of the Health Portal of the Ministry of Equality, Health and Social Policies Board of Andalusia was associated with “oral health”. The variables studied included dental, oral mucosa and occlusion alterations, oral pathologies (caries, periodontal disease) and other alterations (mouth breathing, parafunctional habits, etc). A bias analysis of the variable caries was conducted. Results Six RD were selected through our inclusion and exclusion criteria (hypogammaglobulinemia, Rett syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, cystic fibrosis and Cri du chat syndrome) in a total of 8 publications, of which four trials were classified as high risk of bias and one of them as medium risk. There were not trials with low risk of bias. Conclusions The main statistically significant differences found by Syndrome compared to a control group were in Hypogammaglobulinemia with a greater tendency to enamel hypoplasia and dry mouth. The Rett syndrome had, as well, a greater tendency to an anterior open bite, ogival palate, bruxism, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting. Prader-Willi syndrome had a tendency of dental erosion, and Cri du chat syndrome showed a higher association to Tannerella forsythia. Key words:Rare diseases, oral health. PMID:27475682

  14. The WHO's action plan for oral health.

    PubMed

    Monajem, S

    2009-02-01

    The oral health action plan, recommended for adoption to the Sixtieth World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization in January 2007, included many of the necessary components. Had fissure sealants been added to the list of prevention methods and the roles of dental educational institutions and hygiene community better clarified, the action plan would have made a more viable and realistic package for the ministries and their directors of national programmes receiving the support of the World Health Organization and partners. Sealants remain under-utilized, few dental hygienists are integrated in the primary oral health team and fewer dental graduates have had service-learning experiences--all contradictory to the evidence in the literature. Translating research findings into public health action programmes is one of the recommendations made in the action plan and one way we can begin this is by implementing sealant programmes in 'Health Promoting Schools' that are WHO's brain child and borne of the wisdom of using schools as 'platforms' for the promotion and delivery of health care to the community. PMID:19215314

  15. Validation and Impact of Caregivers’ Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior on Children’s Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Campagna, Elizabeth; Braun, Patricia A; Henderson, William G; Bryant, Lucinda L; Batliner, Terrence S; Quissell, David O; Albino, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to validate oral health knowledge and behavior measures from the Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, developed to capture specific themes contributing to children’s oral health outcomes and influence of caregivers. Methods Data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial (N=992) aimed at reducing dental caries in young children. Participants were American Indian/Alaska Native caregivers with a child aged three to five years enrolled in a Navajo Nation Head Start Center. Caregivers completed the questionnaire at enrollment with concomitant evaluation of children for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Oral health knowledge and behavior outcomes were compared with convergent measures (participant sociodemographic characteristics, oral health attitudes, indicators of oral health status). Results Caregiver oral health knowledge was significantly associated with education, income, oral health behavior, and all but one of the oral health attitude measures. Behavior was significantly associated with several measures of oral health attitudes and all but one measure of oral health status. As the behavior score improved, dmfs declined, child/caregiver overall oral health status improved, and pediatric oral health quality of life improved. Conclusions Questionnaire measures were valid for predicting specific caregiver factors potentially contributing to children’s oral health status. PMID:26892215

  16. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  17. An Overview of Oral Health Status, Resources, and Care Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, B. Alex

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the current oral health status of Americans looks at the epidemiology of oral/dental diseases, rates of use of dental services, and expenditures for dental health care. Substantial progress in improving oral health is seen as are particular challenges resulting from the aging and ethnic diversification of the population. (MSE)

  18. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  19. Oral health: something to smile about!

    PubMed

    Munro, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Oral health is integrally linked to overall well-being. This article describes a research program focused on the contribution of poor oral health to systemic illness. Initial investigations examined factors related to streptococcal virulence that were important in dental caries and endocarditis and led to development of immunization strategies in animal models to reduce risk of endocarditis. Clinical investigations related to critically ill adults began with descriptive and observational studies that established the importance of dental plaque in development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and examined existing nursing practices in oral care. Subsequent intervention studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to test oral care protocols in critically ill adults have built on that foundation. The group's first NIH-funded randomized clinical trial tested the effects of toothbrushing and use of chlorhexidine in reducing risk of VAP in critically ill adults and showed that VAP was reduced by topical application of chlorhexidine initiated after intubation, although toothbrushing did not reduce VAP. The study had a rapid and dramatic effect on clinical practice. Results of the study were published in September 2009 in the American Journal of Critical Care, and in May 2010, the Institute for Health-care Improvement updated the recommendations for the care of patients receiving mechanical ventilation (the ventilator bundle) to include daily oral care with chlorhexidine, referencing the results of that study as evidence for the change. Chlorhexidine is now the standard of care for adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Because the effects of chlorhexidine after intubation were so beneficial, a second recently completed NIH-funded randomized clinical trial investigated the impact of chlorhexidine applied before intubation compared with after intubation. Currently a large randomized clinical trial is being launched to determine the optimal

  20. Child abuse: concerns for oral health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are prevalent issues that permeate all ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic segments of society. Parents of abused children frequently change physicians in order to prevent detection, but they are more likely to continue to visit the child's dentist. Most states recognize four major types of maltreatment: neglect; physical abuse; psychological maltreatment; and sexual abuse. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines dental neglect as "the willful failure of parent or guardian to seek and follow through with treatment necessary to ensure a level of oral health essential for adequate function and freedom from pain and infection." The oral health practitioner must uphold his or her legal and ethical responsibility if there is suspicion, record and report the incidence. It may help save a child from further abuse. PMID:24027895

  1. Oral-systemic health during pregnancy: exploring prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and behavioral skills.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse. PMID:25366104

  2. Promoting Oral Health Using Social Media Platforms: Seeking Arabic Online Oral Health Related Information (OHRI).

    PubMed

    Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness. PMID:27350526

  3. Poor oral health, a potential new geriatric syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; De Visschere, Luc; Schols, Jos

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the medical aspects of ageing and age-related diseases, and to some geriatric syndromes, followed by a discussion on their impact on general and oral healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation constitutes a biological foundation of ageing and the onset of age-related diseases. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy, together with alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, make older people at risk of adverse medication reactions. A side effect of several medications is causing xerostomia and hyposalivation, and both the type and number of medications used are relevant. New options of general healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people are the use of mobility aids and assistive technology devices, domiciliary health care, respite care and telecare. Their oral health status may be jeopardised by frailty, disability, care dependency and limited access to professional oral health care. Recommendations for improvement are the following: better integrating oral health care into general health care, developing and implementing an oral healthcare guideline, providing customised oral hygiene care aids, domiciliary oral healthcare provision, visiting dental hygienists and/or nurses, oral hygiene telecare, easily and safely accessible dental offices, transforming dentistry into medical oral health care and upgrading dentists to oral physicians. In case oral healthcare providers do not take the responsibility of persuading society of the importance of adequate oral health, weakened oral health of community-dwelling older people will become a potential new geriatric syndrome. PMID:24446975

  4. Oral health and oral health-related behaviour in preschool children: evidence for a social gradient.

    PubMed

    Van den Branden, S; Van den Broucke, S; Leroy, R; Declerck, D; Hoppenbrouwers, K

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the social gradient in the reported oral health-related behaviour and oral health status of preschool children. Participants were 1,057 children born between October 2003 and July 2004 in Flanders, Belgium. Oral health examinations were performed by trained dentists when the children were 3 and 5 years old (respectively, in 2007 and 2009); data on dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and dental attendance of the children were obtained through structured questionnaires completed by the parents. Maternal educational level, measured in four categories, was used as a proxy of socio-economic status. Logistic and ordinal regressions showed a social gradient for the oral health-related behaviours: a lower educational level of the mother was related to a higher consumption of sugared drinks between meals and to a lower brushing frequency and dental attendance of the child. Children from low-educated mothers also had seven times more chance to present with caries experience than children from mothers with a bachelor degree. Contrary to the expectations, there was a deviation from the gradient in 3-year-olds from the highest educational group showing an increased risk for caries experience (OR = 3.84, 95 % CI = 1.08-13.65). Conclusion. Already in very young children, a graded relationship is observed between socio-economic position, oral health and related behaviours. The results suggest that different approaches are required to promote oral health during early childhood depending on the mother's educational background. As children from the highest social group also have an increased caries risk, specific techniques may be needed. PMID:23108848

  5. Addressing geriatric oral health concerns through national oral health policy in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2015-01-01

    There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries. PMID:25584351

  6. Addressing geriatric oral health concerns through national oral health policy in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2015-01-01

    There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world's elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries. PMID:25584351

  7. Oral Health Literacy Assessment: development of an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish speakers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; Stucky, Brian; Rozier, Gary; Lee, Shoou-Yih; Zeldin, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop an oral health literacy instrument for Spanish-speaking adults, evaluate its psychometric properties, and determine its comparability to an English version. Methods The Oral Health Literacy Assessment in Spanish (OHLA-S) and English (OHLA-E) are designed with a word recognition section and a comprehension section using the multiple-choice format developed by an expert panel. Validation of OHLA-S and OHLA-E involved comparing the instrument with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 204 English-speaking subjects. Comparability between Spanish and English versions was assessed by testing for differential item functioning (DIF) using item response theory. Results We considered three OHLA-S scoring systems. Based on validity and reliability comparisons, 24 items were retained in the OHLA-S instrument. OHLA-S was correlated with another health literacy instrument, Spanish Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were also found between OHLA-S and years of schooling, oral health knowledge, overall health, and an understanding of written health-care materials (P < 0.05). OHLA-S displayed satisfactory reliability with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.70-0.80. DIF results suggested that OHLA-S and OHLA-E scores were not comparable at a given level of oral health literacy. Conclusions OHLA-S has acceptable reliability and validity. OHLA-S and OHLA-E are two different measurement tools and should not be used to compare oral health literacy between English- and Spanish-speaking populations. PMID:23215757

  8. Strategies and approaches in oral disease prevention and health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    Oral health is an important element of general health and well-being. Although largely preventable, many people across the world still suffer unnecessarily from the pain and discomfort associated with oral diseases. In addition, the costs of dental treatment are high, both to the individual and to society. Effective evidence-based preventive approaches are needed to address this major public health problem. The aim of this paper is to outline public health strategies to promote oral health and reduce inequalities. An extensive collection of public health policy documents produced by WHO are reviewed to guide the development of oral health strategies. In addition a range of Cochrane and other systematic reviews assessing the evidence base for oral health interventions are summarized. Public health strategies should tackle the underlying social determinants of oral health through the adoption of a common risk approach. Isolated interventions which merely focus on changing oral health behaviours will not achieve sustainable improvements in oral health. Radical public health action on the conditions which determine unhealthy behaviours across the population is needed rather than relying solely on the high-risk approach. Based upon the Ottawa Charter, a range of complementary strategies can be implemented in partnership with relevant local, national and international agencies. At the core of this public health approach is the need to empower local communities to become actively involved in efforts to promote their oral health. PMID:16211164

  9. A Population Health Management Approach to Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jeff; Phillips, Kathryn E

    2016-03-01

    Clinical outcomes have been shown to be better, and total costs lower, when patients with chronic illness such as diabetes are managed using a population health strategy in a primary care setting that includes structured coordination of care with specialty services. This "population health management approach" offers a promising new vision for addressing oral disease as a chronic illness through a collaborative partnership between primary care teams and dental professionals. PMID:27044237

  10. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  11. Oral Health Measurement in Nursing Research: State of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cindy L.; Grap, Mary Jo; Jablonski, Rita; Boyle, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Oral health can impact general health and systemic disease. Changes in dental plaque, oral microbial flora, and local oral immunity may be important in the development or exacerbation of disease in critically ill patients, trauma patients, adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frail elderly. Inasmuch as oral health potentially can be influenced by nursing interventions, nursing research in this area can contribute greatly to improved patient outcomes in these diverse populations. The authors’ research teams have conducted several federally funded projects focused on oral health and have developed synergy in research methods. A unifying theme for these research projects is the measurement of oral health. Standardized measures of components of oral health are available and applicable across populations, and their uses and relationship to nursing research and patient outcomes will be discussed. PMID:16766627

  12. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalization of OHTs, highlighting the triggering, limiting and conflicting aspects that exerted an influence on the historical progress of these professionals in Brazil. We have tested Abbott’s and Larson’s theory on professionalization, against the history of OHTs. A number of different dental corporative interests exerted an influence over professionalization, especially in discussions regarding the permissible activities of these professionals in the oral cavity of patients. With primary health care advances in Brazil, the importance of these professionals has once again come to the forefront. This seems to be a key point in the consolidation of OHTs in the area of human resources for health in Brazil. PMID:22520155

  13. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians.

    PubMed

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalization of OHTs, highlighting the triggering, limiting and conflicting aspects that exerted an influence on the historical progress of these professionals in Brazil. We have tested Abbott's and Larson's theory on professionalization, against the history of OHTs. A number of different dental corporative interests exerted an influence over professionalization, especially in discussions regarding the permissible activities of these professionals in the oral cavity of patients. With primary health care advances in Brazil, the importance of these professionals has once again come to the forefront. This seems to be a key point in the consolidation of OHTs in the area of human resources for health in Brazil. PMID:22520155

  14. Oral Health Knowledge, Past Oral Health Behaviors, and Barriers to Preventive Oral Care of Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…

  15. Milestones in oral health services in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Margaret; Harding, M; Whelton, H; O'Mullane, D

    2012-01-01

    With the many changes occurring in Ireland it would seem an opportune time to review the body of research conducted and policy enacted in the Republic of Ireland on oral health services and oral health. The dental health of the nation prior to water fluoridation, the legislation and policy decisions impacting on oral health up to budgetary changes, and the production of evidence-based guidelines will be discussed. The first national survey of dental health was conducted in Ireland in 1952 - 'Dental Caries in Ireland'. In the intervening 60 years, further surveys of the oral health of people in Ireland have been carried out. Legislation, surveys and policy documents that have shaped dentistry and the oral health of the population are set out in Tables 1 and 2. A more comprehensive description of the policies can be found in the thesis submitted in fulfilment of Masters in Dental Public Health (MDPH) by the lead author. PMID:22888574

  16. Oral Health Promotion in Schools: Rationale and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…

  17. Oral health risks of tobacco use and effects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Dietrich, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M; Casals Peidró, Elías; Preshaw, Philip M; Walter, Clemens; Wennström, Jan L; Bergström, Jan

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic evidence for the effects of tobacco use and tobacco use cessation on a variety of oral diseases and conditions. Exposures considered include cigarette and bidi smoking, pipe and cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. Oral diseases and disorders considered include oral cancer and precancer, periodontal disease, caries and tooth loss, gingival recession and other benign mucosal disorders as well as implant failure. Particular attention is given to the impact of tobacco use cessation on oral health outcomes. We conclude that robust epidemiologic evidence exists for adverse oral health effects of tobacco smoking and other types of tobacco use. In addition, there is compelling evidence to support significant benefits of tobacco use cessation with regard to various oral health outcomes. Substantial oral health benefits can be expected from abstention and successful smoking cessation in a variety of populations across all ages. PMID:20361572

  18. Oral and craniofacial manifestations of multiple sclerosis: implications for the oral health care provider.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-Q; Meng, Y

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition affecting sensory and motor nerve transmission. Its progression and symptoms are unpredictable and vary from person to person as well as over time. Symptoms of orofacial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, spasticity, spasms, tremor, fatigue, depression and progressive disability, impact on the individual's ability to maintain oral health, cope with dental treatment and access dental services. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause dry mouth and associated oral disease. There is no cure for multiple sclerosis, and treatment focuses on prevention of disability and maintenance of quality of life. The oral health care team plays an essential role in ensuring that oral health impacts positively on general health. This review highlights the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, oral and craniofacial manifestations and their management, and oral health care considerations in patients with MS. PMID:26698259

  19. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  20. Association of parental health literacy with oral health of Navajo Nation preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Brega, A G; Thomas, J F; Henderson, W G; Batliner, T S; Quissell, D O; Braun, P A; Wilson, A; Bryant, L L; Nadeau, K J; Albino, J

    2016-02-01

    Health literacy is 'the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions'. Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale studies have assessed these relationships among American Indians, a population at risk for limited health literacy and oral health problems. This analysis was conducted as part of a clinical trial aimed at reducing dental decay among preschoolers in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Using baseline data for 1016 parent-child dyads, we examined the association of parental health literacy with parents' oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, as well as indicators of parental and pediatric oral health. More limited health literacy was associated with lower levels of oral health knowledge, more negative oral health attitudes, and lower levels of adherence to recommended oral health behavior. Parents with more limited health literacy also had significantly worse oral health status (OHS) and reported their children to have significantly worse oral health-related quality of life. These results highlight the importance of oral health promotion interventions that are sensitive to the needs of participants with limited health literacy. PMID:26612050

  1. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  2. Maternal oral health predicts their children's caries experience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shearer, D M; Thomson, W M; Broadbent, J M; Poulton, R

    2011-05-01

    The long-term effects of poor maternal oral health are unknown. We determined whether maternal oral health when children were young was a risk indicator for caries experience in adulthood, using oral examination and interview data from age-5 and age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study, and maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment. The main outcome measure was probands' caries status at age 32. Analyses involved 835 individuals (82.3% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. There was a consistent gradient in age-32 caries experience across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status (from the age-5 assessment): it was greatest among the probands whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor" or who were edentulous, and lowest among those whose mothers rated their oral health as "excellent". Unfavorable maternal self-rated oral health when children are young should be regarded as a risk indicator for poor oral health among offspring as they reach adulthood. PMID:21248361

  3. Oral Health of Drug Abusers: A Review of Health Effects and Care

    PubMed Central

    SHEKARCHIZADEH, Hajar; KHAMI, Mohammad R.; MOHEBBI, Simin Z.; EKHTIARI, Hamed; VIRTANEN, Jorma I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Oral health problems, among the most prevalent comorbidities related to addiction, require more attention by both clinicians and policy-makers. Our aims were to review oral complications associated with drugs, oral health care in addiction rehabilitation, health services available, and barriers against oral health promotion among addicts. Drug abuse is associated with serious oral health problems including generalized dental caries, periodontal diseases, mucosal dysplasia, xerostomia, bruxism, tooth wear, and tooth loss. Oral health care has positive effects in recovery from drug abuse: patients’ need for pain control, destigmatization, and HIV transmission. Health care systems worldwide deliver services for addicts, but most lack oral health care programs. Barriers against oral health promotion among addicts include difficulty in accessing addicts as a target population, lack of appropriate settings and of valid assessment protocols for conducting oral health studies, and poor collaboration between dental and general health care sectors serving addicts. These interfere with an accurate picture of the situation. Moreover, lack of appropriate policies to improve access to dental services, lack of comprehensive knowledge of and interest among dental professionals in treating addicts, and low demand for non-emergency dental care affect provision of effective interventions. Management of drug addiction as a multi-organ disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. Health care programs usually lack oral health care elements. Published evidence on oral complications related to addiction emphasizes that regardless of these barriers, oral health care at various levels including education, prevention, and treatment should be integrated into general care services for addicts. PMID:26060654

  4. The oral health benefits of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Michael W J

    2012-01-01

    The use of sugar-free gum provides a proven anti-caries benefit, but other oral health effects are less clearly elucidated. Chewing sugar-free chewing gum promotes a strong flow of stimulated saliva, which helps to provide a number of dental benefits: first, the higher flow rate promotes more rapid oral clearance of sugars; second, the high pH and buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva help to neutralise plaque pH after a sugar challenge; and, lastly, studies have shown enhanced remineralisation of early caries-like lesions and ultimately prospective clinical trials have shown reduced caries incidence in children chewing sugar-free gum. This paper reviews the scientific evidence for these functional claims and discusses other benefits, including plaque and extrinsic stain reduction, along with the possibility of adding specific active agents, including fluoride, antimicrobials, urea and calcium phosphates, to enhance these inherent effects. The evidence for a specific effect of xylitol as a caries-therapeutic agent is also discussed. In conclusion, it is asserted that chewing gum has a place as an additional mode of dental disease prevention to be used in conjunction with the more traditional preventive methods. PMID:23573702

  5. Inequalities in oral health: the role of sociology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L B; Blake, M; Baker, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper seeks to identify an important point of contact between the literature on inequalities in oral health and the sociology of power. The paper begins by exploring the problem of social inequalities in oral health from the point of view of human freedom. It then goes on to briefly consider why inequalities in oral health matter before providing a brief overview of current approaches to reducing inequalities in oral health. After this the paper briefly introduces the problem of power in sociology before going on to outline why the problem of power matters in the problem of inequalities in oral health. Here the paper discusses how two key principles associated with the social bond have become central to how we think about health related inequalities. These principles are the principle of treating everyone the same (the principle of autonomy) and the related principle of allowing everyone to pursue their own goals (the principle of intimacy). These principles are outlined and subsequently discussed in detail with application to debates about interventions to reduce oral health related inequalities including that of water fluoridation. The paper highlights how the 'Childsmile' programme in Scotland appears to successfully negotiate the tensions inherent in attempting to do something about inequalities in oral health. It then concludes by highlighting some of the tensions that remain in attempting to alleviate oral health related inequalities. PMID:27352473

  6. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  7. Social determinants of health and oral health: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Viral V.; Rajesh, G.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2015-01-01

    Several conventional approaches have been tried in the past to resolve health inequities in India. However, achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is yet to be fully realized as the benefits have been meager. The recent concept of targeting social determinants of general and oral health in order to achieve health for all has shown positive results in the developed as well as the developing nations. Based on the framework recommended by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, several policies have been introduced and suitably backed up with the intention of providing health care even to people living in remote sections of the society. This paper intends to highlight the rationale for social determinants approach in Indian context, its application and future recommendations for the same. It is considered as a radical approach, and adequate measures have been implemented by health systems to achieve the desired targets without delay. However, in order to achieve UHC, redistribution of the available resources and converting the “normative” needs into “felt” needs of the people is going to be an uphill task to accomplish. PMID:26500407

  8. An Oral Health Education Program for Latino Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ruth M.; Canham, Daryl; Cureton, Virginia Young

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of dental caries in the pediatric population is a major health problem. At highest risk are low-income minority groups, including refugee and immigrant populations. Consequences of oral disease include pain, difficulty eating and speaking, poor school performance, and poor self-esteem. Parent involvement in oral health education…

  9. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

  10. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health.

    PubMed

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. RESUMO Este estudo descreve a produção científica sobre saúde bucal veiculada na Revista de Saúde Pública, nos cinquenta anos de sua publicação. Foi realizado estudo de revisão narrativa, utilizando o PubMed como mecanismo de busca que indexa todos os fascículos da revista. De 1967 a 2015, foram publicados 162 manuscritos com foco específico em temas de saúde bucal. Essa temática esteve presente em todos os volumes da revista, com participação crescente ao longo dos anos. Cárie dentária foi o tema mais estudado, marcando presença constante na revista desde seu primeiro fascículo. Doença periodontal, fluorose, oclusopatias e outros temas emergiram antes mesmo do declínio dos indicadores de cárie. Políticas de saúde bucal é o tema mais recorrente nas duas últimas décadas. A Revista de Saúde Pública tem sido importante veículo de divulgação, comunicação e reflexão sobre saúde bucal, contribuindo de modo relevante para a interação técnico-científica entre os

  11. Oral Health Education for Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Students

    PubMed Central

    Golinveaux, Jay; Gerbert, Barbara; Cheng, Jing; Duderstadt, Karen; Alkon, Abbey; Mullen, Shirin; Lin, Brent; Miller, Arthur; Zhan, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an interdisciplinary, multifaceted oral health education program delivered to pediatric nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco, would improve their knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the provision of oral health assessments, consultations, referrals, and services to young children during well-child visits. Thirty pediatric nurse practitioner students were included in the study. Participants completed a written survey before and after receiving an interdisciplinary educational intervention that included didactic education, simulation exercises, and clinical observation by a pediatric dental resident. Between pre-intervention and post-intervention, a significant improvement was seen in the pediatric nurse practitioners’ knowledge of oral health topics (p<0.001), confidence when providing oral health counseling (p<0.001), and attitudes about including oral health counseling in their examinations (p=0.006). In the post-intervention survey, 83 percent of the subjects reported having incorporated oral examinations into their well-child visits. Our study suggests that providing an interdisciplinary oral health educational program for pediatric nurse practitioner students can improve their knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the incorporation of oral health care services during routine well-child visits. PMID:23658403

  12. Behavioral pathways explaining oral health disparity in children.

    PubMed

    Gao, X-L; Hsu, C-Y S; Xu, Y C; Loh, T; Koh, D; Hwarng, H B

    2010-09-01

    Policymakers' understanding of and ability to reduce health disparities are pivotal for health promotion worldwide. This study aimed to verify the behavioral pathways leading to oral health disparities. Oral examinations were conducted for 1782 randomly selected preschoolers (3-6 yrs), and 1576 (88.4%) participants were followed up after 12 months. Parents were surveyed on their knowledge (K), attitude (A), and practices (P) regarding their children's oral health homecare (infant feeding, diet, and oral hygiene) and dental attendance. Structural equation modeling substantiated the links between specific KAs and corresponding practices, while generic KA did not affect practices. KAP pathways partly explained the ethnic and socio-economic disparities in oral health. Deprivation had a direct effect (not mediated by KA) on dental attendance, but not on oral health homecare. Ethnicity directly influenced oral health homecare practices, but not dental attendance. These behavioral pathways, furthering our understanding of health disparity, may have practical implications for health promotion and policy-making. PMID:20554887

  13. Toward improving the oral health of Americans: an overview of oral health status, resources, and care delivery. Oral Health Coordinating Committee, Public Health Service.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Dental and oral diseases may well be the most prevalent and preventable conditions affecting Americans. More than 50 percent of U.S. children, 96 percent of employed U.S. adults, and 99.5 percent of Americans 65 years and older have experienced dental caries (also called cavities). Millions of Americans suffer from periodontal diseases and other oral conditions, and more than 17 million Americans, including 10 million Americans 65 years or older, have lost all of their teeth. Preventive dental services are known to be effective in preventing and controlling dental diseases. Unfortunately, groups at highest risk for disease--the poor and minorities--have lower rates of using dental care than the U.S. average. Cost is the principal barrier to dental care for many Americans. Of the $38.7 billion spent for dental services in 1992, public programs, including Medicaid, paid for less than 4 percent of dental expenditures. More than 90 percent of care was paid for either out-of-pocket by dental consumers or through private dental insurance. Americans are at risk for other oral health problems as well. Oropharyngeal cancer strikes approximately 30,000 Americans each year and results in an estimated 8,000 deaths annually. Underlying medical or handicapping conditions, ranging from rare genetic diseases to more common chronic diseases, affect millions of Americans and can lead to oral health problems. Among persons with compromised immune systems, oral diseases and conditions can have a significant impact on health. Oral diseases and conditions, though nearly universal, can be prevented easily and controlled at reasonable cost.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8265750

  14. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  15. Making oral health a priority in your preventive pediatric visits.

    PubMed

    Silk, Hugh

    2010-02-01

    Oral health is a prevalent health issue for children. Pediatricians have an important role in screening, educating, and making referrals during well-child visits. Advice must be age-specific to be effective. Topics to be covered include hygiene, diet, habits, fluoride, and referrals to dentists. Other members of the office can play a role in educating care givers. Special needs children and literacy issues demand extra attention in oral health management. There are many oral health resources available for pediatricians and parents. PMID:20080516

  16. Improving children's oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

    PubMed

    Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K

    2014-10-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. PMID:25122218

  17. Ethnicity, aging, and oral health outcomes: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R M; Davidson, P L

    1997-05-01

    An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a "systems" perspective. The framework posits that characteristics of the external environment, the dental care delivery system, and the personal characteristics of the population influence oral health behaviors. The expanded behavioral model conceptualizes health behaviors (oral hygiene practices and dental services utilization) as intermediate dependent variables, which in turn influence oral health outcomes (evaluated, perceived, patient satisfaction). The framework is presented with an increased focus on the effects of race-ethnicity and age cohort, the major exogenous variables used in this study for systematic assessment of the differences in the multitude of factors influencing oral health. The framework can be applied by policy analysis and health services managers to help describe, predict, and explain population-based health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:9549985

  18. Plant polyphenols and oral health: old phytochemicals for new fields.

    PubMed

    Varoni, E M; Lodi, G; Sardella, A; Carrassi, A; Iriti, M

    2012-01-01

    Despite the protective role of diets rich in fruit plant polyphenols against some cancers and chronic degenerative and inflammatory diseases, insufficient emphasis has been placed on oral health. Numerous studies have aimed to ascertain the role of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of oral diseases; however, even when in vitro evidence appears convincing, the same is not true for in vivo studies, and thus there is a general paucity of solid evidence based on animal and clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, only two reviews of polyphenols and oral health have been published; however, neither considered the potential role of whole plant extracts, which contain mixtures of many polyphenols that are often not completely identified. In the present study, our main aim was to review the current state of knowledge (search period: January 1965 to March 2011) on the effects of plant extracts/polyphenols on oral health. We found data on grapes, berries, tea, cocoa, coffee, myrtle, chamomile, honey/propolis, aloe extracts and the three main groups of polyphenols (stilbenes, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins). Their effects on caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease, candidiasis, oral aphtae, oral mucositis, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and oral cancer were investigated. The data suggest that there is a lack of strong evidence, in particular regarding randomized clinical trials. However, a fascinating starting point has been provided by pre-clinical studies that have shown interesting activities of polyphenols against the most common oral diseases (caries, periodontitis and candidiasis), as well as in oral cancer prevention. PMID:22376030

  19. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies. PMID:26130261

  20. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    PubMed

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs. PMID:26545270

  1. Self-Ligating Brackets and Their Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescence Patients: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Zheng, MinLing; Lin, Jiaqiang; Wang, Yi; Ni, Zhen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Although the associations between orthodontic and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) have been explored, little research has been done to address the influence of brackets type on perceived OHRQOL. The aim of this study was to assess whether the levels of OHRQOL in Chinese adolescence patients were influenced by the type of brackets. Materials and Methods. One hundred fifty Chinese orthodontic adolescence patients completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Chinese version) at five distinct intervals: after insertion of the fixed appliance at 1 week (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T4); and after treatment (T5). Results. Patients with self-ligating brackets were associated with less pain and discomfort at any intervals compared with conventional brackets, but no significant difference of overall OHIP-14 scores could be found between two groups. Moreover, in both groups, overall scores at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than the scores at any other intervals in both groups. Conclusions. The type of orthodontic appliance did not affect oral health-related quality of life in Chinese adolescence patients. PMID:25202720

  2. Consensus statement: Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Fine, P; Haddad, F; Loosemore, M; de Medici, A; Donos, N; Newton, T; van Someren, K; Moazzez, R; Jaques, R; Hunter, G; Khan, K; Shimmin, M; Brewer, J; Meehan, L; Mills, S; Porter, S

    2014-11-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25415018

  3. Understanding the Research–Policy Divide for Oral Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Erica; Crocombe, Leonard; Campbell, Steven; Goldberg, Lynette R.; Seidel, Bastian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: No studies exist of the congruence of research in oral health to policy. This study aimed to examine the broad congruence of oral health research to policy, and implications for developing oral health research that is more policy relevant, particularly for the wider challenge of addressing unequal oral health outcomes, rather than specific policy translation issues. Methods: Bayesian-based software was used in a multi-layered method to compare the conceptual content of 127,193 oral health research abstracts published between 2000–2012 with eight current oral health policy documents from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Findings: Fifty-five concepts defined the research abstracts, of which only eight were policy-relevant, and six of which were minor research concepts. Conclusions The degree of disconnection between clinical concepts and healthcare system and workforce development concepts was striking. This study shows that, far from being “lost in translation,” oral health research and policy are so different as to raise doubts about the extent to which research is policy-relevant and policy is research-based. The notion of policy relevance encompasses the lack of willingness of policy makers to embrace research, and the need for researchers to develop research that is, and is seen to be, policy-relevant. PMID:25617516

  4. Significant Unmet Oral Health Needs Among the Homebound Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, Katherine A.; DeCherrie, Linda; Gluzman, Rima; Scott, Elizabeth S.; Kansal, Jyoti; Shah, Tushin; Katz, Ralph; Soriano, Theresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Older adults with serious illness are increasingly becoming homebound. By nature of their homebound status they lack access to basic services including dental care. We conducted a study to assess the oral health status, dental utilization and dental needs of the homebound elderly and to determine whether medical diagnoses or demographic factors influenced perceived oral health. Design Cross-sectional analysis Methods A total of 125 homebound patients received a comprehensive clinical examination in their home by a trained dental research team and completed a dental utilization and needs survey as well as the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Results Patients who reported a high level of unmet oral health needs were more likely to be non-white, although this effect was not significant in multivariate analysis. Individual medical diagnoses and the presence of multiple comorbidities were not associated with unmet oral health needs. Conclusions The oral health status of the homebound elderly regardless of their medical diagnoses was poor. High unmet oral health needs combined with strong desire to receive dental care suggests there is an imperative need to improve access to dental care for this growing population. In addition to improving awareness among geriatricians and primary care providers who care for the homebound, the medical community must partner with the dental community to develop home-based programs for older adults. PMID:25537919

  5. Oral health awareness in Croatian and Italian urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuković-Bagić, Ivana; Dumancić, Jelena; Nuzzolese, Emilio; Marusić, Miljenko; Lepore, Maria Maddalena

    2012-03-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate and compare differences in oral health awareness between Croatian and Italian urban adolescents. The sample consisted of primary school last grade students aged between 13 and 15 years, 300 children from Zagreb (Croatia) and 298 children from Bari (Italy). Oral health awareness was evaluated using a self-administered standardized questionnaire. Self-perception of oral health proved to be different between the two groups (p < 0.001). The Croatians reported that their oral health was "excellent" or "very-good" more often than the Italians (68.6% vs. 50.2%). The reasons given for visiting a dentist were different (p < 0.001). The Italians cleaned their teeth more often than the Croatians ("two or more times a day", 83.1% vs. 72.2%, p < 0.003). Wooden toothpicks were preferred by the Croatians (p < 0.001), while floss was preferred by the Italians (p = 0.03). The awareness regarding the use of fluoridated toothpaste was higher in the Italian group (95.6% vs. 72.5%, p < 0.001). The Croatians were consuming sweetened foods more often than the Italians (p < 0.001). Croatian adolescents reported more indicators of a lower level of oral health awareness than the Italians, while on the contrary Croatians had higher esteem of their oral health. Defining national preventive strategies is essential for improving adolescents' attitudes toward oral health in both countries, particularly in Croatia. PMID:22816224

  6. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  7. The evaluation of a multi-level oral health intervention to improve oral health practices among caregivers of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Steckler, Allan; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Lexomboon, Duangjai

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. This study reports the effects of a pilot multi-level oral health intervention on caregivers' oral health practices and their determinants. Quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest evaluations using a comparison group design were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed intervention for promoting caregiver oral health behavior. The intervention consisted of three components: home visits by lay health workers (LHWs), enhancing oral health education and services at health centers, and community mobilization. These components were designed to target factors at intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational and community levels based on a Social Ecological Model (SEM). Four oral health behaviors associated with early childhood caries (infant bottle feeding, tooth brushing, snack consumption and fluoride use), and multi-level determinants were assessed during pre- and post-tests. The one-year intervention demonstrated a positive effect on tooth brushing, using toothpaste, and fluoride supplements, but did not have a significant effect on bottle feeding and snack consumption among children. The intervention also had no effect on dental caries; in fact caries increased in both control and experimental groups. The caregiver knowledge, attitudes, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy towards these behaviors were significantly increased in the experimental group after intervention. Caregivers in the experimental group received greater social support by LHWs and health center staff than those in the control group (p < 0.001). The program had an impact on integrating oral health services at health centers and community participation in children's oral health. These findings confirm multi-level factors influence reported oral health behavior, but not outcomes in terms of caries. Process evaluation is needed to determine actual implementation levels, barriers and suggests for modification of the program in the future to improve outcomes in terms of caries. PMID

  8. Oral Health Screening Using a Caries Detection Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetuan, Theresa M.; McGlasson, Dawn; Meyer, Ileen

    2005-01-01

    Children from low-income families are more likely to have dental disease and less likely to have regular dental care. Children's dental-related illnesses are responsible for more than 880,000 lost school days each year. The lack of reliable state-level data often makes monitoring the oral health of children a challenge. By conducting oral health…

  9. Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Context The effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear. Objective To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease. Methods Oral examination and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected on this occasion. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for caries/tooth loss (high risk and low risk) based on parents’ self-reported history of tooth loss at the age-32 assessment interview. Main outcome measures Probands’ dental caries and tooth loss status at age 32, together with lifelong dental caries trajectory (age 5–32). Results Caries/tooth-loss risk analysis was conducted for 640 proband-parents groups. Referent groups were the low-familial-risk groups. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, episodic use of dental services, socio-economic status and plaque trajectory), the prevalence ratio (PR) for having lost 1+ teeth by age 32 for the high-familial-risk group was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.88) and the rate ratio for DMFS at age 32 was 1.41 (95% CI 1.24, 1.60). In the high-familial-risk group, the PR of following a high caries trajectory was 2.05 (95% CI 1.37, 3.06). Associations were strongest when information was available about both parents’ oral health. Nonetheless, when information was available for one parent only, associations were significant for some proband outcomes. Conclusions People with poor oral health tend to have parents with poor oral health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the intricacies of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s oral health status. Associations were strongest when data from both parents can be obtained. PMID:22022823

  10. Measuring and decomposing oral health inequalities in an UK population

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Wildman, John; Steele, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With health inequalities high on the policy agenda, this study measures oral health inequalities in the UK. Methods We compare an objective clinical measure of oral health (number of natural teeth) with a self-reported measure of the impact of oral health (the Oral Health Impact Profile, OHIP) to establish whether the type of measure affects the scale of inequality measured. Gini coefficients and Concentration Indices (CIs) are calculated with subsequent decompositions using data from the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health Survey. Because the information on OHIP is only available on dentate individuals, analyses on the number of natural teeth are conducted for two samples – the entire sample and the sample with dentate individuals only, the latter to allow direct comparison with OHIP. Results We find considerable overall pure oral health inequalities (number of teeth: Gini = 0.68 (including edentate), Gini = 0.40 (excluding edentate); OHIP: Gini = 0.33) and income-related inequalities for both measures (number of teeth: CI = 0.35 (including edentate), CI = 0.15 (excluding edentate); OHIP: CI = 0.03), and the CI is generally higher for the number of teeth than for OHIP. There are differences across age groups, with CI increasing with age for the number of teeth (excluding edentate: 16–30 years: CI = 0.01, 65 + years: CI = 0.11; including edentate: 16–30 years: CI = 0.01, 65 + years: CI = 0.19). However, inequalities for OHIP were highest in the youngest age group (CI = 0.05). Number of teeth reflects the accumulation of damage over a lifetime, while OHIP records more immediate concerns. Conclusions There are considerable pure oral health inequalities and income-related oral health inequalities in the UK. Using sophisticated methods to measure oral health inequality, we have been able to compare inequality in oral health with inequality in general health. The results provide a benchmark for future comparisons but also indicate that the type of health

  11. Reducing Oral Health Disparities: A Focus on Social and Cultural Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Donald L; Lee, Rosanna Shuk Yin; Nucci, Michele; Grembowski, David; Jolles, Carol Zane; Milgrom, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Oral health is essential to the general health and well-being of individuals and the population. Yet significant oral health disparities persist in the U.S. population because of a web of influences that include complex cultural and social processes that affect both oral health and access to effective dental health care. This paper introduces an organizing framework for addressing oral health disparities. We present and discuss how the multiple influences on oral health and oral health disparities operate using this framework. Interventions targeted at different causal pathways bring new directions and implications for research and policy in reducing oral health disparities. PMID:16934121

  12. Social capital: theory, evidence, and implications for oral health.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions. PMID:25533022

  13. Interdisciplinary Delivery of Oral Health Care Student-Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Sandy; Branson, Bonnie G.; Lackey, Nancy R.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 23 of 37 area health education center project directors revealed that dental and dental hygiene students participated in interdisciplinary allied health studies. Oral health care education was delivered across disciplines; methods included problem-based learning and reflection. (SK)

  14. The “Sniffin' Kids” Test - A 14-Item Odor Identification Test for Children

    PubMed Central

    Schriever, Valentin A.; Mori, Eri; Petters, Wenke; Boerner, Carolin; Smitka, Martin; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tools for measuring olfactory function in adults have been well established. Although studies have shown that olfactory impairment in children may occur as a consequence of a number of diseases or head trauma, until today no consensus on how to evaluate the sense of smell in children exists in Europe. Aim of the study was to develop a modified “Sniffin' Sticks” odor identification test, the “Sniffin' Kids” test for the use in children. In this study 537 children between 6-17 years of age were included. Fourteen odors, which were identified at a high rate by children, were selected from the “Sniffin' Sticks” 16-item odor identification test. Normative date for the 14-item “Sniffin' Kids” odor identification test was obtained. The test was validated by including a group of congenital anosmic children. Results show that the “Sniffin' Kids” test is able to discriminate between normosmia and anosmia with a cutoff value of >7 points on the odor identification test. In addition the test-retest reliability was investigated in a group of 31 healthy children and shown to be ρ = 0.44. With the 14-item odor identification “Sniffin' Kids” test we present a valid and reliable test for measuring olfactory function in children between ages 6–17 years. PMID:24979650

  15. The "Sniffin' Kids" test--a 14-item odor identification test for children.

    PubMed

    Schriever, Valentin A; Mori, Eri; Petters, Wenke; Boerner, Carolin; Smitka, Martin; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tools for measuring olfactory function in adults have been well established. Although studies have shown that olfactory impairment in children may occur as a consequence of a number of diseases or head trauma, until today no consensus on how to evaluate the sense of smell in children exists in Europe. Aim of the study was to develop a modified "Sniffin' Sticks" odor identification test, the "Sniffin' Kids" test for the use in children. In this study 537 children between 6-17 years of age were included. Fourteen odors, which were identified at a high rate by children, were selected from the "Sniffin' Sticks" 16-item odor identification test. Normative date for the 14-item "Sniffin' Kids" odor identification test was obtained. The test was validated by including a group of congenital anosmic children. Results show that the "Sniffin' Kids" test is able to discriminate between normosmia and anosmia with a cutoff value of >7 points on the odor identification test. In addition the test-retest reliability was investigated in a group of 31 healthy children and shown to be ρ = 0.44. With the 14-item odor identification "Sniffin' Kids" test we present a valid and reliable test for measuring olfactory function in children between ages 6-17 years. PMID:24979650

  16. [Oral health care by utilizing food function].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans to develop therapeutic tools against oral diseases such as oral candidiasis. C. albicans, a dimorphic fungus, is a component of the healthy human microbial flora. However, the excessive overgrowth of C. albicans causes oral candidiasis, and the symptoms, accompanied by severe inflammation, reduce the quality of life of elderly people. We found that spices such as clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) exhibit inhibitory activity against Candida mycelial growth and show therapeutic efficacy in a murine oral candidiasis model. Our studies also demonstrated that the inhibitory activity of cinnamaldehyde was strengthened in parallel with a prolonged treatment time. Furthermore, when cinnamaldehyde in combination with methylcellulose was administered to the model mice, the therapeutic effect was potentiated. Here, we summarize up-to-date findings on how to use spices and herbs on a daily basis to improve or prevent oral problems such as oral candidiasis with the presentation of our recent data. PMID:25742994

  17. Oral health promotion and prevention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Erickson, L

    1997-10-01

    An oral health promotion and prevention program customized to individual needs begins with a thorough assessment of function and risk profile for dental diseases. Toothbrushes and interproximal cleaners can be selected or adapted to meet special needs of older adults. Fluoride use based on caries risk is an important adjunct to any prevention program. Other preventive agents such as chlorhexidine rinses and xylitol gum supplement the program as risk factors increase or when health and disability limit the ability to effectively perform oral hygiene procedures. Oral cancer screening examination is advocated on a regular basis for all older persons. PMID:9344275

  18. Oral health related quality of life in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  19. Oral health knowledge and habits of senior elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M E; Coulby, W M

    1991-01-01

    Despite improvements in children's dental health, and significant resource allocation to health education programs, few recent studies have investigated the associations of oral health knowledge, behaviors, and status. This study of 11-year-old children (N = 6,329) in northeastern Ontario used a supervised self-complete questionnaire and a clinical examination to gather baseline data on, and test associations of, caries and periodontal knowledge, self-reported oral health behaviors and source of knowledge, and oral health status. Results show the children had poor knowledge of caries preventive measures such as water fluoridation, dental sealants, and choice of snack foods. Periodontal knowledge was better, but children confused plaque and calculus. Respondents claimed good oral health habits, with 73 percent claiming to brush at least twice daily, 88 percent claiming to use toothpaste, 42 percent claim to floss at least twice weekly, and 84 percent claiming an annual dental visit. Children with the best knowledge claimed dentist and school as the sources. High knowledge was associated with good oral health habits (P less than .001) and low DMFT score (P less than .001). Good habits were not related to DMFT score (P = .1095). Logistic regression showed high knowledge was associated with English cultural status, urban school area, good habits, having a dental sealant, and attending a fluoride-rinse school (P less than .05). Findings suggest a need to reinforce caries preventive teaching, to investigate the effect of cultural status, dental experience, and residence status on oral health knowledge, and to further test the efficacy of different oral health education programs delivered by different sources. PMID:1941772

  20. Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health

    PubMed Central

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders. PMID:24600192

  1. Preventive strategies in oral health for special needs patients

    PubMed Central

    Vozza, Iole; Cavallè, Edoardo; Corridore, Denise; Ripari, Francesca; Spota, Andrea; Brugnoletti, Orlando; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Summary As regards to the most common oral disease in pediatric patients, intellectual disability is not a risk factor for caries disease itself, but it rather reduces the individual capability to self-care and therefore to his own oral care. Children suffering of systemic pathologies and/or with different stages of disability are to be considered at high risk for dental caries development. According to recent guidelines for oral health prevention in childhood, individual additional strategies for a preventive care should be applied for these patients. All the health providers, family and caregivers should be involved with the aim of being aware, motivated and informed on oral health issues, and a better access system to the dental care structure, both logistic, professional and economical should be assured. PMID:26941896

  2. Oral health policy issues for women and children.

    PubMed

    Allukian, M

    1990-01-01

    A meaningful national oral health policy is essential to have an impact on the oral health of women and children in our country. The federal government must exert strong leadership to promote oral health as an integral component of total health. The public and private sectors of the dental and health professions must work together in developing, promoting, and supporting this policy on the local, state, and national level to make an impact on the oral health of the people of our nation. This policy must include incentives, resources, evaluation, and community participation, to assure that the purpose of the policy is achieved. Mark Twain once said: "Even if you are on the right track, you will get run over if you just sit still." A national policy by itself is not enough. This policy must also include an implementation strategy with constituency support and advocacy so that the policy is implemented in an effective manner through organized community efforts to improve the oral health of women, children, and our nation. PMID:2286949

  3. Association of Parental Health Literacy with Oral Health of Navajo Nation Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, A. G.; Thomas, J. F.; Henderson, W. G.; Batliner, T. S.; Quissell, D. O.; Braun, P. A.; Wilson, A.; Bryant, L. L.; Nadeau, K. J.; Albino, J.

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is "the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions". Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale…

  4. Oral Health in Children with Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Kalra, Gauri

    2012-01-01

    Leukemia is one of the most common malignancies affecting children in India. These children usually suffer from various oral complications, which may be due to the leukemia or due to the chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiotherapy. The complications may include some of the opportunistic infections like candidiasis, herpes simplex; hemorrhage, mucositis, taste alterations and increased incidence of dental caries etc. These complications can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various oral complications in these children and the methods of prevention and management. PMID:22837605

  5. Association of Oral Health Indicators with Quality-of-Life Related to Oral Health among Iranian Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Maryam; Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the development and use of oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) measures in the past two decades. This study aimed to assess the association between OHRQoL and clinical oral health measures, among mid-level school children in Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random cluster sample of 11-13 year-old student population. Consented participants interviewed for OHRQoL measurements using Persian version of child-oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP). Oral examination was done by a trained dentist using WHO oral health assessment form, version 2011. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20 using Mann–Whitney and correlation tests. Results: A total of 400 school children participated. The overall mean of decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.76 ± 2.4. A total of 82% of the school children presented the impact of oral problems in at least one of the eight daily performances. As DMFT increased, the OIDP score tended to increase or quality-of-life of children tended to be worse (r = 0.397, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a positive relation between some oral health status and quality-of-life score. PMID:25628474

  6. The Ethical Imperative of Addressing Oral Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.Y.; Divaris, K.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged population groups. Reducing health disparities has been identified as an ethical imperative by the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health and numerous other national and international bodies. Significant progress has been made over the past years in identifying vulnerable groups, and ‘distal’ factors including political, economic, social, and community characteristics are now considered pivotal. It is thus unsurprising that the remarkable advances in the science and practice of dentistry have not led to notable reductions in oral health disparities. In this review, we summarize recent work and emphasize the need for a solid theoretical framing to guide oral health disparities research. We provide a theoretical framework outlining pathways that operate across the continuum of oral health determinants during the lifecourse and highlight potential areas for intervention. Because oral health disparities emanate from the unequal distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources, tangible progress is likely to be realized only by a global movement and concerted efforts by all stakeholders, including policymakers, the civil society, and academic, professional, and scientific bodies. PMID:24189268

  7. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries. PMID:27430039

  8. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27029538

  9. Implementing a prenatal oral health program through interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jeffrey T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Kerns, Amanda K; Chuang, Alice; Eidson, R Scott; Boggess, Kim A; Weintraub, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    Interprofessional collaboration has become a critical component of accreditation standards in dentistry and medicine. This article reports on implementation in an academic setting of a prenatal oral health program (pOHP) that addresses coordinated care, accreditation standards, and new clinical practice guidelines. The pOHP is an educational intervention for third-year medical students, residents, and faculty members to deliver preventive oral health information and referral to a dental home for pregnant women. At the same time, senior dental students and faculty members are introduced to prenatal oral health principles and delivery of comprehensive oral health care to pregnant women. A systems-based approach was used to guide the pOHP implementation during the 2012-13 academic year. Participants were 96 third-year medical students (50% of the total in an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship) and all 81 fourth-year dental students. During that academic year, 126 dental referrals were made to the School of Dentistry, and 55 women presented for care, resulting in 50% (n=40) of dental students participating in the clinical experience and delivery of simple to complex oral health procedures. The prenatal period is a frequently missed opportunity to address oral health care. The pOHP is an interprofessional collaboration model designed to educate dental and medical providers and provide a system of referral for comprehensive clinical care of pregnant patients, including educating women about their oral health and that of their children. Such programs can help meet interprofessional accreditation standards and encourage implementation of practice guidelines. PMID:25729017

  10. Oral cytokeratins in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Ganavi, B S

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of oral mucosa is known by its inherent defensive nature. Certain areas demand tough shield when subjected to mechanical insults. This is met by structural scaffolding material referred as cytoskeleton comprised of intracellular protein filaments called cytokeratins in the surface squames of oral epithelia. They also equally contribute towards the architecture of odontogenic apparatus and salivary gland. Differentiation of epithelial cells within stratified epithelia regulates the expression of specific keratin gene. Any mutation in, or autoantibodies to keratins, desmosomal and cornified envelope proteins is translated into genetic and acquired human disorders. Sound knowledge of structural proteins, their expression, distribution and function plays a vital role in acquainting with these disorders and their application as differentiation markers. Thus, they form an integral aid in diagnostic pathology and may be instrumental in the future interventions by gene therapy. This review focuses on basics to current updates on oral cytokeratins with an emphasis on the genetic and acquired disorders of cytokeratins with oral implications. PMID:24939280

  11. Oral health knowledge and behavior among male health sciences college students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, Jassem; Honkala, Eino; Honkala, Sisko

    2003-05-01

    BACKGROUND: Health auxiliary personnel have an important role in oral health promotion when they graduate and start working in the health care system. This study aims to find out oral health knowledge and oral health behavior of male Health Sciences College students. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to all students at the male Health Sciences College in Kuwait (N = 153) during the academic year 2001/2002. The students filled the anonymous questionnaire in the class after the lecture. The response rate was 84% (n = 128). The questions consisted information on the general background, oral health behavior and oral health knowledge. RESULTS: Oral health knowledge seemed to be limited and very few background factors were associated with it. More than half of the students had visited a dentist during the previous 12 months, but only one third of students were brushing twice a day or more often. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that the male Health Sciences College students seemed to have appropriate knowledge on some oral health topics, but limited knowledge on the others. Their toothbrushing practices are still far behind the international recommendation (twice a day) and also the knowledge, why it should be done so frequently also very limited. PMID:12735791

  12. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Chimere C.; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D.; Zeldin, Leslie P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children’s oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. Methods This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: “What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?” Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Findings Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children’s oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children’s oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Conclusions Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral

  13. [Oral health and pregnancy: promotion of oral health during the pre-natal training in the Latina province].

    PubMed

    Capasso, F; La Penna, C; Carcione, P; Vestri, A; Polimeni, A; Ottolenghi, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in the Province of Latina, was to verify knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyles in relation to oral health in a sample of pregnant women, assessing their subjective perception of oral health, and highlight prenatal dental prevention need specialist in the area and provide adequate information on the importance of good oral hygiene in order to achieve a better health level both of the mother and the child. The study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women between the 26th and 39th gestational week, in the period from June to October 2009, during the childbirth training courses in the Province of Latina. Each patient was administered a questionnaire for the assessment of oral habits during pregnancy and for the definition of specific knowledge on and perception of themselves and their own oral condition. The survey shows that more than one third of the sample reported visiting a dentist only in case of pain, over half (56.9%) did not undergo any dental visit during the gestational period, only 24 subjects (33.3%) having applied to a dental hygienist for professional oral hygiene and that only 7 out of 72 women had been prescribed a dental checkup by a gynecologist. The study showed that knowledge about dental problems that may arise during pregnancy is insufficient to guarantee a good threshold to oral health care for the mother hence the need to promote information programs, oral health and pregnancy prevention and training in the territory mainly directed to health-care specialists (gynecologists and obstetricians) and to pregnant women. PMID:21770230

  14. Oral health of adolescents--it's more than dental caries.

    PubMed

    Percy, Melanie S

    2008-01-01

    Of all the health issues common to adolescents, oral health has not seemed to receive much attention. However, just as "eyes are the windows to the soul," the oral health of an adolescent can be a reliable and expedient indicator of general health. Lesions discovered during an oral exam can indicate systemic problems that may not otherwise be disclosed during the health history. Tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections, and type II diabetes can manifest in the mouth, and many of these lesions mimic other illnesses. It is essential that nurses who work with adolescents be aware of possible differential diagnoses beyond the typical canker sores, herpes simplex type I, and periodontal disease so commonly seen. Adolescents rarely enter the healthcare system, but school and camp nurses and nurse practitioners have access to teens on a regular basis. They can screen adolescents for oral health problems and teach them practices that may prevent health problems with lifetime consequences. Capitalizing on this opportunity to educate adolescents can be critical to their long-term health. PMID:18158524

  15. The Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Oral Health Equity for Older Adults: A Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.; Birenz, Shirley S.; Kunzel, Carol; Wang, Hua; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Marshall, Stephen E.; Northridge, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a collaborative, interdisciplinary systems science inquiry to explore implications of Medicaid expansion on achieving oral health equity for older adults. Through an iterative modeling process oriented toward the experiences of both patients and oral health care providers, complex feedback mechanisms for promoting oral health equity are articulated that acknowledge the potential for stigma as well as disparities in oral health care accessibility. Multiple factors mediate the impact of Medicaid expansion on oral health equity. PMID:26457047

  16. The Influence of Mothers’ Lifestyle and Health Behavior on Their Children: An Exploration for Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Nourijelyani, Keramat; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Pakpour, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents and teachers involvement reinforce health promotion programs for children's health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers’ lifestyle behavior and its association with children's oral health. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on 383 children and their mothers who were selected from 6 primary schools in Tehran, Iran. Mothers and children who participated in this study were asked to complete a questionnaire containing demographic questions, knowledge of oral health, attitude towards the oral health behavior, and oral health behaviors. Furthermore, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were assessed by two calibrated dentists. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed model analyses. Results: The average age of the children and their mothers were 11.6 and 38.4 years, respectively. Mothers’ higher knowledge, higher educational status, positive attitude, higher frequent oral health behaviors, lower DMFT and lower CPI were all associated significantly with children’s higher oral health status. Conclusions: The results suggest that to improve children’s oral health, educational interventions should focus on both children and mothers to obtain a more promising outcome. PMID:24719751

  17. The importance of oral health in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Haumschild, Mary S; Haumschild, Ryan J

    2009-11-01

    Emerging evidence has shown a strong link between the effects of chronic oral inflammation and general health. The mouth is the visible gateway to the rest of the body and reflects what is happening deep inside. Periodontal disease has been linked to systemic disease; likewise, systemic disease can have an impact on oral health. In fact, there are over 100 systemic diseases that have oral manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, respiratory infections, pancreatic cancer, diabetes, and nutritional problems. This is a bidirectional relationship and the link is inflammation. Oral health problems can have an adverse effect on the quality of life and are more prevalent in older adults, but are not caused by aging. Approximately 75% of baby boomers will enter long-term care facilities with the majority of their natural teeth and this trend is expected to continue. Studies indicate that residents with good oral care require less health care dollar expenditures. Therefore, dental professionals, such as the dental hygienist, should be part of the multidisciplinary team to assist in providing expert regular dental care and training to caregivers and other health care professionals in long-term care facilities. PMID:19883892

  18. Odontonutraceuticals: Pleiotropic Phytotherapeutic Agents for Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Varoni, Elena Maria; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    This brief commentary aims to focus on the urgency of further clinical research on phytotherapy in dentistry, and, noteworthy, to propose, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the term “odontonutraceuticals” to identify those phytochemicals relevant for the prevention and the treatment of oral diseases. A valuable impact is expected on nutritional, dental and biomedical sciences, suggesting the use of the suffix "odonto-" to define a specific field of nutraceutical research. PMID:26927132

  19. [Oral health: social representations among pregnant mothers. Medellin, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Escobar-Paucar, Gloria; Sosa-Palacio, Catalina; Sánchez-Mejía, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Based on the theory of social representations, a qualitative investigation was conducted in order to assess social representations in oral heath in pregnant mothers living in an urban environment. Twenty-eight pregnant adult women attending a prenatal program at a health institution in the city of Medellín, Colombia, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed; analysis was performed through open, axial and selective coding, in line with grounded theory. Findings revealed that although pregnant mothers are not greatly concerned about oral health after birth and in early childhood, it increases in importance during growth and development of the child when, besides chewing and feeding aspects, it acquires a socially important role. Analysis revealed how social representations anchored in tradition, with new elements from health professional discourses as well as mass media influences coexist in mothers in an urban environment. These include the close relationship between oral health and teeth, health linked to healthy practices as well as recourse to health services and oral health as a social advantage, related to esthetic aspects. PMID:22124835

  20. Evidence-Based Health Promotion in Nursing Homes: A Pilot Intervention to Improve Oral Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadet, Tamara J.; Berrett-Abebe, Julie; Burke, Shanna L.; Bakk, Louanne; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Maramaldi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nursing home residents over the age of 65 years are at high risk for poor oral health and related complications such as pneumonia and adverse diabetes outcomes. A preliminary study found that Massachusetts' nursing homes generally lack the training and resources needed to provide adequate oral health care to residents. In this study, an…

  1. Evaluation of the knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about infant oral health and their oral hygiene practices

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ann; Jacob, Anoop; Kunhambu, Dhanalakshmi; Shetty, Priya; Shetty, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mothers play a crucial role in developing and maintaining their infants’ oral hygiene. Maternal oral health, their knowledge and attitude toward infant oral health are strong indicators of their infant's oral health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about infant oral health and their oral hygiene practices. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among expectant mothers in Mangalore city, India. Materials and Methods: Three hundred expectant mothers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly selected based on convenience method over a period of 1 month. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing the various aspects of expectant mothers’ knowledge and attitude about infant oral health and their own oral hygiene practices. The analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The overall score revealed that majority of the expectant mothers had poor knowledge and attitude toward infant oral health and followed poor oral hygiene practices. Expectant mothers’ educational qualification, trimester, and the number of pregnancy had a significant role in their knowledge, attitude, and oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: Implementation of educational programs to motivate expectant mothers and bring out awareness about the importance of oral health and their implications must be emphasized. PMID:26539393

  2. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  3. A sociodental approach to assessing children's oral health needs: integrating an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure into oral health service planning.

    PubMed Central

    Gherunpong, Sudaduang; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We adopted a sociodental approach to assess the real dental needs of Thai primary school children, and integrated an oral health-related quality of life measure (OHRQoL) into oral health service planning. We then compared the results of this sociodental assessment with standard estimates of a child's oral health needs. METHODS: We developed a new model of sociodental needs assessment and used it to assess the level of impact that various oral health conditions have on the everyday lives of school children. We then carried out a cross-sectional study of all grade-6 children (11-12 years old) in Suphan-buri Province, Thailand. We examined the sample (n = 1034) to assess the children's oral health and then we interviewed each child individually to assess what impact any dental conditions he or she may have on their quality of life. This assessment was done using an OHRQoL indicator, the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (child-OIDP). We integrated the results obtained using this indicator with those estimates obtained using more traditional, standard clinical methods, in order to generate a clearer picture of exactly which non-progressive dental conditions really needed treatment. These results take into account the impact those conditions have on the overall well-being of children and their ability to function normally and unimpeded. We were then able to prioritize their dental needs according to the severity of disruption caused in their daily lives. FINDINGS: Using standard or "normative" estimates of dental health care needs, the children's need was 98.8%. This level of need decreased signifi cantly to 39.5% when adopting the sociodental approach (P <0.001). Overall, per 100 children with a standard or normative need for dental treatment, only 40 had a sociodental need for treatment when taking into account the impact their condition has on their everyday lives. Children thus identifi ed as requiring treatment were further categorized

  4. The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.

    PubMed

    Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J

    2015-01-01

    Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age

  5. Impact of dental treatment under general anesthesia on the oral health-related quality of life of adolescents and adults with special needs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhea; Patton, Lauren L; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the perception of the family's primary caregiver on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the impact on family dynamics, of dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) in adolescent and adult patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and neurocognitive disorders. Self-administered questionnaires were completed, before dental treatment, by 116 primary family caregivers of patients who received dental treatment under GA, and 102 (88%) of these caregivers completed the same questionnaires within 4 wk after treatment. The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Family Impact Scale (FIS) were shortened to a 14-item COHIP (COHIP-14) and a 12-item FIS (FIS-12) based on the limitations of patients' communication. The COHIP-14 and FIS-12 scores and each subscale improved after treatment. The baseline scores varied based on certain characteristics of the patients, such as age, disabilities, medications, caregivers, meal types, cooperation levels, and treatment needs. The postoperative improvement in OHRQoL was significant in the patients who were older than 30 yr of age, originally eating soft meals, displaying no or very low levels of cooperation, or receiving endodontic treatment. Based on the primary caregiver perceptions, the OHRQoL of adolescents and adults with IDD and neurocognitive disorders was improved by dental treatment under GA. PMID:25292335

  6. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  7. Nursing personnel's views on oral health from a health promotion perspective: a grounded theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Gun; Söderfeldt, Björn; Nederfors, Tommy; Fridlund, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model for how nursing personnel view oral health in general and the oral health of the care receivers in particular, applying a health promotion perspective and using grounded theory analysis. Data were collected through interviews with 17 nursing personnel, selected by strategic sampling. Analysis of the transcribed interviews showed that there were four strategies, related to staff education, hospital resources, and leadership motivation. The strategies were grounded in data and emerged from the interaction between the two main categories: 'the valuation of the importance of oral health' and 'the behavior towards oral health maintenance'. They were characterized as the routine, theoretical, practical, and flexible strategies, with the latter considered ideal. As increased knowledge is one important part in enhancing the nursing personnel's ability to perform oral hygiene procedures, there is a need for education among nursing personnel, primarily among those using a routine strategy. PMID:11902612

  8. Patient satisfaction with emergency oral health care in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ntabaye, M K; Scheutz, F; Poulsen, S

    1998-10-01

    Emergency oral health care, as conceived in Tanzania, is an on-demand service provided at a rural health center or dispensary by a Rural Medical Aide. The service includes: simple tooth extraction under local anesthesia, draining of abscesses, control of acute oral infection with appropriate drug therapy, first aid for maxillo-facial trauma, and recognition of oral conditions requiring patient referral for further care at the district or regional hospital dental clinic. The objective of the present study was to describe patient satisfaction with emergency oral health care services in rural Tanzania and determine the relative importance of factors influencing patient satisfaction. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional interview survey between April 1993 and May 1994 using a patient satisfaction questionnaire in rural villages in the Rungwe district of Tanzania. It included 206 patients aged 18 years or more who had received emergency oral health care between April 1993 and March 1994. Overall, 92.7% of the respondents reported that they were satisfied with the service. Patients who were married, had no formal education and lived more than 3 km from the dispensary were more likely to be satisfied with treatment. In a logistic regression model, a good working atmosphere at the dispensary, a good relationship between care provider and patients (art of care) and absence of post-treatment complications significantly influenced patient satisfaction with odds ratios of 10.3, 17.4 and 6.2, respectively. PMID:9792119

  9. Priority oral health research identification for clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Helen; Clarkson, Jan; Weldon, Jo

    2015-09-01

    The Cochrane Library is a core resource for clinical decision-making globally, by clinicians, guideline developers, healthcare providers and patients.The publication of Cochrane Library systematic reviews concerning oral health conditions has grown exponentially to over 215 individual titles (as of 20 June 2015) during the past 20 years.Consequently, maintaining updates of the most clinically important reviews to provide up-to-date and accurate sources of evidence for decision-making has become a pressing concern for the editorial group behind their production, Cochrane Oral Health Group.To identify priority research required by oral health decision-makers, the Cochrane OHG embarked on a consultation process across eight defined areas of dentistry (periodontology, operative (including endodontics) and prosthodontics, paediatric dentistry, dental public health, oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral medicine, orthodontics, cleft lip and/or palate) with existing authors (by email), with members of the public (by online survey), and established internationally clinically expert panels for each area of defined area of dentistry to discuss and ratify (by teleconference) a core portfolio of priority evidence to be produced and maintained on the Cochrane Library.The resulting portfolio of priority research encompasses 81 existing titles to be maintained, and an additional 15 new systematic reviews to be developed by the Cochrane OHG in due course.The Cochrane OHG has actively responded to the outcomes of this prioritisation process by allocating resources to primarily supporting the maintenance of identified priority evidence for the Cochrane Library. PMID:26492797

  10. Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tayyaba; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Lin, Chai Wen; Qamar, Zeeshan

    2016-08-01

    This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common prevalent oral health problems such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and malodour. It is being used in various oral health care products to control the formation of dental plaque and inhibiting the formation of dental calculus. It has the potential to sustain and maintain its elevated concentrations for a longer time particularly in the dental plaque and saliva on delivery from the mouth rinses and toothpastes. It has been reported that low concentrations of zinc have the capability to reduce dissolution and promote remineralization under caries simulating conditions. Most importantly low Zn2+ levels in the serum are useful as a tumour marker. Thus taking a note of its potentials, it can be concluded that zinc is a precious element for the maintenance of oral health. PMID:27524540

  11. Oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Othman, N A A; Sockalingam, S N M P; Mahyuddin, A

    2015-09-01

    This case-controlled study aimed to evaluate the existing oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia. A total of 50 haemophilia patients and 50 matched controls aged seven to 16 years were recruited into the study. Clinical examination was carried out to determine dental caries experience, oral hygiene status and gingival condition in these two groups. Information regarding previous dental history, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were also obtained. No significant difference was found in mean caries experience in primary and secondary dentitions (P = 0.86 and 0.32) and in Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, P = 0.20) between both groups. However, a significantly higher proportion of haemophilia patients (24%) had better oral hygiene status as compared to the controls (2%, P = 0.004). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in Modified Gingival Index (MGI, P = 0.02) between the two groups with the study group having less gingival inflammation. A total of 88% (n = 44) of the haemophilia patients were registered and received dental treatment in specialist dental clinics. More than half (56%, n = 28) had frequent dental visits and only one-third of the haemophilia patients had history of hospitalization due to oral problems. There was no significant difference in oral hygiene practices and dietary habits between both groups. In general, haemophilia children and adolescents in this study had similar caries experience, a significantly better oral hygiene status and gingival health as compared to healthy controls. The main reason for this is the multidisciplinary approach implemented by medical health-care professionals as primary care provider and the dental team. PMID:25757137

  12. General and oral health implications of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Cho, C M; Hirsch, R; Johnstone, S

    2005-06-01

    Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history. PMID:16050084

  13. Distinct Oral Neutrophil Subsets Define Health and Periodontal Disease States.

    PubMed

    Fine, N; Hassanpour, S; Borenstein, A; Sima, C; Oveisi, M; Scholey, J; Cherney, D; Glogauer, M

    2016-07-01

    Neutrophils exit the vasculature and swarm to sites of inflammation and infection. However, these cells are abundant in the healthy, inflammation-free human oral environment, suggesting a unique immune surveillance role within the periodontium. We hypothesize that neutrophils in the healthy oral cavity occur in an intermediary parainflammatory state that allows them to interact with and contain the oral microflora without eliciting a marked inflammatory response. Based on a high-throughput screen of neutrophil CD (cluster of differentiation) marker expression and a thorough literature review, we developed multicolor flow cytometry panels to determine the surface marker signatures of oral neutrophil subsets in periodontal health and disease. We define here 3 distinct neutrophil subsets: resting/naive circulatory neutrophils, parainflammatory neutrophils found in the healthy oral cavity, and proinflammatory neutrophils found in the oral cavity during chronic periodontal disease. Furthermore, parainflammatory neutrophils manifest as 2 distinct subpopulations-based on size, granularity, and expression of specific CD markers-and exhibit intermediate levels of activation as compared with the proinflammatory oral neutrophils. These intermediately activated parainflammatory populations occur in equal proportions in the healthy oral cavity, with a shift to one highly activated proinflammatory neutrophil population in chronic periodontal disease. This work is the first to identify and characterize oral parainflammatory neutrophils that interact with commensal biofilms without inducing an inflammatory response, thereby demonstrating that not all neutrophils trafficking through periodontal tissues are fully activated. In addition to establishing possible diagnostic and treatment monitoring biomarkers, this oral neutrophil phenotype model builds on existing literature suggesting that the healthy periodontium may be in a parainflammatory state. PMID:27270666

  14. Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development. PMID:22262276

  15. Infant oral health is the current standard of care.

    PubMed

    Sacheti, Anubha; Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Despite professional recommendations calling for earlier first dental visits, Massachusetts children, on average, have their first dental visit at 3 years of age. This article will discuss the age-one dental visit and early establishment of a dental home. The components of an infant oral health visit will be outlined, including how to efficiently and effectively perform a caries risk assessment and a successful knee-to-knee exam. All dentists are challenged to improve their collective standard of care by incorporating infant oral health into their practices. PMID:23311041

  16. Host response, obesity, and oral health.

    PubMed

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proper food choices are part of preventing or reducing the risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. A significant association has been proven between oral diseases and the incidence of systemic diseases. Obesity, just like smoking, is one of the major risk factors for oral disease and is a serious social problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. The results of studies on periodontitis confirm the relationship between the values of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ and it performs many important functions in the body, such as thermal isolation and protection, storage, and secretion. Many cytokines are secreted proportionally to the amount of fat present and are actively involved in the metabolism of the whole system, including the functioning of the immune system. Therefore, obesity may alter the response of the host to the antigens derived from bacterial plaque, and thus cause disturbances in the inflammatory response in the course of periodontal disease. PMID:26557035

  17. Ethnic Variation in Oral Health and Social Integration among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829

  18. Impact of school-based oral health education program on oral health of 12 and 15 years old school children

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Kapil Rajiv; Luthra, Rajeshwar Prasad; Jhingta, Pravesh; Sharma, Deepak; Justa, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education for the school age child is a specialized field within the broad discipline of education. Oral health education program are educational aspects of any curative, preventive and promotional health activity. Aim: The study has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of oral health education on the status of plaque, gingival health and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children attending government school in Shimla city. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy six school children participated in the study. The study was conducted over a period of 4 months from May 2010 to August 2010 in Government Senior Secondary School, Sanjauli. Plaque, gingival and caries status was assessed by using Silness and Loe plaque index, Loe and Silness gingival index and WHO modified DMFT index, respectively. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank sum test were used appropriately for statistical comparisons. P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Overall mean plaque score and gingival score decreased significantly after oral health education irrespective of gender. However, decrease in plaque score among 15 years old female children and gingival scores among 12 and 15 years old female subjects was not significant. Difference in mean caries status was statistically insignificant among all the subjects. Conclusion: Short term oral health education program may be useful in improving oral hygiene and gingival health. Coordinating efforts should be enhanced between school personnel, parents and health professionals to ensure long-term benefits of such program. PMID:24083283

  19. Tobacco and oral health--the role of the world health organization.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider this platform for their future work for tobacco prevention since in several countries they play an important role in communication with patients and communities. The WHO Oral Health Programme gives priority to tobacco control in many ways through the development of national and community programmes which incorporates oral health and tobacco issues, tobacco prevention through schools, tobacco risk assessment in countries, and design of modern surveillance systems on risk factors and oral health. Systematic evaluation of coordinated efforts should be carried out at country and inter-country levels. PMID:15643759

  20. Oral health concerns with sweetened medicaments: Pediatricians’ acuity

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, S.V.S.G.; Popuri, Vimala Devi; Chilamakuri, Sandeep; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Veluru, Sindhuri; Minor Babu, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Administration of sweetened medicaments poses many oral health related problems in children due to the lack of awareness among the pediatricians regarding their ill effects. Purpose: To assess pediatricians’ awareness and attitudes toward the use of liquid pediatric medicines and their relationship with dental caries and erosion. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the pediatricians residing in Nellore city. Data were obtained from 55 pediatricians using questionnaires. Results: Among the respondents, 95.6% prescribed liquid medicaments, 51.1% expressed that they may be associated with dental effects, 60% were not aware regarding the sweetness of medicaments, whereas majority of them (77.8%) opined that children complained regarding the taste, 73.3% stated that sugar substitutes were used as sweetening agents, 70.9% believed that they were not acidic, 68.9% did not recommend brushing after intake of medicines, 90% failed to deliver oral health instructions, and 54.5% believed that lack of oral hygiene was a contributing factor for development of dental caries. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents prescribed liquid medicaments and were unaware regarding the sweetening agents and acidity, which cause ill effects on the dental hard tissues. Most of them neither recommended nor delivered oral hygiene instructions (OHI) after prescribing sweetened liquid medicaments. Hence, OHI should be delivered to enhance the oral health related quality of life in children. PMID:25767765

  1. Multiple sclerosis and oral health: an update.

    PubMed

    Elemek, Eser; Almas, Khalid

    2013-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease seen in 69.1 per 100,000 person-years in the world. As multiple sclerosis and periodontal disease both have an inflammatory origin, dental professionals should be aware of the link between these two diseases. In patients unable to carry out effective oral hygiene, dental treatment should be done by dental hygienists and/or dentists to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease. It is hoped that by identifying multiple sclerosis patients in dental clinics, the required support and treatment could be provided to these patients to improve their quality of life and that dental professionals would feel comfortable treating patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23767394

  2. Does Propolis Help to Maintain Oral Health?

    PubMed Central

    Więckiewicz, Włodzimierz; Miernik, Marta; Więckiewicz, Mieszko; Morawiec, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Propolis, known also as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for its many precious salubrious properties. It was used in medicine already in ancient Egypt. Its multiple applications during the centuries have been studied and described in details. The purpose of this study is to present the possible use of propolis in treatment of various diseases of oral cavity in their dental aspect. The paper presents properties and possible applications of bee glue depending on dental specialities. An overview of publications which appeared during the recent years will allow the reader to follow all the possibilities to apply propolis in contemporary dentistry. PMID:23365605

  3. Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

    2001-01-01

    A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

  4. Oral health of patients with severe rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Breminand; Vayej, Ahmed C

    2012-07-01

    In order to determine whether adequate attention is paid to the maintenance of good oral health in patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis, we studied 44 black patients with severe rheumatic heart disease before they had cardiac surgery. Plaque and gingival index scores were calculated and panoramic radiographs were done in all patients. There were 17 males and 27 females (mean age: 30.6 years). The plaque and gingival index scores were classified as poor in 31.8 and 54.6% of patients, respectively. Panoramic radiographic findings included caries in 56.8% of patients, peri-apical pathology in 18.1% and retained roots in 22.7% of patients. This study demonstrates that inadequate attention is paid to the maintenance of good oral health in patients with severe rheumatic heart disease. The oral and dental care of patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis needs to be improved. PMID:22836156

  5. Oral Health of Institutionalized Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurek, George H.; Reid, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Residents (n=702) of Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation institutions were given dental examinations, and findings were compared with data from 1,077 residents 9 years earlier. Data were analyzed for oral pathology, unmet dental needs, contribution of dental care to habilitation, and effectiveness of the dental service system.…

  6. Oral health and dental care in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chu, C H; Wong, S S S; Suen, R P C; Lo, E C M

    2013-06-01

    Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of People's Republic of China, is a metropolitan city in Asia with a population of over 7 million people. This paper reflects the current oral health and dental care situations in Hong Kong. Water fluoridation was commenced in 1961, with a current level at 0.5 ppm. And there has continuously been lower caries prevalence thereafter. Dental care is mainly provided by private practitioners. The School Dental Care Service, run by the Department of Health, provides dental care to enrolled primary school children through treatments by dental therapists. An Oral Health Education Unit is set up to promote dental health among the public, particularly preschool children. Government dentists serve mainly civil servants and their dependents. Limited emergency dental care is available to the public at designated government clinics for pain relief, most commonly in the form of extractions. There are about 2200 registered dentists and the dentist to population ratio is about 1:3200. Amongst the dental team, dental hygienists are trained in limited numbers. There are only less than 320 dental hygienists registered, working under the supervision of dentists. The Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Hong Kong has been providing 5-year undergraduate training in dentistry since 1981, and this is lengthened to 6 years from 2012 onwards. Specialty training requires at least a further 6 years. There are 8 specialties, which are Community Dentistry, Endodontics, Family Dentistry, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Rehabilitation, Orthodontics, Pediatric Dentistry, and Periodontics. PMID:23507329

  7. Autism Developmental Profiles and Cooperation with Oral Health Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Rennan Y.; Yiu, Cynthia C. Y.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the associations between autism developmental profiles and cooperation with an oral health screening among preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A random sample of Special Child Care Centres registered with the Government Social Welfare Department in Hong Kong was selected (19 out of 37 Centres). All preschool…

  8. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Amódio, Juliana; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Carrara, Helio Humberto Angotti; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimaraes; de Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; dos Reis, Francisco José Candido

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient's general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years) and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6 years) were included. For each case and control, a complete oral evaluation chart was completed. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was 98% in breast cancer survivors and 87% in controls. The breast cancer survivors had a median of 16 remaining teeth, whereas controls had a median of 22 remaining teeth (p = 0.03). The percentage of sites with gingival bleeding was 16.05% (0-100%) in breast cancer survivors and 0% (0-72%) in controls (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontal disease and tooth loss were highly prevalent in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. To improve survivors' quality of life, a preventive oral health evaluation should be available prior to cancer treatment. PMID:25518024

  9. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  10. Three methods of oral health education in secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Laiho, M; Honkala, E; Nyyssönen, V; Milen, A

    1993-12-01

    In 1990, three methods of oral health education (OHE) were implemented in three secondary schools in the city of Pori, Finland, one method in each school. The traditional OHE consisted of a lecture given by a dentist with the aid of transparencies and slides. The peer OHE consisted of a lecture given by six pupils from the upper grades. These pupils used transparencies and extracts of video films and had a classroom exhibition with pictures, slogans, and dental aids and instruments. The self-teaching OHE was based on an exhibition from which the pupils searched for the information themselves. After the programs, the pupils' opinions about the method itself, its contents and implementation, knowledge about certain oral health issues, and the possible effect of the method were determined by a questionnaire. The attitudes and opinions were most positive in the peer OHE group. The traditional OHE was quite well accepted, but the self-teaching method was not very successful. The participants in the traditional OHE more often felt that they had been encouraged to pursue good oral health habits. In all groups, the topic considered to be the most boring was tooth brushing. Peer OHE can be recommended for Finnish secondary schools. The issue of tooth brushing should be played down, however, as too frequent repetition of the topic may cause more negative attitudes towards oral health education and practices. PMID:7507258

  11. [Oral health care practices in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Samba, M; Guinan, J C; Sangare, A; Da-Danho, V; Bakayoko-Ly, R

    2004-09-01

    Abidjan, the economical capital of Ivory Coast has a CAO of 2.7 with index O practically nil. The professional density is one surgeon for 12.000 inhabitants. Abidjan population, despite the requirements in increasing care has not recourse to the dental surgeons for their assumption of responsibility. The general objective of our study is to describe the therapeutic itinerary in odonto-stomatology of the Abidjan population. We have realised a questionnaire survey beside of population sample. The results show that 25 per cent of our population gives up care despite the presence of pain or embarrassment. Our study has allowed highlighting all the other recourses to the care. Indeed, the people who give up the care have much other recourse which has be identified in order of importance: the modern and traditional self-medication. Let us note in our study, that the choice of dental surgeon knows a constant evolution from the first to the third recourse. The lack of financial means constitutes however the first obstacle at the accessibility to the oral care in Ivory Coast. PMID:15900823

  12. Oral Health Care Availability in Health Centers of Mangalore Taluk, India

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arun K; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community-oriented oral health programs are seldom found in India. When primary health care systems were in the 1980s, dentistry was not adequately included. This has left oral health far behind other health services. Objectives: To find the availability of dental professionals, infrastructure, equipment, and treatments provided in health centers of Mangalore taluk. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical officers and dentists working in all the health centers of Mangalore taluk, using an interview schedule, the oral health care availability inventory (ORAI). Results: Among 23 health centers of Mangalore taluk, dental services were available at six health centers (26%) [two community health centers (CHCs) and four primary health centers (PHCs)]. Mouth mirrors, dental explorers, and extraction instruments were available at six health centers [two CHCs (100%) and four PHCs (19%)]. No health centers provided orthodontic tooth corrections, removal of impacted teeth, oral biopsies, and fabrication of removable dentures. Conclusions: Availability of dental services was limited in the health centers, and a vast majority of the rural population in Mangalore taluk did not have access to dental care. PMID:25364145

  13. The impact of home-prepared diets and home oral hygiene on oral health in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; Colyer, Alison; Skrzywanek, Michal; Jodkowska, Katarzyna; Kurski, Grzegorz; Gawor, Jerzy; Ceregrzyn, Michal

    2011-10-01

    Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health. An oral health index (OHI) ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for each animal by combining examination scores, where 0 indicates good oral health and 8 indicates poorest oral health. Information was collected on age, diet and home oral hygiene regimens. There was a significant effect of diet on the OHI (P < 0.001) whereby feeding the HP diet increased the probability of an oral health problem in both cats and dogs. There was a significant beneficial effect of feeding only commercial pet food compared with the HP diet when at least part of the diet was composed of dry pet food. Daily tooth brushing or the offering of daily dental treats were both effective in significantly reducing the OHI in both cats and dogs compared with those receiving sporadic or no home oral hygiene. Feeding only a dry diet was beneficial for oral health in cats and dogs. Tooth brushing and the offering of dental treats were very effective in maintaining oral health, provided they were practised daily. PMID:22005407

  14. Oral health care needs in the dependant elderly in India.

    PubMed

    Panchbhai, Arati S

    2012-01-01

    There is a sudden blast of the "65 plus" population in the last decade, and India is no exception to that. A continuing progress in the medical field has raised the longevity of life. This changing face of population offers the oral professionals to observe unique challenges to treat the rapidly growing segment of the elderly and the dependant overage population- the Homebound residents and the Nursing homebound residents. The old age of the residents is compounded with chronic medical problems they are suffering from and the medications they are taking. This cohort is characteristically different from other elderly due to their dependency to carry even the routine activities such as tooth cleaning which results in increased risk towards the oral ailments. As very few surveys are done regarding the oral health status among this section, the prevalence of oral and dental problems in them is under a cloud. "Dental care at home or at destinations of residents" is yet a novel concept in India, hence not only there is a need to reach to the residents but also to treat them in the holistic manner. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing oral health conditions in the elderly in India. PMID:22837606

  15. Factors Associated with Oral Health Status in American Indian Children.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Quissell, David O; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Braun, Patricia A; Albino, Judith E

    2014-09-01

    The literature reports psychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors related to Early Childhood Caries (ECC), but few studies have included American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. AI/AN children have the highest prevalence of ECC among any population group in the United States. This study examined socio-demographic characteristics of children and their parents/caregivers and psychosocial characteristics of parents/caregivers as risk factors for baseline oral health status of preschool children in the Navajo Nation, as part of a 3-year cluster randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of trained community workers providing a fluoride varnish and oral health promotion intervention to. The study recruited 1,015 children at 52 Head Start Centers. Baseline ECC data were collected by calibrated dental hygienists for 981 of the children ages of 3-5 years, and a Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ) was completed by their parents/caregivers. Bivariable analysis revealed that dmfs was higher in older children; in males; in children with male parents/caregivers; and when the parent/caregiver had less education and income, worse oral health behavior in caring for their children's teeth, and higher scores for external powerful others and external chance locus of control, greater perceived susceptibility and barriers, and lower scores for community risky behavior. In a multiple linear regression model, the variables that remained statistically significant were child's age and gender, and oral health behavior score of the parent/caregiver. Intervening to improve parent/caregiver oral health behavior in caring for the teeth of children potentially could in AI/AN children. PMID:25232515

  16. Oral health among residents of publicly supported housing in Boston.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Shah, Snehal; Dooley, Daniel; Henshaw, Michelle; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    Tooth loss in adults diminishes quality of daily life, affecting eating, speaking, appearance, and social interactions. Tooth loss is linked to severe periodontitis and caries; and to risk of stroke, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and dementia. At the national (USA) level, poverty and African-American race have been linked to lower utilization of dental services, suggesting that the 7.5 million residents of publicly supported housing may be at risk of tooth loss and poor overall oral health. We assessed whether residence in publicly supported housing in Boston was associated with four oral health-related indicators. Compared to residents of nonpublicly supported housing, after adjusting for covariates residents of both public housing developments (PHDs) and rental assistance units (RAUs) had significantly lower odds of having had a dental cleaning in the past year (PHD, OR = 0.64 (95 % CI, 0.44-0.93); RAU, OR = 0.67 (95 % CI, 0.45-0.99))-despite parity in having had a past year dental visit. Further, residents of RAUs had double the odds of having had six or more teeth removed (OR = 2.20 (95 % CI, 1.39-3.50)). Associations of race/ethnicity and housing type with dental insurance were interrelated. Unadjusted results document a deficit in oral health-related indicators among public housing residents, taken as a group, giving a clear picture of an oral health care gap and identifying a defined real-world population that could benefit from services. Existing public housing infrastructure could provide both a venue and a foundation for interventions to reduce oral health disparities on a broad scale. PMID:24272316

  17. Psychological Interventions for Poor Oral Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Hakeberg, M; Dahlström, L; Eriksson, M; Sjögren, P; Strandell, A; Svanberg, T; Svensson, L; Wide Boman, U

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to study the effectiveness of psychological interventions in adults and adolescents with poor oral health. The review follows the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. The PICO format (population, intervention, comparison, and outcome) was used to define eligible studies. The populations were adults or adolescents (≥13 y of age and independent of others) with poor oral health (defined as dental caries, periodontal disease, and/or peri-implantitis). The interventions were psychological and/or behavioral models and theories, in comparison with traditional oral health education/information. The primary outcomes were dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis, and peri-implantitis. Secondary outcomes were dental plaque, oral health-related behavior, health-related quality of life, health beliefs and attitudes, self-perceived oral health, and complications/risks. The systematic literature search identified 846 articles in December 2013 and 378 articles in July 2015. In total, 11 articles on 9 randomized controlled trials were found to meet the inclusion criteria. These reported on adults with periodontal disease, and several used motivational interviewing (MI) as their mode of intervention. The CONSORT guidelines and the GRADE approach were used for study appraisal and rating of evidence. The meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences in gingivitis or plaque presence. In addition, a meta-analysis on MI compared with education/information found no statistically significant differences in gingivitis presence. Only 1 meta-analysis-on psychological interventions versus education/information regarding the plaque index-showed a small but statistically significant difference. There were also statistically significant differences reported in favor of psychological interventions in oral health behavior and self-efficacy in toothbrushing. However, the clinical relevance of these differences is

  18. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health.

    PubMed

    Al-Attass, Safia A; Zahran, Fat'heya M; Turkistany, Shereen A

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  19. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    PubMed Central

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  20. Reproducibility and validity of oral visual inspection by trained health workers in the detection of oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sunilkumar, K. B.; Kuruvila, B.; Pisani, P.; Nair, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized intervention trial is in progress in Kerala, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of oral visual inspection by trained health workers (HWs) in the prevention of oral cancer. Fourteen health workers with college graduation as the basic qualification were trained in oral visual inspection to identify oral cancers and precancers among the participants of the screening trial and to refer them for further confirmation and management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the screening test provided by the health worker against the reference oral visual findings of three physicians. A total of 2069 subjects who had already been examined were re-examined by the health workers and physicians. The sensitivity and the specificity of the oral visual inspection were 94.3% and 99.3% respectively. There was moderate agreement between the findings of the initial and the repeat mouth examinations carried out by the health workers, which were on average 6 months apart. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.85) between the findings of the health workers and the physicians in identifying the different types of oral precancerous lesions. The findings of our study indicate that it is possible to train resource persons to perform the oral cancer screening test as accurately as doctors, although experience appears to be a crucial component of health workers' accuracy. The efficacy of such an approach to reduce the incidence of and mortality from oral cancer, however, remains to be proven. PMID:9252209

  1. Intellectual disability and impact on oral health: a paired study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo; de Sousa Lima, Kássio Rafael; de Oliveira Amaral, Heylane; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the oral health status, the treatment needed, and the type of dental health services access of intellectually disabled (ID) subjects in Teresina, Brazil. The sample consisted of 103 ID subjects matriculated in centers for special needs people and 103 siblings. Results were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. ID subjects had fair (63.1%; p < .001) and their siblings had a good oral hygiene (n = 103 [55.3%]; p < .005). ID had more decayed (3.52; p < .005), and missing teeth (1.17; p = .001), fewer dental restorations (1.67; p = .012) and had a greater need for tooth extraction (21.4%; p = .002) than their siblings. Thirty percent of ID subjects had never received dental treatment and had difficulty accessing public health services. Their treatment needs were, therefore, higher than non-ID subjects. The access to oral health services was unsatisfactory, thus it is important to implement educational and health promotion inclusion policies for people with ID. PMID:24164223

  2. Oral health care in residential aged care services: barriers to engaging health-care providers.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lydia; Slack-Smith, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The oral health of older people living in residential aged care facilities has been widely recognised as inadequate. The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to effective engagement of health-care providers in oral care in residential aged care facilities. A literature review was conducted using MEDline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete and PsychInfo between 2000 and 2013, with a grey literature search of government and non-government organisation policy papers, conference proceedings and theses. Keywords included: dental/oral care, residential aged care, health-care providers, barriers, constraints, and limitations. A thematic framework was used to synthesise the literature according to a series of oral health-care provision barriers, health-care provider barriers, and cross-sector collaborative barriers. A range of system, service and practitioner level barriers were identified that could impede effective communication/collaboration between different health-care providers, residents and carers regarding oral care, and these were further impeded by internal barriers at each level. Findings indicated several areas for investigation and consideration regarding policy and practice improvements. While further research is required, some key areas should be addressed if oral health care in residential aged care services is to be improved. PMID:25155109

  3. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health ... NIH Why is it important to have a research focus on older adults? One reason is that ...

  4. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  5. Development of oral health training for rural and remote aboriginal health workers.

    PubMed

    Pacza, T; Steele, L; Tennant, M

    2001-06-01

    Research data exists that highlight the discrepancy between the medical/dental status experienced by Aboriginal people compared with that of their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This, coupled with a health system that Aboriginal people often find alienating and difficult to access, further exacerbates the many health problems they face. Poor oral health and hygiene is an issue often overlooked that can significantly impact on a person's quality of life. In areas where Aboriginal people find access to health services difficult, the implementation of culturally acceptable forms of primary health care confers significant benefits. The Aboriginal community has seen that the employment and training of Aboriginal health workers (AHW), particularly in rural and remote regions, is significantly beneficial in improving general health. In the present study, an oral health training program was developed and trialled. This training program was tailored to the needs of rural and remote AHWs. The primary objective was to institute a culturally appropriate basic preventative oral health delivery program at a community level. It is envisaged that through this dental training program, AHWs will be encouraged to implement long-term preventive measures at a local level to improve community dental health. They will also be encouraged to pursue other oral health-care delivery programs. Additionally, it is considered that this project will serve to strengthen a trust-based relationship between Aboriginal people and the health-care profession. PMID:11421960

  6. Early Stage Health Technology Assessment for Precision Biomarkers in Oral Health and Systems Medicine.

    PubMed

    Steuten, Lotte M G

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a crucial science that influences the responsible and evidence-based transition of new discoveries from laboratory to applications in the clinic and society. HTA has recently moved "upstream" so as to assess technologies from their onset at their discovery, design, or planning phase. Biomarker research is relatively recent in oral health, but growing rapidly with investments made to advance dentistry and oral health and importantly, to build effective bridges between oral health and systems medicine since what happens in oral health affects systems pathophysiology, and vice versa. This article offers a synthesis of the latest trends and approaches in early phase HTA, with a view to near future applications in oral health, systems medicine, and biomarker-guided precision medicine. In brief, this review underscores that demonstrating health outcomes of biomarkers and next-generation diagnostics is particularly challenging because they do not always influence long-term outcomes directly, but rather impact subsequent care processes. Biomarker testing costs are typically less of a barrier to uptake in practice than the biomarker's impact on longer term health outcomes. As a single biomarker or next-generation diagnostic in oral health can inform decisions about numerous downstream diagnosis-treatment combinations, early stage "upstream" HTA is crucial in prioritizing the most valuable diagnostic applications to pursue first. For the vast array of oral health biomarkers currently developed, early HTA is necessary to timely and iteratively assess their comparative effectiveness and anticipate the inevitable questions about value for money from regulators and payers. PMID:26760958

  7. Global oral health inequalities: task group--periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Armitage, G C; Klinge, B; Lang, N P; Tonetti, M; Williams, R C

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal diseases constitute one of the major global oral health burdens, and periodontitis remains a major cause of tooth loss in adults worldwide. The World Health Organization recently reported that severe periodontitis exists in 5-20% of adult populations, and most children and adolescents exhibit signs of gingivitis. Likely reasons to account for these prevalent diseases include genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors, as well as individual and socio-economic determinants. Currently, there are fundamental gaps in knowledge of such fundamental issues as the mechanisms of initiation and progression of periodontal diseases, which are undefined; inability to identify high-risk forms of gingivitis that progress to periodontitis; lack of evidence on how to prevent the diseases effectively; inability to detect disease activity and predict treatment efficacy; and limited information on the effects of integration of periodontal health as a part of the health care program designed to promote general health and prevent chronic diseases. In the present report, 12 basic, translational, and applied research areas have been proposed to address the issue of global periodontal health inequality. We believe that the oral health burden caused by periodontal diseases could be relieved significantly in the near future through an effective global collaboration. PMID:21490234

  8. The Sensitivity of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index to Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Teresa A.

    1997-01-01

    A 24-month study of 96 patients in a community-based oral health promotion project found the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), a self-report measure of oral health, to be sensitive to provision of dental care. Some further development of measures is needed. Potential applications of this and similar self-report measures in dental…

  9. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  10. Determining Liverpool Adolescents' Beliefs and Attitudes in Relation to Oral Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, E.; Ashcroft, A.; Platt, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Poor oral health is an important public health issue. Adolescents represent a challenging group in terms of oral health because they have vulnerable permanent teeth erupting at a time when they are establishing their independence from parental influence. Preventing oral disease by attempting to influence the behaviours that impact adversely on…

  11. Oral health status in preschool asthmatic children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Sara; Moin, Mostafa; Meighani, Ghasem; Pourhashemi, Seyed Jalal; Khayatpisheh, Hadi; Yarahmadi, Nazli

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, which is diagnosed by periodic symptoms of inflammation, bronchial spasm, and increased mucosal secretions. It has higher incidence among the preschool children. There are many contradictory reports based on the effect of asthma on oral health, however it has been hypothesized that asthma could lead to poor oral health. The objective of the present study was to investigate oral health indices in 44 preschool children of three to six years old with mild to moderate asthma and 46 matched healthy children in Tehran Children's Respiratory Center. Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, mouth breathing, and dental caries were evaluated by one trained examiner according to World Health Organization [WHO] criteria. Culture and colony counting of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus species were carried out in saliva specimens of the patients. The effects of different factors on the colony counts were statistically analyzed using linear regression analysis. The level of mother's education and preexisting asthma disease in children had significant effect on the colony counts of streptococcus species whereas no factor was found to influence the number of lactobacillus counts significantly. The results indicated no significant differences between the children with asthma and those without asthma regarding (decayed, missing, filled, teeth) dmft index (mean of 3.34 in asthmatic children and 3.0 in the control group). Therefore, it can be deduced that the presence of asthma disease did not increase the probability of tooth decay. PMID:23893809

  12. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about patients’ characteristics and addiction history. The T-test, ANOVA, and a linear regression model served for statistical analysis. Results Of the patients, 48% reported brushing their teeth less than once a day, more than 90% used fluoride toothpaste almost or always, and 81% flossed their teeth rarely or never. Eating sugary products twice a day or more was reported by 57% of the patients and 85% of them were current smokers. Poor OHB was associated with male gender, lower education, being addicted mainly to crystalline heroin, starting drug abuse at a younger age, and having a longer history of addiction (p < .05). Conclusion Poor OHB was found among the participants in drug withdrawal treatment. Preventive strategies on oral health should be planned and be integrated into other health promotion programs for addicts along with their withdrawal treatment taking into account special groups at higher risk. PMID:23368406

  13. Expanding oral health preventative services for young children: a successful interprofessional model.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Evelyn; Marino, Deborah; Thacker, Sherrey; DiMarco, Marguerite; Huff, Marlene; Biordi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Progressive solutions are needed to solve the oral health chronic disease problem in the U.S. The importance of oral health coupled with urgent community oral health needs, shortage of primary providers, and emphasis on interprofessional collaboration make the timing ripe for allied health training and practice in oral health preventative services. A successful model is described that addressed the unmet oral health care needs of low-income and at-risk children. The model is a guide for integrating an oral health screen, fluoride varnish, anticipatory guidance, and dental referrals into allied health practice. An alternative oral health provider approach was used to address the low rate of early caries detection, preventative oral care, and access for underserved children. A comprehensive system for the administrative and clinical components of the project, including implementation plan, clinical protocols, prescriptive authority, a dental home referral system, clinical training and competency testing, was developed. The interprofessional project increased oral health services capacity and practice acceptance of oral health screening and fluoride varnishing among dietitians. Oral health care services provide allied health practitioners with unique opportunities to impact the poor access and unmet needs of at risk children and adults and to improve overall health. PMID:24598903

  14. Progress Dissecting the Oral Microbiome in Caries and Health

    PubMed Central

    Burne, R.A.; Zeng, L.; Ahn, S.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Liu, Y.; Lefebure, T.; Stanhope, M.J.; Nascimento, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid advances in “-omics” technologies have yielded new insights into the interaction of the oral microbiome with its host. Associations of species that are usually considered to be acid-tolerant with caries have been confirmed, while some recognized as health-associated are often present in greater proportions in the absence of caries. In addition, some newly identified bacteria have been suggested as potential contributors to the caries process. In spite of this progress, two major challenges remain. The first is that there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the phenotypic capabilities of individual species of oral bacteria. The second is that the most abundant taxa in oral biofilms display remarkable phenotypic plasticity, i.e., the bacteria associated most strongly with health or with caries can morph rapidly in response to alterations in environmental pH, carbohydrate availability and source, and oxygen tension and redox environment. However, new technologic advances coupled with “old-fashioned microbiology” are starting to erode the barriers to a more complete understanding of oral biofilm physiology and ecology, and in doing so are beginning to provide insights for the creation of novel cost-effective caries control therapies. PMID:22899685

  15. Progress dissecting the oral microbiome in caries and health.

    PubMed

    Burne, R A; Zeng, L; Ahn, S J; Palmer, S R; Liu, Y; Lefebure, T; Stanhope, M J; Nascimento, M M

    2012-09-01

    Recent rapid advances in "-omics" technologies have yielded new insights into the interaction of the oral microbiome with its host. Associations of species that are usually considered to be acid-tolerant with caries have been confirmed, while some recognized as health-associated are often present in greater proportions in the absence of caries. In addition, some newly identified bacteria have been suggested as potential contributors to the caries process. In spite of this progress, two major challenges remain. The first is that there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the phenotypic capabilities of individual species of oral bacteria. The second is that the most abundant taxa in oral biofilms display remarkable phenotypic plasticity, i.e., the bacteria associated most strongly with health or with caries can morph rapidly in response to alterations in environmental pH, carbohydrate availability and source, and oxygen tension and redox environment. However, new technologic advances coupled with "old-fashioned microbiology" are starting to erode the barriers to a more complete understanding of oral biofilm physiology and ecology, and in doing so are beginning to provide insights for the creation of novel cost-effective caries control therapies. PMID:22899685

  16. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  17. Adolescents' perceptions of oral health and influencing factors: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena; Jarkman, Kristina; Lindblad, Ulf; Halling, Arne

    2002-06-01

    Accounts of self-perceptions of oral health have hitherto been rare, although they are of great interest for strategies in health promotion. The objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of adolescents' perceptions of oral health and influencing factors. Semi-structured interviews of 17 Swedish adolescents were performed. Criteria for strategic sampling were age (15, 18 years), gender (male, female), and dental health (healthy, unhealthy). Data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. Areas of focus were general oral health, personal oral health, dental care, and life-style issues. Oral health awareness was generally low among the informants. Two categories of oral health were identified: action (the physical things we do to effect the condition of our mouths) and condition (the physical status of the mouth). Conditional aspects were most frequent in evaluations of personal oral health. The informants considered their possibilities to influence oral health limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support and impact, and external factors. 'Concern for oral health' was derived as the core category in perceived influence on oral health. The study indicates that it is important to find factors that enhance adolescents' awareness of their own resources and to seek mechanisms that govern internalization. There is a need to find strategies to convey such knowledge to the intermediaries: dental personnel and parents. PMID:12166911

  18. Maintaining and improving the oral health of young children.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Oral health is an integral part of the overall health of children. Dental caries is a common and chronic disease process with significant short- and long-term consequences. The prevalence of dental caries for the youngest of children has not decreased over the past decade, despite improvements for older children. As health care professionals responsible for the overall health of children, pediatricians frequently confront morbidity associated with dental caries. Because the youngest children visit the pediatrician more often than they visit the dentist, it is important that pediatricians be knowledgeable about the disease process of dental caries, prevention of the disease, and interventions available to the pediatrician and the family to maintain and restore health. PMID:25422016

  19. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  20. Change in diet and oral hygiene over an 8-week period: effects on oral health and oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Roth, Dominik; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Follo, Marie; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Deimling, Daniela; Hellwig, Elmar; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor changes in oral health and oral biofilm composition in vivo during an experiment simulating prehistoric lifestyle and diet and poor oral hygiene. Thirteen subjects lived for a period of 8 weeks under Neolithic conditions. The following clinical parameters were recorded before and after the project: gingival and plaque index (Löe and Silness, Acta Odontol Scand 21:533, 1963; Silness and Löe, Acta Odontol Scand 22:121-135, 1964), probing pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. In addition, supragingival plaque samples were collected both before and after the project and were analysed quantitatively using multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The following plaque bacteria were evaluated: Streptococcus spp., Veillonella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii. The plaque index increased significantly from 1.12 up to 1.55 over the 8-week period (gingival index before, 0.46; after, 0.93; p < 0.05). A strong correlation of both indices was recorded before (r = 0.77) and after (r = 0.83) participation in the study. Each of the children in the study showed a progression of carious lesions and/or new areas of demineralisation. The probing pocket depth and bleeding upon probing were not affected. All subjects yielded an intra-individual shift in biofilm composition. The proportion of F. nucleatum decreased across all subjects. The proportion of Veillonella spp. increased among the children. Poor oral hygiene and change of diet lead to an increase in oral plaque and gingival inflammation. The inter-individual comparison indicated a shift in bacterial composition. PMID:19626350

  1. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan. PMID:26357816

  2. The relationship between oral health and nutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Walls, A W G; Steele, J G

    2004-12-01

    The oral health of older people is changing with reducing numbers of people relying on complete dentures for function, and retaining some natural teeth. Despite this there are substantial numbers of older people whose ability to chew foods is compromised by their oral health status, either because they have few or no natural teeth. This alteration results in individuals selecting a diet that they can chew in comfort. Such diets are low in fruits and vegetables intake with associated reduction in both non-starch polysaccharide and micronutrient intakes. There is also a trend for reduced dietary intake overall. Salivary flow and function may have an impact in relation to the ability to chew and swallow. Whilst there are few differences in salivary function in fit healthy unmedicated subjects, disease resulting in reduced salivary flow and particularly polypharmacy, with xerostomia as a side effect, are likely to have a role in older people. This paper explores the relationships between oral health status and food's choice and discusses the potential consequences for the individual of such dietary change. PMID:15563930

  3. Evolution of post-deployment indicators of oral health on the Family Health Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445

  4. Oral Health-related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Outcomes through the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Zeng, J; Foster Page, L A; Baker, S R; Ramrakha, S; Thomson, W M

    2016-07-01

    Complex associations exist among socioeconomic status (SES) in early life, beliefs about oral health care (held by individuals and their parents), and oral health-related behaviors. The pathways to poor adult oral health are difficult to model and describe, especially due to a lack of longitudinal data. The study aim was to explore possible pathways of oral health from birth to adulthood (age 38 y). We hypothesized that higher socioeconomic position in childhood would predict favorable oral health beliefs in adolescence and early adulthood, which in turn would predict favorable self-care and dental attendance behaviors; those would lead to lower dental caries experience and better self-reported oral health by age 38 y. A generalized structural equation modeling approach was used to investigate the relationship among oral health-related beliefs, behaviors in early adulthood, and dental health outcomes and quality of life in adulthood (age, 38 y), based on longitudinal data from a population-based birth cohort. The current investigation utilized prospectively collected data on early (up to 15 y) and adult (26 and 32 y) SES, oral health-related beliefs (15, 26, and 32 y), self-care behaviors (15, 28, and 32 y), oral health outcomes (e.g., number of carious and missing tooth surfaces), and oral health-related quality of life (38 y). Early SES and parental oral health-related beliefs were associated with the study members' oral health-related beliefs, which in turn predicted toothbrushing and dental service use. Toothbrushing and dental service use were associated with the number of untreated carious and missing tooth surfaces in adulthood. The number of untreated carious and missing tooth surfaces were associated with oral health-related quality of life. Oral health toward the end of the fourth decade of life is associated with intergenerational factors and various aspects of people's beliefs, SES, dental attendance, and self-care operating since the childhood years

  5. The teeth and faces of twins: providing insights into dentofacial development and oral health for practising oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T E; Townsend, G C; Pinkerton, S K; Bockmann, M R; Seow, W K; Brook, A H; Richards, L C; Mihailidis, S; Ranjitkar, S; Lekkas, D

    2014-06-01

    The continuing studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families in the Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide began 30 years ago. Three main cohorts of twins have been recruited, enabling various objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed about the roles of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on human dentofacial growth and development, as well as oral health. This paper highlights some key findings arising from these studies, emphasizing those of direct relevance to practising oral health professionals. We also draw on published literature to review the significant developments in relation to the use of precision 2D and 3D imaging equipment, the application of modern molecular techniques, and the development of sophisticated computer software for analysing genetic relationships and comparing complex shapes. Such developments are valuable for current and future work. Apart from the classical or traditional twin model, there are several other twin models that can be used in research to clarify the relative contributions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation. The monozygotic (MZ) co-twin model is one particularly valuable method, given that examination of only one pair of MZ twins can provide considerable insights into underlying causes of observed variation. This model can be used in a dental practice environment, with oral health professionals having the opportunity to explore differences in orofacial structures between MZ co-twins who are attending as patients. As researchers have become more aware of the complexities of the interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment during development, there is the need to collect more phenotypic data and define new phenotypes that will better characterize variations in growth processes and health status. When coupled with powerful new genetic approaches, including genome

  6. Policy for prevention of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Program.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P-E

    2006-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic has become a human and social disaster, particularly affecting the developing countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. By the end of 2004, about 40 million people were estimated to be infected by HIV globally. The health sectors in many affected countries are facing severe shortages of human and financial resources, and are struggling to cope with the growing impact of HIV/AIDS. In most developed countries, the availability of antiretroviral treatment has resulted in a dramatic reduction in HIV/AIDS-related mortality and morbidity. In contrast, in the developing countries, there is little access to treatment, and access to HIV-prevention services is poor. The '3 by 5' initiative was launched by the WHO and UNAIDS in 2003 with the aim of providing antiretrovirals to three million people in developing countries by the year 2005. HIV infection has a significant negative impact on oral health, with approximately 40-50% of HIV-positive persons developing oral fungal, bacterial, or viral infections early in the course of the disease. Oral health services and professionals can contribute effectively to the control of HIV/AIDS through health education and health promotion, patient care, effective infection control, and surveillance. The WHO Global Oral Health Program has strengthened its work for prevention of HIV/AIDS-related oral disease. The WHO co-sponsored conference, Oral Health and Disease in AIDS, held in Phuket, Thailand (2004), issued a declaration calling for action by national and international health authorities. The aim is to strengthen oral health promotion and the care of HIV-infected persons, and to encourage research on the impact that HIV/AIDS, public health initiatives, and surveillance have on oral health. PMID:16672544

  7. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  8. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score. PMID:24909797

  10. Factors influencing oral health in long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Weiss, R; Waxler-Morrison, N E; Morrison, B J

    1987-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 41 long term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver, 653 residents were chosen to investigate oral health needs and demands for treatment. All of the 603 dentists in the same area were questioned to assess their interest in attending the residents of the institutions. The information from each source was reviewed to identify factors influencing the oral health services to this predominantly elderly and medically compromised population. The majority (60%) of the residents were edentulous and they made infrequent demands on dentists. Two-thirds of those interviewed said that there was nothing wrong with their mouths, but most of those who were aware of a problem wanted it treated, preferably within the institution. They complained about loose or uncomfortable dentures most frequently, and many were dissatisfied with previous dental treatment. The oral mucosal lesions seen on examination were usually symptomless and associated with poor hygiene, while structurally defective dentures and deep carious lesions were not uncommon. The responding 334 dentists indicated that they enjoyed treating elderly patients, 19% had attended an LTC facility, usually to provide an emergency service, and 37% were willing to provide this service if asked. Interest, however, in the service was curtailed by pressures from private practice, concerns about inadequate training and the small demand and poor conditions in the facilities. Although the demand for treatment was not extensive from the residents, they did have problems that were not receiving care. PMID:3121247

  11. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  12. Social Inequalities and the Oral health in Brazilian Capitals.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Janmille Valdivino; Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes

    2015-08-01

    Despite the improvement of the lives of Brazilians, still persists a panorama of iniquities in health in Brazil. This ecological study evaluated the relationship of socioeconomic conditions and public health policy with oral health conditions in Brazilian capitals. Factor analysis was performed with the socioeconomic indicators, revealing two common factors: economic deprivation and socio-sanitary condition. Then, was executed multiple linear regression analysis for the oral health indicators (average DMFT 12 years, mean missing teeth and rate of decay of free population) with two factors in common and fluoridation of water supply. Multiple linear regression analysis to the DMFT of the capitals was estimated by the socio-sanitary conditions and fluoridation, adjusted by economic deprivation; whereas the model for the average missing teeth was estimated only for flu-oridation and economic deprivation, and finally, the model for the rate of caries-free population in the Brazilian capitals was estimated by economic and sociosanitary condition set by fluoridated water supplies. Therefore, the results indicate the need for social actions that impact on people's living conditions to reduce tooth decay. PMID:26221819

  13. Weaning practices among some Nigerian women: implication on oral health.

    PubMed

    Bankole, O O; Aderinokun, G A; Odenloye, O; Adeyemi, A T

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to document the various weaning diets given by some Nigerian women and consider their implication on the oral health of their children. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 700 volunteer mothers of young children aged between 6-18 months in Ibadan, a city in south-western Nigerian. Results revealed that pap was the most frequently given food to the infants as 607 (86.7%) of them ate it. Chocolate beverages, natural fruit juice and soft drinks were the most commonly given drinks as 88.1%, 79.9% and 70.3% babies were said to be given these respectively. Over 57% of mothers sweetened pap with sugar. Forty seven percent of mothers added glucose to children's drinking water. Over two-third (64.9%) of children ate biscuits several times a day. Soft drinks, commercial fruit juices and squash were consumed by 16.1%, 9.6% and 7.7% of the infants respectively on a daily basis. Judging by the findings of this study, it is evident that many infants are being exposed to a highly cariogenic diet at an early age. In the light of the harmful effect of these foods and drinks on the body and teeth, it is important that oral health care workers initiate moves to discourage this habit via health education programmes. Nurses, community health workers at various levels, pregnant women and mothers of young children should be the targets of such intervention. PMID:16704022

  14. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  15. A survey of oral health, Qalyub Project, Egypt*

    PubMed Central

    Wheatcroft, M. G.; Klimt, C. R.

    1959-01-01

    This report presents the results of an oral health survey of 4324 individuals in three villages near Cairo, Egypt. The results show that the incidence of dental decay (expressed as the number of carious teeth per individual) in this group of Egyptians was lower than that reported for the over-all population of the USA, and that the prevalence of periodontal disease in the group studied was about three times as high as that reported in the USA. There was a statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of asymptomatic enlargement of the parotid glands and the occurrence of angular cheilosis in the same individuals. Other forms of oral disease were observed infrequently. Water samples from the survey area were assayed for fluorides and were shown to contain fluoride levels below that considered to give protection against dental caries. PMID:13638795

  16. The effects of an oral health intervention on caregivers of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Audrey P; Kameka, Michelle; Young-Whiting, Chanadra

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an oral health educational intervention on knowledge and behavior-specific cognitions and affect in caregivers of children from 2 to 5 years of age. This was a descriptive study, with a convenience sample of 425 Head Start caregivers who attended one of 18 oral health educational programs throughout Miami-Dade County. Four research questions addressed the relationship between the oral health educational intervention and prior related behavior, personal factors, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, knowledge, and intent. The educational program was found to have a significant effect on caregivers' knowledge, cognition, affect, and intent to provide oral healthcare to their children. Educational programs have a positive impact on caregivers to increase oral health knowledge and intent to perform preventive oral health-promoting behaviors in this underserved population. Effective educational interventions are necessary in order to increase overall health in children and to decrease oral disease. PMID:23061170

  17. Oral Health Status of the Veddas-Sri Lankan Indigenous People.

    PubMed

    Jayashantha, Pradeep; Johnson, Newell W

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Veddas/Vanniya-laeto, are a small Indigenous group today with little information on their oral health status. This report is to provide an overview on oral health status of Veddas. Oral health status was recorded by the principal investigator after obtaining consent, using World Health Organization criteria, at an initial screening point before sending the person for any necessary treatment. Total participants were 194: 78% were males>35 years. Mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.9 and 3% had pockets <3.5mm. Three had oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), while three were treated for oral cancer. While the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal conditions was low, oral cancer and OPMDs is a serious concern. The Veddas have a culturally specific health system based on herbal medicinal knowledge. Thus, it is challenging to introduce and implement a preventive and curative oral health care system that would be culturally acceptable to this community. PMID:26853207

  18. Dental health and oral health-related quality of life in children with congenital bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Salem, K; Eshghi, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dental and some other aspects of oral health status of young patients with congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) and the impact of these on their quality of life (OHR-QoL) compared with controls. DMFS-dmfs (Decayed, Missed, Filled Tooth surfaces in permanent and primary teeth) scores, Simplified oral hygiene index, occurance of hypoplasia of first permanent molars, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and occlusion of 46 CBD patients at the age range of 2-15 years and 46 of other children as control were compared, and the impact of their oral health situation on quality of life was also investigated. Data were analysed by chi-square, t-test and Pearson correlation. Patients were significantly more caries-free with less decayed teeth in primary-permanent dentition (P = 0.03, t = -2.17).The mean scores of OHR-QoL of CBD patients and controls were not significantly different. Oral Bleeding was the significant variable in relation to 'oral health-related quality of life' in CBD groups (Pearson correlation, r = -0.56, P = 0.000). OHR-QoL in the control group was related to dmfs score (r = -0.392, P = 0.011) and male gender (r = -0.329, P = 0.026). Congenital bleeding disorder CBD patients were found to have a better dental health situation in primary dentition compared with controls; however, their 'oral health-related quality of life' was similar. Oral bleeding was the only significant factor related to OHR-QoL in CBD. It shows an overall importance of development of comprehensive care centres for CBD as the main cause of this achievement. PMID:22970656

  19. Integrating oral health into professional nursing practice: an interprofessional faculty tool kit.

    PubMed

    Dolce, Maria C

    2014-01-01

    Millions of children and adults in the United States have unmet oral health care needs, and professional nurses can play a central role in reducing oral health disparities and expanding access to care. Interprofessional education is requisite to improving oral health care outcomes. Baccalaureate nursing programs need to prepare collaborative practice-ready professional nurses to improve oral health care especially for vulnerable and underserved individuals, communities, and populations. This article presents an interprofessional faculty tool kit that builds upon The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice as a framework for preparing professional nurses with basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes in oral health promotion and disease and injury prevention across the life cycle. Expectations for professional nursing practice are described within the context of The Essentials and contemporary oral health care issues. Exemplars of interprofessional teaching-learning strategies are provided to assist nurse faculty with integrating oral health into baccalaureate nursing curriculum. Nurse educators are called to prioritize oral health as an essential component of overall health and well-being, increase the visibility of evidence-based oral health promotion and disease and injury prevention in baccalaureate nursing curricula, and support interprofessional oral health education and collaborative care. PMID:24503317

  20. A review of approaches for dental practice teams for promoting oral health.

    PubMed

    Kay, Elizabeth; Vascott, Donna; Hocking, Allice; Nield, Helen; Dorr, Charles; Barrett, Helen

    2016-08-01

    To determine the circumstances in which oral health promotion (OHP) in General Dental Practice is at its most effective, a systematic review was conducted to identify, critically appraise and synthesize the available evidence. The research question was: Is oral health promotion within dental practice effective and how can its effects be optimized? Systematic searches of 20 online resources (including Ovid Medline and Embase) were conducted. A call for evidence was also issued, and citation lists of other relevant systematic reviews were included. All studies published since 1994 which were set in the context of general dental practice and investigated promoting good oral health in adult or child patients were considered. 44 studies reported in 52 papers were included in the review. The evidence was heterogeneous and the quality of reporting was variable. Results showed that oral health promotion based on behavioural and psychological models was effective for improving oral health. Verbal advice affected knowledge and reported behaviour, written advice promoted oral health knowledge. There was moderate evidence that the attributes of the 'sender' of an oral health promotion message influenced its effectiveness. Many barriers and facilitators were shown to influence the effectiveness of OHP in dental practice. The results of this review suggest that the psychology of behaviour change is the key to oral health promotion and greater emphasis on teaching oral health professionals about health psychology would make oral health promotion in the dental surgery more effective. PMID:26892435

  1. Welfare policy and planning of oral health services.

    PubMed

    Helöe, L A

    1988-04-01

    The Scandinavian countries are commonly referred to as welfare states, i.e. liberal states which assume responsibility for their citizens through a range of interventions in the market economy. The principles of the welfare policy are: 1) universality of population coverage, 2) comprehensiveness of risks covered, 3) adequacy of benefits and 4) citizens' right to health and social services. The goals are usually expressed in brief slogans like solidarity, universality, equality of opportunity, quality, efficiency and pluralism/"freedom of choice". Our welfare model is thus based upon ideals deriving from both individualistic and collectivistic philosophies, just as Scandinavia's mixed economy is. Similar to other health sectors, dental care is an integral part of the welfare state, striving to attain its manifold goals. Planning of oral health services should therefore be directed toward these goals, considering the shifts in the disease and problem panorama. PMID:3162857

  2. Oral health of the elderly: reality, myth, and perspective.

    PubMed

    Mariño, R

    1994-09-01

    As life expectancy increases, and with it both the relative and absolute numbers of individuals age 60 and older, oro-dental health services face new challenges. This article explores the status of geriatric dental care in Latin America through a bibliographic review of epidemiologic studies included in the MEDLINE and LILACS systems, as well as PAHO studies on this subject. The areas addressed are the elderly's oro-dental health status, perceptions of their own oro-dental health, and frequency of dental service use. The review gives special attention to the critical state of oro-dental health among Latin America's elderly population, which exhibits high prevalences of caries-related tooth loss and total loss of dentition. The review revealed a scarcity of data relating to periodontal health and the health status of buccal soft tissues in the elderly population. It also found that elderly survey subjects tended to perceive their own oro-dental health in a manner inconsistent with clinical observations. According to several survey-based studies, most of those surveyed felt their oro-dental health was good or very good with few or no chewing problems. Regarding service utilization, many of those interviewed indicated they had not seen a dentist during the 6 months preceding the study. In view of the health, social, and psychologic consequences of the current situation for the elderly and the oral health services' potential for improving this population's quality of life, it is strongly recommended that appropriate and effective oro-dental health care programs oriented to this age group be developed. PMID:7951363

  3. [Health education as a strategy for the promotion of oral health in the pregnancy period].

    PubMed

    Reis, Deise Moreira; Pitta, Daniela Rocha; Ferreira, Helena Maria Barbosa; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; Soares, Milton Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    This literature revision is intended to discuss the importance of health education as a strategy to oral health promotion in the pregnancy period. The most common mouth manifestations during pregnancy have been studied, and the conclusion is that, although pregnancy itself is not responsible for such manifestations in the mouth, e.g. dental decay and periodontal diseases, a dentistry follow-up during prenatal care is necessary, considering that hormonal alterations in pregnancy may aggravate the diseases contracted. The oral health promotion for pregnant women has been focused on mouth health education, considering it an important part of the Program of Attention to Women's Health, as recommended by the current National Politics' Mouth Health Policy. It is considered that, by means of mouth health education activities, implemented during prenatal care by a multiprofessional team, under an oral surgeon, women may be aware of the importance of their role in the attainment and maintenance of positive mouth health habits in family environment and act as an agent to multiply preventive and mouth-health-promotion information. PMID:20169253

  4. Oral health care for children - a call for action.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Legg, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Oral health is a fundamental component of overall health. All children and youth should have access to preventive and treatment-based dental care. Canadian children continue to have a high rate of dental disease, and this burden of illness is disproportionately represented by children of lower socioeconomic status, those in Aboriginal communities and new immigrants. In Canada, the proportion of public funding for dental care has been decreasing. This financial pressure has most affected low-income families, who are also less likely to have dental insurance. Publicly funded provincial/territorial dental plans for Canadian children are limited and show significant variability in their coverage. There is sound evidence that preventive dental visits improve oral health and reduce later costs, and good evidence that fluoridation therapy decreases the rate of dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations. Paediatricians and family physicians play an important role in identifying children at high risk for dental disease and in advocating for more comprehensive and universal dental care for children. PMID:24381493

  5. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity. PMID:27080859

  6. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center

    PubMed Central

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636

  7. Natural remedies recommended for the management of oral health.

    PubMed

    Ocasio, N A; Solomowitz, B H; Sher, M R

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses various practices recommended by homeopaths, herbalists, spiritual and natural healers for the management and maintenance of oral health. It is intended as a partial guide to educate the dental professional on self-administered, over-the-counter remedies that are easily available to the general population. Since few if any clinical studies exist assessing the efficacy or side effects of these ingested products, little is known about the beneficial or potentially harmful course these remedies may take on the human body. PMID:10474992

  8. The Special Needs of Preterm Children - An Oral Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2016-07-01

    Preterm births are defined as those before 37 weeks of gestation. With advances in fertility medicine and neonatal medicine, the numbers of preterm children in the community have significantly increased. Developmental delays and complications among preterm children are well recognized. Much less consideration is given to the dental complications of preterm children. Manifestations include palatal deformations, enamel defects, tooth size variations and tooth shape deformities, malocclusions, and increased risks of early childhood caries and tooth wear. This article explores orodental risks and orodental needs of preterm children and suggests preventive and management strategies for optimizing the oral health of special needs children. PMID:27264860

  9. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Bardow, Allan; Kokaras, Alexis; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Paster, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Saliva is a biological fluid suitable for biomarker analysis, and differences in the salivary microbiota in oral health and disease have been reported. For such comparative analyses, time of sampling is critical since the bacterial composition may vary throughout the day, i.e., diurnal variation. The purpose of this study is to compare the salivary microbiome over time to determine the optimal time for sampling. Design Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 5 orally healthy individuals in 4 h intervals for 24 h, and collection was repeated 7 days later (number of samples per person, n = 12, total number of samples, n = 60). Salivary microbiota was analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Benjamini-Hochberg’s correction for multiple comparisons, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and correspondence analysis. Results From a total of 60 saliva samples, 477 probe targets were collectively identified with a mean number of probes per sample of 207 (range: 153–307). Little or no variation in microbial profiles within subjects was observed over time. Conclusions Although there was considerable variation between subjects, microbial profiles within subjects were stable throughout a 24 hour period and after 1 week. Since there is little or no evidence of diurnal variation of the salivary microbiome, time of sampling of saliva is not critical for perturbation or other microbial studies. PMID:26799067

  10. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26101338

  11. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. PMID:26066517

  12. Beyond microbial community composition: functional activities of the oral microbiome in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Pinedo, Ana E.; Frias-Lopez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbiome plays a relevant role in the health status of the host and is a key element in a variety of oral and non-oral diseases. Despite advances in our knowledge of changes in microbial composition associated with different health conditions the functional aspects of the oral microbiome that lead to dysbiosis remain for the most part unknown. In this review, we discuss the progress made towards understanding the functional role of the oral microbiome in health and disease and how novel technologies are expanding our knowledge on this subject. PMID:25862077

  13. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  14. Evaluating oral health promotion activity within a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, W

    2013-07-01

    The prevention of the common dental diseases is fundamental to modern day general dental practice. Oral health promotion (OHP) is therefore key to facilitating health outcomes within organisations. The literature surrounding OHP stresses the importance of evaluation in order to assess the effectiveness of OHP activities. This paper describes the evaluation of OHP within a general dental practice setting. Early attendance, the use of adult toothpastes during childhood and consequential fluorosis are investigated. A small service evaluation study of 100 consecutive patients was undertaken. The results support the ongoing promotion of early attendance and the use of toothpastes with adequate fluoride levels. There was no evidence of unsightly fluorosis in the sample studied. PMID:23887535

  15. Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Monika; Sood, Shaveta

    2013-01-01

    Various modalities of treatment are available for different dental diseases, but the major drawback of these conventional drug therapies is the numerous side effects associated with their use. This has led to renewed interest in the discovery of novel anti-infective natural compounds derived from plants. Plants have been the major source of medicine since the time immemorial. Turmeric has been attributed a number of medicinal properties in the traditional system of medicine. The objective of this article is to review the efficacy of turmeric herb in maintenance of oral health, in particular, and overall health, in general. Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a herb known for its medicinal properties and is a more acceptable and viable option for a common man. It has proven properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, antiseptic, and antimutagenic. Due to these properties, it is quite useful in dentistry as well. It has a role in the treatment of periodontal diseases and oral cancers. Turmeric can also be used as a pit and fissure sealant, mouth wash, and subgingival irrigant in different preparations. It can also be used as a component in local drug delivery system in gel form. PMID:23633828

  16. Is Dental Utilization Associated with Oral Health Literacy?

    PubMed

    Burgette, J M; Lee, J Y; Baker, A D; Vann, W F

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern of association between dental utilization and oral health literacy (OHL). As part of the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project, clients in the Women, Infants, and Children's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program completed a structured 30-min in-person interview conducted by 2 trained interviewers at 9 sites in 7 counties in North Carolina. Data were collected on clients' OHL, sociodemographics, dental utilization, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge. The outcome, OHL, was measured with a dental word recognition test (30-item Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry). Descriptive and multiple linear regression methods were used to examine the distribution of OHL and its association with covariates. After adjusting for age, education, race, marital status, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge, multiple linear regression showed that dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL. PMID:26567035

  17. Diet counseling during the infant oral health visit.

    PubMed

    Nainar, S M Hashim; Mohummed, Shamsia

    2004-01-01

    Diet counseling is an integral part of anticipatory guidance during the infant oral health visit. Similar to dietary instructions for children of all ages, the primary emphasis is on sugar intake frequency. There are, however, other infant-specific dietary issues that must also be addressed during the infant oral health visit. Breast-feeding should be promoted during the first year of life, although ad libitum nocturnal breast-feeding should be discouraged after the first primary tooth erupts. Bottle-fed infants should not be put to sleep with the bottle. Weaning from the breast or the bottle should be encouraged by 12 to 14 months of age. Infants older than 6 months and with exposure to less than 0.3 ppm fluoride in their drinking water need dietary fluoride supplements of 0.25 mg fluoride per day. Only 4 to 6 oz of fruit juice should be consumed by infants per day. Infants should not be given powdered beverages or soda pop, as these drinks pose increased risk for dental caries. Iron-fortified infant cereals, along with breast milk or infant formula, should be consumed by infants who are at least 6 months of age. Cow's milk should be completely avoided in the first year of life and restricted to less than 24 oz per day in the second year of life. Parents should be cautioned regarding the potential of various foods to constitute a choking hazard for infants. PMID:15460303

  18. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them. PMID:22360000

  19. A survey of oral health in a Sudanese population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the oral health status and risk factors for dental caries and periodontal disease among Sudanese adults resident in Khartoum State. To date, this information was not available to health policy planners in Sudan. Methods A descriptive population-based survey of Sudanese adults aged ≥ 16 years was conducted. After stratified sampling, 1,888 adult patients from public dental hospitals and dental health centres scattered across Khartoum State, including different ethnic groups present in Sudan, were examined in 2009-10. Data were collected using patient interviews and clinical examinations. Dental status was recorded using the DMFT index, community periodontal index (CPI), and a validated tooth wear index. Results Caries prevalence was high, with 87.7% of teeth examined having untreated decay. Periodontal disease increased in extent and severity with age. For 25.8% of adults, tooth wear was mild; 8.7% had moderate and 1% severe toothwear. Multivariate analysis revealed that decay was less prevalent in older age groups but more prevalent in southern tribes and frequent problem based attenders; western tribes and people with dry mouths who presented with less than18 sound, untreated natural teeth (SUNT). Older age groups were more likely to present with tooth wear; increasing age and gender were associated with having periodontal pocketing ≥ 4 mm. Conclusions The prevalence of untreated caries and periodontal disease was high in this population. There appear to be some barriers to restorative dental care, with frequent use of dental extractions to treat caries and limited use of restorative dentistry. Implementation of population-based strategies tailored to the circumstances of Sudanese population is important to improve oral health status in Sudan. PMID:22364514

  20. Improving the Oral Health of Residents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Oral Health Strategy and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Catherine J.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected one week before and one week after implementing a one-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  1. Improving the oral health of residents with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an oral health strategy and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Catherine J; Johnson, Knowlton W; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected 1 week before and 1 week after implementing a 1-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  2. Promoting oral health practice among patients with diabetes attending primary health care clinics

    PubMed Central

    Aljaber, Abeer; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The oral public health program for patients with diabetes was initiated by Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health (MoH) based on international quality standard to control the severity of oral disease in patients with diabetes through improving the accessibility of patients to dental clinics in primary health care centers (PHCC). This program intends to deliver oral health care (OHC) for each patient with diabetes at least one visit every six months. However, we found that more than 90% of patients with diabetes that visited prince Mohammed bin Saud PHCC in Riyadh do not get their regular dental check up every six months. We developed a quality improvement project (QIP) using the quality improvement model to activate MoH oral health program for patients with diabetes visiting prince Mohamed bin Saud PHCC. The aim of our QIP was to increase number of patients with diabetes receiving their regular oral health check up during the PHC visit. The quality team tested two simple improvement ideas. The first idea was having the dentist signature on appointment request. The testing of the first idea led to the second idea, that both physician and dentist should sign the referral form. After running several PDSA cycles to test these interventions ideas, we found the number of patients with diabetes seen in dental clinic had increased dramatically compared with the baseline assessment. We conclude that the idea of signing the referral form by both physician and dentist is a practical and simple strategy to be executed and has a direct impact on the patient clinical flow between clinics. PMID:26734427

  3. Promoting oral health practice among patients with diabetes attending primary health care clinics.

    PubMed

    Aljaber, Abeer; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The oral public health program for patients with diabetes was initiated by Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health (MoH) based on international quality standard to control the severity of oral disease in patients with diabetes through improving the accessibility of patients to dental clinics in primary health care centers (PHCC). This program intends to deliver oral health care (OHC) for each patient with diabetes at least one visit every six months. However, we found that more than 90% of patients with diabetes that visited prince Mohammed bin Saud PHCC in Riyadh do not get their regular dental check up every six months. We developed a quality improvement project (QIP) using the quality improvement model to activate MoH oral health program for patients with diabetes visiting prince Mohamed bin Saud PHCC. The aim of our QIP was to increase number of patients with diabetes receiving their regular oral health check up during the PHC visit. The quality team tested two simple improvement ideas. The first idea was having the dentist signature on appointment request. The testing of the first idea led to the second idea, that both physician and dentist should sign the referral form. After running several PDSA cycles to test these interventions ideas, we found the number of patients with diabetes seen in dental clinic had increased dramatically compared with the baseline assessment. We conclude that the idea of signing the referral form by both physician and dentist is a practical and simple strategy to be executed and has a direct impact on the patient clinical flow between clinics. PMID:26734427

  4. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  5. Health workforce governance and oral health: Diversity and challenges in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the life course, oral diseases are some of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, and in Europe. Human resources for oral health are fundamental to healthcare systems in general and dentistry is no exception. As political and healthcare systems change, so do forms of governance. The aim of this paper is to examine human resources for oral health in Europe, against a workforce governance framework, using England as a case study. The findings suggest that neo-liberalist philosophies are leading to multiple forms of soft governance at professional, system, organisational and individual levels, most notably in England, where there is no longer professional self-regulation. Benefits include professional regulation of a wider cadre of human resources for oral health, reorientation of care towards evidence-informed practice including prevention, and consideration of care pathways for patients. Across Europe there has been significant professional collaboration in relation to quality standards in the education of dentists, following transnational policies permitting freedom of movement of health professionals; however, the distribution of dentists is inequitable. Challenges include facilitating employment of graduates to serve the needs and demands of the population in certain countries, together with governance of workforce production and migration across Europe. Integrated trans-European approaches to monitoring mobility and governance are urgently required. PMID:26584576

  6. Impact of Sense of Coherence on Oral Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Elyasi, Maryam; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Badri, Parvaneh; Saltaji, Humam; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to critically analyze the empirical evidence on the association between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health behaviors through a systematic approach. Methods A systematic search up to April 2015 was carried out using the following electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE; ISI Web of Science; and Ovid PsychInfo. Studies were included if they evaluated the relationship between SOC and oral health behaviors including tooth cleaning, fluoride usage, dietary habits, dental attendance, and smoking. We excluded studies that only assessed the relationship between oral health status and SOC without evaluating oral health behaviors. The New Castle Ottawa (NOS) quality assessment checklist was employed to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Results Thirty-nine potential papers met the preliminary selection criteria and following a full-text review, 9 papers were finally selected for this systematic review. Results provided by the included studies indicated different levels of association between SOC and oral health behaviors. The most frequent behaviors investigated were tooth brushing and dental attendance pattern. The impact of SOC on performing positive oral health behaviors, to some extent, was related to demographic and socio-economic factors. In addition, mothers’ SOC influenced children’s oral health practices. Conclusions A more favorable oral health behavior was observed among those with a stronger SOC suggesting that the SOC can be a determinant of oral health-related behaviors including tooth brushing frequency, daily smoking, and dental attendance. PMID:26275064

  7. Evaluation of behavior change goal-setting action plan on oral health activity and status.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Lindsay M; Yoon, Richard K; Chinn, Courtney H; Chussid, Steven

    2011-11-01

    This experimental study determined if a "report card-like" oral health action plan was effective in improving oral health behaviors in a sample of 69 patients, ages 1 to 6 years. Participants were divided randomly into control and intervention groups. Data collected included dmft, plaque score, Streptococcus mutans levels and oral health behaviors. Participants in the intervention group received an oral health action plan that included: 1. child's current caries-risk status; 2. identification issues of concern; and 3. one "goal" to improve on for the next visit. All participants returned after two months for follow-up examination and data collection. PMID:22338818

  8. Role of Salvadora persica chewing stick (miswak): A natural toothbrush for holistic oral health

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Fayez; Naseem, Mustafa; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    From an ancient tool to a modern way of improving oral health, miswak (chewing stick) has proven to be an effective tool for oral health. The miswak removes the bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical actions. It provides a cheap and easily accessible way of improving oral health of the individuals and populations. The use of miswak was promoted centuries ago by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him). In the modern era, the beneficial role of using miswak such as antiseptic, antimicrobial, anticariogenic and analgesic effects have been proven scientifically. This article reviews the various oral health benefits of miswak in the light of religious, scientific and social evidences. PMID:27095914

  9. Oral health-related quality of life and its relationship to self-reported oral discomfort and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Einarson, Susanne; Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnbring; Hugoson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The impact of oral health on quality of life is one aspect when it comes to understanding the significance of oral health. The aim of this study was to analyse the self-reported oral discomfort and clinical status of individuals reporting oral problems never/very seldom affecting quality of life during the last year and compare them with individuals who reported oral problems hardly ever/occasionally or often/very often during the the same period. The study comprised a stratified random sample of 515 individuals who lived in four parishes in the City of Jonköping, Sweden, and turned 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 years of age in 2003. The impact of oral health on quality of life was examined using the OHIP-14 questionnaire. The individuals were also examined clinically and radiographically. Of the participants, 21% reported no experience of impaired quality of life and 20% of the individuals reported that they had experienced impaired quality of life often or very often during the last year. The highest frequency of oral problems was found among individuals aged 20 and 80 years. Subjective symptoms, such as grinding/clenching and headache, were found among 20- and 30-year-olds. Edentulous individuals and individuals with many missing teeth, individuals with severe periodontal disease or subjective dry mouth answered that they experienced problems according to the OHIP-14 often or very often. A number of individuals, young and old, had thus experienced subjective or clinically verified oral conditions associated with a negative experience of quality of life. This complementary information will provide a deeper understanding of the importance of oral health in the population. PMID:25771651

  10. Strategies to promote better research on oral health in Africa: A Delphi consensus study

    PubMed Central

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on oral health contributes to improved health outcomes; it is an indispensable tool in health policy. But how to fill the gaps in research oral health and to strengthen its capacity is the question. The main objective of the present study is to identify the current status of oral health research and potential strategies, thereby strengthening the research infrastructure and capacity. Delphi consultation, in the perspective of assisting decision-makers to identify strategies to promote better research on oral health in Africa, was initiated. Design and Methods: The panels of 30 experts were asked to complete the questionnaire with 42 items into four groups by web survey. Each indicator statement was considered to be in consensus if the expert's opinion rating was of “A or B” for more than 75% in a scale of seven categories. Quantitative analysis was made from the answers of Delphi round. Results: There was a strong consensus about three items concerning the role of oral health research, the development of research policy for oral health going through an effective governance of research institutes, migration of researchers and fund raising. Conclusion: This study shows strong many dispersal opinions by experts, but highlights the need for to improve the effectiveness of oral health research capacity strengthening activities. Africa's researchers, policy makers and partners will have to give special attention to ensuring that knowledge generated from oral health research is acted on to improve health for all. PMID:24808689

  11. The Oral Health Burden in the United States: A Summary of Recent Epidemiological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Daniel J.; Weintraub, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews recent large-scale epidemiological surveys of oral health in the United States, outlines risk factors for oral disease, and makes recommendations for future surveys. Discussion is limited to dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss, edentulism, oral cancer, and orofacial clefts. (Author/MSE)

  12. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  13. [Impact of oral health teams of the Family Health Strategy on the oral health of adolescents in the south of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ely, Helenita Corrêa; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger Keller; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has produced effective results in health indicators. In this cross-sectional study, the impact of the oral health teams (OHT) of the Family Health Strategy was evaluated on the oral health of 2581 adolescent schoolchildren aged 12 and 15-19 years in 36 municipalities (19 with and 17 without OHT/FHS). Four dentists performed oral examinations. Socioeconomic status, the use of and access to health services were assessed via a structured questionnaire. The presence of the OHT in the FHS were the main independent variables. Outcomes were Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) and its components, toothache, gingival bleeding, and dental calculus. The data were analyzed by means of negative binomial and Poisson regression. Multilevel analysis was conducted to adjust the outcomes to OHT/FHS and individual variables. In the unadjusted model there was no association between the OHT in the FHS and the outcomes analyzed. After adjustment, young people in areas not covered by the OHT/FHS had almost half of the tooth loss of adolescents from the areas covered (RM = 0.64 CI 95%, 0.43 to 0.94). PMID:27166908

  14. Maternal Oral Health Predicts Their Children’s Caries Experience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, D.M.; Thomson, W.M.; Broadbent, J.M.; Poulton, R.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term effects of poor maternal oral health are unknown. We determined whether maternal oral health when children were young was a risk indicator for caries experience in adulthood, using oral examination and interview data from age-5 and age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study, and maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment. The main outcome measure was probands’ caries status at age 32. Analyses involved 835 individuals (82.3% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. There was a consistent gradient in age-32 caries experience across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status (from the age-5 assessment): it was greatest among the probands whose mothers rated their oral health as “poor” or who were edentulous, and lowest among those whose mothers rated their oral health as “excellent”. Unfavorable maternal self-rated oral health when children are young should be regarded as a risk indicator for poor oral health among offspring as they reach adulthood. PMID:21248361

  15. Oral health status, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among marginalized children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Delia; Aronson, Jane; Asgary, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    Data on oral health status in Ethiopia are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of dental decay and gum disease and oral health practices and its barriers. We performed a cross-sectional study using comprehensive questionnaires and oral examination of 132 children aged 6-15 years in Addis Ababa. Mean age was 10 years and 50% were females. A significant number of children were HIV positive and orphaned. Forty-eight percent did not brush teeth and 43% brushed only once daily. The majority consumed sugary food despite knowing its relationship with dental decay. Seventy-four percent had between 1 and 13 dental caries and 52% showed evidence of bleeding upon brushing. Seventy-eight percent did not clean between teeth and were more likely to consume sugary food (p < 0.05) with oral pain within past six months (p < 0.01). In logistic regression, bleeding upon brushing and caries were not predicted by age or gender. We provided oral health trainings with illustrative flip-book, games and interactive discussions. Marginalized children suffer from poor oral health. We recommend national oral health strategies, targeted health education tailored towards Ethiopian societal norms and resources, improving access to local preventive tools and provision of oral care by training community health workers in the World Health Organization basic oral care package. PMID:25713009

  16. Oral health comparison between children with neutropenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Park, Michael S; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Dror, Yigal; Gloguaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare the oral health of children with neutropenia, who are under the active care of a hematologist in a designated marrow failure and myelodysplasia program, to a healthy control group. Children aged 6-18 with neutropenia attending the Marrow Failure and Myelodysplasia Program at SickKids Hospital and controls attending the Children's Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto were asked to participate in the study consisting of a patient questionnaire followed by a dental and radiographic examination. Fifteen patients with neutropenia (mean age 12.14 ± 4.04 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age 11.61 ± 3.82 years) participated in this study. Patients with neutropenia reported significantly increased mouth sores (p < .008) and bleeding gums while brushing (p < .001). The dmft/t score was significantly lower for the neutropenia group (p < .009). The clinical examination also showed that there were no statistically significant differences with respect to ulcerations, gingival recession, tooth mobility, gingival inflammation, periodontal bone loss, DMFT/T scores, plaque, and calculus levels. Preliminary data demonstrates that pediatric patients who are under the active care of a hematologist do not present with an increased risk of oral diseases. PMID:24382366

  17. Assessment of Effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Bindhumadhav, Suresh; Sangeeta; Garg, Purnima; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. SUMMARY Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime. PMID:27365983

  18. Methods and software for estimating health disparities: the case of children's oral health.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nancy F; Han, Pamela Z; Gansky, Stuart A

    2008-10-15

    The National Center for Health Statistics recently issued a monograph with 11 guidelines for reporting health disparities. However, guidelines on confidence intervals (CIs) cannot be readily implemented with the complex sample surveys often used for disease surveillance. In the United States, dental caries (decay) is the most common chronic childhood disease-5 times more common than asthma. Racial/ethnic minorities, immigrants, and persons of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have a greater prevalence of caries. The authors provide methods for applying National Center for Health Statistics guidelines to complex sample surveys (health disparity indices and absolute and relative difference measures assessing associations of race/ethnicity and SEP to health outcomes with CIs); illustrate the application of those methods to children's untreated caries; provide relevant software; and report results from a simulation varying prevalence. They use data on untreated caries from the California Oral Health Needs Assessment of Children 2004-2005 and school percentage of participation in free/reduced-price lunch programs to illustrate the methods. Absolute and relative measures, the Slope Index of Inequality, the Relative Index of Inequality (mean and ratio), and the Health Concentration Index were estimated. Taylor series linearization and rescaling bootstrap methods were used to estimate CIs. Oral health differed significantly between White children and all non-White children and was significantly related to SEP. PMID:18779387

  19. Influence of oral mucosal lesions and oral symptoms on oral health related quality of life in dermatological patients: a cross sectional study in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1 years, 50 % females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms. Results An oral impact (OIDP > 0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6 %) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd = 6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5 %, 36.7 % and 44.1 %, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with ≥ 1 dental attendance, patients with > 1 type of OML, and patients with ≥ 1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95 % CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95 % CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95 % CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95 % CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP. Conclusion OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of

  20. Investments and costs of oral health care for Family Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Macêdo, Márcia Stefânia Ribeiro; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Fernandes, Antônio Luis de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the investments to implement and operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team in the Family Health Care Strategy. METHODS This is an economic assessment study, for analyzing the investments and operational costs of an oral health care team in the city of Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. The amount worth of investments for its implementation was obtained by summing up the investments in civil projects and shared facilities, in equipments, furniture, and instruments. Regarding the operational costs, the 2009-2012 time series was analyzed and the month of December 2012 was adopted for assessing the monetary values in effect. The costs were classified as direct variable costs (consumables) and direct fixed costs (salaries, maintenance, equipment depreciation, instruments, furniture, and facilities), besides the indirect fixed costs (cleaning, security, energy, and water). The Ministry of Health’s share in funding was also calculated, and the factors that influence cost behavior were described. RESULTS The investment to implement a type I Oral Health Care Team was R$29,864.00 (US$15,236.76). The operational costs of a type I Oral Health Care Team were around R$95,434.00 (US$48,690.82) a year. The Ministry of Health’s financial incentives for investments accounted for 41.8% of the implementation investments, whereas the municipality contributed with a 59.2% share of the total. Regarding operational costs, the Ministry of Health contributed with 33.1% of the total, whereas the municipality, with 66.9%. Concerning the operational costs, the element of heaviest weight was salaries, which accounted for 84.7%. CONCLUSIONS Problems with the regularity in the supply of inputs and maintenance of equipment greatly influence the composition of costs, besides reducing the supply of services to the target population, which results in the service probably being inefficient. States are suggested to partake in funding, especially to cover the

  1. Assessment of the Status of National Oral Health Policy in India

    PubMed Central

    Kothia, Nandita Rani; Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Devaki, Talluri; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Pachava, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Background: National oral health policy was conscripted by the Indian Dental Association (IDA) in 1986 and was accepted as an integral part of National Health Policy (NHP) by the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare in one of its conferences in the year 1995. Objectives of this paper were to find out the efforts made or going on towards its execution, its current status and recent oral health-related affairs or programs, if any. Methods: Literature search was done using the institutional library, web-based search engines like ‘Google’ and ‘PubMed’ and also by cross referencing. It yielded 108 articles, of which 50 were excluded as they were not pertinent to the topic. Twenty-four were of global perspective rather than Indian and hence were not taken into account and finally 34 articles were considered for analyses. Documents related to central and state governments of India were also considered. Results: All the articles considered for analysis were published within the past 10 years with gradual increase in number which depicts the researchers’ increasing focus towards oral health policy. Criticisms, suggestions and recommendations regarding national oral health programs, dental manpower issues, geriatric dentistry, public health dentistry, dental insurance, oral health inequality, and public-private partnerships have taken major occupancies in the articles. Proposals like "model for infant and child oral health promotion" and "oral health policy phase 1 for Karnataka" were among the initiatives towards national oral health policy. Conclusion: The need for implementation of the drafted oral health policy with modification that suits the rapidly changing oral health system of this country is inevitable. PMID:26340486

  2. Dermatomyositis: a contemporary review for oral health care providers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takako Imai; Geist, Shin-Mey Rose Y

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune muscle disorder characterized by skin rashes and progressive muscle weakness. This disease is a subset of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and affects both children and adults. Increased incidence of malignancy has been observed in adult DM, making early diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring crucial. In the past, limitations of these diagnostic criteria and classifications often made it difficult to identify the disease in the early stages. However, in recent years a new understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical features of DM has developed, which enables clinicians to distinguish DM from other autoimmune disorders and other subsets of IIM. Many signs and symptoms of DM involve the orofacial regions. This paper reviews and updates the disease process, orofacial manifestations, and dental considerations for patients with DM. Understanding new knowledge of DM helps oral health care providers coordinate care for patients with this disease. PMID:23036799

  3. Factors influencing oral hygiene and gingival health in Greek schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Anagnou-Vareltzides, A; Tsami, A; Mitsis, F J

    1983-12-01

    397 children aged 12-17 years from different schools were divided into two groups. Group I comprised 192 children from private schools in Athens and Group II comprised 205 children from state schools of an industrial area in Piraeus. They were also subgrouped according to their socioeconomic class. They were interviewed with regard to their oral health habits, frequency of dental visits, etc., and subjected to clinical examination using the criteria and indices described by Silness & Löe and Löe & Silness. Stepwise regression analysis was used in the statistical evaluation of factors related to GI and Pl I. The following factors were found to be statistically significant in relation to GI: socioeconomic class, toothbrushing frequency, sex, and group examined. For Pl I statistically significant factors were found to be: age, group examined, and sex. All other variables were not significantly correlated to GI and Pl I. PMID:6580994

  4. [Peculiarities of oral health of organized collectives and professional communities].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Avdeenko, O E

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of scientific literature on the peculiarities of the dental status of organized groups and professional associations. After reviewing the literature, it becomes clear that the studies carried out in organized groups and professional societies are very relevant today, because the prevalence of dental diseases among them remains high, fueled by a number of factors: habitat, diet, lifestyle, occupational hazards, particularly hygienic oral care. Nowadays there is no information about the features of the dental status among the clergy, whose professional activity is connected with direct close contact with people. This profession covers a large number of our population. The research of certain groups is of special interest, since a number of different factors affect dental health. PMID:27182563

  5. Improving governance to improve oral health: addressing care delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The evolving role of the state in the provision of health care has seen the adoption of new management philosophies to ensure that goals set for the system are reached. In particular, the term New Public Management (NPM) has tended to dominate reforms to help address perceived shortcomings in public sector services. NPM is based on the use of freemarket type arrangements as a mechanism to solve problems, the control of which provides new challenges. One particular challenge that has arisen from the combination of NPM with the large number of agencies involved in care provision is that of addressing the issues arising from the improved understanding of the determinants of health. This has led to the evolution of differing care arrangements across differing sectors at all levels. If resources are to be used as intended, the control of delivery systems to oversee their use must exist. The overarching term for such activity is â governance. This paper provides an overview of the issues that arise for addressing governance of oral health care and the subsequent challenges that face those responsible for ensuring compliance. PMID:22976573

  6. Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

  7. Ten Years of a National Oral Health Policy in Brazil: Innovation, Boldness, and Numerous Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pucca, G A; Gabriel, M; de Araujo, M E; de Almeida, F C S

    2015-10-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world to propose a universal health care system with the aim of guaranteeing delivery of all levels of health care, free of charge, to a population of over 200 million inhabitants by means of a unified health system ("Sistema Único de Saúde" [SUS]). The national policy of oral health, also known as Smiling Brazil ("Brasil Sorridente"), was implemented in 2004. Oral health was designated as 1 of the 4 priority areas of the SUS, transforming oral health care in Brazil, with the objective that the SUS achieve the integrality of care envisaged at its creation. The aim of this article is to share part of this experience in order to prompt reflection about the inclusion of oral health care in other health care systems around the world. The most significant results of Smiling Brazil can be seen in 3 areas: (1) oral health epidemiological indicators, (2) financial investment and professional development, and (3) the building of an oral health care network throughout the 10 y of the policy. The "Discovery!" article presented here portrays 10 y of evolution; however, it is important to point out that this is a process undergoing construction and that the oral health care network needs to be further expanded, refined, and solidified so that over time and through changes in the political parties in power, Smiling Brazil prevails as a perennial policy and not merely an action by a single government. PMID:26316461

  8. [An oral health care network organized by large municipalities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoi, Heloisa; Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira de; Caetano, João Carlos

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to analyze the oral health care network in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in municipalities with 100,000 inhabitants or more, focusing on the identification and integration of the network's essential elements. Primary data were obtained through a structured questionnaire applied to oral health care administrators. Secondary data were collected from official databases and provided by the Municipal and State Health Departments. The municipalities offer oral health services at all levels of care, but they are in different stages in implementation of the network. They have taken some measures to consolidate the network, such as inclusion of tools for integration of primary services to specialized care and reorientation of primary health care as the network's central coordinating element. Limitations include difficulty in defining the network's clientele based on epidemiological criteria, insufficient logistics and governance systems, and the need to expand oral health teams in the family health strategy, operating under health surveillance principles. PMID:24627060

  9. Periodontal Health, Perceived Oral Health and Dental Care Utilization of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Inglehart, Marita R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This population-based analysis examined the prevalence of periodontal diseases along with the self-perceived oral health and patterns of dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors in the U.S. METHODS Data from the 1999–2004 NHANES were utilized, examining information from 3,354 women between 50–85 years of age. Primary outcomes were gingivitis and periodontitis, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of breast cancer diagnosis and primary outcomes, while controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS Breast cancer survivors were more likely to be older than 55 years, white, non-smokers, have higher levels of education and income and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Breast cancer survivors were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (p=0.04). Utilization of dental services and reason for last dental visit did not significantly differ between groups. A history of a breast cancer diagnosis did not increase the odds of gingivitis (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.53–3.63), periodontitis (OR=1.82; 95% CI = 0.89–4.01) or poor self-perceived oral health (OR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.61–1.33) after adjusting for age, race, education, dental care utilization, and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, a history of breast cancer does not significantly impact periodontal health, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. However, efforts should be made to assure that breast cancer survivors have dental insurance. PMID:25648337

  10. Oral Health Status: Impact on Dental Student Attitudes toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, James D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found negative attitudes toward the aged among health professionals. Evaluates the impact of oral health status upon dental student attitudes toward the aged. Suggests that attitudes of students may become initially more negative due to exposure to generally poor oral conditions of elderly patients. (Author)

  11. Design of an Oral Health Information Brochure for At-Risk Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgaine, Kate C.; Carter, Angharad S.; Meldrum, Alison M.; Cullinan, Mary P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to develop written resource material for use in the "Oral Health Information through Community Pharmacists" project. Poor oral health is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many people do not access dental services on a regular basis; however, they may access community pharmacies for help and…

  12. Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

  13. Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Jessica S; Wennström, Jan L; Lindgren, Björn; Petzold, Max; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Abrahamsson, Kajsa H

    2016-05-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents. Methods Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level. Results In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing ≥ 2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth. Conclusions Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions. PMID:26599291

  14. Self-perception of oral health in older adults from an urban population in Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Catarina; Manso, Ana Cristina; Escoval, Ana; Salvado, Francisco; Nunes, Carla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if the self-perception of oral health in the urban context is associated with sociodemographic factors that interfere in the life quality of oral health. METHODS Cross-sectional study with convenience sample of older individuals (65 years old or more) enrolled in the Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Norte (ACES Lisboa Norte – Health Centers Groupings North Lisbon). The self-perception of oral health and associated life quality was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha (α). Later, we used binary logistic regression models to characterize the factors associated with the self-perception of oral health, considering the sociodemographic variables and the older adults’ clinical conditions of oral health and establishing the crude and adjusted (to age) odds ratios and their 90% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 369 older adults participated in this study, with an average age of 74.2 years (SD = 6.75); 62.9% were female. On average, the index was moderated, with tendency to be high: 32.9 (SD = 3.6; 12-36 interval). The Cronbach’s alpha was high: 0.805. Age, marital status, and the last dental appointment were the factors significantly associated with self-perception of oral health. CONCLUSIONS The study shows that these individuals have a moderate, with tendency to high, self-perception of oral health. The self-perception of oral health assessment allowed us to identify the main associated sociodemographic factors. This instrument can help guiding planning strategies and oral health promotion directed toward a better life quality for this population group. PMID:27556967

  15. Austin Powers bites back: a cross sectional comparison of US and English national oral health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael G; Kawachi, Ichiro; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare oral health in the US and England and to assess levels of educational and income related oral health inequalities between both countries. Design Cross sectional analysis of US and English national surveys. Setting Non-institutionalised adults living in their own homes. Participants Oral health measures and socioeconomic indicators were assessed in nationally representative samples: the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009 for England, and the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-08. Adults aged ≥25 years were included in analyses with samples of 8719 (England) and 9786 (US) for analyses by education, and 7184 (England) and 9094 (US) for analyses by income. Main outcome measures Number of missing teeth, self rated oral health, and oral impacts on daily life were outcomes. Educational attainment and household income were used as socioeconomic indicators. Age standardised estimates of oral health were compared between countries and across educational and income groups. Regression models were fitted, and relative and absolute inequalities were measured using the relative index of inequality (RII) and the slope index of inequality (SII). Results The mean number of missing teeth was significantly higher in the US (7.31 (standard error 0.15)) than in England (6.97 (0.09)), while oral impacts were higher in England. There was evidence of significant social gradients in oral health in both countries, although differences in oral health by socioeconomic position varied according to the oral health measure used. Consistently higher RII and SII values were found in the US than in England, particularly for self rated oral health. RII estimates for self rated oral health by education were 3.67 (95% confidence interval 3.23 to 4.17) in the US and 1.83 (1.59 to 2.11) in England. In turn, SII values were 42.55 (38.14 to 46.96) in the US and 18.43 (14.01 to 22.85) in England. Conclusions The oral health of US citizens is not better than

  16. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  17. Breaking the cycle in Maryland: oral health policy change in the face of tragedy.

    PubMed

    Thuku, Njeri M; Carulli, Kelly; Costello, Stacy; Goodman, Harold S

    2012-01-01

    In response to the death of a young child, efforts by many partners have enabled Maryland to institute oral health reforms that ensure that low-income children remain visible and have continued access to dental services. This paper shows how proponents of oral health in Maryland used issues that were already on the oral health policy agenda to break the cycle of nonaction and become a role model for other states. Deriving from the knowledge and advice of an advisory committee, Maryland administrators and state and federal legislators, with the support of many community partners, took appropriate action to elevate the oral health agenda. Maryland continues to address oral health issues, ensuring that the policy agenda is inclusive of all its citizens. PMID:22433110

  18. Burden of Oral Disease Among Older Adults and Implications for Public Health Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Judith A.; Brunson, Diane; Griffin, Paul M.; Bailey, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Dental disease is largely preventable. Many older adults, however, experience poor oral health. National data for older adults show racial/ethnic and income disparities in untreated dental disease and oral health–related quality of life. Persons reporting poor versus good health also report lower oral health–related quality of life. On the basis of these findings, suggested public health priorities include better integrating oral health into medical care, implementing community programs to promote healthy behaviors and improve access to preventive services, developing a comprehensive strategy to address the oral health needs of the homebound and long-term-care residents, and assessing the feasibility of ensuring a safety net that covers preventive and basic restorative services to eliminate pain and infection. PMID:22390504

  19. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care. PMID:15481692

  20. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years); (2) compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3) ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR). Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7). In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6). In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6), being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6), soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6) and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings suggest that

  1. Development of an Online Education Program for Midwives in Australia to Improve Perinatal Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    George, Ajesh; Duff, Margaret; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Dahlen, Hannah; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Ellis, Sharon; Bhole, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    It is recommended that all pregnant women should receive a comprehensive oral health evaluation because poor maternal oral health may affect pregnancy outcomes and the general health of the woman and her baby. Midwives are well placed to provide dental health advice and referral. However, in Australia, little emphasis has been placed on the educational needs of midwives to undertake this role. This article outlines the development of an online education program designed to improve midwives’ dental health knowledge, prepare them to assess the oral health of women, refer when required, and provide appropriate dental education to women and their families. The program consists of reading and visual material to assist with the oral health assessment process and includes competency testing. PMID:23449750

  2. Refugees and oral health: lessons learned from stories of Hazara refugees.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Cathryn E Finney; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Michaels, Cecily

    2009-11-01

    Australia is one of a few countries with a resettlement program for refugees. The organisation and provision of health services for refugees pose challenges to health service managers and service providers. Some groups have experienced severe trauma and, in the case of Hazara refugees, years of persecution and displacement. This qualitative study gained access to Hazara refugees in order to gain an understanding of their oral health experiences and to seek participant views on factors that impacted on their oral health status. All participants had poor oral health status, multiple tooth extractions, and had placed a low priority on their oral health. They had experienced violence and traumatic events associated with war and looting. Participants reported that they had limited access to dental practitioners and oral education; lived for extended periods with oral pain and untreated oral problems; and treated oral pain with traditional pain remedies and tooth extractions. Service providers need to consider that elements of the refugee experience may affect health-seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. PMID:20166911

  3. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Clark, Valerie Lyn; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride) and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status). METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8) assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets). Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions. PMID:24789647

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of School Teachers Towards Oral Health in Pondicherry

    PubMed Central

    P., Sivsankar; M.A., Easwaran; L., Subitha; N., Bharath; K., Rajeswary; S., Jeyalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: School teachers by virtue of their training can influence a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health preventive programs. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of school teachers towards oral health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers of the city of Pondicherry. A structured questionnaire was used and 212 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude and practice regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding oral health of children and status of oral health education at the schools. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 21.0. Results: Around 47% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugar are the main causes of dental caries, while 42% felt that plaque and calculus are the main agents for periodontal disease. Around 82.5% teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers felt that children’s teeth should be checked by dentist, only 51% agreed that it is their duty to impart oral health education to the students. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding oral health among school teachers was fair. Oral Health education must be imparted to preschool and primary school teachers as a part of National Oral Health care Program on a regular basis and further studies must be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules. PMID:25302258

  5. The relationship between general health and lifestyle factors and oral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Busby, M; Chapple, L; Matthews, R; Chapple, I

    2016-07-22

    Aim The primary research question addressed in this paper was 'are lower than average oral health scores observed for those patients who report problems with general health and high-risk lifestyle factors?'Methods A population analysis was conducted on the first 37,330 patients, assessed by 493 dentists in the UK, to receive a Denplan PreViser Patient Assessment (DEPPA) at their dental practice. The Oral Health Score (OHS) was generated using a mixture of patient-reported factors and clinical findings and is an integrated component of DEPPA. Patients' self-reported risk factors included diabetes status, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Patients' general health was measured by self-report, that is, a yes/no answer to the question 'have you experienced any major health problems in the last year for example a stroke, heart attack or cancer?' Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed to study the association between the OHS and general health and risk factors for patients in the DEPPA cohort.Results The mean age of participants was 54 years (range 17-101; S.D. 16 years) and the mean OHS for the group was 78.4 (range 0-100; S.D. 10). 1,255 (3%) of patients reported experiencing a major health problem in the previous year. In the fully adjusted model, diabetes, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption (three or more drinks per day), and poor overall health in the preceding year were all associated with a statistically significant drop in the mean OHS of patients. Having diabetes was associated with a 1.7 point (95% CI 1.3-2.1, P <0.001) drop in OHS, tobacco use was associated with a 2.7 point (95% CI 2.5-2.9, P <0.001) drop in OHS, and excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a 1.8 point (95% CI 1.3-2.4, P <0.001) drop in OHS. The mean OHS in patients who reported a major health problem in the preceding year was 0.7 points (95% CI 0.2-1.2, P = 0.006) lower than that of patients who did not report a major health problem in the preceding year

  6. Knowledge and perception of oral health promotion in schools among dental nurses in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, C J; Jallaludin, R L

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of a Health-Promoting School has received much interest. In Malaysia, dental nurses are ideally placed to play a lead role in promoting Oral Health within the school setting. This study aims to provide information on the knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion in schools, among dental nurses. A postal questionnaire was used to measure dental nurses' knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion. The majority (60%) of dental nurses had good knowledge of Oral Health Promotion. Generally, they perceived that they play an important role in promoting Oral Health in schools. However, a sizeable proportion (25%) did not think they had a role to play in working together with school authorities to provide children with healthy food choices in school canteens. The majority (60%) of dental nurses did not perceive Oral Health Promotion to be important as a whole. They had a good perception of the concepts: it supports behaviour change, it has appropriate goals, it integrates oral health and general health and relieves anxiety. However, they had a poorer perception of the concepts; diverse educational approaches, participation, focus on prevention, early intervention, "spread of effect" of dental health education and "make healthier choices the easier choices". Years of service was not significantly associated with knowledge and perception of Oral Health Promotion. Dental nurses should be reoriented towards a more holistic practice of Oral Health Promotion. Workshops that invite active participation from dental nurses should be conducted to equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills. PMID:11200211

  7. To evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Vyom; Goyal, Chinu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene, and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students. In this study, 142 visually impaired children from a blind school in the age group of 6-18 years were enrolled with a similar number of age and sex matched sighted students studying in different schools of Chandigarh. The outcome variables were oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal status. The visually impaired had been found to have better oral hygiene practices, a nonsignificant difference of oral hygiene scores but a significantly high value for bleeding scores as compared to sighted students. Age wise comparisons showed that bleeding scores were highly significant in 9-11 years and 12-14 years age group as compared to 6-8 years and 15-18 years age group. It could be related that the increased prevalence of bleeding sites despite of better oral hygiene practices in visually impaired group might be the result of their handicap to visualize plaque. PMID:23451928

  8. Perceptions of contraceptive effectiveness and health effects of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Tessler, S L; Peipert, J F

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that misperceptions about the effectiveness of contraceptive methods and the risks and benefits of oral contraceptive (OC) use are widespread in the US, even among the most educated population groups, was investigated in 147 women presenting to the Brown University (Providence, Rhode Island) health service and 189 students solicited by female volunteers on the campus. 90% of respondents correctly estimated the effectiveness of OCs in preventing pregnancy, but 32-34% inflated the pregnancy rates associated with subdermal implants and Depo-Provera. 60% overestimated the failure rate of the IUD. On the other hand, a majority underestimated the failure rates of barrier methods and spermicides. 41% believed OCs increase the risk of breast cancer and 33% thought the pill increases cervical cancer risk. 66% knew that OCs reduce dysmenorrhea and 50% were aware the pill decreases menstrual bleeding. However, the majority were unaware OCs reduce the risk of benign breast disease (95%), ectopic pregnancy (91%), pelvic inflammatory disease (90%), and anemia (89%). 81% were unaware of the protective effects of OCs against uterine cancer and 77% did not know they have a protective effect against ovarian cancer. In general, OC users were more aware of the health benefits of OCs than condom users. Finally, respondents were asked to rate their satisfaction with their current birth control method on a scale of 1-12. Mean satisfaction scores were significantly higher among OC users (10.3) than condom users (7.1). These findings indicate that, even among highly educated US women, misperceptions persist about the reliability of birth control, the risks of pregnancy, and the health effects of OCs. PMID:9439201

  9. Exogenous Hormone Use: Oral Contraceptives, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, and Health Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II from 1976 to 2016. Results. Oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone use were studied in relation to major health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Current or recent oral contraceptive use is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (mainly among smokers), melanoma, and breast cancer, and a lower risk of colorectal and ovarian cancer. Although hormone therapy is not indicated primarily for chronic disease prevention, findings from the NHS and a recent analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative indicate that younger women who are closer to menopause onset have a more favorable risk–benefit profile than do older women from use of hormone therapy for relief of vasomotor symptoms. Conclusions. With updated information on hormone use, lifestyle factors, and other variables, the NHS and NHS II continue to contribute to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. PMID:27459451

  10. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly. PMID:26691792

  11. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

  12. Health promoting schools and children’s oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objective was to compare children’s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in schools with 6 years of implementation of a health promoting school model in Malaysia, i.e. the Doktor Muda Programme (DMP) and in schools without the DMP. Methods This report was part of a larger study to evaluate the DMP impact on schoolchildren’s oral health knowledge, attitudes, behaviour, caries progression and OHRQoL. It was conducted in Negri Sembilan state. The sample comprised 3455, Year 6 (11–12 year old) children; 1282 from DMP (intervention) and 2173 from non-DMP (control) schools. The Malay Child-OIDP index was used to evaluate children’s levels of oral impacts on 8 daily performances after 6 years of DMP implementation (2006–2011). Prevalence, score, impact intensity, causes and extent of impacts were compared. Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests were used in the data analysis. Results Overall response rate was 95.1%. Prevalence of overall impacts was 57.8% and 60.8% (mean total impact score was 7.10 and 7.77) in the intervention and control group, respectively. The three most frequently affected performances in both groups were eating, cleaning teeth and emotional stability. Significantly less DMP children had oral impact on cleaning teeth (p = 0.034). The majority of children with impacts in both groups reported ‘very little’ to ‘moderate’ levels of impact intensity. Significantly more DMP children reported having ‘very little’ and ‘little’ levels of impact intensity on cleaning teeth (p = 0.037) and emotional stability (p = 0.020), respectively. Significantly less DMP children reported having ‘very severe’ level of impact intensity on speaking (p = 0.038). The most prevalent cause of impacts in both groups was toothache. Significantly less DMP children reported bleeding gums (p = 0.016) and presence of plaque/calculus as causes of impacts (p = 0.032). About 75% of children with impacts in both groups reported having

  13. Putting your money where your mouth is: parents' valuation of good oral health of their children.

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Exel, N J A; van Loveren, C; Brouwer, W B F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parental willingness to invest in good oral health for their child in terms of money and time and to relate this to oral health related knowledge and behavioral aspects. 290 parents of 6-year-old children, participating in a RCT on caries preventive strategies in The Netherlands were asked to provide information on education, oral health habits, dietary habits, knowledge on dental topics, willingness to pay and perceived resistance against investing in preventive oral health actions for their children. Despite the fact that parents overall valued oral health for their child highly, still 12% of the parents were unwilling to spend any money, nor to invest any time by brushing their children's teeth to maintain good oral health for their child. Additionally, they indicated that they were unwilling to visit the dentist for preventive measures more than once a year. These children may certainly be considered at higher risk of developing oral diseases because worse oral hygiene habits and dietary habits were found in this group. Given the results, it may be necessary to differentiate in allocating caries prevention programmes to target parents or (school-based) children directly. PMID:22995665

  14. Oral health in children with physical (Cerebral Palsy) and intellectual (Down Syndrome) disabilities: Systematic review I

    PubMed Central

    de Nova-García, Manuel-Joaquín; Mourelle-Martínez, Mª Rosa; Bartolomé-Villar, Begona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traditionally, patients with physical and/or intellectual disabilities presented greater oral pathology, owing to their condition and to other external factors. Improved social and health conditions make it necessary to update knowledge on their oral and dental health. Material and Methods For this purpose, a bibliographic review was done regarding the state of oral health of children with these two types of disability, in comparison with a control group. Some of the guidelines of the PRISMA statement were taken into account. The ranking of the articles found is based on the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The final number of articles evaluated was 14. Parameters such as dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival health, dental traumas, malocclusion and habits were considered. Results There is no consensus among authors regarding dental caries, oral hygiene and gingival health. The different results obtained are due in part to the fact that the methodologies used were not the same. However, it has been noted that, when studying other parameters and regardless of the methodology employed, the results obtained are similar. Conclusions Children with physical and intellectual disabilities constitute a group that needs early and regular dental care in order to prevent and limit the severity of the pathologies observed. Key words:Oral health, dental caries, malocclusion, oral habits, dental trauma, oral hygiene, disabled child, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome. PMID:27398187

  15. The oral microbiome in health and disease and the potential impact on personalized dental medicine.

    PubMed

    Zarco, M F; Vess, T J; Ginsburg, G S

    2012-03-01

    Every human body contains a personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of eliciting disease. The oral microbiome is particularly imperative to health because it can cause both oral and systemic disease. The oral microbiome rests within biofilms throughout the oral cavity, forming an ecosystem that maintains health when in equilibrium. However, certain ecological shifts in the microbiome allow pathogens to manifest and cause disease. Severe forms of oral disease may result in systemic disease at different body sites. Microbiomics and metagenomics are two fields of research that have emerged to identify the presence of specific microbes in the body and understand the nature of the microbiome activity during both health and disease. The analysis of the microbiome and its genomes will pave the way for more effective therapeutic and diagnostic techniques and, ultimately, contribute to the development of personalized medicine and personalized dental medicine. PMID:21902769

  16. Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko; Honkala, Eino; Saag, Mare; Kennepohl, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm), dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S. mutans, decreased expression of bacterial genes involved in sucrose metabolism, reduced the overall number of dental caries, and served as a suitable matrix for subgingival air-polishing to replace traditional root scaling. Conclusions. Important differences were reported in the effect of individual polyols on oral health. The current review provides evidence demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health.

  17. Global oral health inequalities in incidence and outcomes for oral cancer: causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N W; Warnakulasuriya, S; Gupta, P C; Dimba, E; Chindia, M; Otoh, E C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Califano, J; Kowalski, L

    2011-05-01

    The mouth and oropharynx are among the ten most common sites affected by cancer worldwide, but global incidence varies widely. Five-year survival rates exceed 50% in only the best treatment centers. Causes are predominantly lifestyle-related: Tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, poor diet, viral infections, and pollution are all important etiological factors. Oral cancer is a disease of the poor and dispossessed, and reducing social inequalities requires national policies co-ordinated with wider health and social initiatives - the common risk factor approach: control of the environment; safe water; adequate food; public and professional education about early signs and symptoms; early diagnosis and intervention; evidence-based treatments appropriate to available resources; and thoughtful rehabilitation and palliative care. Reductions in inequalities, both within and between countries, are more likely to accrue from the application of existing knowledge in a whole-of-society approach. Basic research aimed at determining individual predisposition and acquired genetic determinants of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, thus allowing for targeted therapies, should be pursued opportunistically. PMID:21490236

  18. Subjective food intake ability related to oral health-related quality of life and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2016-09-01

    Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P < 0·001) and depression level (P < 0·05) than the 40 participants (14 men, 26 women) in the higher KFIA group. As the KFIA decreased, OHRQOL worsened (P < 0·001) and depression increased (P < 0·05). Participants with lower KFIA scores were more than 4·3 times as likely as to have a poor OHRQOL than the reference group (odds ratio, 4·348; 95% confidence interval, 1·554-12·170, P < 0·01). Lower subjective food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. PMID:27224265

  19. Overcoming structural inequalities in oral health: the role of dental curricula.

    PubMed

    Foster Page, L A; Chen, V; Gibson, B; McMillan, J

    2016-06-01

    To date the role of health professional schools in addressing oral health inequalities have been minimal, as attempts have focused principally upon systemic reform and broader societal obligations. Professionalism is a broad competency that is taught throughout dental schools and encompasses a range of attributes. Professionalism as a competency draws some debate and appears to be a shifting phenomenon. We may ask if professionalism in the dental curricula may be better addressed by social accountability? Social accountability directs oral health professional curricula (education, research, and service activities) towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community, in our case oral health inequalities. Although working toward dental schools becoming more socially accountable seems like a sensible way to address oral health inequalities, it might have limitations. We will consider some of the challenges in the dental curricula by considering some of the political, structural, social and ethical factors that influence our institutions and our graduates. PMID:27352476

  20. Oral health related knowledge, attitude, and practice among the pre-university students of Mysore city

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Veera; Bennadi, Darshana; Gaduputi, Satish; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Siluvai, Sibyl; Reddy, Chava Venkata Konda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-university students of Mysore city. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1000 pre-university students of Mysore city. Results: Statistical tests such as percentage distribution and Chi-square were used. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Most of the students (88%, n = 880) knew that dental health reflects on the general health. Eighty-nine percent (n = 890) of students were aware that sweets and sticky food cause dental decay. Majority of the students (90%, n = 900) agreed that they visited dentist only when they had pain and cleaned their teeth once daily using toothbrush and tooth paste in vertical and horizontal motion. Conclusion: The study showed that the students had good knowledge about the basic oral health measures necessary to maintain proper oral health, but their attitude and practices toward oral health was relatively poor. PMID:25374832

  1. Addressing oral health disparities, inequity in access and workforce issues in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

    2013-10-01

    The health sector challenges in India like those in other low and middle income countries are formidable. India has almost one-third of the world's dental schools. However, provisions of oral health-care services are few in rural parts of India where the majority of the Indian population resides. Disparities exist between the oral health status in urban and rural areas. The present unequal system of mainly private practice directed towards a minority of the population and based on reparative services needs to be modified. National oral health policy needs to be implemented as a priority, with an emphasis on strengthening dental care services under public health facilities. A fast-changing demographic profile and its implications needs to be considered while planning for the future oral health-care workforce. Current oral health status in developing countries, including India, is a result of government public health policies, not lack of dentists. The aim of the article is to discuss pertinent issues relating to oral health disparities, equity in health-care access, dental workforce planning and quality concerns pertaining to the present-day dental education and practices in India, which have implications for other developing countries. PMID:24074015

  2. Improving oral health status of preschool children using motivational interviewing method

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Bozorgmehr, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral diseases are common chronic diseases that are affected by human health behavior. One-way to promote health behaviors can be achieved through education. The present study aims to assess the effect of an oral health education program using motivational interviewing (MI) method on oral health status of preschool children. Materials and Methods: This study recruited 222 volunteer children and their parents from 10 elementary schools into a community trial. At baseline, plaque, gingival and decayed, missing, and filled teeth indexes were measured in the children. They were randomly allocated into test groups where they and their parents received oral health education using MI and the control group received traditional oral health education. The test group had recall and postal reminder during 6 months of the study, but there was no reminder for the control group. After 6 months, the same oral health indexes were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) by t-test, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed that after both oral health education programs, differences of plaque index (PI) (P = 0.000) and gingival index (P = 0.000) were significant between the two groups. The number of children with healthy gingiva and low PI were more frequent in the test group after intervention. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, oral health status of children after education of parents using MI was observed, and it should be considered in oral health education programs. PMID:26604963

  3. Integrating Oral Health with Non-Communicable Diseases as an Essential Component of General Health: WHO's Strategic Orientation for the African Region.

    PubMed

    Varenne, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the emerging recognition of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), it has never been more timely to explore the World Health Organization (WHO) strategic orientations on oral health in the WHO African region and to raise awareness of a turning point in the search for better oral health for everyone. The global initiative against NCDs provides a unique opportunity for the oral health community to develop innovative policies for better recognition of oral health, as well as to directly contribute to the fight against NCDs and their risk factors. The WHO African region has led the way in developing the first regional oral health strategy for the prevention and control of oral diseases integrated with NCDs. The support of the international oral health community in this endeavor is urgently needed for making a success story of this initiative of integrating oral health into NCDs. PMID:25941239

  4. Association between diet, social resources and oral health related quality of life in edentulous patients.

    PubMed

    Allen, P F

    2005-09-01

    To assess whether there was an association between diet, oral health related quality of life and social resources in a population of older edentulous adults, and, to assess the impact of provision of new complete replacement dentures. This study was carried out at Cork University Dental Hospital in Ireland. In this prospective clinical study, 35 edentulous adults who requested new complete dentures completed pre-treatment questionnaires which included validated oral health status, social resources and nutritional assessment questionnaires. New dentures were provided and the impact of treatment on oral health related quality of life, diet and ability to chew food was assessed. Satisfaction with dentures and oral health related quality of life improved following provision of new dentures. However, food choice remained similar to pre-treatment choice, and subjects were rated as medium risk for poor nutritional status on the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Oral health related quality of life and diet were not correlated. Three quarters of the sample felt they had no nutritional problems. However, approximately 70% reported that they had changed their food choices because of dental problems and that financial cost was a barrier to dental treatment. Food selection among the group studied was not ideal, and not improved by the provision of new dentures. There was no association between diet and oral health related quality of life. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between oral health and diet. PMID:16102073

  5. A Comparison of the Oral Health Status of Children Who Are Blind and Children Who Are Sighted in Istanbul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Sungurtekin, Elif; Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining oral health is central to a high quality of life because it limits the risks of disease. The oral health status of children with visual impairments should be investigated so their health care needs can be determined and preventive dental procedures can be implemented. This paper presents a study that aimed to evaluate the oral health…

  6. The fading links between tradition and oral health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Y H

    1984-12-01

    Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditional practice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditional practices which are harmful to oral health. PMID:6597130

  7. A Community-Based Oral Public Health Approach to Promote Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chenchen; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Port Greenblatt, Ariel; Mark, Janet; Golembeski, Cynthia; Cheng, Bin; Kunzel, Carol; Metcalf, Sara S.; Marshall, Stephen E.; Lamster, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the interrelationships among diabetes, hypertension, and missing teeth among underserved racial/ethnic minority elders. Methods. Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and information about health and health care were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants, aged 50 years and older, who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire at senior centers in Manhattan, New York, from 2010 to 2012. Results. Multivariable models (both binary and ordinal logistic regression) were consistent, in that both older age and Medicaid coverage were important covariates when self-reported diabetes and self-reported hypertension were included, along with an interaction term between self-reported diabetes and self-reported hypertension. Conclusions. An oral public health approach conceptualized as the intersection of 3 domains—dentistry, medicine, and public health—might prove useful in place-based assessment and delivery of services to underserved older adults. Further, an ordinal logit model that considers levels of missing teeth might allow for more informative and interpretable results than a binary logit model. PMID:25905852

  8. Oral health policy forum: developing dental student knowledge and skills for health policy advocacy.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Karen M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the planning, sequential improvements, and outcomes of Indiana University School of Dentistry's annual Oral Health Policy Forum. This one-day forum for fourth-year dental students was instituted in 2005 with the Indiana Dental Association and the Children's Dental Health Project to introduce students to the health policy process and to encourage their engagement in advocacy. Following a keynote by a visiting professor, small student groups develop arguments in favor and in opposition to five oral health policy scenarios and present their positions to a mock or authentic legislator. The "legislator" critiques these presentations, noting both effective and ineffective approaches, and the student deemed most effective by fellow students receives a gift award. During the afternoon, students tour the Indiana State House, observe deliberations, and meet with legislators. In 2009, 92 percent of students reported a positive impression of the forum, up from 60 percent in 2005. Half (49 percent) in 2009 indicated that they were more inclined to become involved with the political process following the forum, up from 21 percent in 2005. Dental students' feedback became increasingly positive as the program was refined and active learning opportunities were enhanced. This model for engaging students in policy issues important to their professional careers is readily replicable by other dental schools. PMID:23225676

  9. Oral health-related quality of life of paediatric patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) exhibit impaired dental status, which can affect their quality of life. This study assessed the oral health-related quality of life of these patients and associated factors. Methods The "Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14", rating overall and domain-specific (oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well being, and social well being) oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) was completed by 88 children with AIDS assisted in the Child Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents or guardians provided behavioural and socio-demographic information. The clinical status was provided by hospital records. OHR-QoL covariates were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. Results The most affected OHR-QoL subscale concerned oral symptoms, whose rate was 23.9%. The direct answer for oral health and well being made up a rate of 47.7%. Brushing the teeth less than two times a day and viral load exceeding 10,000 HIV-RNA copies per millilitre of plasma were directly associated (p < 0.05) with a poorer oral health-related quality of life. Conclusions Children with more severe AIDS manifestations complained of poorer status of oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional and social well being related to their oral health. Recognizing the factors that are associated with poorer OHR-QoL in children with AIDS may contribute to the planning of dental services for this population. PMID:21208437

  10. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  11. An audit of school oral health education program in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Folake B.; Taiwo, Juliana O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The increasing prevalence of oral diseases in children in developing countries is a major public health concern and creates the need to review various preventive strategies put in place on oral health promotion. In the absence of formal national programs, tertiary health institutions have adopted low-budget school oral education programs targeted at improving oral health awareness and behavioral changes in school children. The aim of this study was to review the school oral health education programs conducted by the Community Dentistry Unit of a tertiary hospital in a major city in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An evaluation of the school oral health education programs conducted in the city over a 5-year period was done. Data collected included: venue of the program, the number of students and teachers educated in each school, screening and referrals, adequacy of teaching aids, desire for revisit, and barriers noted in its conduct. Results: A total of 104 oral health education programs were conducted during this period involving 16,248 participants. The majority (80%) of the schools visited were primary schools and 54% were privately owned. Over half of the programs was conducted on assembly grounds, 21% in classrooms, and 13% in school halls. Challenges encountered included: lack of audiovisual aids, transportation problems, inadequacy of screening tools, and insufficient promotional materials. All the schools visited requested for (subsequent) regular visitation. Conclusion: The study showed the feasibility of low-budget oral health education and willingness of schools to benefit from such programs. There are barriers to effective communication, which can be mitigated in order to achieve an optimal school oral health education program in a low resource setting. PMID:25452928

  12. Oral health disparities of children among Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C; Yen, Y Y; Chang, C S; Ting, C C; Chen, P H; Chen, C C; Peng, W D; Chen, F L; Hu, C Y; Huang, H L

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the oral health disparities and oral health care needs of children whose parents are Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages. We used the baseline data of the Lay Health Advisor Approach to Promote Oral Health Program (LHA-POHP) to explore the disparities in oral health between immigrant and native children, and the factors associated with their oral health. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted to collect data from mothers and their preschool children in Southern Taiwan in 2011. A total of 590 (440 natives, 150 immigrants) children aged 4-6 years and their mothers completed the questionnaire and oral examination. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the association between children's oral health and their related factors. The caries index was 6.05 in immigrant children and 3.88 in native children (p < 0.001). The caries prevalence of maxillary anterior teeth in the labial surfaces was higher among immigrants, ranging from 14.7 to 22%. The factor associated with children's caries index was maternal tooth brushing frequency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-41.05). When the mothers did not direct children to brush teeth after eating sweets, their children were more likely to have decayed teeth (aOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.04-12.03). Children's filled teeth were related to their dental regular check-ups (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.26-4.10). Disparities in oral health among immigrant and native children were observed. The findings suggest that culturally adequate oral health promotion intervention programs should be implemented for immigrants. PMID:25073858

  13. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits in relation to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action. PMID:26881848

  14. Oral health manpower projection methods and their implications for developing countries: the case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. A.; Sithole, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Manpower projections for oral health are generally held to be more accurate than those for other health sectors since the diseases involved and their treatment times can be predicted more precisely. Nevertheless most oral health manpower projections are either overestimates or are not in line with the resources of individual countries, especially in developing countries. Zimbabwe was taken as the study case, and oral health manpower projections were made using two of the most commonly employed methods and one new approach. The projections obtained using the three methods were all different, and even the lowest projection is beyond the resources of the country. It is recommended that in making oral health manpower projections, the facilities available to accommodate these personnel should also be taken into account. PMID:1893510

  15. Exploring pluralism in oral health care: Dom informal dentists in northern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Bochi, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    This article describes a pluralistic regime of oral health provision in a rural part of northern Lebanon, where dental care came from two main sources: professionally trained dentists and "informal" Dom dentists with Syrian nationality. Relying on a combination of interviews and ethnography, I offer a multivocal view of oral health services that incorporates data from patients and formal and informal providers. I argue that informal dentistry constituted an interstitial and translocal mode of dental care. In the northern Lebanese Biqa Valley, close to the Syrian border, the local articulation of neoliberal health governance created opportunities for heterodox practices in oral health. The organization of informality was predicated on the presence of the open border between Syria and Lebanon, which favored patterns of flexible cross-border mobility. In this context, informal dentistry was not alternative, but supplementary and lateral in relation to official forms of oral health provision. PMID:24474241

  16. Ten oral health strategies to keep kids pain-free & problem-free throughout childhood.

    PubMed

    Herman, N G

    2001-01-01

    Emerging information, technology and therapies make it possible for most children today to grow up with good oral health. The most powerful vehicle we have to achieve this goal is an informed professional and parent. All the tools exist to promote oral health and prevent problems in children if we apply what we know and have learned. The challenge is to increase dissemination of this information, and to remind everyone that good oral health contributes significantly to one's overall general well-being. PMID:11665555

  17. Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol; Pitts, Nigel B; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ricketts, David; Longbottom, Christopher; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Deery, Christopher; Fisher, Julian; Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B; Evans, Wendell; Zeller, Gregory G; Zero, Domenick; Martignon, Stefania; Fontana, Margherita; Zandona, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    . This document also presents a new 'Caries Management Cycle' that should be followed regardless of which approach is adopted for caries prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. To aid success in the adoption of the new mission, a new reimbursement system that third party payers may utilize is proposed (for use by countries other than Scandinavian countries or other countries where such systems already exist). The new reimbursement/incentive model focuses on the mission of preservation of tooth structure and outcomes of caries management. Also described, is a research agenda to revitalize research on the most important and prevalent world-wide human disease. The alliance of major dental organizations and experts that started in Philadelphia will hopefully propel over the next months and years, a change in how caries is managed by dentists all over the world. A new mission has been defined and it is time for all oral health professionals to focus on the promotion of oral health and preservation of sound teeth rather than counting the number of surgical restorative procedures provided. PMID:24916676

  18. The oral health status of recent immigrants and refugees in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghiabi, Edmond; Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha Smith

    2014-02-01

    There are no published reports on the oral health status of adult immigrants and refugees in Canada. An oral health interview and clinical oral examination were conducted on 45 recent immigrants and 41 recent Bhutanese refugees, aged 18-67, in Nova Scotia, Canada. Over half (53%) of the immigrants and 85% of the refugees had untreated decay. Most (89% of immigrants; 98% of refugees) had moderate to severe gingivitis and the majority (73% of immigrants; 85% of refugees) had moderate to severe periodontitis. Despite these, 64% of immigrants and 49% of refugees rated their oral health as good, very good or excellent, and most believed they did not need fillings or periodontal treatment. Oral disease among the study sample was higher than the Canadian average and there was a striking discrepancy between self-reported and clinically determined need for dental care. PMID:23371840

  19. Pregnancy and oral health: a review and recommendations to reduce gaps in practice and research.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stefanie L; Mayberry, Linda J

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of the research relevant to oral health during pregnancy and includes nursing practice recommendations for referral of women to a dentist for safe and effective dental care during pregnancy. In recent years, research linking periodontitis to the risk for adverse birth outcomes has resulted in increased interest in the topic of oral health during pregnancy. The achievement of optimal oral health in pregnant women as its own benefit, however, has in the past been hampered by myths surrounding the safety of dental care during pregnancy. Many women also lack access to dental care and dental insurance, which interferes with their ability to receive adequate oral care during pregnancy. Intraoral changes that occur with pregnancy because of hormonal changes, combined with lack of routine exams and delays in treatment for oral disease, place pregnant women at higher risk for dental infections. PMID:18158525

  20. Study protocol of the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) etiology study

    PubMed Central

    Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children. PMID:18522740

  1. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  2. 'Love Teeth Day' campaign in China and its impact on oral public health - the twentieth anniversary.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Hao, Y; Li, G; Hu, D; Zhao, Y

    2010-11-27

    The date 20 September has been designated 'Love Teeth Day' (LTD) in China since 1989. The aim of this nationwide campaign is to encourage all Chinese people to conduct preventive oral public health care and promote oral health education; therefore it is beneficial to improve the levels of oral health in the whole Chinese population. Public awareness of oral health in China has substantially improved following 20 years of hard work from dental professionals and relevant departments. The main activities were planned and conducted by the National Committee for Oral Health and local committees at provincial, county and municipal levels to support preventive oral care. The LTD campaign attracts more and more attention from the public on the prevention and control of oral diseases, which is considered to be an extremely pioneering health care programme in the field of Chinese dentistry. This review provides an overview of the huge LTD campaign over the past 20 years, aiming to share our experiences with international dental professionals. PMID:21109809

  3. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  4. "A Latino Advantage in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life is Modified by Nativity Status"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Explanations for the social gradient in health status are informed by the rare exceptions. This cross-sectional observational study examined one such exception, the “Latino paradox” by investigating the presence of a Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life and the effect of nativity status on this relationship. A nationally representative sample of adults (n = 4208) completed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004. The impact of oral disorders on oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the NHANES Oral Health Impact Profile. Exposures of interest were race, ethnicity and nativity status. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, self-rated health, access to dental care and number of teeth. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds of impaired oral health-related quality of life for racial/ethnic and nativity groups compared to the Non-Latino white population. Overall prevalence of impaired oral health-related quality of life was 15.1%. A protective effect of Latino ethnicity was modified by nativity status, such that Latino immigrants experienced substantially better outcomes than non-Latino whites. However the effect was limited to first-generation Latinos. U.S. born Latinos did not share the oral health-related quality of life advantage of their foreign-born counterparts. This advantage was not attributable to the healthy migrant phenomenon since immigrants of non-Latino origin did not differ from Non-Latino whites. The excess risk among Non-Hispanic Blacks was rendered non-significant after adjustment for socioeconomic position. A protective effect conferred by Latino nativity is unexpected given relatively disadvantaged socioeconomic position of this group, their language barrier and restrictions to needed dental care. As the Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life is not explained by healthy immigrant selection, cultural explanations

  5. A Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life is modified by nativity status.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anne E

    2010-07-01

    Explanations for the social gradient in health status are informed by the rare exceptions. This cross-sectional observational study examined one such exception, the "Latino paradox" by investigating the presence of a Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life and the effect of nativity status on this relationship. A nationally representative sample of adults (n=4208) completed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. The impact of oral disorders on oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the NHANES Oral Health Impact Profile. Exposures of interest were race, ethnicity and nativity status. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, self-rated health, access to dental care and number of teeth. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds of impaired oral health-related quality of life for racial/ethnic and nativity groups compared to the Non-Latino white population. Overall, prevalence of impaired oral health-related quality of life was 15.1%. A protective effect of Latino ethnicity was modified by nativity status, such that Latino immigrants experienced substantially better outcomes than non-Latino whites. However, the effect was limited to first-generation Latinos. U.S. born Latinos did not share the oral health-related quality of life advantage of their foreign-born counterparts. This advantage was not attributable to the healthy migrant phenomenon since immigrants of non-Latino origin did not differ from Non-Latino whites. The excess risk among Non-Hispanic Blacks was rendered non-significant after adjustment for socioeconomic position. A protective effect conferred by Latino nativity is unexpected given relatively disadvantaged socioeconomic position of this group, their language barrier and restrictions to needed dental care. As the Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life is not explained by healthy immigrant selection, cultural explanations seem

  6. Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices among the primary health care workers of a district in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhoopathi, Praveen Haricharan; Reddy, Peddi Reddy Parthasarthi; Kotha, Arpitha; Mancherla, Monica; Boinapalli, Prathibha; Samba, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the primary health care workers in our country. Materials and Methods: Data was gathered by means of a closed-ended questionnaire form. A total of 30 primary health centers (PHCs) and 60 subcenters (SCs) were included in the study. Frequency distribution was used together with Chi-square tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in this study. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Only 40% of the primary health care workers knew that dental caries is multifactorial, majority of them could not identify the symptoms of gum diseases, a meager number of the primary health care workers (28%) knew about the oral health aspects of a pregnant lady, and with the exception of doctors, the other health care workers were not sure of the etiology of oral cancer. Conclusion: About one-tenth of the primary care workers had high knowledge regarding oral health, only one-tenth of them had highly favorable oral health attitudes, and 9% of them had highly favorable oral health practices. PMID:25452921

  7. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  8. Plants and other natural products used in the management of oral infections and improvement of oral health.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-02-01

    Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.), rhein from Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb), dried fruits of Vitis vinifera L. (raisins), essential oils, probiotics and mushrooms. Further, the review highlights plants from Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, Europe, and the Middle East. Some of the plants' antimicrobial properties and chemical principles have been elucidated. While the use of natural products for oral health is prominent in resource-poor settings, antimicrobial testing is mainly conducted in the following countries (in decreasing order of magnitude): India, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, France, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, Kenya, Switzerland, Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. While the review exposes a dire gap for more studies on clinical efficacy and toxicity, the following emerging trend was noted: basic research on plants for oral health is mainly done in Brazil, Europe and Australia. Brazil, China, India and New Zealand generally conduct value addition of natural products for fortification of toothpastes. African countries focus on bioprospecting and primary production of raw plants and other natural products with antimicrobial efficacies. The Middle East and Egypt predominantly research on plants used as chewing sticks. More research and funding are needed in the field of natural products for oral health, especially in Africa where oral diseases are fuelled by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). PMID:26522671

  9. The community care model of the Intercountry Centre for Oral Health at Chiangmai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Anumanrajadhon, T; Rajchagool, S; Nitisiri, P; Phantumvanit, P; Songpaisan, Y; Barmes, D E; Sardo-Infirri, J; Davies, G N; Møller, I J; Pilot, T

    1996-08-01

    The Intercountry Centre for Oral Health opened in Chiangmai, Thailand, in November, 1981. In 1984, as part of its mandate to promote new approaches to the delivery of oral health care, it initiated a demonstration project known as the Community Care Model for Oral Health. Logistic, financial and organisational difficulties prevented the full implementation of the original plan. Nevertheless, consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of the Model has provided valuable suggestions for adoption by national and international health agencies interested in adopting a primary health care approach to the delivery of oral health services. Important features which could be appropriate for disadvantaged communities include: integration into the existing health service infrastructure; emphasis on health promotion and prevention; minimal clinical interventions; an in-built monitoring and evaluation system based on epidemiological principles, full community participation in planning and implementation; the establishment of specific targets and goals; the instruction of all health personnel, teachers and senior students in the basic principles of the recognition, prevention and control of oral diseases and conditions; the application of relevant principles of Performance Logic to training; and the provision of a clear career path for all health personnel. PMID:9147120

  10. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  11. Oral health status and temporomandibular disorders in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Zoran; Uhac, Ivone; Buković, Dino; Cabov, Tomislav; Kovacević, Daniela; Grzić, Renata

    2005-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology involving the central nervous system. Certain clinical manifestations affect the oro-facial region. Three in particular should be of interest to the dentist: trigeminal neuralgia, sensory neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve and facial palsy. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status, the frequency of subjective symptoms and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) subtype according to Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) among MS patients. Examinees in this study were 50 patients suffering from MS, who were at least once treated during their disease in the Clinic Hospital Center, Rijeka, Clinic for Neurology. All examinees had to meet the diagnostic criteria for clinically and laboratory confirmed MS, according to Poser. The results show the difference in mean DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) between MS and the control group. The number of decayed and missing teeth was higher, but the number of filled teeth was significantly lower in MS group. Eighty-two per cent of the subjects with MS had a least one symptom of dysfunction compared with 24% of the subjects in the healthy control group. In the present study, pain, the pain during mouth opening, the difficulty with mouth opening and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds were more commonly reported in the MS group than in the control group. This study shows a statistically significant excess of dental caries and temporomandibular disorders among MS patients compared with the control group. These results suggest that MS is a possible etiological factor in temporomandibular disorders. PMID:16417141

  12. Testing the applicability of a model of oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Santos, Camila Mello Dos; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model of the direct and mediated pathways between clinical and non-clinical variables in relation to oral health-related quality of life. A random sample of 578 older people was evaluated. Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model was tested using structural equations modeling including: biological variables, symptom status, functional health, oral health perceptions, oral health-related quality of life. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). In the final model, edentulism was negatively correlated to dissatisfaction of appearance of their dental prostheses (r = -0.25). Worse functional status was correlated with poor oral health perception (r = 0.24). Being aged over 68 (r = 0.25), being a female (r = 0.39) and living in rural areas (r = 0.15) had a direct effect on the edentulism. Age had a direct effect on OHIP-14 (r = -0.15). There was an indirect effect of sex on OHIP-14 via functional status (r = 0.12). The present findings partially support Wilson & Cleary's model framework. PMID:26578012

  13. Increasing access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Oregon.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jill; Mofidi, Mahyar; Bednarsh, Helene; Gambrell, Alan; Tobias, Carol R

    2012-05-01

    Access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS is a severe problem. This article describes the design and impact of an Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative program, funded through the Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, that expanded oral health-care services for these individuals in rural Oregon. From April 2007 to August 2010, 473 patients received dental care (exceeding the target goal of 410 patients) and 153 dental hygiene students were trained to deliver oral health care to HIV-positive patients. The proportion of patients receiving oral health care increased from 10% to 65%, while the no-show rate declined from 40% to 10%. Key implementation components were leveraging SPNS funding and services to create an integrated delivery system, collaborations that resulted in improved service delivery systems, using dental hygiene students to deliver oral health care, enhanced care coordination through the services of a dental case manager, and program capacity to adjust to unanticipated needs. PMID:22547878

  14. Evaluating Two Oral Health Video Interventions with Early Head Start Families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Poor oral health in early childhood can have long-term consequences, and parents often are unaware of the importance of preventive measures for infants and toddlers. Children in rural, low-income families suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor oral health. Participants were 91 parents of infants and toddlers enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS) living in rural Hawai'i, USA. In this quasi-experimental design, EHS home visitors were assigned to use either a didactic or family-centered video with parents they served. Home visitors reviewed short segments of the assigned videos with parents over an eight-week period. Both groups showed significant prepost gains on knowledge and attitudes/behaviors relating to early oral health as well as self-reported changes in family oral health routines at a six-week followup. Controlling for pretest levels, parents in the family-centered video group showed larger changes in attitudes/behaviors at posttest and a higher number of positive changes in family oral health routines at followup. Results suggest that family-centered educational videos are a promising method for providing anticipatory guidance to parents regarding early childhood oral health. Furthermore, establishing partnerships between dental care, early childhood education, and maternal health systems offers a model that broadens potential reach with minimal cost. PMID:24285957

  15. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers. PMID:26643277

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Oral Health Practices of School Children in Davangere

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of school children towards oral health. Settings and design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: School children (n=700) aged between 10 to 14 years in a Davangere school were recruited into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate young school children’s behavior, knowledge, and perception of their oral health and dental treatment. Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analysed and percentage was calculated. Results and conclusion: The participant oral hygiene habits (such as tooth brushing) were found to be irregular, and parent role in the oral hygiene habits of their children was limited. The study population showed higher awareness of caries than periodontal conditions. The children in this study also recognized the importance of oral health. The results of this study indicate that Comprehensive oral health educational programs for both children and their parents are required to achieve this goal. How to cite this article: Vishwanathaiah S. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Oral Health Practices of School Children in Davangere. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):172-176. PMID:27365943

  17. Oral Health and Frailty in the Medieval English Cemetery of St. Mary Graces

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.; Bekvalac, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of oral pathologies is routinely a part of bioarchaeological and paleopathological investigations. Oral health, while certainly interesting by itself, is also potentially informative about general or systemic health. Numerous studies within modern populations have shown associations between oral pathologies and other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and pulmonary infections. This paper addresses the question of how oral health was associated with general health in past populations by examining the relationship between two oral pathologies (periodontal disease and dental caries) and the risk of mortality in a cemetery sample from medieval England. The effects of periodontitis and dental caries on risk of death were assessed using a sample of 190 individuals from the St. Mary Graces, London cemetery dating to approximately A.D. 1350–1538. The results suggest that the oral pathologies are associated with elevated risks of mortality in the St. Mary Graces cemetery, such that individuals with periodontitis and dental caries were more likely to die than their peers without such pathologies. The results shown here suggest that these oral pathologies can be used as informative indicators of general health in past populations. PMID:19927365

  18. An interprofessional educational approach to oral health care in the geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Bonwell, Patricia Brown; Parsons, Pamela L; Best, Al M; Hise, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    An interprofessional educational approach was used to provide five in-service training sessions for all direct health care providers in a long-term care facility, and one half-day seminar/live webinar for community-licensed health care professionals. Content included presentations by five disciplines: (a) periodontist: oral-systemic relationship, (b) oral pathologist: oral pathology, (c) pharmacist: oral health-pharmacological link, (d) dietitian: oral health-dietary link, and (e) occupational therapist: providing and practicing proper oral hygiene. Significant improvement in posttest scores for the five in-service training sessions and the half-day seminar/live webinar was revealed in t-test results, representing an increase in knowledge gained. Approximately 80% of the 145 participants indicated that they would make a change in patient care. Findings indicate that the in-service training sessions and half-day seminar/live webinar supported development of the geriatric work force by utilizing an interprofessional educational approach which will assist in meeting the oral health care needs of the geriatric population. PMID:24131421

  19. Oral health and frailty in the medieval English cemetery of St Mary Graces.

    PubMed

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Bekvalac, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of oral pathologies is routinely a part of bioarcheological and paleopathological investigations. Oral health, while certainly interesting by itself, is also potentially informative about general or systemic health. Numerous studies within modern populations have shown associations between oral pathologies and other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and pulmonary infections. This article addresses the question of how oral health was associated with general health in past populations by examining the relationship between two oral pathologies (periodontal disease and dental caries) and the risk of mortality in a cemetery sample from medieval England. The effects of periodontitis and dental caries on risk of death were assessed using a sample of 190 individuals from the St Mary Graces cemetery, London, dating to approximately AD 1350-1538. The results suggest that the oral pathologies are associated with elevated risks of mortality in the St Mary Graces cemetery such that individuals with periodontitis and dental caries were more likely to die than their peers without such pathologies. The results shown here suggest that these oral pathologies can be used as informative indicators of general health in past populations. PMID:19927365

  20. Oral Health Status in the United States: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alvin L.; Bohannan, Harry M.

    1985-01-01

    The implications of Americans' oral health status for the predoctoral dental curriculum and for dental education in general are discussed, including enrollments, graduate and continuing education, the specialties, and research. (MSE)

  1. Life course epidemiology: Oral health-related beliefs, behaviors, and outcomes through the life course.

    PubMed

    2016-08-26

    '..self-reported oral health by the age of 38 y... is influenced by intergenerational factors and various aspects of our beliefs, socioeconomic position, dental attendance, and self-care, which operate over the years since childhood.' PMID:27561575

  2. Advances and challenges in oral health after a decade of the “Smiling Brazil” Program

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Charleni Inês; Scherer, Magda Duarte dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health work changes in primary health care after Brazil’s National Oral Health Policy Guidelines were released. METHODS A literature review was conducted on Medline, LILACS, Embase, SciELO, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, and The Cochrane Library databases, from 2000 to 2013, on elements to analyze work changes. The descriptors used included: primary health care, family health care, work, health care policy, oral health care services, dentistry, oral health, and Brazil. Thirty-two studies were selected and analyzed, with a predominance of qualitative studies from the Northeast region with workers, especially dentists, focusing on completeness and quality of care. RESULTS Observed advances focused on educational and permanent education actions; on welcoming, bonding, and accountability. The main challenges were related to completeness; extension and improvement of care; integrated teamwork; working conditions; planning, monitoring, and evaluation of actions; stimulating people’s participation and social control; and intersectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Despite the new regulatory environment, there are very few changes in oral health work. Professionals tend to reproduce the dominant biomedical model. Continuing efforts will be required in work management, training, and permanent education fields. Among the possibilities are the increased engagement of managers and professionals in a process to understand work dynamics and training in the perspective of building significant changes for local realities. PMID:26815162

  3. 75 FR 22140 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Oral Health... Start Date: August 31, 2010. I. Funding Opportunity Description Statutory Authority The Indian...

  4. The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Bonnie A.

    1982-01-01

    A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

  5. Oral Health Knowledge and Practices of WIC Staff at Florida WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jaana T; Tomar, Scott

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the oral health knowledge, practices and confidence of staff in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infant and Children (WIC) by administering an anonymous self-completed survey to 39 WIC Clinic staff in Northern Florida. The survey instrument was a 28-item questionnaire adapted from previous validated surveys and covered questions on oral health knowledge, confidence and general practices related to oral health. Survey data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The majority of WIC staff is knowledgeable about the role of the caregiver in cleaning the child's teeth and the role of bottle use in dental caries. Only 7 (25 %) of total 28 WIC staff indicated that fluoridated toothpaste could be used for children younger than 2 years of age. Only 18 (64 %) agreed that the cariogenic bacteria could be transmitted from mother to child. Nutritionists reported greater confidence compared to others in oral health tasks. Only 6 (67 %) of the nutritionists reported to counsel caregivers on the importance of regular tooth brushing. Only 4 (44 %) nutritionists reported to refer WIC clients to dental care. These results indicate that WIC staff has a limited knowledge on the age recommendations for the fluoride toothpaste use and on the transmission of the cariogenic bacteria. Many do not provide oral health counseling to caregivers. WIC staff with more education is more likely to discuss oral health issues. WIC staff is in need for oral health training and education to provide oral health counseling for at risk WIC population. PMID:26699151

  6. The Oral Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since oral health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the oral cavity. Objectives: To assess the oral health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts Limited at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19–68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts Limited, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the oral health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi–square test, t–test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and oral hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of oral diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of oral health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic oral health services. PMID:24086913

  7. How Does What I Eat Affect My Oral Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth are destroyed by acid products from oral bacteria. Certain foods and food combinations are linked to higher levels of cavity-causing bacteria. Although poor nutrition does not directly cause periodontal ...

  8. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  9. A cross-sectional study on oral health status of battery factory workers in Chennai city

    PubMed Central

    Raj, J. Babu Susai; Gokulraj, Sabitha; Sulochana, Konthoujam; Tripathi, Vivek; Ronanki, Susanthi; Sharma, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objective: Some occupational exposures are associated with oral changes in both hard and soft tissues. Presence of oral lesions can interfere with speech, swallowing, and general health of a patient. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the oral health status of battery factory workers in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 subjects were selected in battery factory out of 3500 workers using statistical sample selection formula 4pq/l2 and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data were recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 subjects were selected in battery factory out of 3500 workers using statistical sample selection formula 4pq/l2 and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data were recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Oral symptoms such as disturbed taste, dry mouth, oral ulcers, and foul breath were statistically significant between the groups (<0.001). Dental erosion was statistically significant with the duration of working years. Dental erosion was significant among study group compared to control (0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that selected samples had various oral conditions due to exposure to acids from battery. It was observed that oral health problems were directly related to the duration of acid exposure in the study group. Implementing exhaust ventilation and monitoring the devices help in reducing the acid exposure. Implementation of oral hygiene education and nutritional supplementation helps in improving their oral health. PMID:27114955

  10. Effect of a Home Telecare Program on Oral Health among Adults with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Study design one group pre- and post-test design Objective The primary aim was to examine both the short- and long-term effects of an oral home telecare program on improving gingival health among adults with tetraplegia. Methods Eight adults with tetraplegia participated. The oral home telecare program consisted of individualized oral hygiene training in the use of assistive devices (powered toothbrush and adapted flosser and/or oral irrigator) using PC-based videoconferencing between each participant and an occupational therapist. Training was conducted on an average of five 15 to 30 min sessions across three months. During these training sessions, supervised practice of oral hygiene, and provision of immediate corrective feedback and positive reinforcement in the use of adaptive oral hygiene devices was emphasized. Gingival health assessment using the Löe-Silness gingival index (LSGI) was conducted at baseline, six months and 12 months. Results From baseline to six months, participants showed statistically significant differences (i.e., improvement with less gingival inflammation) in their LSGI scores (z=2.18, P=.03). From baseline to 12 months, participants also showed a statistically significant difference (i.e., improvement, z=2.03; P=.04) in their LSGI scores. Conclusion This study indicates that preventive oral home telecare with repeated oral hygiene training in the use of adaptive devices improved gingival health at six and 12 months among adults with tetraplegia. PMID:23318557

  11. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  12. Oral health status and treatment needs of pregnant women in Lagos State.

    PubMed

    Agbelusi, G A; Akinwande, J A; Shutti, Y O

    2000-09-01

    The oral health status and treatment needs of 250 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Randle Health Centre was investigated. A coded questionnaire was administered to the pregnant women followed by their oral examination in the dental clinic. The mean oral hygiene index score increased progressively throughout pregnancy viz 1st trimester 0.72, second trimester 1.06 and third trimester 1.23. Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) revealed that 50% required scale and polish and oral hygiene instruction, 13.60% required oral hygiene instruction only and 32.2% did not require any treatment. Decayed Missing and Filled (DMF) recorded was 1.54. 51.72% of the pregnant women required amalgam fillings, 23.27% required extraction due to caries and 16.38% required partial dentures. PMID:11257922

  13. Preferences for an influences on oral health prevention: perceptions of directors of nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T E; Lange, B M

    1999-01-01

    Directors of Nursing (DONs) from 196 of 206 Nebraska long-term-care (LTC) facilities were sent a pre-tested questionnaire. The aim was to assess available on-site dental services, existing oral health education and prevention programs as well as future needs/preferences, and the influence of 10 factors in assessing and maintaining residents' oral health. Of the 196 DONs contacted, 126 (64%) participated. Only 36% of DON responders reported having on-site dental services. DONs indicated a preference for nursing staff (NS) oral health inservice training over other educational and/or programmatic proposals. When asked to select the five most influential factors in assessing and maintaining residents' oral health in their respective facilities, DONs selected resident factors (mean, 2.8) more often than NS factors (mean, 2.2). DONs most often identified residents' (R') ability to perform oral hygiene (n = 99), R' cooperation with OH assistance (n = 98), R' interest in their oral health (n = 83), NS interest in R' dental health (n = 70), and NS time constraints (n = 69). PMID:10765883

  14. Oral health-related resources - a salutogenic perspective on Swedish 19-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, U; Abrahamsson, K H

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to explore health-oriented resources among 19-year-olds and, specifically, how these resources interact with oral health-related attitudes and behaviour. To represent individuals with various psychosocial environments and socioeconomic areas, the participants were selected from different geographical locations of the Public Dental Service clinics in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. A structured questionnaire was distributed, including the instrument 'sense of coherence', for description of the study group, followed by a semi-structured thematized interview. The qualitative method used for sampling and analyses was grounded theory. Data sampling and analysis were performed in parallel procedures and ended up in a sample of ten informants (five women). In the analysis of interview data, a core category was identified, 'Resources of Wealth and Balance in Life - a Foundation for Healthy Choices', describing the central meaning of the informants' perceptions of resources with an essential beneficial impact on oral health. The core category was built on five themes, which in turn had various subthemes, describing different dimensions of resources interacting with beneficial oral health-related attitudes and behaviour: 'Security-building Resources and Support', 'Driving force and Motivation', 'Maturity and Insight', 'Health Awareness' and 'Environmental influences.' The results elucidate personal and environmental health-oriented resources with influence on oral health-related attitudes and behaviours of young individuals. Such beneficial recourses should be recognized by dental personnel to promote oral health. PMID:25041137

  15. Addressing inequalities in oral health in India: need for skill mix in the dental workforce

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Ankur; Watt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dentistry has always been an under-resourced profession. There are three main issues that dentistry is facing in the modern era. Firstly, how to rectify the widely acknowledged geographical imbalance in the demand and supply of dental personnel, secondly, how to provide access to primary dental care to maximum number of people, and thirdly, how to achieve both of these aims within the financial restraints imposed by the central and state governments. The trends of oral diseases have changed significantly in the last 20 years. The two of the most common oral diseases that affect a majority of the population worldwide, namely dental caries and periodontitis, have been proved to be entirely preventable. Even for life-threatening oral diseases like oral cancer, the best possible available treatment is prevention. There is a growing consensus that appropriate skill mix can prove very beneficial in providing these preventive dental care services to the public and aid in achieving the goal of universal oral health coverage. Professions complementary to dentistry (PCD) have been found to be effective in reducing inequalities in oral health, improving access and spreading the messages of health promotion across entire spectrum of socio-economic hierarchy in various studies conducted globally. This commentary provides a review of the effectiveness of skill mix in dentistry and a reflection on how this can be beneficial in achieving universal oral health care in India. PMID:25949967

  16. Promoting oral health of children through schools--results from a WHO global survey 2012.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews the range of school-based approaches to oral health and describes what is meant by a Health Promoting School. The paper then reports the results of a World Health Organization global survey of school-based health promotion. Purposive sampling across 100 countries produced 108 evaluations of school oral health projects spread across 61 countries around the globe. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion noted that schools can provide a supportive environment for promoting children's health. However, while a number of well-known strategies are being applied, the full range of health promoting actions is not being used globally. A greater emphasis on integrated health promotion is advised in place of narrower, disease- or project-specific approaches. Recommendations are made for improving this situation, for further research and for specifying an operational framework for sharing experiences and research. PMID:24575523

  17. Oral health behaviours of children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013.

    PubMed

    Porter, J; Ravaghi, V; Hill, K B; Watt, R G

    2016-09-01

    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aim To describe the oral health behaviours in children and adolescents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Method A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8 12 and 15 years) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were invited to participate in dental examinations. Children and parents were also invited to complete a questionnaire about oral health behaviours.Results Overall, the majority of children and young people reported good oral health behaviours. For example, more than three quarters of the 12- and 15-year-olds reported brushing their teeth twice a day or more often. However, a sizeable proportion of the sample reported less positive behaviours. Nearly 30% of 5-year-olds first started to brush their teeth after the age of one year. Among 15-year-olds, 11% were current smokers and 37% reported that they currently drank alcohol. Sixteen percent of 12-year-olds reported to consume drinks containing sugar four or more times a day. Of particular concern was the marked differences that existed by level of deprivation. Children living in lower income households (eligible for free school meals) were less likely to brush their teeth twice a day, more likely to start brushing after six months, more likely to be a smoker and more likely to consume frequent amounts of sugary drinks.Conclusion Despite some encouraging overall patterns of good oral health behaviours, a sizeable proportion of children and young people reported behaviours that may lead to poorer oral and general health. Preventive support should be delivered in clinical dental settings to encourage positive oral health behaviours. Public health strategies are also needed to reduce inequalities in oral health behaviours among children and young people. PMID:27608581

  18. Effect of a social cognitive intervention on oral health status, behavior reports, and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, L A; Keffer, M A; Davis, E L; Christersson, L A

    1992-07-01

    An intervention designed to test the influence of cognitive restructuring on protective oral health behaviors was conducted with 108 patients with mild to moderate gingivitis. Subjects in the experimental group viewed slides of active, mobile bacteria taken from their mouths on 5 occasions: before and after prophylaxis and at 3 appointments, one month apart. A specially trained hygienist discussed with these participants the process of periodontal disease, the role of bacteria, and self-efficacy (self-control) for oral hygiene self-care. Both experimental and control group subjects received instruction in oral self-care procedures. Assessments of oral health using Löe and Silness' plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI) were taken throughout the study and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. Self-efficacy, oral hygiene intentions, attitudes, and values comprised the set of cognition variables. Plaque and gingival indices mean differences between groups approached significance at visit 6. Analyses were also performed using percent of gingival surfaces scored at "0" (no visible bleeding on probing). A trend occurred for group differences in percent "0" scores at visit 6, with the experimental group maintaining higher percent zeros (better health) at this 3-month follow-up. At visit 7 (9-month follow-up), PI and GI differences disappeared. No significant differences were found between groups for oral health cognitions or behavior reports over time. The data suggest that the cognitive-behavioral intervention produced a delayed relapse in protective oral self-care behaviors, and by extension, oral health status. Such a delay could be clinically relevant in promoting adherence to oral hygiene behavior between professional visits. PMID:1507036

  19. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  20. Overview of methods in economic analyses of behavioral interventions to promote oral health

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Joan M.; Griffin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Broad adoption of interventions that prove effective in randomized clinical trials or comparative effectiveness research may depend to a great extent on their costs and cost-effectiveness (CE). Many studies of behavioral health interventions for oral health promotion and disease prevention lack robust economic assessments of costs and CE. Objective To describe methodologies employed to assess intervention costs, potential savings, net costs, CE, and the financial sustainability of behavioral health interventions to promote oral health. Methods We provide an overview of terminology and strategies for conducting economic evaluations of behavioral interventions to improve oral health based on the recommendations of the Panel of Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. To illustrate these approaches, we summarize methodologies and findings from a limited number of published studies. The strategies include methods for assessing intervention costs, potential savings, net costs, CE, and financial sustainability from various perspectives (e.g., health-care provider, health system, health payer, employer, society). Statistical methods for estimating short-term and long-term economic outcomes and for examining the sensitivity of economic outcomes to cost parameters are described. Discussion Through the use of established protocols for evaluating costs and savings, it is possible to assess and compare intervention costs, net costs, CE, and financial sustainability. The addition of economic outcomes to outcomes reflecting effectiveness, appropriateness, acceptability, and organizational sustainability strengthens evaluations of oral health interventions and increases the potential that those found to be successful in research settings will be disseminated more broadly. PMID:21656966

  1. A baseline survey: oral health status of prisoners--Western Cape.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Yengopal, V; Cohen, B

    2005-02-01

    South African prison populations continue to grow because of the escalating crime and an overstretched judicial system. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of prison inmates in the Western Cape (Pollsmoor, Goodwood, Paarl and Worcester). A cross-sectional epidemiological survey involving a clinical oral examination and face-to-face interviews was used to collect information on DMFT, periodontal health, perceived needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of inmates to oral health. Clinical examinations were carried out using WHO criteria. Of the 340 study participants, 264 were male and 76 were female. The prevalence of oral disease was high. The mean DMFT was 15.45 and the total DMFT increased with age. There was a reported impact on oral health quality of life, with many citing problems with eating, drinking and pain. Self-reported dental needs indicated a perceived need for dentures, scaling and fillings. Over two thirds of the sample (72%) reported that the dental services that they presently receive are poor. This study found a high prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease among the correctional service populations. There is an urgent need for the development of a basic oral health care package that should be offered to all inmates as eventually many of them will be returning to the community. PMID:15861959

  2. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. METHODS Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. RESULTS Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. CONCLUSIONS Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being “free” or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. PMID:25388597

  3. Periodontal status and oral health behavior in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Dave, Bela Dilip; Brahmbhatt, Nilam Ashokkumar; Parekh, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated the periodontal health status and oral health behavior among hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to assess the association of COPD with dental health. Materials and Methods: A group of 100 hospitalized patients with COPD and a group of 100 age, sex, and race-matched control patients were included in this study. Detailed case histories along with standardized measures of oral health including gingival index, plaque index (PI), and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI) were estimated and compared. Probing depths and clinical attachment levels (CALs) were recorded at four sites per tooth. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in saliva and serum were also measured. Results: The study subjects had similar demographics and distribution in either group. Patients with COPD had significantly lower brushing frequency, poor periodontal health (OHI and PI), greater gingival inflammation, and deeper pockets/CALs compared to controls. Further COPD patients had significantly higher serum and salivary CRP levels compared to control groups. Conclusions: Lower brushing frequency, poor oral health, and presence of destructive periodontal disease were observed among patients with COPD, which warrants promoting dental care and oral health knowledge as an integrated approach to treating COPD patients. PMID:26604629

  4. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Oral health was assessed in different teeth of 41 cats of different ages and diets. It was found that oral health in cats varies with the variables considered. Incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet, had better health in comparison to cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early-age cheek teeth hygiene and provision of abrasive dry food. Abstract In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001) and diet (p < 0.001) were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05). Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01), age × diet (p < 0.01), teeth × diet (p < 0.001), and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001). The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food. PMID:26479140

  5. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  6. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  8. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  9. Mouthguards: does the indigenous microbiome play a role in maintaining oral health?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Purnima S.; Mason, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of symbiotic relationships between bacteria and their hosts in various ecosystems have long been known to science. The human body also hosts vast numbers of bacteria in several habitats. Emerging evidence from the gastro-intestinal tract, genito-urinary tract and respiratory indicates that there are several health benefits to hosting a complex and diverse microbial community. Bacteria colonize the oral cavity within a few minutes after birth and form stable communities. Our knowledge of the oral microbiome has expanded exponentially with development of novel exploratory methods that allow us to examine diversity, structure, function, and topography without the need to cultivate the individual components of the biofilm. The purpose of this perspective, therefore, is to examine the strength of current evidence supporting a role for the oral microbiome in maintaining oral health. While several lines of evidence are emerging to suggest that indigenous oral microbiota may have a role in immune education and preventing pathogen expansion, much more work is needed to definitively establish whether oral bacteria do indeed contribute to sustaining oral health, and if so, the mechanisms underlying this role. PMID:26000251

  10. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An understanding of the relation of commensal microbiota to health is essential in preventing disease. Here we studied the oral microbial composition of children (N = 74, aged 3 - 18 years) in natural transition from their deciduous to a permanent dentition and related the microbial profiles to their oral health status. The microbial composition of saliva was assessed by barcoded pyrosequencing of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16 S rRNA, as well as by using phylogenetic microarrays. Results Pyrosequencing reads (126174 reads, 1045 unique sequences) represented 8 phyla and 113 higher taxa in saliva samples. Four phyla - Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria - predominated in all groups. The deciduous dentition harboured a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Moraxellaceae) than Bacteroidetes, while in all other groups Bacteroidetes were at least as abundant as Proteobacteria. Bacteroidetes (mainly genus Prevotella), Veillonellaceae family, Spirochaetes and candidate division TM7 increased with increasing age, reflecting maturation of the microbiome driven by biological changes with age. Microarray analysis enabled further analysis of the individual salivary microbiota. Of 350 microarray probes, 156 gave a positive signal with, on average, 77 (range 48-93) probes per individual sample. A caries-free oral status significantly associated with the higher signal of the probes targeting Porphyromonas catoniae and Neisseria flavescens. Conclusions The potential role of P. catoniae and N. flavescens as oral health markers should be assessed in large-scale clinical studies. The combination of both, open-ended and targeted molecular approaches provides us with information that will increase our understanding of the interplay between the human host and its microbiome. PMID:21371338

  11. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  12. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Design Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising

  13. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this

  14. Non-dental primary care providers’ views on challenges in providing oral health services and strategies to improve oral health in Australian rural and remote communities: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. Results In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Conclusions Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. PMID:26515687

  15. Influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between locus of control and oral health.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship. PMID:21594202

  16. Diversity considerations for promoting early childhood oral health: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Sarah; Schroth, Robert J; Wilson, Alexandria; Edwards, Jeanette M; Sarson, Janet; Levi, Jeremy A; Moffatt, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Several groups in Manitoba, Canada, experience early childhood caries (ECC), including Aboriginal, immigrant, and refugee children and those from select rural regions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers from four cultural groups on early childhood oral health and ECC. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus groups recruited parents and caregivers from four cultural groups. Discussions were documented, audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed for content based on themes. Results. Parents and caregivers identified several potential barriers to good oral health practice, including child's temperament, finances, and inability to control sugar intake. Both religion and genetics were found to influence perceptions of oral health. Misconceptions regarding breastfeeding and bottle use were present. One-on-one discussions, parental networks, and using laypeople from similar backgrounds were suggested methods to promote oral health. The immigrant and refugee participants placed emphasis on the use of visuals for those with language barriers while Hutterite participants suggested a health-education approach. Conclusions. These pilot study findings provide initial insight into the oral health-related knowledge and beliefs of these groups. This will help to inform planning of ECC prevention and research strategies, which can be tailored to specific populations. PMID:24624141

  17. Systems for the provision of oral health care in the Black Sea countries part 10: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, Popie; Economou, Charalampos

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the complex Greek health insurance system in 2011 and how it funds some aspects of oral health care for the population. It explains how different aspects of oral health care for different groups in Greek society are funded by insurance schemes or the national health system (ESY) or purely by direct (out-of-pocket) payments from patients to dentists. It then describes the Greek oral health care workforce and explains that relative to the population there are more dentists than in any other European country. However, few work with chair-side assistance from dental nurses and there are no dental hygienists. There are two dental schools, whose intake may well be reduced in the near future. There are also only two recognised dental specialties (orthodontics and oral surgery). Some epidemiological data and costs are then presented. The paper finishes with a consideration of problems in oral health care in Greece and suggests how some may be overcome. PMID:22488026

  18. Oral health conditions and cognitive functioning in middle and later adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of oral health conditions on cognitive functioning on basis of data samples from several European countries. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted of data from wave 2 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which includes 14 European countries and is intended to be representative of each country’s middle and later adulthood population. Information on word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy as well as information on chewing ability and denture wearing status was available for a total of 28,693 persons aged 50+. Multivariate regression analysis was used to detect influences of oral health parameters on cognitive functioning (p < 0.05). Results Persons with good chewing ability or without dentures had significantly better word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy skills than persons with chewing impairment or with dentures. The observed patterns of parameter estimates imply differential oral health impacts on numeracy compared to word recall and verbal fluency. Conclusions The present study provides novel large-scale epidemiological evidence supportive of an association between oral health and cognitive functioning. Future research should intend to verify the precise causal links between oral health conditions, various cognitive dimensions, and their neural correlates. PMID:24923362

  19. Diversity Considerations for Promoting Early Childhood Oral Health: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prowse, Sarah; Schroth, Robert J.; Wilson, Alexandria; Edwards, Jeanette M.; Sarson, Janet; Levi, Jeremy A.; Moffatt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Several groups in Manitoba, Canada, experience early childhood caries (ECC), including Aboriginal, immigrant, and refugee children and those from select rural regions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers from four cultural groups on early childhood oral health and ECC. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus groups recruited parents and caregivers from four cultural groups. Discussions were documented, audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed for content based on themes. Results. Parents and caregivers identified several potential barriers to good oral health practice, including child's temperament, finances, and inability to control sugar intake. Both religion and genetics were found to influence perceptions of oral health. Misconceptions regarding breastfeeding and bottle use were present. One-on-one discussions, parental networks, and using laypeople from similar backgrounds were suggested methods to promote oral health. The immigrant and refugee participants placed emphasis on the use of visuals for those with language barriers while Hutterite participants suggested a health-education approach. Conclusions. These pilot study findings provide initial insight into the oral health-related knowledge and beliefs of these groups. This will help to inform planning of ECC prevention and research strategies, which can be tailored to specific populations. PMID:24624141

  20. Oral health status, knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Rokn, Amirreza; Jalali, Mohammad; Masudi, Sima; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups. PMID:27114731

  1. [Oral health related quality of life among Dutch forensic psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y A B; Verheggen-Udding, E L; van den Heuvel, J L M

    2011-05-01

    In order to determine the effects ofa new approach to preventive oral health treatment for forensic psychiatric patients, 3 studies were carried out using a Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14-NL), among Dutch forensic psychiatric patients. In the first study, it was determined that the psychometric characteristics of the OHIP-14-NL were good and that attention to oral healthcare contributed positively to quality of life. The second study, which made use of an improved version of the OHIP-14-NL indicated that patients with a high level of anxiety for dental treatment and poor oral health reported a lesser quality of life. The third study showed that an effectively carried out programme of personal oral care can play an important role in the reduction of halitosis and in the improvement of quality of life. Moreover, it appeared that the retrospective version of the OHIP-14-NL was a useful method for determining the correlation between quality of life and oral health and for evaluating change therein within a relatively short period of time. PMID:21661248

  2. Oral Health Status of Disabled Individuals Attending Special Schools

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Ceyhan; Guven, Gunseli; Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Akkurt, Meltem Derya; Basak, Feridun; Akbulut, Erman

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the dmft-DMFT indexes and the oral hygiene status of 136 individuals attending a special school for the disabled. Methods: Participants were grouped according to disability [Mental Retardation (MR), Cerebral Palsy (CP), Autistic Disorder (AD), Down Syndrome (DS), Other (OTH)] and age [2–6 years (n=24), 7–12 years (50 children) and 13+ years (62 children]. Caries examinations were carried out in accordance with WHO criteria and oral cleanliness was evaluated by visually assessing the presence of plaque on teeth. Results: The age range of patients was 2–26 years (mean age: 11.89±5.19 years). Mean dmft and DMFT scores by age group were as follows: 2–6 years: dmft=2.04±2.24; 7–12 years: dmft=2.24±2.60, DMFT=0.98±2.58; 13+years: DMFT=2.68±2.91. Overall, 15.4% of children had no caries or fillings. While dmft and DMFT levels (P>.05) did not vary significantly by type of disability, oral cleanliness did. Children with autism were observed to maintain the best oral hygiene and those with mental retardation (MR), the poorest. Conclusions: It is important for the dentist to concentrate on a preventive approach and provide proper dental education to parents of disabled individuals. Among the children with disabilities, more attention should be paid to the oral hygiene of MR group. PMID:20922154

  3. A survey of the oral health knowledge and practices of pregnant women in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Abiola, Adeniyi; Olayinka, Agbaje; Mathilda, Braimoh; Ogunbiyi, Ogunbanjo; Modupe, Sorunke; Olubunmi, Onigbinde

    2011-12-01

    To describe the self-reported oral health knowledge, attitudes and oral hygiene habits, among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the Lagos State University teaching Hospital (LASUTH). A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the LASUTH antenatal clinic during the period January - June 2008. Most of the respondents demonstrated a reasonable level of oral health knowledge and positive attitudes towards oral health. However, there were gaps in the oral health knowledge of the women surveyed. The relationship between the level of oral health knowledge and ethnicity (p=0.856), level of education (p=0.079), age category (p=0.166), and trimester of pregnancy (p=0.219) were not statistically significant. In addition, the women's knowledge and attitude towards oral health was not reflected in their oral hygiene practices. There is a need to provide oral health education for pregnant women during antenatal care in order to highlight the importance of good oral health in achieving good health for both the mother and her baby. PMID:22571100

  4. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332

  5. Oral health in the United States: the post-fluoride generation.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, P; Reisine, S

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in reducing the incidence of tooth decay, periodontal diseases, and associated loss of teeth in adults and children since the inception of community water fluoridation programs. Yet the disadvantaged and poor have not fully shared in the benefits. Other challenges to oral health remain. Oral cancer and related smoking and smokeless tobacco use remain major public health problems. Access to preventive and therapeutic dental care is far from universal. Public health programs similar in commitment to the approach of community water fluoridation programs initiated in the 1950s and 1960s are needed to address neglected oral health needs of underserved and high-risk populations in the United States. PMID:10884959

  6. Oral health education program among pre-school children: an application of health-promoting schools approach

    PubMed Central

    Shirzad, Mahboube; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Dehdari, Tahereh; Abolghasemi, Jamileh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool children have a limit ability to take care of their teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention based on Albanian’s Health Promoting Schools Model (Albanian’s HPSM) on the oral health behaviors among a group of Iranian female preschool (5-6 years old) children. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 children in seventh district of Tehran, Iran were randomly recruited and assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. A scale was designed and validated to assess the oral health behaviors among the children and knowledge,attitude, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived barriers and oral health behaviors among the parents and the schoolteachers. An expert panel approved the content validity of the scale (CVR = 0.89,CVI = 0.90). The reliability was also approved applying intraclass correlation coefficient (range,0.83–0.92) and Cronbach alpha (range, 0.83–0.96). Based on the preliminary data, a 6-week intervention was designed and conducted to the intervention group. One month following the intervention, both groups were followed-up. The data were analyzed using covariance and paired t tests. Results: Following the intervention, significant differences were found in the oral health behaviors of the children in the intervention group (P < 0.05) and knowledge, attitude, oral health behaviors, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers of their parents and the schoolteachers (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Using Albanian’s health-promoting schools (HPSs) approach was useful in improving the oral hygiene behaviors among the preschool children. PMID:27579261

  7. The Oral Health of People with Intellectual Disability Participating in the UK Special Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Stephen; Sweeney, M.; Kennedy, C.; Macpherson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research on the dental health of people with intellectual disability has consistently reported more untreated dental disease, more extractions and fewer fillings than in the general population. This paper describes the oral health of participants at the 2005 Glasgow Special Olympics (SO), relating this to the general population…

  8. Modeling Social Dimensions of Oral Health among Older Adults in Urban Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Sara S.; Northridge, Mary E.; Widener, Michael J.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Marshall, Stephen E.; Lamster, Ira B.

    2013-01-01

    In both developed and developing countries, population aging has attained unprecedented levels. Public health strategies to deliver services in community-based settings are key to enhancing the utilization of preventive care and reducing costs for this segment of the population. Motivated by concerns of inadequate access to oral health care by…

  9. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Children and Adolescents of Orphanages in Jodhpur City Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Amarpreet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study had twin objectives of assessing the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices and to assess the dental caries status and treatment needs among the orphan children of orphanages of Jodhpur city, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 100 children to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of children and adolescents of orphanages in Jodhpur city, Rajasthan, India. The data was collected on a pre-tested questionnaire which included 20 closed ended multiple-choice questions on perceived oral health status, knowledge of oral health and attitude, oral health practices, dietary habits and behaviour towards dental treatment. On completion of the questionnaire, each child underwent an oral examination and Dentition status and treatment needs index (WHO Oral Health Surveys- 1997) was recorded for each subject. Results: Almost 93% of the children felt the necessity of maintaining oral hygiene. There were 69% of the children who believed that it was necessary to brush teeth after every meal, 51% children believed that regular tooth-brushing prevents all tooth problems and 93% children knew that tobacco is carcinogenic in nature. Also, it was found that 77% of the children believed that regular dental visits help in maintaining oral hygiene. Conclusion: Many of them had acquired knowledge on oral health. More than half of the study subjects were aware of the importance of keeping good oral hygiene, regular dental visits and harmful effects of tobacco. PMID:25478441

  10. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING, TEAMWORK, HOLISTIC VIEW AND ORAL HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Leisnert, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The dental program at the Malmö Dental School, the so called Malmö-model, is guided by four linked principles: self-directed learning, teamwork, a holistic view of patient care, and oral health (Fig.1). Self-assessment ability is a critical competence for healthcare professionals, necessary for the successful adaptation to the modern life-long learning environment. Educational research seems to point out two critical factors for the development of such skills, continuous practice of self-assessment and constructive feedback. The first study presented in this thesis assessed students' self-assessment ability by means of the Interactive Examination in a cohort of senior dental students, who had gone through an identical assessment procedure during their second year of studies. The results indicated that self-assessment ability was not directly relevant to subject knowledge. Upon graduation, there were a number of students (10%) with significant self-assessment difficulties. Early detection of students with weak self-assessment abilities appears possible to achieve. The aim of the second study, concerning teamwork and holistic view, was to investigate if highlighting teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students could improve the students' holistic view on patients, as well as their knowledge of, and insight into, each other's future professions. This project showed that by initiating teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students, it was possible to increase students' knowledge on dental hygienists competence, develop students' perceived holistic view on patients, and prepare students for teamwork. The third study explored findings clinicians used when diagnosing chronic periodontitis. A questionnaire was distributed to students, dental teachers and clinical supervisors in the Public Dental Services. Within all categories of clinicians, the majority of the clinicians used deepened pocket, bone loss on x-rays, and bleeding as findings. There were

  11. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  12. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy. PMID:25941146

  13. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:25565784

  14. Crosstalk between hormones and oral health in the mid-life of women: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Chander Mohan; More, Vanita Parshuram; Singh, Navneet; Grover, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Oral health is constantly shaped by the cross-talk between behavioral, biological, and social forces. Menopause is that time in a woman's life when menstrual cycles cease by reduced secretion of the ovarian hormones, such as, estrogen and progesterone. Diseases of the mouth itself are the most common reasons for pain and discomfort in the mouth. However, there are certain situations where oral symptoms are caused as a result of systemic diseases. This review article has emphasized on the diverse oral presentations of postmenopausal women by descriptive analysis of various underlying mechanisms associated with these conditions. Dentists should be aware of the possible association of menopause and various oral health problems. PMID:25452929

  15. Orthodontic Treatment of Malocclusion and its Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Kiaee, Bita; Sanayei, Shabnam; Khosravi, Saeed; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Malocclusion, though not life-threatening, has vast impact on individual’s social interactions and self-esteem. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess whether orthodontic treatment of adolescents with malocclusion had any association with their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods: The subjects for this study were recruited at a state-funded university clinic. Data were collected from 100 participants aged 17 to 21 with moderate to severe malocclusion. Experimental group comprised of 50 subjects who were in the retention phase of their orthodontic treatment and the control group comprised of 50 untreated subjects. The shortened version of the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP-14) as used to assess the subjects’ oral health-related impact. T-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used to analyze the data and p-value was set at P < 0.05. Results: In general, oral health-related quality of life of all subjects significantly improved after orthodontic treatment. (p<0.001) Subjects with moderate malocclusion showed better improvement than severe malocclusion subjects. (P<0.001) Conclusion: This study showed that oral health-related quality of life improves with the treatment of malocclusion. PMID:27386009

  16. [Satisfaction with life, dental experience and self-perception of oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Rigo, Lilian; Basso, Kenny; Pauli, Jandir; Cericato, Graziela Oro; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Garbin, Raissa Rigo

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between satisfaction with quality of life, self-perception of oral health and experience with dental surgeons. The study is cross-sectional epidemiological in structure with a sample of 326 elderly individuals over 60 years of age living in a city in the north of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire with queries relating to self-perception in oral health (OHIP - Oral Health Impact Profile), Quality of Life Satisfaction scale and sociodemographic issues. The findings showed that the elderly with higher levels of quality of life satisfaction manifested an enhanced perception of their own oral health as well as a better perceived image of dental surgeons and less anxiety about their experiences with the dentist. It was proven that both the self-perception that the elderly have about oral health as well as their experience with dentists is associated with the quality of life satisfaction of the elderly. The results have important implications for decision-makers and formulators of public policy. PMID:26691793

  17. Exploring the relationship between childhood adversity and oral health: An anecdotal approach and integrative view.

    PubMed

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Lygre, Henning

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, increasing recognition has been given to a relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Associated systemic conditions include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight and preterm births, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, osteoporosis, and, in particular among oral conditions, periodontal disease. Low-grade inflammation is a common denominator linking these disorders. Applying an anecdotal approach and an integrative view, the medical and dental histories of two women document increasing ill health subsequent to incidences of maltreatment and sexual abuse, including oral penetration, at an early age. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was required in both cases. These cases open for medical insight with regard to their implicit patho-physiology, when integrated with current evidence from neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology, converging in the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In cases such as those presented in this paper, primary care physicians (family doctors, General Practitioners) and dentists may be the first to identify an etiological pattern. This report underlines the importance of increased and enhanced multidisciplinary research cooperation among health professionals. Our hypothesis is that childhood adversity may affect all aspects of human health, including adult oral health. PMID:25978926

  18. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Home Dental Sealants Fluoridated Water Fluoride Varnish Health Literacy Home Visiting Injury K–12 Education Mobile and Portable Services Nutrition Pregnancy Primary Care Quality Improvement School Health Services School Readiness Spanish-Language Materials Tobacco MCHB- ...

  19. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  20. [The pediatrician and the oral health of children. A survey of 100 pediatricians].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Linares, S; Llarena-del Rosario, M E; Cadena-Galdos, A

    1992-05-01

    The pediatrician plays a very important role assisting the dental profession for the education of the parents to prevent oral disease and maintain children's oral health. This study shows the results obtained in a survey with 100 pediatricians from different institutions and universities of Mexico, in order to analyze their knowledge on basic dental care. The results will be utilized to prepare a guide that will show to pediatricians the basic concepts that parents should know about prevention of caries, malocclusions, and the teaching of correct oral habits from early years for their children. PMID:1605878

  1. Is there a relationship between oral health and diabetic neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Borgnakke, Wenche S; Anderson, Patricia F; Shannon, Carol; Jivanescu, Anca

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus with high morbidity and mortality, and low quality of life. It has a broad spectrum of clinical forms, although distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is the most prevalent. Several oral complications including burning mouth syndrome, dry mouth, and impairment of the senses taste and smell are less-known manifestations of diabetic neuropathy and often overlooked. Periodontitis, tooth loss, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction may be also present in these patients and are equally debilitating. Periodontitis was declared the sixth complication of diabetes in 1993 and may contribute to poor glucose control. Hence, periodontitis and diabetes mutually and adversely affect each other. This review summarizes the available body of scientific literature that discusses oral manifestations in patients with diabetic neuropathy and identifies important areas where more research is needed. PMID:26374570

  2. Gender Differences in Oral Health Research: Beyond the Dichotomous Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the need for better research on women's health looks at significant gender differences that are factors in health and health education (longevity, poverty, use of medical services, doctor-patient interaction, and women in dentistry) as well aspects of research methodology that need improvement. (MSE)

  3. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  4. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors: Investigation of an Educational Intervention Strategy with At-Risk Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rustvold, Susan Romano

    2012-01-01

    A self-perpetuating cycle of poor health literacy and poor oral health knowledge and behavior affects approximately 90 million people in the United States, most especially those from low-income groups and other at-risk populations such as those with addiction. Poor oral health can result from lack of access to regular preventive dental…

  5. "Something to Smile About": An Evaluation of a Capacity-Building Oral Health Intervention for Staff Working with Homeless People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Emma; Watt, Celia; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To use a qualitative exploration to evaluate whether "Something to Smile About" (STSA), an oral health intervention, had increased the oral health capacity of staff working with homeless people. Setting: A National Health Service board area in Scotland. Method: A purposive sample of 14 staff members from STSA-participating organizations…

  6. The Circadian Clock in Oral Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, S.; Zheng, L.; Schnell, S.; Sartor, M.A.; Somers, E.; Marder, W.; McAlpin, B.; Kim, D.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Most physiological processes in mammals display circadian rhythms that are driven by the endogenous circadian clock. This clock is comprised of a central component located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues. Circadian rhythms sustain 24-hour oscillations of a large number of master genes controlling the correct timing and synchronization of diverse physiological and metabolic processes within our bodies. This complex regulatory network provides an important communication link between our brain and several peripheral organs and tissues. At the molecular level, circadian oscillations of gene expression are regulated by a family of transcription factors called “clock genes”. Dysregulation of clock gene expression results in diverse human pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock affects tooth development, salivary gland and oral epithelium homeostasis, and saliva production. This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of clock genes in the formation and maintenance of oral tissues, and discusses potential links between “oral clocks” and diseases such as head and neck cancer and Sjögren’s syndrome. PMID:24065634

  7. The circadian clock in oral health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Papagerakis, S; Zheng, L; Schnell, S; Sartor, M A; Somers, E; Marder, W; McAlpin, B; Kim, D; McHugh, J; Papagerakis, P

    2014-01-01

    Most physiological processes in mammals display circadian rhythms that are driven by the endogenous circadian clock. This clock is comprised of a central component located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues. Circadian rhythms sustain 24-hour oscillations of a large number of master genes controlling the correct timing and synchronization of diverse physiological and metabolic processes within our bodies. This complex regulatory network provides an important communication link between our brain and several peripheral organs and tissues. At the molecular level, circadian oscillations of gene expression are regulated by a family of transcription factors called "clock genes". Dysregulation of clock gene expression results in diverse human pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. There is increasing evidence that the circadian clock affects tooth development, salivary gland and oral epithelium homeostasis, and saliva production. This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of clock genes in the formation and maintenance of oral tissues, and discusses potential links between "oral clocks" and diseases such as head and neck cancer and Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:24065634

  8. Evaluation of governmental oral health-care infrastructure in the state of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Ashish; Parhar, Swati; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Talwar, Puneet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Health system should be organized to meet the needs of entire population of the nation. Oral diseases are the most common of the chronic diseases, but there are few efficient dental care systems to cope with these problems. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 dental care units of various primary health centers, community health centers, and general hospitals existing in the state to evaluate the government oral health-care infrastructure in Haryana. Data regarding provision of water and electricity supply, dental workforce and their qualification, number and type of instruments in the dental operatory unit, etc., were collected on a structured format. There is a shortfall in infrastructure and significant problem with the adequacy of working facilities. This can prove to be a big hurdle in the provision of adequate oral health care to people with greatest health-care needs. A great deal of effort is required to harmonize the oral health-care delivery system. PMID:27561403

  9. Halitosis prevention campaign: a report of oral health promotion activities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Kawaguchi, Y

    2002-06-01

    A local dental association, Hakodate Dental Association, has been conducting an oral health promotion campaign, 'Good-bye Bad Breath', in a local community since April 1998. The purpose of this campaign was not only to prevent oral malodour but also to raise people's awareness about oral health. Oral health education has been provided at schools and through television commercials, radio programmes and newspaper articles. Campaign posters and leaflets on bad breath have also been distributed to drug stores, medical clinics and schools, as well as dental clinics. It has been emphasised that oral malodour is a preventable condition and that the dentist can provide adequate advice and suitable treatment. Medical and pharmaceutical associations have cooperated with the Dental Association in running the campaign. Dental care was provided free of charge to the local residents. The free services provided included the assessment of oral malodour using a portable sulphide detector, instructional programmes, and consultations with dentists. This campaign offered a good opportunity to encourage people to visit the dentist for regular check-ups. The number of regular check-ups and halitosis patients has increased in 70% of the clinics belonging to the Dental Association. PMID:12090452

  10. Influence of oral health on mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT)

    PubMed Central

    Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo E.; Cabrerizo-Merino, María C.; de Arriba de la Fuente, Felipe; Heras Fernando, Inmaculada; Vicente García, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To establish whether or not the state of patient oral health can influence the occurrence and/or severity of oral mucositis during hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT). Materials and Methods: The study included 72 patients awaiting HPCT. Prior to transplantation, clinical exploration and radiology were carried out and oral photographs were taken. This evaluated the extent of caries present, the number of missing teeth and the number of dental fillings in each patient; CAO (Caries and Obturations Index) DMFS (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces) and Restoration Indices were calculated. Gingival pathology was also examined by means of the Ainamo and Bay Gingival Bleeding Index. O’Leary’s Plaque Index was used to evaluate the level of patient oral hygiene. This data was analyzed to see if it exercised any influence on the mucositis grade suffered during HPCT. Results: 96,87% of patients suffered some degree of mucositis during their treatment by the Transplant Unit. The grade of mucositis was seen to be influenced by the number of missing teeth (ANOVA p<0.016) and by the DMFS Index (ANOVA p< 0.038). Although this was not one of the aims of this study, patient age and the administration of colony-stimulating factors were also seen to influence these clinical manifestations. Conclusions: The state of prior oral health can influence decisively the mucositis suffered during transplantation. Key words: Hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation, mucositis, state of oral health. PMID:22157660

  11. Describing the Primary Care Actions of Oral Health Teams in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Clarice Magalhães Rodrigues; da Matta-Machado, Antônio Thomaz Gonzaga; do Amaral, João Henrique Lara; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the primary care actions performed by oral health teams (OHTs) that participated in a large national survey led by the Ministry of Health in 2012. Methods: A total of 12,403 dentists from OHTs completed a set of survey questions (response rate = 85.01%) on the organization of care, basic dental procedures and oral health surveillance actions of OHTs. Descriptive and hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. Results: The majority of OHTs (85.2%) reported that they performed “patient welcoming”. The delivery of services was based on a patient’s identified disease risk (83.1%), and continuity of care was ensured by 85.9% of OHTs. Individual preventive, restorative and surgical procedures were performed by the majority of the teams; however, screening for oral cancer and construction of dental prostheses/dentures occurred less frequently. Cluster 1 was composed of OHTs with the lowest proportion of oral healthcare actions related to oral cancer and dental prostheses/dentures, and the Southeastern and Southern regions had higher proportions of OHTs from cluster 2. Conclusions: OHTs adhere to some of the principles of primary care organizations; however, the teams perform fewer actions related to oral cancer treatment and rehabilitation with complete dentures. The geographical distribution of the clusters was unequal in Brazil. PMID:25588158

  12. Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons. Key words:Institutionalized elderly

  13. Social implications and workforce issues in the oral health of an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Fac

    2015-03-01

    A functional and socially acceptable level of oral health is an integral part of healthy ageing! More teeth, more sophisticated dental technology and increasing co-morbidities of an ageing Australian society will have significant impacts on oral health professionals and their capacities to work within expanded teams of health, education and social organizations. Society is adapting its perspective on the social role of older citizens; replacing its perception of the elderly as an economic social burden, to one of senior citizens as being a respected and active source of social and economic benefit. Maintaining general and oral health for older Australians will bring into sharp focus the need for recognizing and managing not only the biological markers associated with ageing and frailty, but also the potential mediators on health outcomes associated with changing health and social behaviours. Increasing social capital of older Australians through national policy initiatives such as the Living Longer Living Better reforms, and greater involvement of allied health and carers' organizations in oral health education and health promotion will set a new scene for the roles of dental professionals. Issues of equity will drive the service delivery agenda, and a socio-cultural shift to 'consumer-directed' health outcomes will shape the range of services, quality of care and support required by an older Australian population. Formal education and training modules for aged care workers, allied health practitioners and geriatricians will develop. The challenge for the dental profession is the coordination and integration of these changes into new models of dental and general health care. PMID:25762048

  14. Missing Oral Health-Related Data in the interRAI-HC - Associations with Selected Variables of General Health and the Effect of Multiple Imputation on the Relationship between Oral and General Health

    PubMed Central

    Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Missing data within the comprehensive geriatric assessment of the interRAI suite of assessment instruments potentially imply the under-detection of conditions that require care as well as the risk of biased statistical results. Impaired oral health in older individuals has to be registered accurately as it causes pain and discomfort and is related to the general health status. Objective This study was based on interRAI-Home Care (HC) baseline data from 7590 subjects (mean age 81.2 years, SD 6.9) in Belgium. It was investigated if missingness of the oral health-related items was associated with selected variables of general health. It was also determined if multiple imputation of missing data affected the associations between oral and general health. Materials and Methods Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine if the prevalence of missingness in the oral health-related variables was associated with activities of daily life (ADLH), cognitive performance (CPS2) and depression (DRS). Associations between oral health and ADLH, CPS2 and DRS were determined, with missing data treated by 1. the complete-case technique and 2. by multiple imputation, and results were compared. Results The individual oral health-related variables had a similar proportion of missing values, ranging from 16.3% to 17.2%. The prevalence of missing data in all oral health-related variables was significantly associated with symptoms of depression (dental prosthesis use OR 1.66, CI 1.41–1.95; damaged teeth OR 1.74, CI 1.48–2.04; chewing problems OR 1.74, CI 1.47–2.05; dry mouth OR 1.65, CI 1.40–1.94). Missingness in damaged teeth (OR 1.27, CI 1.08–1.48), chewing problems (OR 1.22, CI 1.04–1.44) and dry mouth (OR 1.23, CI 1.05–1.44) occurred more frequently in cognitively impaired subjects. ADLH was not associated with the prevalence of missing data. When comparing the complete-case technique with the multiple imputation approach, nearly identical odds ratios

  15. Oral Health Equity and Unmet Dental Care Needs in a Population-Based Sample: Findings From the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Wisk, Lauren E.; Walsh, Matthew; McWilliams, Christine; Eggers, Shoshannah; Olson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used objective oral health screening and survey data to explore individual-, psychosocial-, and community-level predictors of oral health status in a statewide population of adults. Methods. We examined oral health status in a sample of 1453 adult Wisconsin residents who participated in the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin Oral Health Screening project, conducted with the Wisconsin Department of Health Services during 2010. Results. We found significant disparities in oral health status across all individual-, psychosocial-, and community-level predictors. More than 15% of participants had untreated cavities, and 20% did not receive needed oral health care. Individuals who self-reported unmet need for dental care were 4 times as likely to have untreated cavities as were those who did not report such a need, after controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions. Our results suggested that costs were a primary predictor of access to care and poor oral health status. The results underscored the role that primary care, in conjunction with dental health care providers, could play in promoting oral health care, particularly in reducing barriers (e.g., the costs associated with unmet dental care) and promoting preventive health behaviors (e.g., teeth brushing). PMID:25905843

  16. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Glòria; de Lima, Kenio C.; Casals-Peidro, Elías; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the oral health status and the factors associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people aged 65 and older institutionalized in Barcelona in 2009. Study Design: Cross sectional study in 194 elderly. The dependent variable was poor OHRQoL, according to the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The independent variables were socio-demographic data, last dental visit, subjective and objective oral health status. Robust Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with OHRQoL as well as the strengths of association (Prevalence Ratios with respective confidence intervals at 95%). Results: According to GOHAI, 94 women (68.1%) and 36 men (64.3%) had poor OHRQoL. The average DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 22.8, with mean 10.2 remaining teeth. According to the Community Periodontal Index only 1.9% were healthy. 33.8% of the sample (35.5% of women and 30.4% of men) presented edentulism, 54.2% needed upper dental prostheses (51.1% of women and 60.7% of men) and 64.7% needed lower ones (61.6% of women and 71.4% of men). Only 7.2% had visited a dentist in the past year (8.8% of women and 3.6% of men). After fitting several multivariate adjusted robust Poisson regression models, poor OHRQoL was found to be associated to self-reporting problems with teeth or gums, self-reporting poor opinion about teeth/gums/denture and also associated to functional edentulism, needing upper denture, but not to socio-demographic factors or time since last dental visit. Conclusions: The study population has poor objective oral health. A high percentage has poor OHRQoL associated to subjective and objective oral health conditions. Dental care is required and these services should be included in the Spanish National Health System. Key words:Oral health, homes for the aged, elderly, self-assessment, quality of life, geriatric oral health assessment index

  17. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals. PMID:25851202

  18. Oral health-related quality of life in patients with tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, C E; van der Meulen, M J; Naeije, M; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of tooth wear (TW) on patients' oral health-related quality of life. A total of 198 participants were included in the study. They belonged to the following four different diagnostic categories: 51 patients with TW, 46 patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD), 43 complete denture wearers and 58 healthy controls. The Dutch version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL) was used to assess the patients' oral health-related quality of life. The results of the study show that patients with TW have an impaired oral health-related quality of life compared with healthy controls (P < 0·001). Furthermore, the impact of TW and of edentulousness do not differ significantly, while both of these oral conditions seem to have a lower impact on quality of life compared with painful TMD (P < 0·05). It was concluded that TW has a negative impact on patients' quality of life. This impact is comparable with that of edentulousness. PMID:23278167

  19. The Impact of Functional Health Literacy and Acculturation on the Oral Health Status of Somali Refugees Living in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jo Hunter; Cochran, Jennifer; Doros, Gheorghe; Rybin, Denis; Henshaw, Michelle; Barnes, Linda L.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of health literacy and acculturation on oral health status of Somali refugees in Massachusetts. Methods. Between December 2009 and June 2011, we surveyed 439 adult Somalis who had lived in the United States 10 years or less. Assessments included oral examinations with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) counts and measurement of spoken English and health literacy. We tested associations with generalized linear regression models. Results. Participants had means of 1.4 decayed, 2.8 missing, and 1.3 filled teeth. Among participants who had been in the United States 0 to 4 years, lower health literacy scores correlated with lower DMFT (rate ratio [RR] = 0.78; P = .016). Among participants who had been in the country 5 to 10 years, lower literacy scores correlated with higher DMFT (RR = 1.37; P = .012). Literacy was not significantly associated with decayed teeth. Lower literacy scores correlated marginally with lower risk of periodontal disease (odds ratio = 0.22; P = .047). Conclusions. Worsening oral health of Somali refugees over time may be linked to less access to preventive care and less utilization of beneficial oral hygiene practices. PMID:23327248

  20. [Profile and procedures of the community health agents regarding oral health in the countryside of Piauí State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moura, Marcoeli Silva de; Carvalho, Claro José de; Amorim, José Tadeu Cavalcante de; Marques, Maurílio Francisco Soares Siqueira; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this survey was to draw the demographic profile and the actions concerning oral health carried out by the communitarian agents of health, in small towns of Piauí State, Brazil. Four towns were chosen: Agua Branca, Piracuruca, Queimada Nova e Simões. The method used was observational descriptive cross-sectional. One hundred and nine agents were assessed through questionnaires, with 28 multiples choice questions. Data was analyzed in Excel. It was possible to conclude that: the communitarian agents on the countryside of Piauí are predominantly females, married, age between 20-39, with one to three children, nine years of formal education, monthly income of one minimum salary, and has been living in their community for 24 years in average; the large majority of the agents has not received specific qualification to carry out their job, has not attended lectures on oral health, although almost half of them works on activities related to oral health, despite not registering them properly; they perceive themselves as having a fair knowledge of oral health, which coincided with the assessment collected by the questionnaire. PMID:20640311

  1. A Service-Learning Project to Eliminate Barriers to Oral Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMattei, Ronda R.; Allen, Jessica; Goss, Breanna

    2012-01-01

    Children with special health care needs face many barriers to oral care and are at high risk for oral disease. School nurses are in a unique position to promote oral wellness in this vulnerable population. Collaboration between school nurses and dental hygiene faculty resulted in the formation of a partnership between a university-based dental…

  2. Update on disparities in oral health and access to dental care for America's children.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Chinn, Courtney H

    2009-01-01

    This contribution updates federal survey findings on children's oral health and dental care since release of Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General in 2000. Dental caries experience continued at high levels, impacting 40% of all children aged 2 to 11 years, with greater disease and untreated disease burden borne by poor and low-income children and racial/ethnic minorities. Caries rates increased for young children (to 28% of 2- to 5-year-olds in the period 1999-2004) and remained flat for most other ages. The total volume of caries and untreated caries increased as the numbers of children increased. The proportion of US children with a dental visit increased modestly (from 42% to 45% between 1996 and 2004), with the greatest increases occurring among children newly covered by the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Disparities in dental visits continued to be evidenced by age, family income, race/ethnicity, and caregiver education. Parental reports of children's oral health and dental care parallel these findings and also reveal higher unmet dental needs among children with special health care needs. Racial- and income-based disparities in both oral health and dental care continue into adolescence and young adulthood. These disparities can, as in the past, be expected to exacerbate under the forces of growing income disparities and demographic trends. PMID:19945076

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Oral Health on the Santo Domingo Pueblo Reservation.

    PubMed

    Batliner, Terrence; Wilson, Anne; Davis, Elaine; Gallegos, Joaquin; Thomas, Jacob; Tiwari, Tamanna; Fehringer, Karen; Wilson, Katherine; Albino, Judith

    2016-06-01

    The study was done to compare oral health data from a tribe in a relatively accessible location between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico to national American Indian data and broader US data sets. Participants (N = 399) were recruited via random sampling of housing units. Dental health measures included DMFT/dmft and dental sealants. Comparisons were made using data from large-scale oral health surveillance studies. There was no difference in oral health for 3-5 year olds compared to a recent study of AI/AN preschool children. Compared to the general US population, Santo Domingo Pueblo children and adults showed higher prevalence of untreated decay. Children ages 5-19 had higher rates of sealant retention on permanent teeth, and adults showed lower prevalence of complete tooth retention. The children ages 5-19 and 12-19 with at least one sealant have significantly lower DMFT and less untreated decay than those without sealants. However, the percentage of children with and without sealants who had untreated decay was still more than two times higher than the general US population. Oral health of American Indian children and adults in Santo Domingo Pueblo was worse compared to the general US population but similar to previous results reported for the same Indian Health Service Area even though their location is less isolated than many other tribes. PMID:26611694

  4. Colostrum as oral immune therapy to promote neonatal health.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Sheila M; Weller, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that the immune response is blunted and underdeveloped in the premature infant, but human milk supports the infant's growth, function, and effectiveness. Thus, own mother's colostrum (OMC) administered oropharyngeally has potential to deliver oral immune therapy (C-OIT) even before enteral feedings have begun. Colostrum interacts with lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx and gut. Colostrum as oral immune therapy is delivered by swabbing the cheeks in the first days of life. Little formal study has evaluated its effectiveness. However, small studies demonstrate that it is a practice that is safe, feasible, and well tolerated even by the smallest premature infants. Encouraging preliminary evidence supports the effect of C-OIT to reduce the time to full enteral feedings. Effects on other outcomes is unclear, in part because existing studies are underpowered to detect significant differences on outcomes like necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and death. Another limitation in the evidence base is that adherence to the intervention and the number of doses of colostrum infants received in the studies is not consistently made clear. More well-designed studies are needed to demonstrate the impact on neonatal complications and how C-OIT supports the infant's immune development. Quality improvement and time series reports of differences pre- and postimplementation of OMC given orally should minimally include statistics for adherence to the intervention and/or the number of doses an infant received as a covariate. Even so, OMC is an immune therapy that poses little risk yet offers likely cost-effective benefit for vulnerable infants. PMID:24472888

  5. Community-based, culturally appropriate oral health promotion program for immigrant pregnant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Gustavo D; Roldós, Isabel; Puerta, Diva I; Salazar, Christian R

    2005-12-01

    Pre- and postnatal prevention programs may significantly improve the oral health of mother and child. The overall aim of this project was to assess the need for and develop an oral health promotion program for low-income immigrant pregnant women in New York City. Results from the baseline survey showed very low awareness of the importance of maternal oral health and its relationship to an infant's general and oral health among the participants. Based on these results, we developed culturally appropriate educational materials and workshops to promote oral health among pregnant women. As of September 2005, we had conducted more than 500 workshops, distributed educational packages to close to 10,000 women and disseminated about 20,000 brochures in four languages to health care centers and maternal health centers across New York State. PMID:16514876

  6. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Satyawan G.; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. Results: The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Conclusion: Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health. PMID:25374836

  7. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632

  8. Oral health and oromotor function in rare diseases--a database study.

    PubMed

    Sjögreen, Lotta; Andersson-Norinder, Jan; Bratel, John

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to study oral health and oromotor function in individuals with rare diseases. A disease is defined as rare when it affects no more than 100 individuals per million population and leads to a marked degree of disability. An affected nervous or musculoskeletal system, cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric disorders and craniofacial malformations are common in rare diseases and may all be risk factors for oral health and oromotor function. In 1996-2008, 1,703 individuals with 169 rare diseases, aged 3-67 years, answered a questionnaire about general health, oral health and orofacial function and 1,614 participated in a clinical examination. A control group of 135 healthy children, aged 3-14 years, was also included in the study. Oral health was examined by a dentist and oromotor function by a speech-language pathologist. The participants with rare diseases were recruited via family programmes, referrals to the clinic and research projects, while the controls were randomly selected from a Swedish municipality. In the diagnosis group, 40% had moderate or severe problems coping with dental treatment, 43% were receiving specialised dental care. Difficulties related to tooth brushing were common compared with the controls. Approximately two thirds of the study group and the control group were caries free. Frontal open bite, long face and high palate were common in individuals with rare diseases compared with controls. Oromotor impairment was a frequent finding (43%) and was absent among the controls. There was a significant correlation between oromotor impairment and certain structural deviations and oral-health issues. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with rare diseases often have difficulty coping with dental treatment and managing tooth brushing. Dysmorphology and oromotor dysfunction are frequent findings in this population and they often require extra prophylactic dental care and access to specialised dental care in order to prevent oral disease

  9. Oral health knowledge, behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge behaviour and practices among school children in Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qatar from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2200 school children aged 12–14 years were approached from 16 schools of different areas. The information about oral health knowledge and sources of information was obtained through a self-administrated questionnaire. Data analyses were performed. Results: The overall response rate was (96%). Only (25.8%) of children reported a high level of oral health knowledge. After each meal, tooth brushing was observed by a very low percentage of children (3.7%). About 44.6% of children recognized dental floss as a cleaning device for between the teeth. A large number of children (32.5%) thought incorrectly that one must visit the dentist only in case of pain. A great majority was not aware of cariogenic potential of soft drinks (39%) and sweetened milk (97.8%). Less than half (38.9%) of children actually had heard about fluoride. Only (16.8%) correctly answered the question about sign of tooth decay. Slightly, less than half (48.4%) could not define the meaning of plaque. Parents were the most popular (69.1%), source of oral health information for the children. Conclusion: The oral health knowledge in Qatar is below the satisfactory level. Parents were the most popular source of oral health knowledge for the children followed by dentists, school teachers, and media. PMID:27605993

  10. [The oral health problems of Sun King Louis XIV].

    PubMed

    Eijkman, M A J

    2012-01-01

    King Louis XIV (1638-1715) of France was a man plagued by a variety of chronic diseases, such as rheumatism, intestinal infections, fistula, headaches, chronic fever, malaria, urinary infections, gout, and chronic oral problems. At his birth, 2 deciduous teeth were already erupted, and at a very young age he already suffered from caries. In 1685, when he revoked the Edict of Nantes, a clumsy extraction of all maxillary teeth gave rise to a large maxillary bone defect and an oroantral communication. PMID:22897036

  11. Application of the PREC