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Sample records for 14-mer cuucgg tetraloop

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure, dynamics, and thermostability of the RNA hairpins uCACGg and cUUCGg.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandra; Widjajakusuma, Elisabeth; Stock, Gerhard

    2008-01-10

    Classical replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study structure, dynamics and thermostability of the 14-mer RNA hairpins uCACGg and cUUCGg. Despite of the different sequence and closing base pair of the two systems, recent NMR studies have shown that the tetraloop CACG is strikingly similar in overall geometry and hydrogen bonding to the canonical UUCG tetraloop. On the other hand, the two systems differ significantly in their functionality and thermostability. The simulations confirm the structural similarities of the two RNA hairpins at room temperature but also reveal that the UUCG loop is more flexible than the CACG loop. Concerning the functionality, the CACG loop shows a stronger attitude to donate hydrogens than the UUCG loop, although their global solvent accessible surface is quite similar. The simulations qualitatively reproduce the experimentally found difference in melting temperatures (20 K). In the case of the uCACGg hairpin, the thermal unfolding occurs cooperatively in an all-or-none fashion, while the cUUCGg hairpin shows less cooperativity but exhibits intermediate states during the unfolding process.

  2. Thermodynamics of 2'-ribose substitutions in UUCG tetraloops.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D J; Boots, J L; Hall, K B

    2001-01-01

    The ribose 2'-hydroxyl group confers upon RNA many unique molecular properties. To better appreciate its contribution to structure and stability and to monitor how substitutions of the 2' hydroxyl can alter an RNA molecule, each loop pyrimidine ribonucleotide in the UUCG tetraloop was substituted with a nucleotide containing either a fluorine (2'-F), hydrogen (2'-H), amino (2'-NH2), or methoxy (2'-OCH3) group, in the context of both the C:G and G:C loop-closing base pair. The thermodynamic parameters of these tetraloop variants have been determined and NMR experiments used to monitor the structural changes resulting from the substitutions. The modified riboses are better tolerated in the G[UUCG]C tetraloop, which may be due to its increased loop flexibility relative to the C[UUCG]G loop. Even for these simple substitutions, the free-energy change reflects a complex interplay of hydrogen bonding, solvation effects, and intrinsic pucker preferences of the nucleotides. PMID:11214179

  3. NMR and MD studies of the temperature-dependent dynamics of RNA YNMG-tetraloops

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, Jan; Villa, Alessandra; Duchardt, Elke; Widjajakusuma, Elisabeth; Wöhnert, Jens; Stock, Gerhard; Schwalbe, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a combined NMR/MD study, the temperature-dependent changes in the conformation of two members of the RNA YNMG-tetraloop motif (cUUCGg and uCACGg) have been investigated at temperatures of 298, 317 and 325 K. The two members have considerable different thermal stability and biological functions. In order to address these differences, the combined NMR/MD study was performed. The large temperature range represents a challenge for both, NMR relaxation analysis (consistent choice of effective bond length and CSA parameter) and all-atom MD simulation with explicit solvent (necessity to rescale the temperature). A convincing agreement of experiment and theory is found. Employing a principle component analysis of the MD trajectories, the conformational distribution of both hairpins at various temperatures is investigated. The ground state conformation and dynamics of the two tetraloops are indeed found to be very similar. Furthermore, both systems are initially destabilized by a loss of the stacking interactions between the first and the third nucleobase in the loop region. While the global fold is still preserved, this initiation of unfolding is already observed at 317 K for the uCACGg hairpin but at a significantly higher temperature for the cUUCGg hairpin. PMID:18272534

  4. Mapping the Universe of RNA Tetraloop Folds.

    PubMed

    Bottaro, Sandro; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2017-07-25

    We report a map of RNA tetraloop conformations constructed by calculating pairwise distances among all experimentally determined four-nucleotide hairpin loops. Tetraloops with similar structures are clustered together and, as expected, the two largest clusters are the canonical GNRA and UNCG folds. We identify clusters corresponding to known tetraloop folds such as GGUG, RNYA, AGNN, and CUUG. These clusters are represented in a simple two-dimensional projection that recapitulates the relationship among the different folds. The cluster analysis also identifies 20 novel tetraloop folds that are peculiar to specific positions in ribosomal RNAs and that are stabilized by tertiary interactions. In our RNA tetraloop database we find a significant number of non-GNRA and non-UNCG sequences adopting the canonical GNRA and UNCG folds. Conversely, we find a significant number of GNRA and UNCG sequences adopting non-GNRA and non-UNCG folds. Our analysis demonstrates that there is not a simple one-to-one, but rather a many-to-many mapping between tetraloop sequence and tetraloop fold. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Common and distinctive features of GNRA tetraloops based on a GUAA tetraloop structure at 1.4 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Correll, Carl C; Swinger, Kerren

    2003-03-01

    GNRA tetraloops (N is A, C, G, or U; R is A or G) are basic building blocks of RNA structure that often interact with proteins or other RNA structural elements. Understanding sequence-dependent structural variation among different GNRA tetraloops is an important step toward elucidating the molecular basis of specific GNRA tetraloop recognition by proteins and RNAs. Details of the geometry and hydration of this motif have been based on high-resolution crystallographic structures of the GRRA subset of tetraloops; less is known about the GYRA subset (Y is C or U). We report here the structure of a GUAA tetraloop determined to 1.4 A resolution to better define these details and any distinctive features of GYRA tetraloops. The tetraloop is part of a 27-nt structure that mimics the universal sarcin/ricin loop from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in which a GUAA tetraloop replaces the conserved GAGA tetraloop. The adenosines of the GUAA tetraloop form an intermolecular contact that is a commonplace RNA tertiary interaction called an A-minor motif. This is the first structure to reveal in great detail the geometry and hydration of a GUAA tetraloop and an A-minor motif. Comparison of tetraloop structures shows a common backbone geometry for each of the eight possible tetraloop sequences and suggests a common hydration. After backbone atom superposition, equivalent bases from different tetraloops unexpectedly depart from coplanarity by as much as 48 degrees. This variation displaces the functional groups of tetraloops implicated in protein and RNA binding, providing a recognition feature.

  6. Common and distinctive features of GNRA tetraloops based on a GUAA tetraloop structure at 1.4 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    CORRELL, CARL C.; SWINGER, KERREN

    2003-01-01

    GNRA tetraloops (N is A, C, G, or U; R is A or G) are basic building blocks of RNA structure that often interact with proteins or other RNA structural elements. Understanding sequence-dependent structural variation among different GNRA tetraloops is an important step toward elucidating the molecular basis of specific GNRA tetraloop recognition by proteins and RNAs. Details of the geometry and hydration of this motif have been based on high-resolution crystallographic structures of the GRRA subset of tetraloops; less is known about the GYRA subset (Y is C or U). We report here the structure of a GUAA tetraloop determined to 1.4 Å resolution to better define these details and any distinctive features of GYRA tetraloops. The tetraloop is part of a 27-nt structure that mimics the universal sarcin/ricin loop from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in which a GUAA tetraloop replaces the conserved GAGA tetraloop. The adenosines of the GUAA tetraloop form an intermolecular contact that is a commonplace RNA tertiary interaction called an A-minor motif. This is the first structure to reveal in great detail the geometry and hydration of a GUAA tetraloop and an A-minor motif. Comparison of tetraloop structures shows a common backbone geometry for each of the eight possible tetraloop sequences and suggests a common hydration. After backbone atom superposition, equivalent bases from different tetraloops unexpectedly depart from coplanarity by as much as 48°. This variation displaces the functional groups of tetraloops implicated in protein and RNA binding, providing a recognition feature. PMID:12592009

  7. Membrane topology of a 14-mer model amphipathic peptide: a solid-state NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Marise; Doucet, Jean-Daniel; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2007-06-05

    We have investigated the interaction between a synthetic amphipathic 14-mer peptide and model membranes by solid-state NMR. The 14-mer peptide is composed of leucines and phenylalanines modified by the addition of crown ethers and forms a helical amphipathic structure in solution and bound to lipid membranes. To shed light on its membrane topology, 31P, 2H, 15N solid-state NMR experiments have been performed on the 14-mer peptide in interaction with mechanically oriented bilayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The 31P, 2H, and 15N NMR results indicate that the 14-mer peptide remains at the surface of the DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC bilayers stacked between glass plates and perturbs the lipid orientation relative to the magnetic field direction. Its membrane topology is similar in DLPC and DMPC bilayers, whereas the peptide seems to be more deeply inserted in DPPC bilayers, as revealed by the greater orientational and motional disorder of the DPPC lipid headgroup and acyl chains. 15N{31P} rotational echo double resonance experiments have also been used to measure the intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction between the 14-mer peptide and the phospholipid headgroup of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and the results indicate that the 14-mer peptide is in contact with the polar region of the DMPC lipids. On the basis of these studies, the mechanism of membrane perturbation of the 14-mer peptide is associated to the induction of a positive curvature strain induced by the peptide lying on the bilayer surface and seems to be independent of the bilayer hydrophobic thickness.

  8. Amphiphilicity Is a Key Determinant in the Membrane Interactions of Synthetic 14-mer Cationic Peptide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Fillion, Matthieu; Goudreault, Maxime; Voyer, Normand; Bechinger, Burkhard; Auger, Michèle

    2016-12-13

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides are a component of the innate immune system of several organisms and represent an interesting alternative to fight multiresistant bacteria. In this context, we have elaborated a synthetic peptide scaffold allowing the study of the impact of different molecular determinants on the membrane interactions. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of two cationic peptides that derive from a neutral 14-mer template peptide and where the hydrophilic portion is composed of a crown ether. The R5R10 peptide is active in the presence of both negatively charged and zwitterionic membranes (nonselective) and adopts an α-helical conformation, whereas the R4R11 peptide is more active in the presence of negatively charged membranes (selective) and forms intermolecular β-sheet structures. Both the membrane topology and the location of the peptides have been assessed using solid-state NMR and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, fluorescence experiments have been performed on different membrane mixtures to evaluate the ability of the peptides to induce a positive curvature to the membrane. Overall, for both the R5R10 and R4R11 peptides, the results are consistent with a mechanism of action similar to the sinking-raft model in which the peptides are mainly lying flat on the membrane surface and impose a bending stress to the membrane, thus leading to the formation of pores. Furthermore, the difference of membrane selectivity between R5R10 and R4R11 peptides is due to their differing amphipathic properties which modulate the membrane activity on zwitterionic model membranes.

  9. Investigating the thermodynamics of UNCG tetraloops using infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stancik, Aaron L; Brauns, Eric B

    2013-10-31

    Using infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy, we have explored the folding thermodynamics of the UNCG class of RNA hairpin tetraloops (N = U, A, C, or G). Without the need to introduce non-native probes, IR spectroscopy makes it possible to distinguish specific structural elements such as base pairing versus base stacking or loop versus stem motions. Our results show that different structural components exhibit different thermodynamics. Specifically, we have found that tetraloop melting proceeds in a thermally sequential fashion, where base pairing in the stem is disrupted before (i.e., at a lower temperature) base stacking along the entire chain. In addition, for N = A, our data argue that the structure immediately surrounding adenine is particularly stable and melts at a higher temperature than either base-pairing or base-stacking interactions. Taken together, these results suggest that hairpin loop formation is not a simple two-state process, even in the equilibrium limit.

  10. Energy landscapes, folding mechanisms, and kinetics of RNA tetraloop hairpins.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debayan; Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; Wales, David J

    2014-12-31

    RNA hairpins play a pivotal role in a diverse range of cellular functions, and are integral components of ribozymes, mRNA, and riboswitches. However, the mechanistic and kinetic details of RNA hairpin folding, which are key determinants of most of its biological functions, are poorly understood. In this work, we use the discrete path sampling (DPS) approach to explore the energy landscapes of two RNA tetraloop hairpins, and provide insights into their folding mechanisms and kinetics in atomistic detail. Our results show that the potential energy landscapes have a distinct funnel-like bias toward the folded hairpin state, consistent with efficient structure-seeking properties. Mechanistic and kinetic information is analyzed in terms of kinetic transition networks. We find microsecond folding times, consistent with temperature jump experiments, for hairpin folding initiated from relatively compact unfolded states. This process is essentially driven by an initial collapse, followed by rapid zippering of the helix stem in the final phase. Much lower folding rates are predicted when the folding is initiated from extended chains, which undergo longer excursions on the energy landscape before nucleation events can occur. Our work therefore explains recent experiments and coarse-grained simulations, where the folding kinetics exhibit precisely this dependency on the initial conditions.

  11. Co-conservation of rRNA tetraloop sequences and helix length suggests involvement of the tetraloops in higher-order interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedenstierna, K. O.; Siefert, J. L.; Fox, G. E.; Murgola, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Terminal loops containing four nucleotides (tetraloops) are common in structural RNAs, and they frequently conform to one of three sequence motifs, GNRA, UNCG, or CUUG. Here we compare available sequences and secondary structures for rRNAs from bacteria, and we show that helices capped by phylogenetically conserved GNRA loops display a strong tendency to be of conserved length. The simplest interpretation of this correlation is that the conserved GNRA loops are involved in higher-order interactions, intramolecular or intermolecular, resulting in a selective pressure for maintaining the lengths of these helices. A small number of conserved UNCG loops were also found to be associated with conserved length helices, consistent with the possibility that this type of tetraloop also takes part in higher-order interactions.

  12. Co-conservation of rRNA tetraloop sequences and helix length suggests involvement of the tetraloops in higher-order interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedenstierna, K. O.; Siefert, J. L.; Fox, G. E.; Murgola, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Terminal loops containing four nucleotides (tetraloops) are common in structural RNAs, and they frequently conform to one of three sequence motifs, GNRA, UNCG, or CUUG. Here we compare available sequences and secondary structures for rRNAs from bacteria, and we show that helices capped by phylogenetically conserved GNRA loops display a strong tendency to be of conserved length. The simplest interpretation of this correlation is that the conserved GNRA loops are involved in higher-order interactions, intramolecular or intermolecular, resulting in a selective pressure for maintaining the lengths of these helices. A small number of conserved UNCG loops were also found to be associated with conserved length helices, consistent with the possibility that this type of tetraloop also takes part in higher-order interactions.

  13. Thermodynamics and folding pathway of tetraloop receptor-mediated RNA helical packing

    PubMed Central

    Vander Meulen, Kirk A.; Davis, Jared H.; Foster, Trenton R.; Record, M. Thomas; Butcher, Samuel E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Little is known about the thermodynamic forces that drive the folding pathways of higher order RNA structure. In this study, we employ calorimetric (ITC and DSC) and spectroscopic (NMR and UV) methods to characterize the thermodynamics of the GAAA tetraloop – receptor interaction, utilizing a previously described bivalent construct. ITC studies indicate that the bivalent interaction is enthalpy-driven and highly stable, with a binding constant (Kobs) of 5.5 × 106 M−1 and enthalpy (ΔHobs°) of −33.8 kcal/mol at 45°C in 20 mM KCl and 2 mM MgCl2. Thus we derive the ΔHobs° for a single tetraloop-receptor interaction to be −16.9 kcal/mol at these conditions. UV absorbance data indicate that an increase in base stacking quality contributes to the enthalpy of complex formation. These highly favorable thermodynamics are consistent with the known critical role for the tetraloop-receptor motif in the folding of large RNAs. Additionally, a significant heat capacity change (ΔCp,obs°) of −0.24 kcal·mol−1·K−1 was determined by ITC. DSC and UV monitored thermal denaturation experiments indicate that the bivalent tetraloop-receptor construct follows a minimally 5–state unfolding pathway, and suggest the observed ΔCp,obs° for the interaction results from a temperature-dependent unbound receptor RNA structure. PMID:18845162

  14. Quantitative 2D and 3D Gamma-HCP experiments for the determination of the angles alpha and zeta in the phosphodiester backbone of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Nozinovic, Senada; Richter, Christian; Rinnenthal, Jörg; Fürtig, Boris; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Weigand, Julia E; Schwalbe, Harald

    2010-08-04

    The quantitative Gamma-(HCP) experiment, a novel heteronuclear NMR pulse sequence for the determination of the RNA backbone angles alpha(O3'(i-1)-P(i)-O5'(i)-C5'(i)) and zeta(C3'(i)-O3'(i)-P(i+1)-O5'(i+1)) in (13)C-labeled RNA, is introduced. The experiment relies on the interaction between the CH bond vector dipole and the (31)P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), which affects the relaxation of the (13)C,(31)P double- and zero-quantum coherence and thus the intensity of the detectable magnetization. With the new pulse sequence, five different cross-correlated relaxation rates along the phosphodiester backbone can be measured in a quantitative manner, allowing projection-angle and torsion-angle restraints for the two backbone angles alpha and zeta to be extracted. Two versions of the pulse sequence optimized for the CH and CH(2) groups are introduced and demonstrated for a 14-mer cUUCGg tetraloop RNA model system and for a 27-mer RNA with a previously unknown structure. The restraints were incorporated into the calculation of a very high resolution structure of the RNA model system (Nozinovic, S.; et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010, 38, 683). Comparison with the X-ray structure of the cUUCGg tetraloop confirmed the high quality of the data, suggesting that the method can significantly improve the quality of RNA structure determination.

  15. Computer Folding of RNA Tetraloops: Identification of Key Force Field Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kührová, Petra; Best, Robert B; Bottaro, Sandro; Bussi, Giovanni; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel

    2016-09-13

    The computer-aided folding of biomolecules, particularly RNAs, is one of the most difficult challenges in computational structural biology. RNA tetraloops are fundamental RNA motifs playing key roles in RNA folding and RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. Although state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics (MD) force fields correctly describe the native state of these tetraloops as a stable free-energy basin on the microsecond time scale, enhanced sampling techniques reveal that the native state is not the global free energy minimum, suggesting yet unidentified significant imbalances in the force fields. Here, we tested our ability to fold the RNA tetraloops in various force fields and simulation settings. We employed three different enhanced sampling techniques, namely, temperature replica exchange MD (T-REMD), replica exchange with solute tempering (REST2), and well-tempered metadynamics (WT-MetaD). We aimed to separate problems caused by limited sampling from those due to force-field inaccuracies. We found that none of the contemporary force fields is able to correctly describe folding of the 5'-GAGA-3' tetraloop over a range of simulation conditions. We thus aimed to identify which terms of the force field are responsible for this poor description of TL folding. We showed that at least two different imbalances contribute to this behavior, namely, overstabilization of base-phosphate and/or sugar-phosphate interactions and underestimated stability of the hydrogen bonding interaction in base pairing. The first artifact stabilizes the unfolded ensemble, while the second one destabilizes the folded state. The former problem might be partially alleviated by reparametrization of the van der Waals parameters of the phosphate oxygens suggested by Case et al., while in order to overcome the latter effect we suggest local potentials to better capture hydrogen bonding interactions.

  16. N 2-methylguanosine is iso-energetic with guanosine in RNA duplexes and GNRA tetraloops.

    PubMed Central

    Rife, J P; Cheng, C S; Moore, P B; Strobel, S A

    1998-01-01

    Modified nucleotides are resource-intensive alternatives to the four nucleotides that constitute the bulk of natural RNAs. Yet, even in cases where modifications are highly conserved, their functions are difficult to identify. One possible function might be to modulate the stability of RNA structures. To investigate this possibility for N 2-methylguanosine (m2G), which is present in a wide variety of RNAs, we have determined the thermodynamic consequences of substituting m2G for G in G-C Watson-Crick pairs and G@U wobble pairs within RNA duplexes. The m2G substitution is iso-energetic with G in all cases, except for aninternal m2G@U pair, where it has a modest (0.3 kcal/mol) stabilizing effect. We have also examined theconsequences of replacing G by m2G, and A by N 6, N 6-dimethyladenosine (m26A) in the helix 45 tetraloop of 16S rRNA, which would otherwise be a standard GNRA tetraloop. This loop is a conserved, hypermethylated region of the ribosome where methylation appears to modulate activity. m26A substitution destabilizes the tetraloop, presumably because it prevents the formation of the G@A sheared pair it would otherwise contain. m2G substitution has no effect on tetraloop stability. Together, these results suggest that m2G is equally stable as either the s-cis or s-trans rotamer. The lack of a significant effect on secondary structural stability in these systems suggests that m2G is introduced into naturally occurring RNAs for reasons other than modulation of duplex stability. PMID:9685477

  17. Crystal structures of two forms of a 14-mer RNA/DNA chimer duplex with double UU bulges: a novel intramolecular U*(A x U) base triple.

    PubMed

    Deng, J; Xiong, Y; Sudarsanakumar, C; Shi, K; Sundaralingam, M

    2001-10-01

    The RNA/DNA 14-mer, (gguauuucgguaCc)2 with consecutive uridine bulges (underlined) on each strand has been determined in two crystal forms, spermine bound (Sp-form) and spermine free (Sp-free). The former was solved by the MAD method with three-wavelength data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); the later isomorphous structure was solved by the molecular replacement method using data collected on our Raxis IIc imaging plate system. The two crystal forms belong to the space group C2 with one molecule of double-stranded 14 mer in the asymmetric unit. The Sp-form has cell constants, a = 60.06, b = 29.10, c = 52.57 A, beta = 120.79 degrees and was refined to 1.7 A resolution with a final Rwork/Rfree of 19.8%/22.7% using 8,549 independent reflections. The Sp-free structure has cell constants, a = 60.06, b = 29.58, c = 52.50 A, beta = 120.85 degrees and was refined to 1.8 A with a final Rwork/ Rfree of 20.8%/23.2% using 6,285 unique reflections. The two structures are identical, except that the Sp-form has a spermine bound in the major groove, parallel to the RNA helical axis. One of the uridine bulges forms a novel intramolecular U*(A x U) base triple. The helices are in the C3'-endo conformation (A-form), but the bulges adopt the C2'-endo sugar pucker. Furthermore, the bulges induce a kink (30 degrees) in the helix axis and a very large twist (55 degrees) between the base pairs flanking the bulges. The Sp-form has one Mg2+ ion whereas the Sp-free form has two Mg2+ ions.

  18. Metal Ion Dependence, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics for Intramolecular Docking of a GAAA Tetraloop and Receptor Connected by a Flexible Linker†

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Christopher D.; Fiore, Julie L.; Stoddard, Colby D.; Hodak, Jose H.; Nesbitt, David J.; Pardi, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The GAAA tetraloop-receptor is a commonly occurring tertiary interaction motif in RNA. This motif usually occurs in combination with other tertiary interactions in complex RNA structures. Thus, it is difficult to measure directly the contribution that a single GAAA tetraloop-receptor interaction makes to the folding properties of an RNA. To investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics for the isolated interaction, a GAAA tetraloop domain and receptor domain were connected by a single-stranded A7 linker. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments were used to probe intramolecular docking of the GAAA tetraloop and receptor. Docking was induced using a variety of metal ions, where the charge of the ion was the most important factor in determining the concentration of the ion required to promote docking ([Co(NH3)63+] ≪ [Ca2+], [Mg2+], [Mn2+] ≪ [Na+], [K+]). Analysis of metal ion cooperativity yielded Hill coefficients of ≈ 2 for Na+- or K+-dependent docking versus ≈ 1 for the divalent ions and Co(NH3)63+. Ensemble stopped-flow FRET kinetic measurements yielded an apparent activation energy of 12.7 kcal/mol for GAAA tetraloop-receptor docking. RNA constructs with U7 and A14 single-stranded linkers were investigated by single-molecule and ensemble FRET techniques to determine how linker length and composition affect docking. These studies showed that the single-stranded region functions primarily as a flexible tether. Inhibition of docking by oligonucleotides complementary to the linker was also investigated. The influence of flexible versus rigid linkers on GAAA tetraloop-receptor docking is discussed. PMID:16533049

  19. PCBP2 enables the cadicivirus IRES to exploit the function of a conserved GRNA tetraloop to enhance ribosomal initiation complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Asnani, Mukta; Pestova, Tatyana V.; Hellen, Christopher U.T.

    2016-01-01

    The cadicivirus IRES diverges structurally from canonical Type 1 IRESs (e.g. poliovirus) but nevertheless also contains an essential GNRA tetraloop in a subdomain (d10c) that is homologous to poliovirus dIVc. In addition to canonical initiation factors, the canonical Type 1 and divergent cadicivirus IRESs require the same IRES trans-acting factor, poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2). PCBP2 has three KH domains and binds poliovirus IRES domain dIV in the vicinity of the tetraloop. How PCBP2 binds the cadicivirus IRES, and the roles of PCBP2 and the tetraloop in Type 1 IRES function are unknown. Here, directed hydroxyl radical probing showed that KH1 also binds near the cadicivirus tetraloop. KH2 and KH3 bind adjacently to an IRES subdomain (d10b) that is unrelated to dIV, with KH3 in an inverted orientation. KH3 is critical for PCBP2's binding to this IRES whereas KH1 is essential for PCBP2's function in promoting initiation. PCBP2 enforced the wild-type structure of d10c when it contained minor destabilizing substitutions, exposing the tetraloop. Strikingly, PCBP2 enhanced initiation on mutant IRESs that retained consensus GNRA tetraloops, whereas mutants with divergent sequences did not respond to PCBP2. These studies show that PCBP2 enables the IRES to exploit the GNRA tetraloop to enhance initiation. PMID:27387282

  20. Highly sampled tetranucleotide and tetraloop motifs enable evaluation of common RNA force fields

    PubMed Central

    Bergonzo, Christina; Henriksen, Niel M.; Roe, Daniel R.; Cheatham, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent modifications and improvements to standard nucleic acid force fields have attempted to fix problems and issues that have been observed as longer timescale simulations have become routine. Although previous work has shown the ability to fold the UUCG stem–loop structure, until now no group has attempted to quantify the performance of current force fields using highly converged structural populations of the tetraloop conformational ensemble. In this study, we report the use of multiple independent sets of multidimensional replica exchange molecular dynamics (M-REMD) simulations with different initial conditions to generate well-converged conformational ensembles for the tetranucleotides r(GACC) and r(CCCC), as well as the larger UUCG tetraloop motif. By generating what is to our knowledge the most complete RNA structure ensembles reported to date for these systems, we remove the coupling between force field errors and errors due to incomplete sampling, providing a comprehensive comparison between current top-performing MD force fields for RNA. Of the RNA force fields tested in this study, none demonstrate the ability to correctly identify the most thermodynamically stable structure for all three systems. We discuss the deficiencies present in each potential function and suggest areas where improvements can be made. The results imply that although “short” (nsec-μsec timescale) simulations may stay close to their respective experimental structures and may well reproduce experimental observables, inevitably the current force fields will populate alternative incorrect structures that are more stable than those observed via experiment. PMID:26124199

  1. Equilibrium Denaturation and Preferential Interactions of an RNA Tetraloop with Urea.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jacob C; García, Angel E

    2017-02-16

    Urea is an important organic cosolute with implications in maintaining osmotic stress in cells and differentially stabilizing ensembles of folded biomolecules. We report an equilibrium study of urea-induced denaturation of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop through unbiased replica exchange molecular dynamics. We find that, in addition to destabilizing the folded state, urea smooths the RNA free energy landscape by destabilizing specific configurations, and forming favorable interactions with RNA nucleobases. A linear concentration-dependence of the free energy (m-value) is observed, in agreement with the results of other RNA hairpins and proteins. Additionally, analysis of the hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions within RNA primarily show temperature-dependence, while interactions between RNA and urea primarily show concentration-dependence. Our findings provide valuable insight into the effects of urea on RNA folding and describe the thermodynamics of a basic RNA hairpin as a function of solution chemistry.

  2. Equilibrium denaturation and preferential interactions of an RNA tetraloop with urea

    DOE PAGES

    Miner, Jacob Carlson; García, Angel Enrique

    2017-02-09

    Urea is an important organic cosolute with implications in maintaining osmotic stress in cells and differentially stabilizing ensembles of folded biomolecules. We report an equilibrium study of urea-induced denaturation of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop through unbiased replica exchange molecular dynamics. We find that, in addition to destabilizing the folded state, urea smooths the RNA free energy landscape by destabilizing specific configurations, and forming favorable interactions with RNA nucleobases. A linear concentration-dependence of the free energy (m-value) is observed, in agreement with the results of other RNA hairpins and proteins. Additionally, analysis of the hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions within RNA primarilymore » show temperature-dependence, while interactions between RNA and urea primarily show concentration-dependence. Lastly, our findings provide valuable insight into the effects of urea on RNA folding and describe the thermodynamics of a basic RNA hairpin as a function of solution chemistry.« less

  3. Highly sampled tetranucleotide and tetraloop motifs enable evaluation of common RNA force fields.

    PubMed

    Bergonzo, Christina; Henriksen, Niel M; Roe, Daniel R; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Recent modifications and improvements to standard nucleic acid force fields have attempted to fix problems and issues that have been observed as longer timescale simulations have become routine. Although previous work has shown the ability to fold the UUCG stem-loop structure, until now no group has attempted to quantify the performance of current force fields using highly converged structural populations of the tetraloop conformational ensemble. In this study, we report the use of multiple independent sets of multidimensional replica exchange molecular dynamics (M-REMD) simulations with different initial conditions to generate well-converged conformational ensembles for the tetranucleotides r(GACC) and r(CCCC), as well as the larger UUCG tetraloop motif. By generating what is to our knowledge the most complete RNA structure ensembles reported to date for these systems, we remove the coupling between force field errors and errors due to incomplete sampling, providing a comprehensive comparison between current top-performing MD force fields for RNA. Of the RNA force fields tested in this study, none demonstrate the ability to correctly identify the most thermodynamically stable structure for all three systems. We discuss the deficiencies present in each potential function and suggest areas where improvements can be made. The results imply that although "short" (nsec-μsec timescale) simulations may stay close to their respective experimental structures and may well reproduce experimental observables, inevitably the current force fields will populate alternative incorrect structures that are more stable than those observed via experiment. © 2015 Bergonzo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Unrestrained stochastic dynamics simulations of the UUCG tetraloop using an implicit solvation model.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D J; Hall, K B

    1999-01-01

    Three unrestrained stochastic dynamics simulations have been carried out on the RNA hairpin GGAC[UUCG] GUCC, using the AMBER94 force field (Cornell et al., 1995. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117:5179-5197) in MacroModel 5.5 (Mohamadi et al., 1990. J. Comp. Chem. 11:440-467) and either the GB/SA continuum solvation model (Still et al., 1990. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112:6127-6129) or a linear distance-dependent dielectric (1/R) treatment. The linear distance-dependent treatment results in severe distortion of the nucleic acid structure, restriction of all hydroxyl dihedrals, and collapse of the counterion atmosphere over the course of a 5-ns simulation. An additional vacuum simulation without counterions shows somewhat improved behavior. In contrast, the two GB/SA simulations (1.149 and 3.060 ns in length) give average structures within 1.2 A of the initial NMR structure and in excellent agreement with results of an earlier explicit solvent simulation (Miller and Kollman, 1997. J. Mol. Biol. 270:436-450). In a 3-ns GB/SA simulation starting with the incorrect UUCG tetraloop structure (Cheong et al., 1990. Nature. 346:680-682), this loop conformation converts to the correct loop geometry (Allain and Varani, 1995. J. Mol. Biol. 250:333-353), suggesting enhanced sampling relative to the previous explicit solvent simulation. Thermodynamic effects of 2'-deoxyribose substitutions of loop nucleotides were experimentally determined and are found to correlate with the fraction of time the ribose 2'-OH is hydrogen bonded and the distribution of the hydroxyl dihedral is observed in the GB/SA simulations. The GB/SA simulations thus appear to faithfully represent structural features of the RNA without the computational expense of explicit solvent. PMID:10354444

  5. Bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulation study of L1 stalk non-canonical rRNA elements: kink-turns, loops, and tetraloops.

    PubMed

    Krepl, Miroslav; Réblová, Kamila; Koča, Jaroslav; Sponer, Jiří

    2013-05-09

    The L1 stalk is a prominent mobile element of the large ribosomal subunit. We explore the structure and dynamics of its non-canonical rRNA elements, which include two kink-turns, an internal loop, and a tetraloop. We use bioinformatics to identify the L1 stalk RNA conservation patterns and carry out over 11.5 μs of MD simulations for a set of systems ranging from isolated RNA building blocks up to complexes of L1 stalk rRNA with the L1 protein and tRNA fragment. We show that the L1 stalk tetraloop has an unusual GNNA or UNNG conservation pattern deviating from major GNRA and YNMG RNA tetraloop families. We suggest that this deviation is related to a highly conserved tertiary contact within the L1 stalk. The available X-ray structures contain only UCCG tetraloops which in addition differ in orientation (anti vs syn) of the guanine. Our analysis suggests that the anti orientation might be a mis-refinement, although even the anti interaction would be compatible with the sequence pattern and observed tertiary interaction. Alternatively, the anti conformation may be a real substate whose population could be pH-dependent, since the guanine syn orientation requires protonation of cytosine in the tertiary contact. In absence of structural data, we use molecular modeling to explore the GCCA tetraloop that is dominant in bacteria and suggest that the GCCA tetraloop is structurally similar to the YNMG tetraloop. Kink-turn Kt-77 is unusual due to its 11-nucleotide bulge. The simulations indicate that the long bulge is a stalk-specific eight-nucleotide insertion into consensual kink-turn only subtly modifying its structural dynamics. We discuss a possible evolutionary role of helix H78 and a mechanism of L1 stalk interaction with tRNA. We also assess the simulation methodology. The simulations provide a good description of the studied systems with the latest bsc0χOL3 force field showing improved performance. Still, even bsc0χOL3 is unable to fully stabilize an essential

  6. Mapping the molecular determinant of pathogenicity in a hammerhead viroid: A tetraloop within the in vivo branched RNA conformation

    PubMed Central

    De la Peña, Marcos; Navarro, Beatriz; Flores, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) is an RNA of 398–399 nt that can adopt hammerhead structures in both polarity strands. We have identified by Northern-blot hybridization a nonsymptomatic strain (CChMVd-NS) that protects against challenge inoculation with the symptomatic strain (CChMVd-S). Analysis of CChMVd-NS cDNA clones has revealed a size and sequence very similar to those of the CChMVd-S strain. Some of the mutations observed in CChMVd-NS molecular variants were previously identified in CChMVd-S RNA, but others were never found in this RNA. When bioassayed in chrysanthemum, cDNA clones containing the CChMVd-NS specific mutations were infectious but nonsymptomatic. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that one of the CChMVd-NS-specific mutations, a UUUC → GAAA substitution, was sufficient to change the symptomatic phenotype into the nonsymptomatic one without altering the final accumulation level of the viroid RNA. The pathogenicity determinant–to our knowledge, a determinant of this class has not been described previously in hammerhead viroids–is located in a tetraloop of the computer-predicted branched conformation for CChMVd RNA. Analysis of the sequence heterogeneity found in CChMVd-S and -NS variants strongly supports the existence of such a conformation in vivo, showing that the rod-like or quasi-rod-like secondary structure is not a universal paradigm for viroids. PMID:10449802

  7. Mapping the molecular determinant of pathogenicity in a hammerhead viroid: a tetraloop within the in vivo branched RNA conformation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, M; Navarro, B; Flores, R

    1999-08-17

    Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) is an RNA of 398-399 nt that can adopt hammerhead structures in both polarity strands. We have identified by Northern-blot hybridization a nonsymptomatic strain (CChMVd-NS) that protects against challenge inoculation with the symptomatic strain (CChMVd-S). Analysis of CChMVd-NS cDNA clones has revealed a size and sequence very similar to those of the CChMVd-S strain. Some of the mutations observed in CChMVd-NS molecular variants were previously identified in CChMVd-S RNA, but others were never found in this RNA. When bioassayed in chrysanthemum, cDNA clones containing the CChMVd-NS specific mutations were infectious but nonsymptomatic. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that one of the CChMVd-NS-specific mutations, a UUUC --> GAAA substitution, was sufficient to change the symptomatic phenotype into the nonsymptomatic one without altering the final accumulation level of the viroid RNA. The pathogenicity determinant-to our knowledge, a determinant of this class has not been described previously in hammerhead viroids-is located in a tetraloop of the computer-predicted branched conformation for CChMVd RNA. Analysis of the sequence heterogeneity found in CChMVd-S and -NS variants strongly supports the existence of such a conformation in vivo, showing that the rod-like or quasi-rod-like secondary structure is not a universal paradigm for viroids.

  8. Protonation of deoxycytidine residues in dC4 tetraloops: UV spectrophotometric study of dC10 and d(A14C4T14).

    PubMed

    Raukas, E; Kooli, K

    2003-06-01

    It is shown that component analysis could be applied to study the UV difference spectra of cytidine oligomers and hairpin oligonucleotides with cytidines in the loop region in order to account for the melting and titration results in terms of cytidine stacking and protonation. Upon acid titration, the dC(10) oligomer undergoes cooperative conformational transition at pH 6.3 accompanied by protonation and formation of the i-structure with half of the residues protonated. The stability of the hemiprotonated structure increases with decreasing pH, the i-structure persisting still in the region of pHtetraloop is attained at pH 5.0. Simultaneously, the stacking interactions of cytidine residues reach the maximum at this pH with two residues stacked, and thereafter decline again. Only marginal stabilization of the oligomer hairpin (DeltaT(m)=1.5 degrees C) is found to accompany the formation of this single hemiprotonated dC.dC(+) base pair. We propose that at pH 5 the cytidines of the dC(4) loop form a hemiprotonated dC.dC(+) pair stacked with the last dA.dT base pair of the hairpin stem.

  9. A mini-RNA containing the tetraloop, wobble-pair and loop E motifs of the central conserved region of potato spindle tuber viroid is processed into a minicircle.

    PubMed

    Schrader, O; Baumstark, T; Riesner, D

    2003-02-01

    A Mini-RNA from potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was constructed specifically for cleavage and ligation to circles in vitro. It contains the C-domain with the so-called central conserved region (CCR) of PSTVd with a 17 nt duplication in the upper strand and hairpin structures at the left and rights ends of the secondary structure. The CCR was previously shown to be essential for processing of in vitro transcripts. When folded under conditions which favor formation of a kinetically controlled conformation and incubated in a potato nuclear extract, the Mini-RNA is cleaved correctly at the 5'- and the 3'-end and ligated to a circle. Thus, the CCR obviously contains all structural and functional requirements for correct processing and therefore may be regarded as 'processing domain' of PSTVd. Using the Mini-RNA as a model substrate, the structural and functional relevance of its conserved non-canonical motifs GAAA tetraloop, loop E and G:U wobble base pair were studied by mutational analysis. It was found that (i) the conserved GAAA tetraloop is essential for processing by favoring the kinetically controlled conformation, (ii) a G:U wobble base pair at the 5'-cleavage site contributes to its correct recognition and (iii) an unpaired nucleotide in loop E, which is different from the corresponding nucleotide in the conserved loop E motif, is essential for ligation of the 5'- with the 3'-end. Hence all three structural motifs are functional elements for processing in a potato nuclear extract.

  10. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD) on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells.

    PubMed

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Li, Shuang; Kotlabova, Katerina; Dickinson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450-463) plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1) and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A) by CD3+CD56+ (NKT), CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by the treatment

  11. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD) on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Li, Shuang; Kotlabova, Katerina; Dickinson, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450–463) plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1) and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A) by CD3+CD56+ (NKT), CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by the treatment

  12. Understanding In-line Probing Experiments by Modeling Cleavage of Non-reactive RNA Nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Mlynsky, Vojtech; Bussi, Giovanni

    2017-02-15

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is involved in many regulatory and catalytic processes in the cell. The function of any RNA molecule is intimately related with its structure. In-line probing experiments provide valuable structural datasets for a variety of RNAs and are used to characterize conformational changes in riboswitches. However, the structural determinants that lead to differential reactivities in unpaired nucleotides have not been investigated yet. In this work we used a combination of theoretical approaches, i.e., classical molecular dynamics simulations, multiscale quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations, and enhanced sampling techniques in order to compute and interpret the differential reactivity of individual residues in several RNA motifs including members of the most important GNRA and UNCG tetraloop families. Simulations on the multi ns timescale are required to converge the related free-energy landscapes. The results for uGAAAg and cUUCGg tetraloops and double helices are compared with available data from in-line probing experiments and show that the introduced technique is able to distinguish between nucleotides of the uGAAAg tetraloop based on their structural predispositions towards phosphodiester backbone cleavage. For the cUUCGg tetraloop, more advanced ab initio calculations would be required. This study is the first attempt to computationally classify chemical probing experiments and paves the way for an identification of tertiary structures based on the measured reactivity of non-reactive nucleotides.

  13. High resolution 4D HPCH experiment for sequential assignment of (13)C-labeled RNAs via phosphodiester backbone.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Stanek, Jan; Cevec, Mirko; Plavec, Janez; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2015-11-01

    The three-dimensional structure determination of RNAs by NMR spectroscopy requires sequential resonance assignment, often hampered by assignment ambiguities and limited dispersion of (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts, especially of C4'/H4'. Here we present a novel through-bond 4D HPCH NMR experiment involving phosphate backbone where C4'-H4' correlations are resolved along the (1)H3'-(31)P spectral planes. The experiment provides high peak resolution and effectively removes ambiguities encountered during assignments. Enhanced peak dispersion is provided by the inclusion of additional (31)P and (1)H3' dimensions and constant-time evolution of chemical shifts. High spectral resolution is obtained by using non-uniform sampling in three indirect dimensions. The experiment fully utilizes the isotopic (13)C-labeling with evolution of C4' carbons. Band selective (13)C inversion pulses are used to achieve selectivity and prevent signal dephasing due to the C4'-C3' and C4'-C5' homonuclear couplings. Multiple quantum line narrowing is employed to minimize sensitivity loses. The 4D HPCH experiment is verified and successfully applied to a non-coding 34-nt RNA consisting typical structure elements and a 14-nt RNA hairpin capped by cUUCGg tetraloop.

  14. Perturbation of the Hierarchical Folding of a Large RNA by the Destabilization of its Scaffold's Tertiary Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbakova,I.; Brenowitz, M.

    2005-01-01

    The P4-P6 domain serves as a scaffold against which the periphery and catalytic core organize and fold during Mg{sup 2+}-mediated folding of the Tetrahymena thermophila ribozyme. The most prominent structural motif of the P4-P6 domain is the tetraloop-tetraloop receptor interaction which 'clamps' the distal parts of its hairpin-like structure. Destabilization of the tertiary structure of the P4-P6 domain by perturbation of the tetraloop-tetraloop receptor interaction alters the Mg{sup 2+}-mediated folding pathway. The folding hierarchy of P5c{approx}P4-P6>periphery>catalytic core that is a striking attribute of the folding of the wild-type RNA is abolished. The initial steps in folding of the mutant RNA are {ge}50-fold faster than those of the wild-type ribozyme with the earliest observed tertiary contacts forming around regions known to specifically bind Mg{sup 2+}. The interaction between the mutant tetraloop and the tetraloop receptor appears coincidently with slowly forming catalytic core tertiary contacts. Thus, the stability conferred upon the P4-P6 domain by the tetraloop-tetraloop receptor interaction dictates the preferred folding pathway by stabilizing an early intermediate. A sub-denaturing concentration of urea diminishes the early barrier to folding the wild-type ribozyme along with complex effects on the subsequent steps of folding the wild-type and mutant RNA.

  15. SRP RNA provides the physiologically essential GTPase activation function in cotranslational protein targeting.

    PubMed

    Siu, Fai Y; Spanggord, Richard J; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-02-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) cotranslationally targets proteins to cell membranes by coordinated binding and release of ribosome-associated nascent polypeptides and a membrane-associated SRP receptor. GTP uptake and hydrolysis by the SRP-receptor complex govern this targeting cycle. Because no GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are known for the SRP and SRP receptor GTPases, however, it has been unclear whether and how GTP hydrolysis is stimulated during protein trafficking in vivo. Using both biochemical and genetic experiments, we show here that SRP RNA enhances GTPase activity of the SRP-receptor complex above a critical threshold required for cell viability. Furthermore, this stimulation is a property of the SRP RNA tetraloop. SRP RNA tetraloop mutants that confer defective growth phenotypes can assemble into SRP-receptor complexes, but fail to stimulate GTP hydrolysis in these complexes in vitro. Tethered hydroxyl radical probing data reveal that specific positioning of the RNA tetraloop within the SRP-receptor complex is required to stimulate GTPase activity to a level sufficient to support cell growth. These results explain why no external GAP is needed and why the phylogenetically conserved SRP RNA tetraloop is required in vivo.

  16. Mutational robustness and resilience of a replicative cis-element of RNA virus: Promiscuity, limitations, relevance

    PubMed Central

    Prostova, Maria A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Bakhmutov, Denis V; Shishova, Anna A; Khitrina, Elena V; Kolesnikova, Marina S; Serebryakova, Marina V; Isaeva, Olga V; Agol, Vadim I

    2015-01-01

    Since replication of RNA-viruses is generally a low-fidelity process, it would be advantageous, if specific interactions of their genomic cis-elements with dedicated ligands are relatively tolerant to mutations. The specificity/promiscuity trade-off of such interactions was addressed here by investigating structural requirements of the oriL (also known as the clover leaf-like element), of poliovirus RNA, a replicative cis-element containing a conserved essential tetraloop functionally interacting with the viral protein 3CD. The sequence of this tetraloop and 2 adjacent base-pairs was randomized in the viral genome, and viable viruses were selected in susceptible cells. Strikingly, each position of this octanucleotide in 62 investigated viable viruses could be occupied by any nucleotide (with the exception of one position, which lacked U), though with certain sequence preferences, confirmed by engineering mutant viral genomes whose phenotypic properties were found to correlate with the strength of the cis-element/ligand interaction. The results were compatible with a hypothesis that functional recognition by 3CD requires that this tetraloop should stably or temporarily adopt a YNMG-like (Y=U/C, N=any nucleotide, M=A/C) fold. The fitness of “weak” viruses could be increased by compensatory mutations “improving” the tetraloops. Otherwise, the recognition of “bad” tetraloops might be facilitated by alterations in the 3CD protein. The virus appeared to tolerate mutations in its cis-element relaying on either robustness (spatial structure degeneracy) or resilience (a combination of dynamic RNA folding, low-fidelity replication modifying the cis-element or its ligand, and negative selection). These mechanisms (especially resilience involving metastable low-fit intermediates) can also contribute to the viral evolvability. PMID:26488412

  17. Vinyl-Deoxyadenosine in a Sarcin/Ricin RNA Loop and its Binding to Ricin Toxin A-Chain

    PubMed Central

    Roday, Setu; Saen-oon, Suwipa; Schramm, Vern L.

    2008-01-01

    8-Vinyl-2’-deoxyadenosine (8vdA) is a fluorophore with a quantum yield comparable to 2-aminopurine nucleoside. 8vdA was incorporated into a 10-mer stem-tetraloop RNA (8vdA-10) structure to characterize the properties of the base, 8-vinyladenine (8-vA), with respect to adenine as a substrate or inhibitor for ribosome inactivating proteins. Ricin Toxin A-chain (RTA) and Pokeweed Antiviral Protein (PAP) catalyze the release of adenine from a specific adenosine on a stem-tetraloop (GAGA) sequence at the elongation factor (eEF2) binding site of the 28S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes, thereby arresting translation. RTA does not catalyze 8-vinyladenine release from 8vdA-10. Molecular dynamics simulations implicate a role for Arg 180 in oxacarbenium ion destabilization and lack of catalysis. However, 8vdA-10 is an active site analog and inhibits RTA with a Ki value of 2.4 μM. Adenine is also released from the second adenosine in the modified tetraloop demonstrating an alternative mode for the binding of this motif in the RTA active site. The 8vdA analog defines the specificities of RTA for the two adenylate depurination sites in an RNA substrate with a GAGA tetraloop. The rate of non-enzymatic acid-catalyzed solvolysis of 8-vinyladenine from the stem-loop RNA is described. Unlike RTA, PAP catalyzes the slow release of 8-vinyladenine from 8vdA-10. The isolation of 8-vA and its physicochemical characterization is described. PMID:17477546

  18. Single-Molecule Spectroscopic Investigations of RNA Structural Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Julie L.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2007-03-01

    To function properly, catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) fold into specific three-dimensional shapes stabilized by multiple tertiary interactions. However, only limited information is available on the contributions of individual tertiary contacts to RNA conformational dynamics. The Tetrahymena ribozymes's P4--P6 domain forms a hinged, ``candy-cane'' structure with parallel helices clamped by two motifs, the GAAA tetraloop-tetraloop receptor and adenosine (A)-rich bulge--P4 helix interactions. Previously, we characterized RNA folding due to a tetraloop-receptor interaction. In this study, we employ time-resolved single-molecule FRET methods to probe A-rich bulge induced structural dynamics. Specifically, fluorescently labeled RNA constructs excited by a pulsed 532 nm laser are detected in the confocal region of an inverted microscope, with each photon sorted by arrival time, color and polarization. We resolve the kinetic dependence of A-rich bulge-P4 helix docking/undocking on cationic environment (e.g. Na^+ and Mg^2+ concentration.) At saturating [Mg^2+], the docked structure appears only weakly stabilized, while only 50% of the molecules exhibit efficient folding.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of sarcin–ricin rRNA motif

    PubMed Central

    Špačková, Nad'a; Šponer, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for sarcin–ricin domain (SRD) motifs from 23S (Escherichia coli) and 28S (rat) rRNAs. The SRD motif consists of GAGA tetraloop, G-bulged cross-strand A-stack, flexible region and duplex part. Detailed analysis of the overall dynamics, base pairing, hydration, cation binding and other SRD features is presented. The SRD is surprisingly static in multiple 25 ns long simulations and lacks any non-local motions, with root mean square deviation (r.m.s.d.) values between averaged MD and high-resolution X-ray structures of 1–1.4 Å. Modest dynamics is observed in the tetraloop, namely, rotation of adenine in its apex and subtle reversible shift of the tetraloop with respect to the adjacent base pair. The deformed flexible region in low-resolution rat X-ray structure is repaired by simulations. The simulations reveal few backbone flips, which do not affect positions of bases and do not indicate a force field imbalance. Non-Watson–Crick base pairs are rigid and mediated by long-residency water molecules while there are several modest cation-binding sites around SRD. In summary, SRD is an unusually stiff rRNA building block. Its intrinsic structural and dynamical signatures seen in simulations are strikingly distinct from other rRNA motifs such as Loop E and Kink-turns. PMID:16456030

  20. Screening and identification of the levoglucosan kinase gene (lgk) from Aspergillus niger by LC-ESI-MS/MS and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-jun; Zhuang, Xu-liang; Zhang, Hong-xun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Qi, Hong-yan

    2005-10-15

    A protein of 75,000 Daltons with levoglucosan kinase activity was purified from Aspergillus niger. After in-gel digestion by trypsin, a 14-mer peptide was sequenced and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Using a primer derived from the 14-mer peptide in combination with Oligo-(dT)18, a cDNA fragment was obtained by RT-PCR. A search of the GenBank database indicated that the protein had not been identified before. A similar protein named hypothetical protein FG07802.1 (EAA77996.1) was found to exist in Gibberella zeae by Blastx search. Using a primer derived from the protein, a cDNA fragment of second RT-PCR was cloned into plasmid pAJ401, which was transformed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae H158 and expressed. Two positive levoglucosan assimilating recombinants were selected. The lgk gene was screened and identified.

  1. Non-enzymatic transcription of an oligodeoxynucleotide 14 residues long

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acevedo, Oscar L.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    Nonenzymatic synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides up to 14 residues long from 2-MeImpG and 2-MeImpC mononucleotides was demonstrated. The synthesis is primed by 14-mer and 15-mer oligonucleotides d(C3GC3GC3GC2) and d(C3GC3GC3GC3) as templates. The predominant products are a series of 3-prime-5-prime-linked oligonucleotides, complementary to the template, ranging in length from GGC to GGCGGGCGGGCGGG. The 15-mer template directed the synthesis of the same family of products that were formed on the 14-mer template. This finding is explained by the preferential conversion of the dimer GG to GGC rather than to GGG. In the context of molecular evolution, these results suggest that the detailed kinetics of template-directed synthesis could form the basis for the selection of one replicating oligonucleotide from a family of closely related oligonucleotides.

  2. On the conformational stability of the smallest RNA kissing complexes maintained through two G·C base pairs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wally; Weerasekera, Akila; Kim, Chul-Hyun

    2017-01-29

    Two identical 5'GACG3' tetra-loop motifs with different stem sequences (called H2 and H3) are found in the 5' end region of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) genomic RNA. They play important roles in RNA dimerization and encapsidation through two identical tetra-loops (5'GACG3') forming a loop-to-loop kissing complex, the smallest RNA kissing complex ever found in nature. We examined the effects of a loop-closing base pair as well as a stem sequence on the conformational stability of the kissing complex. UV melting analysis and gel electrophoresis were performed on eight RNA sequences mimicking the H2 and H3 hairpin tetra-loops with variation in loop-closing base pairs. Our results show that changing the loop-closing base pair from the wildtype (5'A·U3' for H3, 5'U·A3' for H2) to 5'G·C3'/5'C·G3' has significant effect on the stability of the kissing complexes: the substitution to 5'C·G3' significantly decreases both thermal and mechanical stability, while switching to the 5'G·C3' significantly increases the mechanical stability only. The kissing complexes with the wildtype loop-closing base pairs (5'A·U3' for H3 and 5'U·A3' for H2) show different stability when attached to a different stem sequence (H2 stem vs. H3 stem). This suggests that not only the loop-closing base pair itself, but also the stem sequence, affects the conformational stability of the RNA kissing complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Single nucleotide RNA choreography.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiaolong; Mohan, Srividya; Hershkovitz, Eli; Tannenbaum, Allen; Williams, Loren Dean

    2006-01-01

    New structural analysis methods, and a tree formalism re-define and expand the RNA motif concept, unifying what previously appeared to be disparate groups of structures. We find RNA tetraloops at high frequencies, in new contexts, with unexpected lengths, and in novel topologies. The results, with broad implications for RNA structure in general, show that even at this most elementary level of organization, RNA tolerates astounding variation in conformation, length, sequence and context. However the variation is not random; it is well-described by four distinct modes, which are 3-2 switches (backbone topology variations), insertions, deletions and strand clips.

  4. Study on the stability of the DNA hairpin d(ATCCAT-GTTA-TAGGAT) employing molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2015-03-01

    DNA hairpin plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and DNA recombination. We studied the conformation of the DNA hairpin, d(ATCCAT-GTTA-TAGGAT) (PDB id:1AC7), employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Despite the non-canonical Watson-Crick base pair (G:A) in the tetraloop (GTTA), MD simulation reveals that the conformation of the DNA hairpin is remarkably stable. In this study, we discuss about the physical/chemical origin of the stability of the DNA hairpin. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-703, Korea.

  5. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in a Polyethylene (PE) Framework: A Simple Model for Simulation Studies of a Soluble Polymer in an Open Framework.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liangxu; Chan, Kwong-Yu; Quirke, Nick

    2017-08-16

    Canonical molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the behavior of single-chain and multiple-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) contained within a cubic framework spanned by polyethylene (PE) chains. This simple model is the first of its kind to study the chemical physics of polymer-threaded organic frameworks, which are materials with potential applications in catalysis and separation processes. For a single-chain 9-mer, 14-mer, and 18-mer in a small framework, the PEG will interact strongly with the framework and assume a more linear geometry chain with an increased radius of gyration Rg compared to that of a large framework. The interaction between PEG and the framework decreases with increasing mesh size in both vacuum and water. In the limit of a framework with an infinitely large cavity (infinitely long linkers), PEG behavior approaches simulation results without a framework. The solvation of PEG is simulated by adding explicit TIP3P water molecules to a 6-chain PEG 14-mer aggregate confined in a framework. The 14-mer chains are readily solvated and leach out of a large 2.6 nm mesh framework. There are fewer water-PEG interactions in a small 1.0 nm mesh framework, as indicated by a smaller number of hydrogen bonds. The PEG aggregate, however, still partially dissolves but is retained within the 1.0 nm framework. The preliminary results illustrate the effectiveness of the simple model in studying polymer-threaded framework materials and in optimizing polymer or framework parameters for high performance.

  6. Strand displacement and duplex invasion into double-stranded DNA by pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Bohländer, Peggy R; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-09-21

    The so-called acpcPNA system bears a peptide backbone consisting of 4'-substituted proline units with (2'R,4'R) configuration in an alternating combination with (2S)-amino-cyclopentane-(1S)-carboxylic acids. acpcPNA forms exceptionally stable hybrids with complementary DNA. We demonstrate herein (i) strand displacements by single-stranded DNA from acpcPNA-DNA hybrids, and by acpcPNA strands from DNA duplexes, and (ii) strand invasions by acpcPNA into double-stranded DNA. These processes were studied in vitro using synthetic oligonucleotides and by means of our concept of wavelength-shifting fluorescent nucleic acid probes, including fluorescence lifetime measurements that allow quantifying energy transfer efficiencies. The strand displacements of preannealed 14mer acpcPNA-7mer DNA hybrids consecutively by 10mer and 14mer DNA strands occur with rather slow kinetics but yield high fluorescence color ratios (blue : yellow or blue : red), fluorescence intensity enhancements, and energy transfer efficiencies. Furthermore, 14mer acpcPNA strands are able to invade into 30mer double-stranded DNA, remarkably with quantitative efficiency in all studied cases. These processes can also be quantified by means of fluorescence. This remarkable behavior corroborates the extraordinary versatile properties of acpcPNA. In contrast to conventional PNA systems which require 3 or more equivalents PNA, only 1.5 equivalents acpcPNA are sufficient to get efficient double duplex invasion. Invasions also take place even in the presence of 250 mM NaCl which represents an ionic strength nearly twice as high as the physiological ion concentration. These remarkable results corroborate the extraordinary properties of acpcPNA, and thus acpcPNA represents an eligible tool for biological analytics and antigene applications.

  7. Plantazolicin A and B: structure elucidation of ribosomally synthesized thiazole/oxazole peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Bahar; Helaly, Soleiman E; Scholz, Romy; Nachtigall, Jonny; Vater, Joachim; Borriss, Rainer; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2011-06-17

    The structures of the ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, plantazolicin A and B, have been elucidated by high resolving ESI-MSMS, 2D (1)H-(13)C-correlated NMR spectroscopy as well as (1)H-(15)N-HMQC/(1)H-(15)N-HMBC NMR experiments. (15)N-labeling prior to the experiments facilitated the structure determination, unveiling a hitherto unusual number of thiazoles and oxazoles formed from a linear 14mer precursor peptide. This finding further extends the number of known secondary metabolites from B. amyloliquefaciens and represents a new type of secondary metabolites from the genus Bacillus.

  8. Plasticity of the RNA Kink Turn Structural Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, A.; Cochrane, J; Lipchock, S; Strobel, S

    2010-01-01

    The kink turn (K-turn) is an RNA structural motif found in many biologically significant RNAs. While most examples of the K-turn have a similar fold, the crystal structure of the Azoarcus group I intron revealed a novel RNA conformation, a reverse kink turn bent in the direction opposite that of a consensus K-turn. The reverse K-turn is bent toward the major grooves rather than the minor grooves of the flanking helices, yet the sequence differs from the K-turn consensus by only a single nucleotide. Here we demonstrate that the reverse bend direction is not solely defined by internal sequence elements, but is instead affected by structural elements external to the K-turn. It bends toward the major groove under the direction of a tetraloop-tetraloop receptor. The ability of one sequence to form two distinct structures demonstrates the inherent plasticity of the K-turn sequence. Such plasticity suggests that the K-turn is not a primary element in RNA folding, but instead is shaped by other structural elements within the RNA or ribonucleoprotein assembly.

  9. Ricin A-chain structural determinant for binding substrate analogues: a molecular dynamics simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Olson, M A

    1997-01-01

    Ricin A-chain is a cytotoxic protein that attacks ribosomes by hydrolyzing a specific adenine base from a highly conserved, single-stranded rRNA hairpin containing the tetraloop sequence GAGA. Molecular-dynamics simulation methods are used to analyze the structural determinant for three substrate analogues bound to the ricin A-chain molecule. Simulations were applied to the binding of the dinucleotide adenyl-3',5'-guanosine employing the x-ray crystal structure of the ricin complex and a modeled CGAGAG hexanucleotide loop taken from the NMR solution structure of a 29-mer oligonucleotide hairpin. A third simulation model is also presented describing a conformational search of the docked 29-mer structure by using a simulated-annealing method. Analysis of the structural interaction energies for each model shows the overall binding dominated by nonspecific interactions, which are mediated by specific arginine contracts from the highly basic region on the protein surface. The tetraloop conformation of the 29-mer was found to make specific interactions with conserved protein residues, in a manner that favored the GAGA sequence. A comparison of the two docked loop conformations with the NMR structure revealed significant positional deviations, suggesting that ricin may use an induced fit mechanism to recognize and bind the rRNA substrate. The conserved Tyr-80 may play an important conformational entropic role in the binding and release of the target adenine in the active site.

  10. Structure of a Folding Intermediate Reveals the Interplay Between Core and Peripheral Elements in RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Nathan J.; Westhof, Eric; Qin, Hong; Pan, Tao; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2010-07-13

    Though the molecular architecture of many native RNA structures has been characterized, the structures of folding intermediates are poorly defined. Here, we present a nucleotide-level model of a highly structured equilibrium folding intermediate of the specificity domain of the Bacillus subtilis RNase P RNA, obtained using chemical and nuclease mapping, circular dichroism spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and molecular modeling. The crystal structure indicates that the 154 nucleotide specificity domain is composed of several secondary and tertiary structural modules. The structure of the intermediate contains modules composed of secondary structures and short-range tertiary interactions, implying a sequential order of tertiary structure formation during folding. The intermediate lacks the native core and several long-range interactions among peripheral regions, such as a GAAA tetraloop and its receptor. Folding to the native structure requires the local rearrangement of a T-loop in the core in concert with the formation of the GAAA tetraloop-receptor interaction. The interplay of core and peripheral structure formation rationalizes the high degree of cooperativity observed in the folding transition leading to the native structure.

  11. Structure of a Eukaryotic RNase III Post-Cleavage Complex Reveals a Double- Ruler Mechanism for Substrate Selection

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu-He; Lavoie, Mathieu; Comeau, Marc-Andre; Elela, Sherif Abou; Ji, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY RNase III represents a family of dsRNA-specific endoribonucleases required for RNA maturation and gene regulation. The mechanism of action has been well characterized for the bacterial enzyme, but is not clear for eukaryotic RNase IIIs. Here, we describe the structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase III (Rnt1p) post-cleavage complex and explain the basis of its affinity for RNA stems capped with an NGNN tetraloop. The structure shows specific interactions between a new structural motif located at the end of Rnt1p dsRNA-binding domain (dsRBD) and the guanine nucleotide in the second position of the loop. Strikingly, structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the dsRBD and N-terminal domain function as two rulers measuring the distance between the tetraloop and the cleavage site. This unusual mechanism of substrate selectivity represents an example of the evolution of substrate selectivity and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of action of eukaryotic RNase IIIs. PMID:24703949

  12. Sense overlapping transcripts in IS1341-type transposase genes are functional non-coding RNAs in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Filho, José Vicente; Zaramela, Livia Soares; Italiani, Valéria Cristina da Silva; Baliga, Nitin S; Vêncio, Ricardo Z N; Koide, Tie

    2015-01-01

    The existence of sense overlapping transcripts that share regulatory and coding information in the same genomic sequence shows an additional level of prokaryotic gene expression complexity. Here we report the discovery of ncRNAs associated with IS1341-type transposase (tnpB) genes, at the 3'-end of such elements, with examples in archaea and bacteria. Focusing on the model haloarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, we show the existence of sense overlapping transcripts (sotRNAs) for all its IS1341-type transposases. Publicly available transcriptome compendium show condition-dependent differential regulation between sotRNAs and their cognate genes. These sotRNAs allowed us to find a UUCA tetraloop motif that is present in other archaea (ncRNA family HgcC) and in a H. salinarum intergenic ncRNA derived from a palindrome associated transposable elements (PATE). Overexpression of one sotRNA and the PATE-derived RNA harboring the tetraloop motif improved H. salinarum growth, indicating that these ncRNAs are functional. PMID:25806405

  13. Annotation of tertiary interactions in RNA structures reveals variations and correlations

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yurong; Laing, Christian; Leontis, Neocles B.; Schlick, Tamar

    2008-01-01

    RNA tertiary motifs play an important role in RNA folding and biochemical functions. To help interpret the complex organization of RNA tertiary interactions, we comprehensively analyze a data set of 54 high-resolution RNA crystal structures for motif occurrence and correlations. Specifically, we search seven recognized categories of RNA tertiary motifs (coaxial helix, A-minor, ribose zipper, pseudoknot, kissing hairpin, tRNA D-loop/T-loop, and tetraloop–tetraloop receptor) by various computer programs. For the nonredundant RNA data set, we find 613 RNA tertiary interactions, most of which occur in the 16S and 23S rRNAs. An analysis of these motifs reveals the diversity and variety of A-minor motif interactions and the various possible loop–loop receptor interactions that expand upon the tetraloop–tetraloop receptor. Correlations between motifs, such as pseudoknot or coaxial helix with A-minor, reveal higher-order patterns. These findings may ultimately help define tertiary structure restraints for RNA tertiary structure prediction. A complete annotation of the RNA diagrams for our data set is available at http://www.biomath.nyu.edu/motifs/. PMID:18957492

  14. Transition State Analogues Rescue Ribosomes from Saporin-L1 Ribosome Inactivating Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Matthew B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Evans, Gary B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2009-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) catalyze the hydrolytic depurination of one or more adenosine residues from eukaryotic ribosomes. Depurination of the ribosomal sarcin-ricin tetraloop (GAGA) causes inhibition of protein synthesis and cellular death. We characterized the catalytic properties of saporin-L1 from Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) leaves and demonstrate robust activity against defined nucleic acid substrates and mammalian ribosomes. Transition state analogue mimics of small oligonucleotide substrates of saporin-L1 are powerful, slow-onset inhibitors when adenosine is replaced with the transition state mimic 9-deazaadenine-9-methylene-N-hydroxypyrrolidine (DADMeA). Linear, cyclic and stem-loop oligonucleotide inhibitors containing DADMeA and based on the GAGA sarcin-ricin tetraloop gave slow-onset tight-binding inhibition constants (Ki*) of 2.3 to 8.7 nM at physiological conditions and bind up to 40,000-fold tighter than RNA substrates. Saporin-L1 inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte translation was protected by these inhibitors. Transition state analogues of saporin-L1 have potential in cancer therapy that employs saporin-L1 linked immunotoxins. PMID:19764816

  15. Attenuation of loop-receptor interactions with pseudoknot formation

    PubMed Central

    Afonin, Kirill A.; Lin, Yen-Ping; Calkins, Erin R.; Jaeger, Luc

    2012-01-01

    RNA tetraloops can recognize receptors to mediate long-range interactions in stable natural RNAs. In vitro selected GNRA tetraloop/receptor interactions are usually more ‘G/C-rich’ than their ‘A/U-rich’ natural counterparts. They are not as widespread in nature despite comparable biophysical and chemical properties. Moreover, while AA, AC and GU dinucleotide platforms occur in natural GAAA/11 nt receptors, the AA platform is somewhat preferred to the others. The apparent preference for ‘A/U-rich’ GNRA/receptor interactions in nature might stem from an evolutionary adaptation to avoid folding traps at the level of the larger molecular context. To provide evidences in favor of this hypothesis, several riboswitches based on natural and artificial GNRA receptors were investigated in vitro for their ability to prevent inter-molecular GNRA/receptor interactions by trapping the receptor sequence into an alternative intra-molecular pseudoknot. Extent of attenuation determined by native gel-shift assays and co-transcriptional assembly is correlated to the G/C content of the GNRA receptor. Our results shed light on the structural evolution of natural long-range interactions and provide design principles for RNA-based attenuator devices to be used in synthetic biology and RNA nanobiotechnology. PMID:22080507

  16. Identification of a pKa-regulating motif stabilizing imidazole-modified double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Buyst, Dieter; Gheerardijn, Vicky; Fehér, Krisztina; Van Gasse, Bjorn; Van Den Begin, Jos; Martins, José C.; Madder, Annemieke

    2015-01-01

    The predictable 3D structure of double-stranded DNA renders it ideally suited as a template for the bottom-up design of functionalized nucleic acid-based active sites. We here explore the use of a 14mer DNA duplex as a scaffold for the precise and predictable positioning of catalytic functionalities. Given the ubiquitous participation of the histidine-based imidazole group in protein recognition and catalysis events, single histidine-like modified duplexes were investigated. Tethering histamine to the C5 of the thymine base via an amide bond, allows the flexible positioning of the imidazole function in the major groove. The mutual interactions between the imidazole and the duplex and its influence on the imidazolium pKaH are investigated by placing a single modified thymine at four different positions in the center of the 14mer double helix. Using NMR and unrestrained molecular dynamics, a structural motif involving the formation of a hydrogen bond between the imidazole and the Hoogsteen side of the guanine bases of two neighboring GC base pairs is established. The motif contributes to a stabilization against thermal melting of 6°C and is key in modulating the pKaH of the imidazolium group. The general features, prerequisites and generic character of the new pKaH-regulating motif are described. PMID:25520197

  17. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with short peptide fragments from class IIa bacteriocins as recognition elements.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Sarfuddin; Jiang, Keren; Stiles, Michael; Thundat, Thomas; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2015-03-09

    We employed a direct peptide-bacteria binding assay to screen peptide fragments for high and specific binding to Listeria monocytogenes. Peptides were screened from a peptide array library synthesized on cellulose membrane. Twenty four peptide fragments (each a 14-mer) were derived from three potent anti-listerial peptides, Leucocin A, Pediocin PA1, and Curvacin A, that belong to class IIa bacteriocins. Fragment Leu10 (GEAFSAGVHRLANG), derived from the C-terminal region of Leucocin A, displayed the highest binding among all of the library fragments toward several pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The specific binding of Leu10 to L. monocytogenes was further validated using microcantilever (MCL) experiments. Microcantilevers coated with gold were functionalized with peptides by chemical conjugation using a cysteamine linker to yield a peptide density of ∼4.8×10(-3) μmol/cm2 for different peptide fragments. Leu10 (14-mer) functionalized MCL was able to detect Listeria with same sensitivity as that of Leucocin A (37-mer) functionalized MCL, validating the use of short peptide fragments in bacterial detection platforms. Fragment Leu10 folded into a helical conformation in solution, like that of native Leucocin A, suggesting that both Leu10 and Leucocin A may employ a similar mechanism for binding target bacteria. The results show that peptide-conjugated microcantilevers can function as highly sensitive platforms for Listeria detection and hold potential to be developed as biosensors for pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Determining the mode of action involved in the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides: a solid-state NMR and FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Lorin, Aurélien; Noël, Mathieu; Provencher, Marie-Ève; Turcotte, Vanessa; Cardinal, Sébastien; Lagüe, Patrick; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2012-10-03

    We have previously shown that leucine to lysine substitution(s) in neutral synthetic crown ether containing 14-mer peptide affect the peptide structure and its ability to permeabilize bilayers. Depending on the substitution position, the peptides adopt mainly either a α-helical structure able to permeabilize dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) vesicles (nonselective peptides) or an intermolecular β-sheet structure only able to permeabilize DMPG vesicles (selective peptides). In this study, we have used a combination of solid-state NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the effects of nonselective α-helical and selective intermolecular β-sheet peptides on both types of bilayers. (31)P NMR results indicate that both types of peptides interact with the headgroups of DMPC and DMPG bilayers. (2)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared results reveal an ordering of the hydrophobic core of bilayers when leakage is noted, i.e., for DMPG vesicles in the presence of both types of peptides and DMPC vesicles in the presence of nonselective peptides. However, selective peptides have no significant effect on the ordering of DMPC acyl chains. The ability of these 14-mer peptides to permeabilize lipid vesicles therefore appears to be related to their ability to increase the order of the bilayer hydrophobic core. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Insights on the Interactions of Synthetic Amphipathic Peptides with Model Membranes as Revealed by 31P and 2H Solid-State NMR and Infrared Spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Marise; Bernard, Geneviève; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2006-01-01

    We studied the interaction between synthetic amphipathic peptides and model membranes by solid-state NMR and infrared spectroscopies. Peptides with 14 and 21 amino acids composed of leucines and phenylalanines modified by the addition of crown ethers were synthesized. The 14-mer and 21-mer peptides both possess a helical amphipathic structure. To shed light on their membrane interaction, 31P and 2H solid-state NMR experiments were performed on both peptides in interaction with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles in the absence and presence of cholesterol, dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol vesicles, and oriented bicelles. 31P NMR experiments on multilamellar vesicles reveal that the dynamics and/or orientation of the polar headgroups are weakly yet markedly affected by the presence of the peptides, whereas 31P NMR experiments on bicelles indicate no significant changes in the morphology and orientation of the bicelles. On the other hand, 2H NMR experiments on vesicles reveal that the acyl chain order is affected differently depending on the membrane lipidic composition and on the peptide hydrophobic length. Finally, infrared spectroscopy was used to study the interfacial region of the bilayer. Based on these studies, mechanisms of membrane perturbation are proposed for the 14-mer and 21-mer peptides in interaction with model membranes depending on the bilayer composition and peptide length. PMID:16533836

  20. Determining the Mode of Action Involved in the Antimicrobial Activity of Synthetic Peptides: A Solid-State NMR and FTIR Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorin, Aurélien; Noël, Mathieu; Provencher, Marie-Ève; Turcotte, Vanessa; Cardinal, Sébastien; Lagüe, Patrick; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that leucine to lysine substitution(s) in neutral synthetic crown ether containing 14-mer peptide affect the peptide structure and its ability to permeabilize bilayers. Depending on the substitution position, the peptides adopt mainly either a α-helical structure able to permeabilize dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) vesicles (nonselective peptides) or an intermolecular β-sheet structure only able to permeabilize DMPG vesicles (selective peptides). In this study, we have used a combination of solid-state NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the effects of nonselective α-helical and selective intermolecular β-sheet peptides on both types of bilayers. 31P NMR results indicate that both types of peptides interact with the headgroups of DMPC and DMPG bilayers. 2H NMR and Fourier transform infrared results reveal an ordering of the hydrophobic core of bilayers when leakage is noted, i.e., for DMPG vesicles in the presence of both types of peptides and DMPC vesicles in the presence of nonselective peptides. However, selective peptides have no significant effect on the ordering of DMPC acyl chains. The ability of these 14-mer peptides to permeabilize lipid vesicles therefore appears to be related to their ability to increase the order of the bilayer hydrophobic core. PMID:23062339

  1. Membrane interactions of synthetic peptides with antimicrobial potential: effect of electrostatic interactions and amphiphilicity.

    PubMed

    Fillion, Matthieu; Valois-Paillard, Geneviève; Lorin, Aurélien; Noël, Mathieu; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2015-03-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates to complement currently used antibiotics, which are less effective against increasingly resistant pathogens. To determine the mechanism of action of these peptides, a better understanding of each molecular determinant involved in their membrane interactions is of great importance. In this study, we have focused on the role of electrostatic interactions and amphiphilicity on the membrane interactions since the large majority of natural antimicrobial peptides are cationic. Therefore, cationic and anionic peptides have been prepared based on a model 14-mer peptide. The latter is a synthetic peptide composed of ten leucines and four phenylalanines, which are modified by the addition of the crown ether. Infrared spectroscopy results indicate that the position of substitution is the main determinant involved in the secondary structure adopted by the peptides, and not the charge of the substituted residues. Fluorescence vesicle leakage assays indicate, however, differences between the ability of cationic and anionic peptides to induce calcein release in zwitterionic and anionic lipid vesicles, suggesting an importance of electrostatic interactions and repulsions. Finally, (31)P NMR results indicate that the vesicle morphologies is not significantly affected by the interactions with both cationic and anionic peptides but that their effect on lipid bilayers is mainly determined by their secondary structure. This study therefore indicates that the membrane interactions of model 14-mer peptides are mainly governed by their secondary structure, which depends on the position of substitution, and not the charge of the residues.

  2. Effects of chain length on oligopeptide hydrogelation

    PubMed Central

    Taraban, Marc B.; Ramachandran, Sivakumar; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Trewhella, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The co-assembly of mutually complementary, but self-repulsive oligopeptide pairs into viscoelastic hydrogels has been studied. Oligopeptides of 6, 10, and 14 amino acid residues were used to investigate the effects of peptide chain length on the structural and mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels. Biophysical characterizations, including dynamic rheometry, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence spectroscopy, were used to investigate hydrogelation at the bulk, fiber, and molecular levels, respectively. Upon mixing, the 10-mer peptides and the 14-mer peptides both form hydrogels while the 6-mer peptides do not. SAXS studies point to morphological similarity of the cross-sections of fibers underlying the 10:10 and 14:14 gels. However, fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest tighter packing of the amino acid side chains in the 10:10 fibers. Consistent with this tighter packing, dynamic rheometry data show that the 10:10 gel has much higher elastic modulus than the 14:14 mer (18 kPa vs. 0.1 kPa). Therefore, from the standpoint of mechanical strength, the optimum peptide chain length for this class of oligopeptide-based hydrogels is around 10 amino acid residues. PMID:22287980

  3. Ricin A-chain substrate specificity in RNA, DNA, and hybrid stem-loop structures.

    PubMed

    Amukele, Tim K; Schramm, Vern L

    2004-05-04

    Ricin toxin A-chain (RTA) is the catalytic subunit of ricin, a heterodimeric toxin from castor beans. Its ribosomal inactivating activity arises from depurination of a single adenine from position A(4324) in a GAGA tetraloop from 28S ribosomal RNA. Minimal substrate requirements are the GAGA tetraloop and stem of two or more base pairs. Depurination activity also occurs on stem-loop DNA with the same sequence, but with the k(cat) reduced 200-fold. Systematic variation of RNA 5'-G(1)C(2)G(3)C(4)[G(5)A(6)G(7)A(8)]G(9)C(10)G(11)C(12)-3' 12mers via replacement of each nucleotide in the tetraloop with a deoxynucleotide showed a 16-fold increase in k(cat) for A(6) --> dA(6) but reduced k(cat) up to 300-fold for the other sites. Methylation of individual 2'-hydroxyls in a similar experiment reduced k(cat) by as much as 3 x 10(-3)-fold. In stem-loop DNA, replacement of d[G(5)A(6)G(7)A(8)] with individual ribonucleotides resulted in small kinetic changes, except for the dA(6) --> A(6) replacement for which k(cat) decreased 6-fold. Insertion of d[G(5)A(6)G(7)A(8)] into an RNA stem-loop or G(5)A(6)G(7)A(8) into a DNA stem-loop reduced k(cat) by 30- and 5-fold, respectively. Multiple substitutions of deoxyribonucleotides into RNA stem-loops in one case (dG(5),dG(7)) decreased k(cat)/K(m) by 10(5)-fold, while a second change (dG(5),dA(8)) decreased k(cat) by 100-fold. Mapping these interactions on the structure of GAGA stem-loop RNA suggests that all the loop 2'-hydroxyl groups play a significant role in the action of ricin A-chain. Improved binding of RNA-DNA stem-loop hybrids provides a scaffold for inhibitor design. Replacing the adenosine of the RTA depurination site with deoxyadenosine in a small RNA stem-loop increased k(cat) 20-fold to 1660 min(-1), a value similar to RTA's k(cat) on intact ribosomes.

  4. Stem-loop structures can effectively substitute for an RNA pseudoknot in -1 ribosomal frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chien-Hung; Noteborn, Mathieu H; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Olsthoorn, René C L

    2011-11-01

    -1 Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) in synthesizing the gag-pro precursor polyprotein of Simian retrovirus type-1 (SRV-1) is stimulated by a classical H-type pseudoknot which forms an extended triple helix involving base-base and base-sugar interactions between loop and stem nucleotides. Recently, we showed that mutation of bases involved in triple helix formation affected frameshifting, again emphasizing the role of the triple helix in -1 PRF. Here, we investigated the efficiency of hairpins of similar base pair composition as the SRV-1 gag-pro pseudoknot. Although not capable of triple helix formation they proved worthy stimulators of frameshifting. Subsequent investigation of ∼30 different hairpin constructs revealed that next to thermodynamic stability, loop size and composition and stem irregularities can influence frameshifting. Interestingly, hairpins carrying the stable GAAA tetraloop were significantly less shifty than other hairpins, including those with a UUCG motif. The data are discussed in relation to natural shifty hairpins.

  5. Measurement of 2J(H,C)- and 3J(H,C)-coupling constants by alpha/beta selective HC(C)H-TOCSY.

    PubMed

    Duchardt, E; Richter, C; Reif, B; Glaser, S J; Engels, J W; Griesinger, C; Schwalbe, H

    2001-10-01

    A new heteronuclear NMR pulse sequence for the measurement of nJ(C,H) coupling constants, the alpha/beta selective HC(C)H-TOCSY, is described. It is shown that the S3E element (Meissner et al., 1997a,b) can be used to obtain spin state selective coherence transfer in molecules, in which adjacent CH moieties are labeled with 13C. Application of the alpha/beta selective HC(C)H-TOCSY to a 10 nt RNA tetraloop 5'-CGCUUUUGCG-3', in which the four uridine residues are 13C labeled in the sugar moiety, allowed measurement of two bond and three bond J(C,H) coupling constants, which provide additional restraints to characterize the sugar ring conformation of RNA in cases of conformational averaging.

  6. Photoinduced cleavage by a rhodium complex at G.U mismatches and exposed guanines in large and small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chow, Christine S; Cunningham, Philip R; Lee, KangSeok; Meroueh, May; SantaLucia, John; Varma, Shikha

    2002-09-01

    Photoinduced cleavage reactions by the rhodium complex tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)rhodium(III) [Rh(DIP)(3)(3+)] with three RNA hairpins, r(GGGGU UCGCUC CACCA) (16 nucleotide, tetraloop(Ala2)), r(GGGGCUAUAGCUCUAGCUC CACCA) (24 nucleotide, microhelix(Ala)), and r(GGCGGUUAGAUAUCGCC) (17 nucleotide, 790 loop), and full-length (1542 nucleotide) 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli were investigated. The cleavage reactions were monitored by gel electrophoresis and the sites of cleavage by Rh(DIP)(3)(3+) were determined by comparisons with chemical or enzymatic sequencing reactions. In general, RNA backbone scission by the metal complex was induced at G.U mismatches and at exposed G residues. The cleavage activity was observed on the three small RNA hairpins as well as on the isolated 1542-nucleotide ribosomal RNA.

  7. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its “natural” fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen–π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for “GNRA-type” folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for “UNCG-type” folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict. PMID:27999116

  8. Molecular-crowding effects on single-molecule RNA folding/unfolding thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Nicholas F; Holmstrom, Erik D; Nesbitt, David J

    2014-06-10

    The effects of "molecular crowding" on elementary biochemical processes due to high solute concentrations are poorly understood and yet clearly essential to the folding of nucleic acids and proteins into correct, native structures. The present work presents, to our knowledge, first results on the single-molecule kinetics of solute molecular crowding, specifically focusing on GAAA tetraloop-receptor folding to isolate a single RNA tertiary interaction using time-correlated single-photon counting and confocal single-molecule FRET microscopy. The impact of crowding by high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol on the RNA folding thermodynamics is dramatic, with up to ΔΔG° ∼ -2.5 kcal/mol changes in free energy and thus >60-fold increase in the folding equilibrium constant (Keq) for excluded volume fractions of 15%. Most importantly, time-correlated single-molecule methods permit crowding effects on the kinetics of RNA folding/unfolding to be explored for the first time (to our knowledge), which reveal that this large jump in Keq is dominated by a 35-fold increase in tetraloop-receptor folding rate, with only a modest decrease in the corresponding unfolding rate. This is further explored with temperature-dependent single-molecule RNA folding measurements, which identify that crowding effects are dominated by entropic rather than enthalpic contributions to the overall free energy change. Finally, a simple "hard-sphere" treatment of the solute excluded volume is invoked to model the observed kinetic trends, and which predict ΔΔG° ∼ -5 kcal/mol free-energy stabilization at excluded volume fractions of 30%.

  9. Structure-Function from the Outside In: Long-range Tertiary Contacts in RNA Exhibit Distinct Catalytic Roles†

    PubMed Central

    Benz-Moy, Tara L.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The conserved catalytic core of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme is encircled by peripheral elements. We have carried out a detailed structure-function study of the five long-range tertiary contacts that fasten these distal elements together. Mutational ablation of each of the tertiary contacts destabilizes the folded ribozyme, indicating a role of the peripheral elements in overall stability. Once folded, three of the five tertiary contact mutants exhibit defects in overall catalysis that range from 20- to 100-fold. These and the subsequent results indicate that the structural ring of peripheral elements does not act as a unitary element; rather, individual connections have distinct roles as further revealed by kinetic and thermodynamic dissection of the individual reaction steps. Ablation of P14 or the metal ion core/metal ion core receptor (MC/MCR) destabilizes docking of the substrate-containing P1 helix into tertiary interactions with the ribozyme’s conserved core. In contrast, ablation of the L9/P5 contact weakens binding of the guanosine nucleophile by slowing its association, without affecting P1 docking. The P13 and tetraloop/tetraloop receptor (TL/TLR) mutations had little functional effect and small, local structural changes, as revealed by hydroxyl radical footprinting, whereas the P14, MC/MCR, and L9/P5 mutants show structural changes distal from the mutation site. These changes extended into regions of the catalytic core involved in docking or guanosine binding. Thus, distinct allosteric pathways couple the long-range tertiary contacts to functional sites within the conserved core. This modular functional specialization may represent a fundamental strategy in RNA structure-function interrelationships. PMID:21815635

  10. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Leonarski, Filip; Vicens, Quentin; Auffinger, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its "natural" fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen-π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for "GNRA-type" folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for "UNCG-type" folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict.

  11. Crystal structure of a group I intron splicing intermediate

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, PETER L.; STAHLEY, MARY R.; GILL, MICHELLE L.; KOSEK, ANNE B.; WANG, JIMIN; STROBEL, SCOTT A.

    2004-01-01

    A recently reported crystal structure of an intact bacterial group I self-splicing intron in complex with both its exons provided the first molecular view into the mechanism of RNA splicing. This intron structure, which was trapped in the state prior to the exon ligation reaction, also reveals the architecture of a complex RNA fold. The majority of the intron is contained within three internally stacked, but sequence discontinuous, helical domains. Here the tertiary hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions between the domains, and the single-stranded joiner segments that bridge between them, are fully described. Features of the structure include: (1) A pseudoknot belt that circumscribes the molecule at its longitudinal midpoint; (2) two tetraloop-tetraloop receptor motifs at the peripheral edges of the structure; (3) an extensive minor groove triplex between the paired and joiner segments, P6-J6/6a and P3-J3/4, which provides the major interaction interface between the intron’s two primary domains (P4-P6 and P3-P9.0); (4) a six-nucleotide J8/7 single stranded element that adopts a μ-shaped structure and twists through the active site, making critical contacts to all three helical domains; and (5) an extensive base stacking architecture that realizes 90% of all possible stacking interactions. The intron structure was validated by hydroxyl radical footprinting, where strong correlation was observed between experimental and predicted solvent accessibility. Models of the pre-first and pre-second steps of intron splicing are proposed with full-sized tRNA exons. They suggest that the tRNA undergoes substantial angular motion relative to the intron between the two steps of splicing. PMID:15547134

  12. Structure dependent spin selectivity in electron transport through oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Cohen, Sidney R.; Naaman, Ron

    2017-03-01

    The chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect entails spin-selective electron transmission through chiral molecules. In the present study, the spin filtering ability of chiral, helical oligopeptide monolayers of two different lengths is demonstrated using magnetic conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Spin-specific nanoscale electron transport studies elucidate that the spin polarization is higher for 14-mer oligopeptides than that of the 10-mer. We also show that the spin filtering ability can be tuned by changing the tip-loading force applied on the molecules. The spin selectivity decreases with increasing applied force, an effect attributed to the increased ratio of radius to pitch of the helix upon compression and increased tilt angles between the molecular axis and the surface normal. The method applied here provides new insights into the parameters controlling the CISS effect.

  13. Characterization of minisatellites in Arabidopsis thaliana with sequence similarity to the human minisatellite core sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Tourmente, S; Deragon, J M; Lafleuriel, J; Tutois, S; Pélissier, T; Cuvillier, C; Espagnol, M C; Picard, G

    1994-01-01

    A strategy based on random PCR amplification was used to isolate new repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana. One of the random PCR product analyzed by this approach contained a tandem repetitive minisatellite sequence composed of 33 bp repeated units. The genomic locus corresponding to this PCR product was isolated by screening a lambda genomic library. New related loci were also isolated from the genomic library by screening with a 14 mer oligonucleotide representing a region conserved among the different repeated units. Alignment of the consensus sequence for each minisatellite locus allowed the definition of an Arabidopsis thaliana core sequence that shows strong sequence similarities with the human core sequence and with the generalized recombination signal Chi of Escherichia coli. The minisatellites were tested for their ability to detect polymorphism, and their chromosomal position was established. Images PMID:8078766

  14. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight) of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004) [1].

  15. Characterization of minisatellites in Arabidopsis thaliana with sequence similarity to the human minisatellite core sequence.

    PubMed

    Tourmente, S; Deragon, J M; Lafleuriel, J; Tutois, S; Pélissier, T; Cuvillier, C; Espagnol, M C; Picard, G

    1994-08-25

    A strategy based on random PCR amplification was used to isolate new repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana. One of the random PCR product analyzed by this approach contained a tandem repetitive minisatellite sequence composed of 33 bp repeated units. The genomic locus corresponding to this PCR product was isolated by screening a lambda genomic library. New related loci were also isolated from the genomic library by screening with a 14 mer oligonucleotide representing a region conserved among the different repeated units. Alignment of the consensus sequence for each minisatellite locus allowed the definition of an Arabidopsis thaliana core sequence that shows strong sequence similarities with the human core sequence and with the generalized recombination signal Chi of Escherichia coli. The minisatellites were tested for their ability to detect polymorphism, and their chromosomal position was established.

  16. Transient formation of nano-crystalline structures during fibrillation of an Abeta-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Otzen, Daniel E; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2004-05-01

    During the first few minutes of fibrillation of a 14-residue peptide homologous to the hydrophobic C-terminal part of the Abeta-peptide, EM micrographs reveal small crystalline areas (100 to 150 nm, repeating unit 47 A) scattered in more amorphous material. On a longer time scale, these crystalline areas disappear and are replaced by tangled clusters resembling protofilaments (hours), and eventually by more regular amyloid fibrils of 60 A to 120 A diameter (days). The transient population of the crystalline areas indicates the presence of ordered substructures in the early fibrillation process, the diameter of which matches the length of the 14-mer peptide in an extended beta-strand conformation.

  17. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide that supports catalytic activity in the hammerhead ribozyme domain.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, P; Harvey, S C; Ferbeyre, G; Usman, N; Cedergren, R

    1995-10-25

    A study of the activity of deoxyribonucleotide-substituted analogs of the hammerhead domain of RNA catalysis has led to the design of a 14mer oligomer composed entirely of deoxyribonucleotides that promotes the cleavage of an RNA substrate. Characterization of this reaction with sequence variants and mixed DNA/RNA oligomers shows that, although the all-deoxyribonucleotide oligomer is less efficient in catalysis, the DNA/substrate complex shares many of the properties of the all-RNA hammerhead domain such as multiple turnover kinetics and dependence on Mg2+ concentration. On the other hand, the values of kinetic parameters distinguish the DNA oligomer from the all-RNA oligomer. In addition, an analog of the oligomer having a single ribonucleotide in a strongly conserved position of the hammerhead domain is associated with more efficient catalysis than the all-RNA oligomer.

  18. One-end immobilization of individual DNA molecules on a functional hydrophobic glass surface.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Nakano, Michihiko; Komatsu, Jun; Takashima, Kazunori; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira

    2002-12-01

    We demonstrate an effective method for DNA immobilization on a hydrophobic glass surface. The new DNA immobilizing technique is extremely simple compared with conventional techniques that require heterobifunctional crosslinking reagent between DNA and substrate surface that are both modified chemically. In the first process, a coverslip was treated with dichlorodimethylsilane resulting in hydrophobic surface. lambda DNA molecules were ligated with 3'-terminus disulfide-modified 14 mer oligonucleotides at one cohesive end. After reduction of the disulfide to sulfhydryl (thiol) groups the resulting thiol-modified lambda DNA molecules were reacted on silanized coverslip. Fluorescent observation showed that the thiol-modified lambda DNA molecules were anchored specifically to the hydrophobic surface at one terminus, although non-specific binding of the DNA molecules was suppressed. It was observed that the one-end-attached DNA molecule was bound firmly to the surface and stretched reversibly in one direction when a d.c. electric field was applied.

  19. Sequence-selective binding of C8-conjugated pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) to DNA.

    PubMed

    Basher, Mohammad A; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz; Jackson, Paul J M; Thurston, David E; Fox, Keith R

    2017-09-01

    DNA footprinting and melting experiments have been used to examine the sequence-specific binding of C8-conjugates of pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and benzofused rings including benzothiophene and benzofuran, which are attached using pyrrole- or imidazole-containing linkers. The conjugates modulate the covalent attachment points of the PBDs, so that they bind best to guanines flanked by A/T-rich sequences on either the 5'- or 3'-side. The linker affects the binding, and pyrrole produces larger changes than imidazole. Melting studies with 14-mer oligonucleotide duplexes confirm covalent attachment of the conjugates, which show a different selectivity to anthramycin and reveal that more than one ligand molecule can bind to each duplex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tuning the size and properties of ClyA nanopores assisted by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Soskine, Misha; Biesemans, Annemie; De Maeyer, Marc; Maglia, Giovanni

    2013-09-11

    Nanopores have recently emerged as powerful tools in single-molecule investigations. Biological nanopores, however, have drawbacks, including a fixed size and limited stability in lipid bilayers. Inspired by the great success of directed evolution approaches in tailoring enzyme properties, in this work we evolved Cytolysin A from Salmonella typhi (ClyA) to a high level of soluble expression and desired electrical properties in lipid bilayers. Evolved ClyA nanopores remained open up to -150 mV applied potential, which allowed the detailed characterization of folded proteins by ionic current recordings. Remarkably, we also found that ClyA forms several nanopore species; among which we could isolate and characterize three nanopore types most likely corresponding to the 12mer, 13mer, and 14mer oligomeric forms of ClyA. Protein current blockades to the three ClyA nanopores showed that subnanometer variations in the diameter of nanopores greatly affect the recognition of analyte proteins.

  1. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide that supports catalytic activity in the hammerhead ribozyme domain.

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, P; Harvey, S C; Ferbeyre, G; Usman, N; Cedergren, R

    1995-01-01

    A study of the activity of deoxyribonucleotide-substituted analogs of the hammerhead domain of RNA catalysis has led to the design of a 14mer oligomer composed entirely of deoxyribonucleotides that promotes the cleavage of an RNA substrate. Characterization of this reaction with sequence variants and mixed DNA/RNA oligomers shows that, although the all-deoxyribonucleotide oligomer is less efficient in catalysis, the DNA/substrate complex shares many of the properties of the all-RNA hammerhead domain such as multiple turnover kinetics and dependence on Mg2+ concentration. On the other hand, the values of kinetic parameters distinguish the DNA oligomer from the all-RNA oligomer. In addition, an analog of the oligomer having a single ribonucleotide in a strongly conserved position of the hammerhead domain is associated with more efficient catalysis than the all-RNA oligomer. Images PMID:7479070

  2. Direct Determination of the Equilibrium Unbinding Potential Profile for a Short DNA Duplex from Force Spectroscopy Data

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, A

    2004-05-04

    Modern force microscopy techniques allow researchers to use mechanical forces to probe interactions between biomolecules. However, such measurements often happen in non-equilibrium regime, which precludes straightforward extraction of the equilibrium energy information. Here we use the work averaging method based on Jarzynski equality to reconstruct the equilibrium interaction potential from the unbinding of a complementary 14-mer DNA duplex from the results of non-equilibrium single-molecule measurements. The reconstructed potential reproduces most of the features of the DNA stretching transition, previously observed only in equilibrium stretching of long DNA sequences. We also compare the reconstructed potential with the thermodynamic parameters of DNA duplex unbinding and show that the reconstruction accurately predicts duplex melting enthalpy.

  3. An antisense microwalk reveals critical role of an intronic position linked to a unique long-distance interaction in pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Natalia N.; Hollinger, Katrin; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Singh, Ravindra N.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report a novel finding of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) microwalk in which we examined the position-specific role of intronic residues downstream from the 5′ splice site (5′ ss) of SMN2 exon 7, skipping of which is associated with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Our results revealed the inhibitory role of a cytosine residue at the 10th intronic position (10C), which is neither conserved nor associated with any known splicing motif. Significance of 10C emerged from the splicing pattern of SMN2 exon 7 in presence of a 14-mer ASO (L14) that sequestered two adjacent hnRNP A1 motifs downstream from 10C and yet promoted SMN2 exon 7 skipping. Another 14-mer ASO (F14) that sequestered both, 10C and adjacent hnRNP A1 motifs, led to a strong stimulation of SMN2 exon 7 inclusion. The inhibitory role of 10C was found to be tightly linked to its unpaired status and specific positioning immediately upstream of a RNA:RNA helix formed between the targeting ASO and its intronic target. Employing a heterologous context as well as changed contexts of SMN2 intron 7, we show that the inhibitory effect of unpaired 10C is dependent upon a long-distance interaction involving downstream intronic sequences. Our report furnishes one of the rare examples in which an ASO-based approach could be applied to unravel the critical role of an intronic position that may not belong to a linear motif and yet play significant role through long-distance interactions. PMID:20413618

  4. De novo antimicrobial peptides with low mammalian cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Javadpour, M M; Juban, M M; Lo, W C; Bishop, S M; Alberty, J B; Cowell, S M; Becker, C L; McLaughlin, M L

    1996-08-02

    De novo antimicrobial peptides with the sequences: (KLAKKLA)n, (KLAKLAK)n (where n = 1,2,3), (KALKALK)3, (KLGKKLG)n, and (KAAKKAA)n (where n = 2,3), were prepared as the C-terminus amides. These peptides were designed to be perfectly amphipathic in helical conformations. Peptide antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Peptide cytotoxicity was tested against human erythrocytes and 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. The 3T3 cell testing was a much more sensitive test of cytotoxicity. The peptides were much less lytic toward human erythrocytes than 3T3 cells. Peptide secondary structure in aqueous solution, sodium dodecylsulfate micelles, and phospholipid vesicles was estimated using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The leucine/alanine-containing 21-mers were bacteriostatic at 3-8 microM and cytotoxic to 3T3 cells at about 10 microM concentrations. The leucine/alanine- or leucine/glycine-containing 14-mers and the leucine/glycine 21-mer were bacteriostatic at 6-22 microM but had much lower cytotoxicity toward 3T3 cells and higher selectivities than the natural antimicrobial peptides magainin 2 amide and cecropin B amide. The 7-mer peptides are devoid of biological activity and of secondary structure in membrane mimetic environments. The 14-mer peptides and the glycine-containing 21-mer show modest levels of helicity in model membranes. The leucine/alanine-containing 21-mer peptides have substantial helicity in model membranes. The propensity to alpha-helical conformation of the peptides in amphipathic media is proportional to their 3T3 cell cytotoxicity.

  5. Syntheses and photophysical properties of 5'-6-locked fluorescent nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Kristmann; Gophane, Dnyaneshwar B; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th

    2013-01-07

    Nine fluorescent 5'-6-locked nucleosides were synthesized by condensation of various 1,2-diketones with 5-amino-2'-deoxycytidine. The nucleosides have different substituents on the pyrazine core structure, ranging from two methyl groups to polyaromatic rings. The photophysical properties of each nucleoside were determined, with the nucleosides displaying diverse absorption and emission maxima, extinction coefficients and quantum yields. The nucleoside with the highest fluorescence brightness was phosphitylated and incorporated into an oligonucleotide by means of automated oligonucleotide synthesis. The labelled oligonucleotide in aqueous buffer exhibited a substantially lowered extinction coefficient and quantum yield compared to the nucleoside in THF. The photophysical properties of the nucleoside were also compared in different DNA structural contexts, a single strand, a 14-mer duplex, a 14-mer duplex with an 11-mer overhang, and a 25-mer nicked duplex labelled at the nick site. Circular dichroism and melting temperature studies verified that the nucleoside did not perturb or destabilize the DNA helixes. In fact, when incorporated at the nick site, the nucleoside was found to stabilize the nicked duplex notably compared to its unmodified counterpart. The brightness of the fluorescent nucleoside in DNA increased as the polarity of its surroundings decreased, being highest in the 25-mer nicked duplex where exposure to the polar solvent is minimized by stacking to the adjacent bases on both the 3'- and 5'-side. The nucleosides brightness in the nicked duplex was also found to increase with lowered temperature, in accordance with expected temperature-dependent changes in the stacked-unstacked equilibrium at the nick site.

  6. Amino Acid Specific Effects on RNA Tertiary Interactions: Single-Molecule Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Abhigyan; Sung, Hsuan-Lei; Nesbitt, David J

    2016-10-10

    In light of the current models for an early RNA-based universe, the potential influence of simple amino acids on tertiary folding of ribozymal RNA into biochemically competent structures is speculated to be of significant evolutionary importance. In the present work, the folding-unfolding kinetics of a ubiquitous tertiary interaction motif, the GAAA tetraloop-tetraloop receptor (TL-TLR), is investigated by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy in the presence of natural amino acids both with (e.g., lysine, arginine) and without (e.g., glycine) protonated side chain residues. By way of control, we also investigate the effects of a special amino acid (e.g., proline) and amino acid mimetic (e.g., betaine) that contain secondary or quaternary amine groups rather than a primary amine group. This combination permits systematic study of amino acid induced (or amino acid like) RNA folding dynamics as a function of side chain complexity, pKa, charge state, and amine group content. Most importantly, each of the naturally occurring amino acids is found to destabilize the TL-TLR tertiary folding equilibrium, the kinetic origin of which is dominated by a decrease in the folding rate constant (kdock), also affected by a strongly amino acid selective increase in the unfolding rate constant (kundock). To further elucidate the underlying thermodynamics, single-molecule equilibrium constants (Keq) for TL-TLR folding have been probed as a function of temperature, which reveal an amino acid dependent decrease in both overall exothermicity (ΔΔH° > 0) and entropic cost (-TΔΔS° < 0) for the overall folding process. Temperature-dependent studies on the folding/unfolding kinetic rate constants reveal analogous amino acid specific changes in both enthalpy (ΔΔH(⧧)) and entropy (ΔΔS(⧧)) for accessing the transition state barrier. The maximum destabilization of the TL-TLR tertiary interaction is observed for arginine, which is consistent with early

  7. Replication Bypass of the trans-4-Hydroxynonenal-Derived (6S,8R,11S)-1,N[superscript 2]-Deoxyguanosine DNA Adduct by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Surajit; Christov, Plamen P.; Kozekova, Albena; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P.

    2014-10-02

    trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the major peroxidation product of {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. Michael addition of the N{sub 2}-amino group of dGuo to HNE followed by ring closure of N1 onto the aldehyde results in four diastereomeric 1,N{sub 2}-dGuo (1,N{sub 2}-HNE-dGuo) adducts. The (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct was incorporated into the 18-mer templates 5'-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3' and d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3', where X = (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct. These differed in the identity of the template 5'-neighbor base, which was either Thy or Cyt, respectively. Each of these templates was annealed with either a 13-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' or a 14-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTCC)-3'. The addition of dNTPs to the 13-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP insertion opposite to the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct, whereas the 14-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP extension past a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo:dCyd pair. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) belongs to the Y-family of error-prone polymerases. Replication bypass studies in vitro reveal that this polymerase inserted dNTPs opposite the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct in a sequence-specific manner. If the template 5'-neighbor base was dCyt, the polymerase inserted primarily dGTP, whereas if the template 5'-neighbor base was dThy, the polymerase inserted primarily dATP. The latter event would predict low levels of Gua {yields} Thy mutations during replication bypass when the template 5'-neighbor base is dThy. When presented with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo:dCyd pair, the polymerase conducted full-length primer extension. Structures for ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) complexes with all four template-primers were obtained. For the 18-mer:13-mer template-primers in which the polymerase was confronted with the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo adduct, the (6S,8R,11S)-1,N{sub 2}-dGuo lesion remained in the ring

  8. Replication Bypass of the trans-4-Hydroxynonenal-Derived (6S,8R,11S)-1,N2-Deoxyguanosine DNA Adduct by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the major peroxidation product of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. Michael addition of the N2-amino group of dGuo to HNE followed by ring closure of N1 onto the aldehyde results in four diastereomeric 1,N2-dGuo (1,N2-HNE-dGuo) adducts. The (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct was incorporated into the 18-mer templates 5′-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3′ and d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3′, where X = (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct. These differed in the identity of the template 5′-neighbor base, which was either Thy or Cyt, respectively. Each of these templates was annealed with either a 13-mer primer 5′-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3′ or a 14-mer primer 5′-d(GGGGGAAGGATTCC)-3′. The addition of dNTPs to the 13-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP insertion opposite to the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct, whereas the 14-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP extension past a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo:dCyd pair. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) belongs to the Y-family of error-prone polymerases. Replication bypass studies in vitro reveal that this polymerase inserted dNTPs opposite the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct in a sequence-specific manner. If the template 5′-neighbor base was dCyt, the polymerase inserted primarily dGTP, whereas if the template 5′-neighbor base was dThy, the polymerase inserted primarily dATP. The latter event would predict low levels of Gua → Thy mutations during replication bypass when the template 5′-neighbor base is dThy. When presented with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo:dCyd pair, the polymerase conducted full-length primer extension. Structures for ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) complexes with all four template-primers were obtained. For the 18-mer:13-mer template-primers in which the polymerase was confronted with the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N2-dGuo adduct, the (6S,8R,11S)-1,N2-dGuo lesion remained in the ring-closed conformation at the active site. The incoming dNTP, either d

  9. A general method for phasing novel complex RNA crystal structures without heavy-atom derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Michael P.; Scott, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The crystallographic phase problem [Muirhead & Perutz (1963 ▶), Nature (London), 199, 633–638] remains the single major impediment to obtaining a three-dimensional structure of a macromolecule once suitable crystals have been obtained. Recently, it was found that it was possible to solve the structure of a 142-nucleotide L1 ligase ribozyme heterodimer that possesses no noncrystallographic symmetry without heavy-atom derivatives, anomalous scattering atoms or other modifications and without a model of the tertiary structure of the ribozyme [Robertson & Scott (2007 ▶), Science, 315, 1549–1553]. Using idealized known RNA secondary-structural fragments such as A-form helices and GNRA tetraloops in an iterative molecular-replacement procedure, it was possible to obtain an estimated phase set that, when subjected to solvent flattening, yielded an interpretable electron-density map with minimized model bias, allowing the tertiary structure of the ribozyme to be solved. This approach has also proven successful with other ribozymes, structured RNAs and RNA–protein complexes. PMID:18566509

  10. Conformationally restricted nucleotides as a probe of structure–function relationships in RNA

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Kristine R.; Sumita, Minako; Chen, Po-Han; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Hoogstraten, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the use of commercially available locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as a functional probe in RNA. LNA nucleotides contain a covalent linkage that restricts the pseudorotation phase of the ribose to C3′-endo (A-form). Introduction of an LNA at a single site thus allows the role of ribose structure and dynamics in RNA function to be assessed. We apply LNA probing at multiple sites to analyze self-cleavage in the lead-dependent ribozyme (leadzyme), thermodynamic stability in the UUCG tetraloop, and the kinetics of recognition of U1A protein by U1 snRNA hairpin II. In the leadzyme, locking a single guanosine residue into the C3′-endo pucker increases the catalytic rate by a factor of 20, despite the fact that X-ray crystallographic and NMR structures of the leadzyme ground state reported a C2′-endo conformation at this site. These results strongly suggest that a conformational change at this position is critical for catalytic function. Functional insights obtained in all three systems demonstrate the highly general applicability of LNA probing in analysis of the role of ribose orientation in RNA structure, dynamics, and function. PMID:18596252

  11. Side-chain recognition and gating in the ribosome exit tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Paula M.; Snow, Christopher D.; Lucent, Del; Pande, Vijay S.

    2008-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex catalyst responsible for the synthesis of new proteins, an essential function for life. New proteins emerge from the ribosome through an exit tunnel as nascent polypeptide chains. Recent findings indicate that tunnel interactions with the nascent polypeptide chain might be relevant for the regulation of translation. However, the specific ribosomal structural features that mediate this process are unknown. Performing molecular dynamics simulations, we are studying the interactions between components of the ribosome exit tunnel and different chemical probes (specifically different amino acid side chains or monovalent inorganic ions). Our free-energy maps describe the physicochemical environment of the tunnel, revealing binding crevices and free-energy barriers for single amino acids and ions. Our simulations indicate that transport out of the tunnel could be different for diverse amino acid species. In addition, our results predict a notable protein–RNA interaction between a flexible 23S rRNA tetraloop (gate) and ribosomal protein L39 (latch) that could potentially obstruct the tunnel's exit. By relating our simulation data to earlier biochemical studies, we propose that ribosomal features at the exit of the tunnel can play a role in the regulation of nascent chain exit and ion flux. Moreover, our free-energy maps may provide a context for interpreting sequence-dependent nascent chain phenomenology. PMID:18946046

  12. Characterization of the kinetic and thermodynamic landscape of RNA folding using a novel application of isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Butcher, Samuel E

    2012-03-01

    A novel isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) method was applied to investigate RNA helical packing driven by the GAAA tetraloop-receptor interaction in magnesium and potassium solutions. Both the kinetics and thermodynamics were obtained in individual ITC experiments, and analysis of the kinetic data over a range of temperatures provided Arrhenius activation energies (ΔH(‡)) and Eyring transition state entropies (ΔS(‡)). The resulting rich dataset reveals strongly contrasting kinetic and thermodynamic profiles for this RNA folding system when stabilized by potassium versus magnesium. In potassium, association is highly exothermic (ΔH(25°C) = -41.6 ± 1.2 kcal/mol in 150 mM KCl) and the transition state is enthalpically barrierless (ΔH(‡) = -0.6 ± 0.5). These parameters are significantly positively shifted in magnesium (ΔH(25°C) = -20.5 ± 2.1 kcal/mol, ΔH(‡) = 7.3 ± 2.2 kcal/mol in 0.5 mM MgCl(2)). Mixed salt solutions approximating physiological conditions exhibit an intermediate thermodynamic character. The cation-dependent thermodynamic landscape may reflect either a salt-dependent unbound receptor conformation, or alternatively and more generally, it may reflect a small per-cation enthalpic penalty associated with folding-coupled magnesium uptake.

  13. Principles of ion recognition in RNA: insights from the group II intron structures.

    PubMed

    Marcia, Marco; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2014-04-01

    Metal ions promote both RNA folding and catalysis, thus being essential in stabilizing the structure and determining the function of large RNA molecules, including group II introns. The latter are self-splicing metalloribozymes, containing a heteronuclear four-metal-ion center within the active site. In addition to these catalytic ions, group II introns bind many other structural ions, including delocalized ions that bind the RNA diffusively and well-ordered ions that bind the RNA tightly with high occupancy. The latter ions, which can be studied by biophysical methods, have not yet been analyzed systematically. Here, we compare crystal structures of the group IIC intron from Oceanobacillus iheyensis and classify numerous site-bound ions, which are primarily localized in the intron core and near long-range tertiary contacts. Certain ion-binding sites resemble motifs observed in known RNA structures, while others are idiosyncratic to the group II intron. Particularly interesting are (1) ions proximal to the active site, which may participate in splicing together with the catalytic four-metal-ion center, (2) organic ions that bind regions predicted to interact with intron-encoded proteins, and (3) unusual monovalent ions bound to GU wobble pairs, GA mismatches, the S-turn, the tetraloop-receptor, and the T-loop. Our analysis extends the general principles by which ions participate in RNA structural organization and it will aid in the determination and interpretation of future RNA structures.

  14. NMR Localization of Divalent Cations at the Active Site of the Neurospora VS Ribozyme Provides Insights into RNA–Metal-Ion Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metal cations represent key elements of RNA structure and function. In the Neurospora VS ribozyme, metal cations play diverse roles; they are important for substrate recognition, formation of the active site, and shifting the pKa’s of two key nucleobases that contribute to the general acid–base mechanism. Recently, we determined the NMR structure of the A730 loop of the VS ribozyme active site (SLVI) that contributes the general acid (A756) in the enzymatic mechanism of the cleavage reaction. Our studies showed that magnesium (Mg2+) ions are essential to stabilize the formation of the S-turn motif within the A730 loop that exposes the A756 nucleobase for catalysis. In this article, we extend these NMR investigations by precisely mapping the Mg2+-ion binding sites using manganese-induced paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and cadmium-induced chemical-shift perturbation of phosphorothioate RNAs. These experiments identify five Mg2+-ion binding sites within SLVI. Four Mg2+ ions in SLVI are associated with known RNA structural motifs, including the G–U wobble pair and the GNRA tetraloop, and our studies reveal novel insights about Mg2+ ion binding to these RNA motifs. Interestingly, one Mg2+ ion is specifically associated with the S-turn motif, confirming its structural role in the folding of the A730 loop. This Mg2+ ion is likely important for formation of the active site and may play an indirect role in catalysis. PMID:24364590

  15. Secondary structure encodes a cooperative tertiary folding funnel in the Azoarcus ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Mustoe, Anthony M.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    A requirement for specific RNA folding is that the free-energy landscape discriminate against non-native folds. While tertiary interactions are critical for stabilizing the native fold, they are relatively non-specific, suggesting additional mechanisms contribute to tertiary folding specificity. In this study, we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to explore how secondary structure shapes the tertiary free-energy landscape of the Azoarcus ribozyme. We show that steric and connectivity constraints posed by secondary structure strongly limit the accessible conformational space of the ribozyme, and that these so-called topological constraints in turn pose strong free-energy penalties on forming different tertiary contacts. Notably, native A-minor and base-triple interactions form with low conformational free energy, while non-native tetraloop/tetraloop–receptor interactions are penalized by high conformational free energies. Topological constraints also give rise to strong cooperativity between distal tertiary interactions, quantitatively matching prior experimental measurements. The specificity of the folding landscape is further enhanced as tertiary contacts place additional constraints on the conformational space, progressively funneling the molecule to the native state. These results indicate that secondary structure assists the ribozyme in navigating the otherwise rugged tertiary folding landscape, and further emphasize topological constraints as a key force in RNA folding. PMID:26481360

  16. (Structure and stability of nucleic acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    We study the conformations of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides in order to understand their biological roles. We have determined the structure of the most common type of hairpin loop found in ribosomal RNA--the extra-stable tetraloop. It is actually a biloop with the other two bases in the loop forming a non-Watson-Crick base pair. This is the highest resolution structure reported for an RNA molecule in solution so far. We have obtained structures of pseudoknots and we have deduced general rules for their formation. We are presently studying a pseudoknot which is necessary for the replication of a retrovirus. The research done in the laboratory has been reported in 24 publications, plus 7 manuscripts in press or submitted. The research was done by 14 graduate students and 7 postdoctoral fellows. Five graduate students have received their Ph.D.s and 4 postdoctorals have finished their stay here. There are presently 9 graduate students and 3 postdoctorals working on the project; 2 new postdoctorals are expected this summer. One undergraduate student usually participates in the research during the year; this summer two undergraduates are working on the project. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  17. [Structure and stability of nucleic acids]. Progress report, July 1, 1988--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    We study the conformations of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides in order to understand their biological roles. We have determined the structure of the most common type of hairpin loop found in ribosomal RNA--the extra-stable tetraloop. It is actually a biloop with the other two bases in the loop forming a non-Watson-Crick base pair. This is the highest resolution structure reported for an RNA molecule in solution so far. We have obtained structures of pseudoknots and we have deduced general rules for their formation. We are presently studying a pseudoknot which is necessary for the replication of a retrovirus. The research done in the laboratory has been reported in 24 publications, plus 7 manuscripts in press or submitted. The research was done by 14 graduate students and 7 postdoctoral fellows. Five graduate students have received their Ph.D.s and 4 postdoctorals have finished their stay here. There are presently 9 graduate students and 3 postdoctorals working on the project; 2 new postdoctorals are expected this summer. One undergraduate student usually participates in the research during the year; this summer two undergraduates are working on the project. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  18. RNA Tertiary Interactions Mediate Native Collapse of a Bacterial Group I Ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Seema; Caliskan, Gokhan; Briber, Robert M.; Perez-Salas, Ursula; Rangan, Prashanth; Thirumalai, D.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2010-07-13

    Large RNAs collapse into compact intermediates in the presence of counterions before folding to the native state. We previously found that collapse of a bacterial group I ribozyme correlates with the formation of helices within the ribozyme core, but occurs at Mg{sup 2+} concentrations too low to support stable tertiary structure and catalytic activity. Here, using small-angle X-ray scattering, we show that Mg{sup 2+}-induced collapse is a cooperative folding transition that can be fit by a two-state model. The Mg{sup 2+} dependence of collapse is similar to the Mg{sup 2+} dependence of helix assembly measured by partial ribonuclease T{sub 1} digestion and of an unfolding transition measured by UV hypochromicity. The correspondence between multiple probes of RNA structure further supports a two-state model. A mutation that disrupts tertiary contacts between the L9 tetraloop and its helical receptor destabilized the compact state by 0.8 kcal/mol, while mutations in the central triplex were less destabilizing. These results show that native tertiary interactions stabilize the compact folding intermediates under conditions in which the RNA backbone remains accessible to solvent.

  19. Principles of ion recognition in RNA: insights from the group II intron structures

    PubMed Central

    Marcia, Marco; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Metal ions promote both RNA folding and catalysis, thus being essential in stabilizing the structure and determining the function of large RNA molecules, including group II introns. The latter are self-splicing metalloribozymes, containing a heteronuclear four-metal-ion center within the active site. In addition to these catalytic ions, group II introns bind many other structural ions, including delocalized ions that bind the RNA diffusively and well-ordered ions that bind the RNA tightly with high occupancy. The latter ions, which can be studied by biophysical methods, have not yet been analyzed systematically. Here, we compare crystal structures of the group IIC intron from Oceanobacillus iheyensis and classify numerous site-bound ions, which are primarily localized in the intron core and near long-range tertiary contacts. Certain ion-binding sites resemble motifs observed in known RNA structures, while others are idiosyncratic to the group II intron. Particularly interesting are (1) ions proximal to the active site, which may participate in splicing together with the catalytic four-metal-ion center, (2) organic ions that bind regions predicted to interact with intron-encoded proteins, and (3) unusual monovalent ions bound to GU wobble pairs, GA mismatches, the S-turn, the tetraloop-receptor, and the T-loop. Our analysis extends the general principles by which ions participate in RNA structural organization and it will aid in the determination and interpretation of future RNA structures. PMID:24570483

  20. Self-assembling RNA square

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrov, Sergey M.; McLean, Jaime; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas

    2011-12-22

    The three-dimensional structures of noncoding RNA molecules reveal recurring architectural motifs that have been exploited for the design of artificial RNA nanomaterials. Programmed assembly of RNA nanoobjects from autonomously folding tetraloop-receptor complexes as well as junction motifs has been achieved previously through sequence-directed hybridization of complex sets of long oligonucleotides. Due to size and complexity, structural characterization of artificial RNA nanoobjects has been limited to low-resolution microscopy studies. Here we present the design, construction, and crystal structure determination at 2.2 {angstrom} of the smallest yet square-shaped nanoobject made entirely of double-stranded RNA. The RNA square is comprised of 100 residues and self-assembles from four copies each of two oligonucleotides of 10 and 15 bases length. Despite the high symmetry on the level of secondary structure, the three-dimensional architecture of the square is asymmetric, with all four corners adopting distinct folding patterns. We demonstrate the programmed self-assembly of RNA squares from complex mixtures of corner units and establish a concept to exploit the RNA square as a combinatorial nanoscale platform.

  1. The Ribotoxin Restrictocin Recognizes Its RNA Substrate by Selective Engagement of Active Site Residues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Restrictocin and related fungal endoribonucleases from the α-sarcin family site-specifically cleave the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) on the ribosome to inhibit translation and ultimately trigger cell death. Previous studies showed that the SRL folds into a bulged-G motif and tetraloop, with restrictocin achieving a specificity of ∼1000-fold by recognizing both motifs only after the initial binding step. Here, we identify contacts within the protein−RNA interface and determine the extent to which each one contributes to enzyme specificity by examining the effect of protein mutations on the cleavage of the SRL substrate compared to a variety of other RNA substrates. As with other biomolecular interfaces, only a subset of contacts contributes to specificity. One contact of this subset is critical, with the H49A mutation resulting in quantitative loss of specificity. Maximum catalytic activity occurs when both motifs of the SRL are present, with the major contribution involving the bulged-G motif recognized by three lysine residues located adjacent to the active site: K110, K111, and K113. Our findings support a kinetic proofreading mechanism in which the active site residues H49 and, to a lesser extent, Y47 make greater catalytic contributions to SRL cleavage than to suboptimal substrates. This systematic and quantitative analysis begins to elucidate the principles governing RNA recognition by a site-specific endonuclease and may thus serve as a mechanistic model for investigating other RNA modifying enzymes. PMID:21417210

  2. Binding of europium(III) ions to RNA stem loops: role of the primary hydration sphere in complex formation.

    PubMed

    Mundoma, Claudius; Greenbaum, Nancy L

    2003-05-01

    Understanding the process by which RNA molecules fold into stable structures includes study of the role of site-bound metal ions. Because the alkaline earth metal ions typically associated with RNA structure [most often Mg(II)] do not provide convenient spectroscopic signals, replacement with metal ions having spectroscopically useful properties has been a valuable approach. The luminescence properties of the lanthanide(III) series, in particular europium(III), have made them useful in the study of complexation with biomolecules. We review the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic characteristics of Eu(III) that contribute to its value as a probe of RNA-metal ion interactions, and examples of information obtained from studies of Eu(III) bound to small RNA stem loops. Although Eu(III) has similar site preference to Mg(II), luminescence and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements indicate that Ln(III) loses water molecules from the inner hydration sphere more readily than does Mg(II), resulting in more direct coordination between RNA and the metal ion and very different energetics of binding. In some cases, e.g., a GAAA tetraloop, binding appears to occur by a lock and key process; in the same base sequence containing certain deoxynucleoside substitutions that alter loop structure, binding appears to occur by an induced fit process. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The essential role of stacking adenines in a two-base-pair RNA kissing complex.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, William; Asare-Okai, Papa Nii; Chen, Alan A; Keller, Sean; Santiago, Rachel; Tenenbaum, Scott A; Garcia, Angel E; Fabris, Daniele; Li, Pan T X

    2013-04-17

    In minimal RNA kissing complexes formed between hairpins with cognate GACG tetraloops, the two tertiary GC pairs are likely stabilized by the stacking of 5'-unpaired adenines at each end of the short helix. To test this hypothesis, we mutated the flanking adenines to various nucleosides and examined their effects on the kissing interaction. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to detect kissing dimers in a multiequilibria mixture, whereas optical tweezers were applied to monitor the (un)folding trajectories of single RNA molecules. The experimental findings were rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations. Together, the results showed that the stacked adenines are indispensable for the tertiary interaction. By shielding the tertiary base pairs from solvent and reducing their fraying, the stacked adenines made terminal pairs act more like interior base pairs. The purine double-ring of adenine was essential for effective stacking, whereas additional functional groups modulated the stabilizing effects through varying hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Furthermore, formation of the kissing complex was dominated by base pairing, whereas its dissociation was significantly influenced by the flanking bases. Together, these findings indicate that unpaired flanking nucleotides play essential roles in the formation of otherwise unstable two-base-pair RNA tertiary interactions.

  4. The Essential Role of stacking adenines in a Two-Base-Pair RNA Kissing Complex

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, William; Asare-Okai, Papa Nii; Chen, Alan A.; Keller, Sean; Santiago, Rachel; Tenenbaum, Scott; Garcia, Angel E.; Fabris, Daniele; Li, Pan T.X.

    2013-01-01

    In minimal RNA kissing complexes formed between hairpins with cognate GACG tetraloops, the two tertiary GC pairs are likely stabilized by the stacking of 5’-unpaired adenines at each end of the short helix. To test this hypothesis, we mutated the flanking adenines to various nucleosides and examined their effects on the kissing interaction. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to detect kissing dimers in a multi-equilibria mixture, whereas optical tweezers were applied to monitor the (un)folding trajectories of single RNA molecules. The experimental findings were rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations. Together, the results showed that the stacked adenines are indispensable for the tertiary interaction. By shielding the tertiary base pairs from solvent and reducing their fraying, the stacked adenines made terminal pairs act more like interior base pairs. The purine double-ring of adenine was essential for effective stacking, whereas additional functional groups modulated the stabilizing effects through varying hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Furthermore, formation of the kissing complex was dominated by base pairing, whereas its dissociation was significantly influenced by the flanking bases. Together, these findings indicate that unpaired flanking nucleotides play essential roles in the formation of otherwise unstable two-base-pair RNA tertiary interactions. PMID:23517345

  5. Demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase involves random sliding along DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.

    2012-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation processes play a critical role in shaping methylation patterns, yet our understanding of the mechanisms involved is still fragmented and incomplete. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a prototype member of a family of plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate active DNA demethylation through a base excision repair pathway. As ROS1 binds DNA non-specifically, we have critically tested the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion along DNA may contribute to target location by the enzyme. We have found that dissociation of ROS1 from DNA is severely restricted when access to both ends is obstructed by tetraloops obstacles. Unblocking any end facilitates protein dissociation, suggesting that random surface sliding is the main route to a specific target site. We also found that removal of the basic N-terminal domain of ROS1 significantly impairs the sliding capacity of the protein. Finally, we show that sliding increases the catalytic efficiency of ROS1 on 5-meC:G pairs, but not on T:G mispairs, thus suggesting that the enzyme achieves recognition and excision of its two substrate bases by different means. A model is proposed to explain how ROS1 finds its potential targets on DNA. PMID:23034804

  6. Noncanonical α/γ Backbone Conformations in RNA and the Accuracy of Their Description by the AMBER Force Field.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Banáš, Pavel; Havrila, Marek; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal

    2017-03-23

    The sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA can exist in diverse rotameric substates, giving RNA molecules enormous conformational variability. The most frequent noncanonical backbone conformation in RNA is α/γ = t/t, which is derived from the canonical backbone by a crankshaft motion and largely preserves the standard geometry of the RNA duplex. A similar conformation also exists in DNA, where it has been extensively studied and shown to be involved in DNA-protein interactions. However, the function of the α/γ = t/t conformation in RNA is poorly understood. Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations of several prototypical RNA structures obtained from X-ray and NMR experiments, including canonical and mismatched RNA duplexes, UUCG and GAGA tetraloops, Loop E, the sarcin-ricin loop, a parallel guanine quadruplex, and a viral pseudoknot. The stability of various noncanonical α/γ backbone conformations was analyzed with two AMBER force fields, ff99bsc0χOL3 and ff99bsc0χOL3 with the recent εζOL1 and βOL1 corrections for DNA. Although some α/γ substates were stable with seemingly well-described equilibria, many were unstable in our simulations. Notably, the most frequent noncanonical conformer α/γ = t/t was unstable in both tested force fields. Possible reasons for this instability are discussed. Our work reveals a potentially important artifact in RNA force fields and highlights a need for further force field refinement.

  7. Solution structure of an ATP-binding RNA aptamer reveals a novel fold.

    PubMed Central

    Dieckmann, T; Suzuki, E; Nakamura, G K; Feigon, J

    1996-01-01

    In vitro selection has been used to isolate several RNA aptamers that bind specifically to biological cofactors. A well-characterized example in the ATP-binding RNA aptamer family, which contains a conserved 11-base loop opposite a bulged G and flanked by regions of double-stranded RNA. The nucleotides in the consensus sequence provide a binding pocket for ATP (or AMP), which binds with a Kd in the micromolar range. Here we present the three-dimensional solution structure of a 36-nucleotide ATP-binding RNA aptamer complexed with AMP, determined from NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints. The conserved loop and bulged G form a novel compact, folded structure around the AMP. The backbone tracing of the loop nucleotides can be described by a Greek zeta (zeta). Consecutive loop nucleotides G, A, A form a U-turn at the bottom of the zeta, and interact with the AMP to form a structure similar to a GNRA tetraloop, with AMP standing in for the final A. Two asymmetric G. G base pairs close the stems flanking the internal loop. Mutated aptamers support the existence of the tertiary interactions within the consensus nucleotides and with the AMP found in the calculated structures. PMID:8756406

  8. A new α-helical extension promotes RNA binding by the dsRBD of Rnt1p RNAse III

    PubMed Central

    Leulliot, Nicolas; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Graille, Marc; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Leeper, Thomas C; Godin, Katherine S; Edwards, Thomas E; Sigurdsson, Snorri TL; Rozenkrants, Natasha; Nagel, Roland J; Ares, Manuel; Varani, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    Rnt1 endoribonuclease, the yeast homolog of RNAse III, plays an important role in the maturation of a diverse set of RNAs. The enzymatic activity requires a conserved catalytic domain, while RNA binding requires the double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) at the C-terminus of the protein. While bacterial RNAse III enzymes cleave double-stranded RNA, Rnt1p specifically cleaves RNAs that possess short irregular stem-loops containing 12–14 base pairs interrupted by internal loops and bulges and capped by conserved AGNN tetraloops. Consistent with this substrate specificity, the isolated Rnt1p dsRBD and the 30–40 amino acids that follow bind to AGNN-containing stem-loops preferentially in vitro. In order to understand how Rnt1p recognizes its cognate processing sites, we have defined its minimal RNA-binding domain and determined its structure by solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. We observe a new carboxy-terminal helix following a canonical dsRBD structure. Removal of this helix reduces binding to Rnt1p substrates. The results suggest that this helix allows the Rnt1p dsRBD to bind to short RNA stem-loops by modulating the conformation of helix α1, a key RNA-recognition element of the dsRBD. PMID:15192703

  9. Prediction of hydrogen and carbon chemical shifts from RNA using database mining and support vector regression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua D.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) contains NMR chemical shift depositions for over 200 RNAs and RNA-containing complexes. We have analyzed the 1H NMR and 13C chemical shifts reported for non-exchangeable protons of 187 of these RNAs. Software was developed that downloads BMRB datasets and corresponding PDB structure files, and then generates residue-specific attributes based on the calculated secondary structure. Attributes represent properties present in each sequential stretch of five adjacent residues and include variables such as nucleotide type, base-pair presence and type, and tetraloop types. Attributes and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the central nucleotide are then used as input to train a predictive model using support vector regression. These models can then be used to predict shifts for new sequences. The new software tools, available as stand-alone scripts or integrated into the NMR visualization and analysis program NMRViewJ, should facilitate NMR assignment and/or validation of RNA 1H and 13C chemical shifts. In addition, our findings enabled the recalibration a ring-current shift model using published NMR chemical shifts and high-resolution X-ray structural data as guides. PMID:26141454

  10. Prediction of hydrogen and carbon chemical shifts from RNA using database mining and support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua D; Summers, Michael F; Johnson, Bruce A

    2015-09-01

    The Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) contains NMR chemical shift depositions for over 200 RNAs and RNA-containing complexes. We have analyzed the (1)H NMR and (13)C chemical shifts reported for non-exchangeable protons of 187 of these RNAs. Software was developed that downloads BMRB datasets and corresponding PDB structure files, and then generates residue-specific attributes based on the calculated secondary structure. Attributes represent properties present in each sequential stretch of five adjacent residues and include variables such as nucleotide type, base-pair presence and type, and tetraloop types. Attributes and (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the central nucleotide are then used as input to train a predictive model using support vector regression. These models can then be used to predict shifts for new sequences. The new software tools, available as stand-alone scripts or integrated into the NMR visualization and analysis program NMRViewJ, should facilitate NMR assignment and/or validation of RNA (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts. In addition, our findings enabled the re-calibration a ring-current shift model using published NMR chemical shifts and high-resolution X-ray structural data as guides.

  11. Comparative analysis of ribonuclease P RNA using gene sequences from natural microbial populations reveals tertiary structural elements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.W.; Haas, E.S.; Nolan, J.M.; Rubio, M.T.

    1996-04-02

    PCR amplification of template DNAs extracted from mixed, naturally occurring microbial populations, using oligonucleotide primers complementary to highly conserved sequences, was used to obtain a large collection of diverse RNase P RNA-encoding genes. An alignment of these sequences was used in a comparative analysis of RNase P RNA secondary and tertiary structure. The new sequences confirm the secondary structure model based on sequences rom cultivated organisms (with minor alterations in helices P12 and P18), providing additional support for nearly every base pair. Analysis of sequence covariation using the entire RNase P RNA data set reveals elements of tertiary structure in the RNA; the third nucleotides (underlined) of the GNRA tetraloops L14 and L18 are seen to interact with adjacent Watson-Crick base pairs in helix P8, forming A:G/C or G:A/U base triples. These experiments demonstrate one way in which the enormous diversity of natural microbial populations can be used to elucidate molecular structure through comparative analysis. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. An RNA-aptamer-based two-color CRISPR labeling system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    The spatial organization and dynamics of chromatin play important roles in essential biological functions. However, direct visualization of endogenous genomic loci in living cells has proven to be laborious until the recent development of CRISPR-Cas9-based chromatin labeling methods. These methods rely on the recognition of specific DNA sequences by CRISPR single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) and fluorescent–protein-fused catalytically inactive Cas9 to label specific chromatin loci in cells. Previously, multicolor chromatin labeling has been achieved using orthogonal Cas9 proteins from different bacterial species fused to different fluorescent proteins. Here we report the development of an alternative two-color CRISPR labeling method using only the well-characterized Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, by incorporating MS2 or PP7 RNA aptamers into the sgRNA. The MS2 or PP7 aptamers then recruit the corresponding MS2 or PP7 coat proteins fused with different fluorescent proteins to the target genomic loci. Here we demonstrate specific and orthogonal two-color labeling of repetitive sequences in living human cells using this method. By attaching the MS2 or PP7 aptamers to different locations on the sgRNA, we found that extending the tetraloop and stem loop 2 of the sgRNA with MS2 or PP7 aptamers enhances the signal-to-background ratio of chromatin imaging. PMID:27229896

  13. Structural fidelity and NMR relaxation analysis in a prototype RNA hairpin

    PubMed Central

    Giambaşu, George M.; York, Darrin M.; Case, David A.

    2015-01-01

    RNA hairpins are widespread and very stable motifs that contribute decisively to RNA folding and biological function. The GTP1G2C3A4C5U6U7C8G9G10U11G12C13C14 construct (with a central UUCG tetraloop) has been extensively studied by solution NMR, and offers and excellent opportunity to evaluate the structure and dynamical description afforded by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here, we compare average structural parameters and NMR relaxation rates estimated from a series of multiple independent explicit solvent MD simulations using the two most recent RNA AMBER force fields (ff99 and ff10). Predicted overall tumbling times are ∼20% faster than those inferred from analysis of NMR data and follow the same trend when temperature and ionic strength is varied. The Watson–Crick stem and the “canonical” UUCG loop structure are maintained in most simulations including the characteristic syn conformation along the glycosidic bond of G9, although some key hydrogen bonds in the loop are partially disrupted. Our analysis pinpoints G9–G10 backbone conformations as a locus of discrepancies between experiment and simulation. In general the results for the more recent force-field parameters (ff10) are closer to experiment than those for the older ones (ff99). This work provides a comprehensive and detailed comparison of state of the art MD simulations against a wide variety of solution NMR measurements. PMID:25805858

  14. The structural stabilization of the κ three-way junction by Mg(II) represents the first step in the folding of a group II intron

    PubMed Central

    Donghi, Daniela; Pechlaner, Maria; Finazzo, Cinzia; Knobloch, Bernd; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2013-01-01

    Folding of group II introns is characterized by a first slow compaction of domain 1 (D1) followed by the rapid docking of other domains to this scaffold. D1 compaction initiates in a small subregion encompassing the κ and ζ elements. These two tertiary elements are also the major interaction sites with domain 5 to form the catalytic core. Here, we provide the first characterization of the structure adopted at an early folding step and show that the folding control element can be narrowed down to the three-way junction with the κ motif. In our nuclear magnetic resonance studies of this substructure derived from the yeast mitochondrial group II intron Sc.ai5γ, we show that a high affinity Mg(II) ion stabilizes the κ element and enables coaxial stacking between helices d′ and d′′, favoring a rigid duplex across the three-way junction. The κ-element folds into a stable GAAA-tetraloop motif and engages in A-minor interactions with helix d′. The addition of cobalt(III)hexammine reveals three distinct binding sites. The Mg(II)-promoted structural rearrangement and rigidification of the D1 core can be identified as the first micro-step of D1 folding. PMID:23275550

  15. Synthesis, Thermodynamic Properties, and Crystal Structure of RNA Oligonucleotides Containing 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Riml, Christian; Lusser, Alexandra; Ennifar, Eric; Micura, Ronald

    2017-08-04

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (hm(5)C) is an RNA modification that has attracted significant interest because of the finding that RNA hydroxymethylation can favor mRNA translation. For insight into the mechanistic details of hm(5)C function to be obtained, the availability of RNAs containing this modification at defined positions that can be used for in vitro studies is highly desirable. In this work, we present an eight-step route to 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm(5)rC) phosphoramidite for solid-phase synthesis of modified RNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, we examined the effects of hm(5)rC on RNA duplex stability and its impact on structure formation using the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) motif. Thermal denaturation experiments revealed that hm(5)rC increases RNA duplex stability. By contrast, when cytosine within an UNCG tetraloop motif was replaced by hm(5)rC, the thermodynamic stability of the corresponding hairpin fold was attenuated. Importantly, incorporation of hm(5)rC into the SRL motif resulted in an RNA crystal structure at 0.85 Å resolution. Besides changes in the hydration pattern at the site of modification, a slight opening of the hm(5)rC-G pair compared to the unmodified C-G in the native structure was revealed.

  16. The structural basis of FtsY recruitment and GTPase activation by SRP RNA

    PubMed Central

    Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Shen, Kuang; Shan, Shu-ou; Ataide, Sandro F.; Ban, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Summary The universally conserved Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) system mediates the targeting of membrane proteins to the translocon in a multistep process controlled by GTP hydrolysis. Here we present the 2.6Å crystal structure of the GTPase domains of the E. coli SRP protein (Ffh) and its receptor (FtsY) in complex with the tetraloop and the distal region of SRP-RNA, trapped in the activated state. The structure reveals the atomic details of FtsY recruitment and, together with biochemical experiments, pinpoints G83 as the key RNA residue that stimulates GTP hydrolysis. Insertion of G83 into the FtsY active site orients a single glutamate residue provided by Ffh (E277) triggering GTP hydrolysis and complex disassembly at the end of the targeting cycle. The complete conservation of the key residues of the SRP-RNA and the SRP protein implies that the suggested chemical mechanism of GTPase activation is applicable across all kingdoms. PMID:24211265

  17. Demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase involves random sliding along DNA.

    PubMed

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2012-12-01

    Active DNA demethylation processes play a critical role in shaping methylation patterns, yet our understanding of the mechanisms involved is still fragmented and incomplete. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a prototype member of a family of plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate active DNA demethylation through a base excision repair pathway. As ROS1 binds DNA non-specifically, we have critically tested the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion along DNA may contribute to target location by the enzyme. We have found that dissociation of ROS1 from DNA is severely restricted when access to both ends is obstructed by tetraloops obstacles. Unblocking any end facilitates protein dissociation, suggesting that random surface sliding is the main route to a specific target site. We also found that removal of the basic N-terminal domain of ROS1 significantly impairs the sliding capacity of the protein. Finally, we show that sliding increases the catalytic efficiency of ROS1 on 5-meC:G pairs, but not on T:G mispairs, thus suggesting that the enzyme achieves recognition and excision of its two substrate bases by different means. A model is proposed to explain how ROS1 finds its potential targets on DNA.

  18. Prediction of hammerhead ribozyme intracellular activity with the catalytic core fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Gabryelska, Marta Magdalena; Wyszko, Eliza; Szymański, Maciej; Popenda, Mariusz; Barciszewski, Jan

    2013-05-01

    Hammerhead ribozyme is a versatile tool for down-regulation of gene expression in vivo. Owing to its small size and high activity, it is used as a model for RNA structure-function relationship studies. In the present paper we describe a new extended hammerhead ribozyme HH-2 with a tertiary stabilizing motif constructed on the basis of the tetraloop receptor sequence. This ribozyme is very active in living cells, but shows low activity in vitro. To understand it, we analysed tertiary structure models of substrate-ribozyme complexes. We calculated six unique catalytic core geometry parameters as distances and angles between particular atoms that we call the ribozyme fingerprint. A flanking sequence and tertiary motif change the geometry of the general base, general acid, nucleophile and leaving group. We found almost complete correlation between these parameters and the decrease of target gene expression in the cells. The tertiary structure model calculations allow us to predict ribozyme intracellular activity. Our approach could be widely adapted to characterize catalytic properties of other RNAs.

  19. Green polymer chemistry: living dithiol polymerization via cyclic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Emily Q; Puskas, Judit E; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2012-01-09

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of disulfide polymers obtained by oxidation of 2-[2-(2-sulfanylethoxy)ethoxy]ethanethiol (DODT) using a benign, synergistic system comprised of air, dilute hydrogen peroxide and triethylamine as a catalyst that can be recycled. The dn/dc value of the polymer in THF was determined to obtain absolute molecular weight measurements. High molecular weight disulfide polymers (up to M(n) = 250000 g/mol) with polydispersity indices as low as M(w)/M(n) = 1.15 were obtained. Thermal analysis by DSC and TGA demonstrated that the rubbery polymers had a T(g) of -50 °C and began to degrade at 250 °C. Dithiothreitol reduced the polymers back to the original monomeric units in 33 h. MALDI-ToF showed the involvement of oligodisulfide rings (2-14 mers) in the polymerization that displayed the characteristics of a living/controlled polymerization; poly(DODT) was readily chain extended with 1,2-ethanedithiol. The chain extension indicates a class of living polymerization which is governed by radical recombination.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the ion-dependent folding stability of DNA triplexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengsheng; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-12-01

    A DNA triplex is formed through binding of a third strand to the major groove of a duplex. Due to the high charge density of a DNA triplex, metal ions are critical for its stability. We recently developed the tightly bound ion (TBI) model for ion-nucleic acids interactions. The model accounts for the potential correlation and fluctuations of the ion distribution. We now apply the TBI model to analyze the ion dependence of the thermodynamic stability for DNA triplexes. We focus on two experimentally studied systems: a 24-base DNA triplex and a pair of interacting 14-base triplexes. Our theoretical calculations for the number of bound ions indicate that the TBI model provides improved predictions for the number of bound ions than the classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. The improvement is more significant for a triplex, which has a higher charge density than a duplex. This is possibly due to the higher ion concentration around the triplex and hence a stronger ion correlation effect for a triplex. In addition, our analysis for the free energy landscape for a pair of 14-mer triplexes immersed in an ionic solution shows that divalent ions could induce an attractive force between the triplexes. Furthermore, we investigate how the protonated cytosines in the triplexes affect the stability of the triplex helices.

  1. Lock and key binding of the HOX YPWM peptide to the PBX homeodomain.

    PubMed

    Sprules, Tara; Green, Nancy; Featherstone, Mark; Gehring, Kalle

    2003-01-10

    HOX homeodomain proteins bind short core DNA sequences to control very specific developmental processes. DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity are increased by the formation of cooperative complexes with the PBX homeodomain protein. A conserved YPWM motif in the HOX protein is necessary for cooperative binding with PBX. We have determined the structure of a PBX homeodomain bound to a 14-mer DNA duplex. A relaxation-optimized procedure was developed to measure DNA residual dipolar couplings at natural abundance in the 20-kDa binary complex. When the PBX homeodomain binds to DNA, a fourth alpha-helix is formed in the homeodomain. This helix rigidifies the DNA recognition helix of PBX and forms a hydrophobic binding site for the HOX YPWM peptide. The HOX peptide itself shows some structure in solution and suggests that the interaction between PBX and HOX is an example of "lock and key" binding. The NMR structure explains the requirement of DNA for the PBX-HOX interaction and the increased affinity of DNA binding.

  2. Structural basis for piRNA 2'-O-methylated 3'-end recognition by Piwi PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domains.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Ma, Jin-Biao; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2011-01-18

    Argonaute and Piwi proteins are key players in the RNA silencing pathway, with the former interacting with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, whereas the latter targets piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are 2'-O-methylated (2(')-OCH(3)) at their 3' ends. Germline-specific piRNAs and Piwi proteins play a critical role in genome defense against transposable elements, thereby protecting the genome against transposon-induced defects in gametogenesis and fertility. Humans contain four Piwi family proteins designated Hiwi1, Hiwi2, Hiwi3, and Hili. We report on the structures of Hili-PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain in the free state and Hiwi1 PAZ domain bound to self-complementary 14-mer RNAs (12-bp + 2-nt overhang) containing 2(')-OCH(3) and 2'-OH at their 3' ends. These structures explain the molecular basis underlying accommodation of the 2(')-OCH(3) group within a preformed Hiwi1 PAZ domain binding pocket, whose hydrophobic characteristics account for the preferential binding of 2(')-OCH(3) over 2'-OH 3' ends. These results contrast with the more restricted binding pocket for the human Ago1 PAZ domain, which exhibits a reverse order, with preferential binding of 2'-OH over 2(')-OCH(3) 3' ends.

  3. Inhibition of SERPINe1 reduces rhabdoviral infections in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2015-11-01

    While exploring the molecular mechanisms behind the fin hemorrhages that follow zebrafish (Danio rerio) early infection with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), we discovered that most serpin (serine protease inhibitor) gene transcripts were upregulated, except those of serpine1. Surprisingly, only SERPINe1-derived 14-mer peptide and low molecular weight drugs targeting SERPINe1 (i.e. tannic acid, EGCG, tiplaxtinin) inhibited in vitro infections not only of VHSV, but also of other fish rhabdoviruses such as infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). While the mechanisms that inhibited rhabdoviral infections remain speculative, these and other results suggested that SERPINEe1-derived peptide specifically targeted viral infectivity rather than virions. Practical applications might be developed from these studies since preliminary evidences showed that tannic acid could be used to reduce VHSV-caused mortalities. These studies are an example of how the identification of host genes targeted by viral infections using microarrays might facilitate the identification of novel prevention drugs in aquaculture and illuminate viral infection mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between the N-terminal SH3 domain of Nck-alpha and CD3-epsilon-derived peptides: non-canonical and canonical recognition motifs.

    PubMed

    Santiveri, Clara M; Borroto, Aldo; Simón, Luis; Rico, Manuel; Alarcón, Balbino; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2009-01-01

    The first SH3 domain (SH3.1) of Nckalpha specifically recognizes the proline-rich region of CD3varepsilon, a subunit of the T cell receptor complex. We have solved the NMR structure of Nckalpha SH3.1 that shows the characteristic SH3 fold consisting of two antiparallel beta-sheets tightly packed against each other. According to chemical shift mapping analysis, a peptide encompassing residues 150-166 of CD3varepsilon binds at the canonical SH3 binding site. An exhaustive comparison with the structures of other SH3 domains able and unable to bind CD3varepsilon reveals that Nckalpha SH3.1 recognises a non-canonical PxxPxxDY motif that orientates at the binding site as a class II ligand. A positively charged residue (K/R) at position -2 relative to the WW sequence at the beginning of strand beta3 is crucial for PxxDY recognition. A 14-mer optimised Nckalpha SH3.1 ligand was found using a multi-substitution approach. Based on NMR data, this improved ligand binds Nckalpha SH3.1 through a PxxPxRDY motif that combines specific stabilising interactions corresponding to both canonical class II, PxxPx(K/R), and non-canonical PxxPxxDY motifs. This explains its higher capacity for Nckalpha SH3.1 binding relative to the wild type sequence.

  5. Expanding the amino acid repertoire of ribosomal polypeptide synthesis via the artificial division of codon boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Azusa; Murakami, Hiroshi; Katoh, Takayuki; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    In ribosomal polypeptide synthesis the library of amino acid building blocks is limited by the manner in which codons are used. Of the proteinogenic amino acids, 18 are coded for by multiple codons and therefore many of the 61 sense codons can be considered redundant. Here we report a method to reduce the redundancy of codons by artificially dividing codon boxes to create vacant codons that can then be reassigned to non-proteinogenic amino acids and thereby expand the library of genetically encoded amino acids. To achieve this, we reconstituted a cell-free translation system with 32 in vitro transcripts of transfer RNASNN (tRNASNN) (S = G or C), assigning the initiator and 20 elongator amino acids. Reassignment of three redundant codons was achieved by replacing redundant tRNASNNs with tRNASNNs pre-charged with non-proteinogenic amino acids. As a demonstration, we expressed a 32-mer linear peptide that consists of 20 proteinogenic and three non-proteinogenic amino acids, and a 14-mer macrocyclic peptide that contains more than four non-proteinogenic amino acids.

  6. Liquid crystal ordering of DNA and RNA oligomers with partially overlapping sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, G.; Nakata, M.; Buscaglia, M.; Clark, N. A.; Bellini, T.

    2008-12-01

    We have recently shown that solutions of very short double-stranded B-DNA and A-RNA, down to six base pairs in length, can self-organize into chiral nematic and columnar liquid crystal (LC) phases. These observations were made on fully complementary sequences forming duplexes with blunt ends, where the LC ordering is due to base stacking forces promoting end-to-end aggregation of duplexes into living-polymer-type structures. Here we report LC formation in solutions of DNA and RNA 14mers forming double helices having single-stranded dangling ends that are 'sticky', i.e., mutually complementary with similar ends on other duplexes. This finding widens the conditions for spontaneous long range ordering in oligomeric nucleic acids, thus strengthening the notion that nucleic acids have remarkable self-assembly capability. Quantitative analysis of the phase diagram enables the extraction, within a nearest-neighbor interaction approximation, of the free energy associated with the pairing and stacking of nucleobases.

  7. Computational design of d-peptide inhibitors of hepatitis delta antigen dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, Carl D.; Zuccola, Harmon J.; Hogle, James M.; Joseph-McCarthy, Diane

    2000-11-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) encodes a single polypeptide called hepatitis delta antigen (DAg). Dimerization of DAg is required for viral replication. The structure of the dimerization region, residues 12 to 60, consists of an anti-parallel coiled coil [Zuccola et al., Structure, 6 (1998) 821]. Multiple Copy Simultaneous Searches (MCSS) of the hydrophobic core region formed by the bend in the helix of one monomer of this structure were carried out for many diverse functional groups. Six critical interaction sites were identified. The Protein Data Bank was searched for backbone templates to use in the subsequent design process by matching to these sites. A 14 residue helix expected to bind to the d-isomer of the target structure was selected as the template. Over 200 000 mutant sequences of this peptide were generated based on the MCSS results. A secondary structure prediction algorithm was used to screen all sequences, and in general only those that were predicted to be highly helical were retained. Approximately 100 of these 14-mers were model built as d-peptides and docked with the l-isomer of the target monomer. Based on calculated interaction energies, predicted helicity, and intrahelical salt bridge patterns, a small number of peptides were selected as the most promising candidates. The ligand design approach presented here is the computational analogue of mirror image phage display. The results have been used to characterize the interactions responsible for formation of this model anti-parallel coiled coil and to suggest potential ligands to disrupt it.

  8. A temperature-jump NMR probe setup using rf heating optimized for the analysis of temperature-induced biomacromolecular kinetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinnenthal, Jörg; Wagner, Dominic; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Krahn, Alexander; Engelke, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-02-01

    A novel temperature jump (T-jump) probe operational at B0 fields of 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) with an integrated cage radio-frequency (rf) coil for rapid (<1 s) heating in high-resolution (HR) liquid-state NMR-spectroscopy is presented and its performance investigated. The probe consists of an inner 2.5 mm "heating coil" designed for generating rf-electric fields of 190-220 MHz across a lossy dielectric sample and an outer two coil assembly for 1H-, 2H- and 15N-nuclei. High B0 field homogeneities (0.7 Hz at 600 MHz) are combined with high heating rates (20-25 K/s) and only small temperature gradients (<±1.5 K, 3 s after 20 K T-jump). The heating coil is under control of a high power rf-amplifier within the NMR console and can therefore easily be accessed by the pulse programmer. Furthermore, implementation of a real-time setup including synchronization of the NMR spectrometer's air flow heater with the rf-heater used to maintain the temperature of the sample is described. Finally, the applicability of the real-time T-jump setup for the investigation of biomolecular kinetic processes in the second-to-minute timescale is demonstrated for samples of a model 14mer DNA hairpin and a 15N-selectively labeled 40nt hsp17-RNA thermometer.

  9. Determination of Three-Bond1H3‧-31P Couplings in Nucleic Acids and Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes by QuantitativeJCorrelation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clore, G. Marius; Murphy, Elizabeth C.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Bax, Ad

    1998-09-01

    A new sensitive two-dimensional quantitativeJcorrelation experiment is described for measuring3JH3‧-Pcouplings in nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes. The method is based on measuring the change in intensity of the1H-1H cross peaks in a constant-time1H-1H COSY experiment which occurs in the presence and absence of3JH3‧-Pdephasing during the constant-time evolution period. For protein-nucleic acid complexes where the protein is13C-labeled but the nucleic acid is not,12C-filtering is readily achieved by the application of a series of13C purge pulses during the constant time evolution period without any loss of signal-to-noise of the nucleic acid cross peaks. The method is demonstrated for the Dickerson DNA dodecamer and a 19 kDa complex of the transcription factor SRY with a 14mer DNA duplex. The same approach should be equally applicable to numerous other problems, including the measurement ofJH-Cdcouplings in cadmium-ligated proteins, or3JCHcouplings in other selectively enriched compounds.

  10. Fibronectin peptides that bind PDGF-BB enhance survival of cells and tissue under stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fubao; Zhu, Jia; Tonnesen, Marcia G.; Taira, Breena R.; McClain, Steve A.; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Stressors after injury from a multitude of factors can lead to cell death. We have identified four fibronectin (FN) peptides, two from the first FN type III repeat (FNIII1), one from the 13th FN type III repeat (FNIII13), and one from FN variable region (IIICS), that when tethered to a surface acted as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) enhancers to promote cell survival. One of the FNIII1 peptides and its smallest (14mer) bioactive form (P12) were also active in solution. Specifically, P12 bound PDGF-BB (KD = 200nM), enhanced adult human dermal fibroblast (AHDF) survival under serum starvation, oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, and limited burn injury progression in a rat hot comb model. Furthermore, P12 inhibited ER stress-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Although many growth factors have been found to bind FN directly or indirectly, this is the first report to identify peptide sequences of growth factor-binding sites in FN. The finding of these novel peptides further delineated how the extracellular matrix protein FN can support cell survival. Since the peptide P12 is active in either soluble form or tethered to a substrate, it will have multifactorial uses as a bioactive in tissue engineering. PMID:24126844

  11. Structural basis for piRNA 2'-O-methylated 3'-end recognition by Piwi PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domains

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Ma, Jin-Biao; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2011-01-01

    Argonaute and Piwi proteins are key players in the RNA silencing pathway, with the former interacting with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, whereas the latter targets piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are 2′-O-methylated (2′-OCH3) at their 3′ ends. Germline-specific piRNAs and Piwi proteins play a critical role in genome defense against transposable elements, thereby protecting the genome against transposon-induced defects in gametogenesis and fertility. Humans contain four Piwi family proteins designated Hiwi1, Hiwi2, Hiwi3, and Hili. We report on the structures of Hili-PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain in the free state and Hiwi1 PAZ domain bound to self-complementary 14-mer RNAs (12-bp + 2-nt overhang) containing 2′-OCH3 and 2′-OH at their 3′ ends. These structures explain the molecular basis underlying accommodation of the 2′-OCH3 group within a preformed Hiwi1 PAZ domain binding pocket, whose hydrophobic characteristics account for the preferential binding of 2′-OCH3 over 2′-OH 3′ ends. These results contrast with the more restricted binding pocket for the human Ago1 PAZ domain, which exhibits a reverse order, with preferential binding of 2′-OH over 2′-OCH3 3′ ends. PMID:21193640

  12. Lock and Key Binding of the HOX YPWM Peptide to the PBX Homeodomain

    SciTech Connect

    Sprules, Tara; Green, N.; Featherstone, M.; Gehring, Kalle

    2003-01-10

    HOX homeodomain proteins bind short core DNA sequences to control very specific developmental processes. DNA binding affinity and sequence selectivity are increased by the formation of cooperative complexes with the PBX homeodomain protein. A conserved YPWM motif in the HOX protein is necessary for cooperative binding with PBX. We have determined the structure of a PBX homeodomain bound to a 14-mer DNA duplex. A relaxation-optimized procedure was developed to measure DNA residual dipolar couplings at natural abundance in the 20-kDa binary complex. When the PBX homeodomain binds to DNA, a fourth alpha-helix is formed in the homeodomain. This helix rigidifies the DNA recognition helix of PBX and forms a hydrophobic binding site for the HOX YPWM peptide. The HOX peptide itself shows some structure in solution and suggests that the interaction between PBX and HOX is an example of "lock and key" binding. The NMR structure explains the requirement of DNA for the PBX-HOX interaction and the increased affinity of DNA binding.

  13. Investigation of the mechanism of action of novel amphipathic peptides: insights from solid-state NMR studies of oriented lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Fillion, Matthieu; Noël, Mathieu; Lorin, Aurélien; Voyer, Normand; Auger, Michèle

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated in the present study the effect of both non-selective and selective cationic 14-mer peptides on the lipid orientation of DMPC bilayers by (31)P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Depending on the position of substitution, these peptides adopt mainly either an α-helical structure able to permeabilize DMPC and DMPG vesicles (non-selective peptides) or an intermolecular β-sheet structure only able to permeabilize DMPG vesicles (selective peptides). Several systems have been investigated, namely bilayers mechanically oriented between glass plates as well as bicelles oriented with their normal perpendicular or parallel to the external magnetic field. The results have been compared with spectral simulations with the goal of elucidating the difference in the interaction of these two types of peptides with zwitterionic lipid bilayers. The results indicate that the perturbation induced by selective peptides is much greater than that induced by non-selective peptides in all the lipid systems investigated, and this perturbation has been associated to the aggregation of the selective β-sheet peptides in these systems. On the other hand, the oriented lipid spectra obtained in the presence of non-selective peptides suggest the presence of toroidal pores. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorescence and Förster resonance energy transfer investigations on DNA oligonucleotide and PAMAM dendrimer packing interactions in dendriplexes.

    PubMed

    Alajangi, Hema Kumari; Santhiya, Deenan

    2015-04-14

    Considering the importance of short oligonucleotide packing in dendriplex-mediated gene delivery, a direct insight into the 14-mer oligonucleotide and dendrimer interactions using fluorescence and FRET techniques is the focus of this study. Fluorometric titrations of various fluorophore-tagged oligonucleotides with the first three PAMAM dendrimer generations showed a decrease in the fluorescence intensity with two break points, namely Z and Z, for each titration. The first break point for each dendrimer was identical to the neutralization point observed by basic biophysical studies for the corresponding dendrimer generations. Additionally, FRET studies on dual tagged oligonucleotide (DFT) molecules revealed a third break point at the charge ratio (Z) where there was the highest fluorescence energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor fluorophores. Altogether, dendriplex formation was considered to take place via three steps with an increase in the dendrimer concentration, where initially there was monomeric complexation at the neutralization point (Z) followed by loosely held molecular aggregation of the dendrimer (Z). In the final step, dendrimer molecular aggregates were held tightly together for the closest possible packing of the oligonucleotide molecules onto their surface. The effective molecular packing is identified by the highest FRET intensity for the dendrimer of generation 2 at a charge ratio of 0.34 (Z±).

  15. Nanosecond Temperature Jump Relaxation Dynamics of Cyclic β-Hairpin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Maness, Shelia J.; Franzen, Stefan; Gibbs, Alan C.; Causgrove, Timothy P.; Dyer, R. Brian

    2003-01-01

    The thermal unfolding of a series of 6-, 10-, and 14-mer cyclic β-hairpin peptides was studied to gain insight into the mechanism of formation of this important secondary structure. The thermodynamics of the transition were characterized using temperature dependent Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermodynamic data were analyzed using a two-state model which indicates increasing cooperativity along the series. The relaxation kinetics of the peptides in response to a laser induced temperature jump were probed using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Single exponential relaxation kinetics were observed and fit with a two-state model. The folding rate determined for these cyclic peptides is accelerated by some two orders of magnitude over the rate of a linear peptide that forms a β-hairpin. This observation supports the argument that the rate limiting step in the linear system is either stabilization of compact collapsed structures or rearrangement of collapsed structures over a barrier to achieve the native interstrand registry. Small activation energies for folding of these peptides obtained from an Arrhenius analysis of the rates imply a primarily entropic barrier, hence an organized transition state having specific stabilizing interactions. PMID:12770893

  16. Quantitative analysis of the ion-dependent folding stability of DNA triplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengsheng; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-12-01

    A DNA triplex is formed through binding of a third strand to the major groove of a duplex. Due to the high charge density of a DNA triplex, metal ions are critical for its stability. We recently developed the tightly bound ion (TBI) model for ion-nucleic acids interactions. The model accounts for the potential correlation and fluctuations of the ion distribution. We now apply the TBI model to analyze the ion dependence of the thermodynamic stability for DNA triplexes. We focus on two experimentally studied systems: a 24-base DNA triplex and a pair of interacting 14-base triplexes. Our theoretical calculations for the number of bound ions indicate that the TBI model provides improved predictions for the number of bound ions than the classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. The improvement is more significant for a triplex, which has a higher charge density than a duplex. This is possibly due to the higher ion concentration around the triplex and hence a stronger ion correlation effect for a triplex. In addition, our analysis for the free energy landscape for a pair of 14-mer triplexes immersed in an ionic solution shows that divalent ions could induce an attractive force between the triplexes. Furthermore, we investigate how the protonated cytosines in the triplexes affect the stability of the triplex helices.

  17. Tuning the hydrophobicity of ruthenium(II)-arene (RAPTA) drugs to modify uptake, biomolecular interactions and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, Claudine; Chaplin, Adrian B; Hartinger, Christian G; Bergamo, Alberta; Cocchietto, Moreno; Keppler, Bernhard K; Sava, Gianni; Dyson, Paul J

    2007-11-21

    The antitumour activity of the organometallic ruthenium(ii)-arene mixed phosphine complexes, [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)Cl(PTA)(PPh(3))]BF(4) and [Ru(eta(6)-C(6)H(5)CH(2)CH(2)OH)Cl(PTA)(PPh(3))]BF(4) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane), have been evaluated in vitro and compared to their RAPTA analogues, [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)Cl(2)(PTA)] and [Ru(eta(6)-C(6)H(5)CH(2)CH(2)OH)Cl(2)(PTA)] . The results show that the addition of the PPh(3) ligand to increases the cytotoxicity towards the TS/A adenocarcinoma cancer cells, which correlates with increased uptake, but also increases cytotoxicity to non-tumourigenic HBL-100 cells, thus decreasing selectivity. The decrease in selectivity has been correlated to increased DNA interactions relative to proteins, demonstrated by reactivity of the compounds with a 14-mer oligonucleotide and the model proteins ubiquitin and cytochrome-c.

  18. Nucleotide-induced conformational changes of tetradecameric GroEL mapped by H/D exchange monitored by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Jin; Kuwajima, Kunihiro; Zhang, Hui-Min; Xian, Feng; Young, Nicolas L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Here we employ hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to access E. coli chaperonin GroEL conformation. The ~800 kDa tetradecameric GroEL plays an essential role in the proper folding of many proteins. Previous studies of the structural dynamics of GroEL upon ATP binding have been inconsistent, showing either minimal or major allosteric changes. Our results, based on the native, non-mutated, protein under physiological conditions in solution demonstrate substantial changes in conformation and/or flexibility upon ATP binding. We capture the pivotal step in its functional cycle by use of a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, ATPγS, to mimic the ATP-bound GroEL state. Comparison of HDX-MS results for apo GroEL and GroEL-ATPγS enables the characterization of the nucleotide-regulated conformational changes throughout the entire protein with high sequence resolution. The 14-mer GroEL complex is the largest protein assembly yet accessed by HDX-MS, with sequence resolution of segments of as few as five amino acids. PMID:23409238

  19. Tuning the size and properties of ClyA nanopores assisted by directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soskine, Misha; Biesemans, Annemie; De Maeyer, Marc; Maglia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Nanopores have recently emerged as powerful tools in single-molecule investigations. Biological nanopores however have drawbacks, including a fixed size and limited stability in lipid bilayers. Inspired by the great success of directed evolution approaches in tailoring enzymes properties, in this work we evolved Cytolysin A from Salmonella typhi (ClyA) to a high level of soluble expression and desired electrical properties in lipid bilayers. Evolved ClyA nanopores remained open up to −150 mV applied potential, which allowed the detailed characterization of folded proteins by ionic current recordings. Remarkably, we also found that ClyA forms several nanopore species; among which we could isolate and characterize three nanopore types most likely corresponding to the 12mer, 13mer and 14mer oligomeric forms of ClyA. The ability to employ nanopores with identical amino acid composition but different size is a new feature in the biological nanopore field. Our experiments show that sub-nanometer variations in the diameter of nanopores greatly affect the recognition of analyte proteins. PMID:23919630

  20. A temperature-jump NMR probe setup using rf heating optimized for the analysis of temperature-induced biomacromolecular kinetic processes.

    PubMed

    Rinnenthal, Jörg; Wagner, Dominic; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Krahn, Alexander; Engelke, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald

    2015-02-01

    A novel temperature jump (T-jump) probe operational at B(0) fields of 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) with an integrated cage radio-frequency (rf) coil for rapid (<1 s) heating in high-resolution (HR) liquid-state NMR-spectroscopy is presented and its performance investigated. The probe consists of an inner 2.5 mm "heating coil" designed for generating rf-electric fields of 190-220 MHz across a lossy dielectric sample and an outer two coil assembly for (1)H-, (2)H- and (15)N-nuclei. High B(0) field homogeneities (0.7 Hz at 600 MHz) are combined with high heating rates (20-25 K/s) and only small temperature gradients (<±1.5 K, 3s after 20 K T-jump). The heating coil is under control of a high power rf-amplifier within the NMR console and can therefore easily be accessed by the pulse programmer. Furthermore, implementation of a real-time setup including synchronization of the NMR spectrometer's air flow heater with the rf-heater used to maintain the temperature of the sample is described. Finally, the applicability of the real-time T-jump setup for the investigation of biomolecular kinetic processes in the second-to-minute timescale is demonstrated for samples of a model 14mer DNA hairpin and a (15)N-selectively labeled 40nt hsp17-RNA thermometer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Setting the chaperonin timer: The effects of K+ and substrate protein on ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Grason, John P.; Gresham, Jennifer S.; Widjaja, Lusiana; Wehri, Sarah C.; Lorimer, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of potassium ion on the nested allostery of GroEL are due to increases in the affinity for nucleotide. Both positive allosteric transitions, TT-TR and TR-RR, occur at lower [ATP] as [K+] is increased. Negative cooperativity in the double-ringed system is also due to an increase in the affinity of the trans ring for the product ADP as [K+] is increased. Consequently, (i) rates of ATP hydrolysis are inversely proportional to [K+] and (ii) the residence time of GroES bound to the cis ring is prolonged and the hemicycle time extended. Substrate protein suppresses negative cooperativity by decreasing the affinity of the trans ring for ADP, reducing the hemicycle time to a constant minimum. The trans ring thus serves as a variable timer. ATP added to the asymmetric GroEL-GroES resting-state complex lacking trans ring ADP is hydrolyzed in the newly formed cis ring with a presteady-state burst of ≈6 mol of Pi per mole of 14-mer. No burst is observed when the trans ring contains ADP. The amplitude and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the cis ring are independent of the presence or absence of encapsulated substrate protein and independent of K+ at concentrations where there are profound effects on the linear steady-state rate. The hydrolysis of ATP by the cis ring constitutes a second, nonvariable timer of the chaperonin cycle. PMID:18988745

  2. Setting the chaperonin timer: the effects of K+ and substrate protein on ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Grason, John P; Gresham, Jennifer S; Widjaja, Lusiana; Wehri, Sarah C; Lorimer, George H

    2008-11-11

    The effects of potassium ion on the nested allostery of GroEL are due to increases in the affinity for nucleotide. Both positive allosteric transitions, TT-TR and TR-RR, occur at lower [ATP] as [K(+)] is increased. Negative cooperativity in the double-ringed system is also due to an increase in the affinity of the trans ring for the product ADP as [K(+)] is increased. Consequently, (i) rates of ATP hydrolysis are inversely proportional to [K(+)] and (ii) the residence time of GroES bound to the cis ring is prolonged and the hemicycle time extended. Substrate protein suppresses negative cooperativity by decreasing the affinity of the trans ring for ADP, reducing the hemicycle time to a constant minimum. The trans ring thus serves as a variable timer. ATP added to the asymmetric GroEL-GroES resting-state complex lacking trans ring ADP is hydrolyzed in the newly formed cis ring with a presteady-state burst of approximately 6 mol of Pi per mole of 14-mer. No burst is observed when the trans ring contains ADP. The amplitude and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the cis ring are independent of the presence or absence of encapsulated substrate protein and independent of K(+) at concentrations where there are profound effects on the linear steady-state rate. The hydrolysis of ATP by the cis ring constitutes a second, nonvariable timer of the chaperonin cycle.

  3. A Test on Peptide Stability of AMBER Force Fields with Implicit Solvation

    PubMed Central

    Shell, M. Scott; Ritterson, Ryan; Dill, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    We used replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations to evaluate four different AMBER force fields and three different implicit solvent models. Our aim was to determine if these physics-based models captured the correct secondary structures of two α-helical and two β-peptides: the 14-mer EK helix of Baldwin and co-workers, the C-terminal helix of ribonuclease, the 16-mer C-terminal hairpin of protein G, and the trpzip2 miniprotein. The different models gave different results, but generally we found that AMBER ff96 plus the implicit solvent model of Onufriev, Bashford, and Case gave reasonable structures, and is fairly well-balanced between helix and sheet. We also observed differences in the strength of ion pairing in the solvent models, we but found that the native secondary structures were retained even when salt bridges were prevented in the conformational sampling. Overall, this work indicates that some of these all-atom physics-based force fields may be good starting points for protein folding and protein structure prediction. PMID:18471007

  4. Antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo of a salmon protamine peptide and its derived cyclic peptide against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Jun-Ichi; Cho, Tamaki; Mitarai, Makoto; Iohara, Keishi; Hayama, Kazumi; Abe, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yoshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Protamine peptide (PP) derived from salmon is a 14-mer with 10 arginine residues. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of PP against Candida albicans PP showed a concentration-dependent dual mode of action, with fungicidal activity and inhibitory activity for hyphal development in vitro. At lethal concentrations of PP, intracellular accumulation of PP was energy-dependent but independent of endocytosis, and resulted in ATP efflux and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells. PP at sublethal concentrations inhibited hyphal development in C. albicans by binding to the cell surface. Though antifungal activity of PP was inactivated by high concentrations of NaCl, the antifungal activity of the synthetic cyclic (via a disulfide bond) form of PP (cyclic PP) was not. Cyclic PP also showed the concentration-dependent dual mode of action, and had five-fold greater antifungal activity than PP. The advantage of antifungal activity of cyclic PP compared with PP in vitro resulted in a high in vivo efficacy in a murine oral candidiasis model. Oral treatment with cyclic PP inhibited hyphal development of C. albicans on mouse tongues and protected against the development of severe candidiasis. This study shows the therapeutic potential of cyclic PP as an antifungal peptide against C. albicans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Structure of a Conserved Retroviral RNA Packaging Element by NMR Spectroscopy and Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Tolbert, Blanton; Smalls-Mantey, Adjoa; Iyalla, Kilali; Loeliger, Kelsey; D’Souza, Victoria; Khant, Htet; Schmid, Michael F.; Garcia, Eric; Telesnitsky, Alice; Chiu, Wah; Summers, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) of all gammaretroviruses contain a conserved “double hairpin motif” (ΨCD) that is required for genome packaging. Both hairpins (SL-C and SL-D) contain GACG tetraloops that, in isolated RNAs, are capable of forming “kissing” interactions stabilized by two intermolecular G-C base pairs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the double hairpin from the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV) ([ΨCD]2, 132-nucleotides, 42.8 kDaltons) using a 2H-edited NMR spectroscopy-based approach. This approach enabled the detection of 1H-1H dipolar interactions that were not observed in previous studies of isolated SL-C and SL-D hairpin RNAs using traditional 1H-1H correlated and 1H-13C-edited NMR methods. The hairpins participate in intermolecular cross-kissing interactions (SL-C to SL-D’ and SLC’ to SL-D), and stack in an end-to-end manner (SL-C to SL-D and SL-C’ to SL-D’) that gives rise to an elongated overall shape (ca. 95 Å by 45 Å by 25 Å). The global structure was confirmed by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), making [ΨCD]2 simultaneously the smallest RNA to be structurally characterized to date by cryo-ET and among the largest to be determined by NMR. Our findings suggest that, in addition to promoting dimerization, [ΨCD]2 functions as a scaffold that helps initiate virus assembly by exposing a cluster of conserved UCUG elements for binding to the cognate nucleocapsid domains of assembling viral Gag proteins. PMID:20933521

  6. Guanosine 2-NH2 groups of Escherichia coli RNase P RNA involved in intramolecular tertiary contacts and direct interactions with tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Heide, C; Pfeiffer, T; Nolan, J M; Hartmann, R K

    1999-01-01

    We have identified by nucleotide analog interference mapping (NAIM) exocyclic NH2 groups of guanosines in RNase P RNA from Escherichia coli that are important for tRNA binding. The majority of affected guanosines represent phylogenetically conserved nucleotides. Several sites of interference could be assigned to direct contacts with the tRNA moiety, whereas others were interpreted as reflecting indirect effects on tRNA binding due to the disruption of tertiary contacts within the catalytic RNA. Our results support the involvement of the 2-NH2 groups of G292/G293 in pairing with C74 and C75 of tRNA CCA-termini, as well as formation of two consecutive base triples involving C75 and A76 of CCA-ends interacting with G292/A258 and G291/G259, respectively. Moreover, we present first biochemical evidence for two tertiary contacts (L18/P8 and L8/P4) within the catalytic RNA, whose formation has been postulated previously on the basis of phylogenetic comparative analyses. The tRNA binding interference data obtained in this and our previous studies are consistent with the formation of a consecutive nucleotide triple and quadruple between the tetraloop L18 and helix P8. Formation of the nucleotide triple (G316 and A94:U104 in wild-type E. coli RNase P RNA) is also supported by mutational analysis. For the mutant RNase P RNA carrying a G94:C104 double mutation, an additional G316-to-A mutation resulted in a restoration of binding affinity for mature and precursor tRNA. PMID:9917070

  7. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5′-NNCCAC-3′ and 5′-GCGMGN′N′-3′ (M:A or C; N and N′ form Watson–Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:23709277

  8. Structural fidelity and NMR relaxation analysis in a prototype RNA hairpin.

    PubMed

    Giambaşu, George M; York, Darrin M; Case, David A

    2015-05-01

    RNA hairpins are widespread and very stable motifs that contribute decisively to RNA folding and biological function. The GTP1G2C3A4C5U6U7C8G9G10U11G12C13C14 construct (with a central UUCG tetraloop) has been extensively studied by solution NMR, and offers and excellent opportunity to evaluate the structure and dynamical description afforded by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here, we compare average structural parameters and NMR relaxation rates estimated from a series of multiple independent explicit solvent MD simulations using the two most recent RNA AMBER force fields (ff99 and ff10). Predicted overall tumbling times are ∼20% faster than those inferred from analysis of NMR data and follow the same trend when temperature and ionic strength is varied. The Watson-Crick stem and the "canonical" UUCG loop structure are maintained in most simulations including the characteristic syn conformation along the glycosidic bond of G9, although some key hydrogen bonds in the loop are partially disrupted. Our analysis pinpoints G9-G10 backbone conformations as a locus of discrepancies between experiment and simulation. In general the results for the more recent force-field parameters (ff10) are closer to experiment than those for the older ones (ff99). This work provides a comprehensive and detailed comparison of state of the art MD simulations against a wide variety of solution NMR measurements. © 2015 Giambaşu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Microsecond-Scale MD Simulations of HIV-1 DIS Kissing-Loop Complexes Predict Bulged-In Conformation of the Bulged Bases and Reveal Interesting Differences between Available Variants of the AMBER RNA Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Havrila, Marek; Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Banáš, Pavel; Krepl, Miroslav; Otyepka, Michal; Šponer, Jiří

    2015-12-10

    We report an extensive set of explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (∼25 μs of accumulated simulation time) of the RNA kissing-loop complex of the HIV-1 virus initiation dimerization site. Despite many structural investigations by X-ray, NMR, and MD techniques, the position of the bulged purines of the kissing complex has not been unambiguously resolved. The X-ray structures consistently show bulged-out positions of the unpaired bases, while several NMR studies show bulged-in conformations. The NMR studies are, however, mutually inconsistent regarding the exact orientations of the bases. The earlier simulation studies predicted the bulged-out conformation; however, this finding could have been biased by the short simulation time scales. Our microsecond-long simulations reveal that all unpaired bases of the kissing-loop complex stay preferably in the interior of the kissing-loop complex. The MD results are discussed in the context of the available experimental data and we suggest that both conformations are biochemically relevant. We also show that MD provides a quite satisfactory description of this RNA system, contrasting recent reports of unsatisfactory performance of the RNA force fields for smaller systems such as tetranucleotides and tetraloops. We explain this by the fact that the kissing complex is primarily stabilized by an extensive network of Watson-Crick interactions which are rather well described by the force fields. We tested several different sets of water/ion parameters but they all lead to consistent results. However, we demonstrate that a recently suggested modification of van der Waals interactions of the Cornell et al. force field deteriorates the description of the kissing complex by the loss of key stacking interactions stabilizing the interhelical junction and excessive hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  10. The two faces of the Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA sarcin/ricin domain: the structure at 1.11 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Correll, C C; Wool, I G; Munishkin, A

    1999-09-17

    The sarcin/ricin domain of 23 S - 28 S ribosomal RNA is essential for protein synthesis because it forms a critical part of the binding site for elongation factors. A crystal structure of an RNA of 27 nucleotides that mimics the domain in Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA was determined at 1.11 A resolution. The domain folds into a hairpin distorted by four non-canonical base-pairs and one base triple. The fold is stabilized by cross-strand and intra-stand stacking; no intramolecular stabilizing metal ions are observed. This is the first structure to reveal in great detail the geometry and the hydration of two common motifs that are conserved in this rRNA domain, a GAGA tetraloop and a G-bulged cross-strand A stack. Differences in the region connecting these motifs to the stem in the E. coli and in the rat sarcin/ricin domains may contribute to the species-specific binding of elongation factors. Correlation of nucleotide protection data with the structure indicates that the domain has two surfaces. One surface is accessible, lies primarily in the major groove, and is likely to bind the elongation factors. The second lies primarily in the minor groove, and is likely to be buried in the ribosome. This minor groove surface includes the Watson-Crick faces of the cytosine bases in the unusual A2654.C2666 and U2653.C2667 water-mediated base-pairs. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Analysis of stacking overlap in nucleic acid structures: algorithm and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingali, Pavan Kumar; Halder, Sukanya; Mukherjee, Debasish; Basu, Sankar; Banerjee, Rahul; Choudhury, Devapriya; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-08-01

    RNA contains different secondary structural motifs like pseudo-helices, hairpin loops, internal loops, etc. in addition to anti-parallel double helices and random coils. The secondary structures are mainly stabilized by base-pairing and stacking interactions between the planar aromatic bases. The hydrogen bonding strength and geometries of base pairs are characterized by six intra-base pair parameters. Similarly, stacking can be represented by six local doublet parameters. These dinucleotide step parameters can describe the quality of stacking between Watson-Crick base pairs very effectively. However, it is quite difficult to understand the stacking pattern for dinucleotides consisting of non canonical base pairs from these parameters. Stacking interaction is a manifestation of the interaction between two aromatic bases or base pairs and thus can be estimated best by the overlap area between the planar aromatic moieties. We have calculated base pair overlap between two consecutive base pairs as the buried van der Waals surface between them. In general, overlap values show normal distribution for the Watson-Crick base pairs in most double helices within a range from 45 to 50 Å2 irrespective of base sequence. The dinucleotide steps with non-canonical base pairs also are seen to have high overlap value, although their twist and few other parameters are rather unusual. We have analyzed hairpin loops of different length, bulges within double helical structures and pseudo-continuous helices using our algorithm. The overlap area analyses indicate good stacking between few looped out bases especially in GNRA tetraloop, which was difficult to quantitatively characterise from analysis of the base pair or dinucleotide step parameters. This parameter is also seen to be capable to distinguish pseudo-continuous helices from kinked helix junctions.

  12. Comparative structural effects of HIV-1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins in binding to and unwinding of the viral RNA packaging signal.

    PubMed

    Bell, Neil M; Kenyon, Julia C; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Lever, Andrew M L

    2012-04-17

    The major RNA binding region of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein is the nucleocapsid (NC) domain, which is responsible for the specific capture of the genomic RNA genome during viral assembly. The Gag polyprotein has other RNA chaperone functions, which are mirrored by the isolated NC protein after physiological cleavage from Gag. Gag, however, is suggested to have superior nucleic acid chaperone activity. Here we investigate the interaction of Gag and NC with the core RNA structure of the HIV-1 packaging signal (Ψ), using 2-aminopurine substitution to create a series of modified RNAs based on the Ψ helix loop structure. The effects of 2-aminopurine substitution on the physical and structural properties of the viral Ψ were characterized. The fluorescence properties of the 2-aminopurine substitutions showed features consistent with the native GNAR tetraloop. Dissociation constants (K(d)) of the two viral proteins, measured by fluorescence polarization (FP), were similar, and both NC and Gag affected the 2-aminopurine fluorescence of bases close to the loop binding region in a similar fashion. However, the influence of Gag on the fluorescence of the 2-aminopurine nucleotides at the base of the helix implied a much more potent helix destabilizing action on the RNA stem loop (SL) versus that seen with NC. This was further supported when the viral Ψ SL was tagged with a 5' fluorophore and 3' quencher. In the absence of any viral protein, minimal fluorescence was detected; addition of NC yielded a slight increase in fluorescence, while addition of the Gag protein yielded a large change in fluorescence, further suggesting that, compared to NC, the Gag protein has a greater propensity to affect RNA structure and that Ψ helix unwinding may be an intrinsic step in RNA encapsidation.

  13. The influence of monovalent cation size on the stability of RNA tertiary structures

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Dominic; Leipply, Desirae; Shiman, Ross; Draper, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Many RNA tertiary structures are stable in the presence of monovalent ions alone. To evaluate the degree to which ions at or near the surfaces of such RNAs contribute to stability, the salt-dependent stabilities of a variety of RNA structures were measured with each of the five group I cations. The stabilities of hairpin secondary structures and a pseudoknot tertiary structure are insensitive to the ion identity, but the tertiary structures of two other RNAs, an adenine riboswitch and a kissing loop complex, become more stable by 2-3 kcal/mol as ion size decreases. This “default” trend is attributed to the ability of smaller ions to approach the RNA surface more closely. The degree of cation accumulation around the kissing loop complex was also inversely proportional to ion radius, perhaps because of the presence of sterically restricted pockets that can be accessed only by smaller ions. An RNA containing the tetraloop-receptor motif shows a strong (up to ∼3 kcal/mol) preference for Na+ or K+ over other group I ions, consistent with the chelation of K+ by this motif in some crystal structures. This RNA reverts to the “default” dependence on ion size when a base forming part of the chelation site is mutated. Lastly, an RNA aptamer for cobinamide, which was originally selected in the presence of high LiCl concentrations, binds ligand more strongly in the presence of Li+ than other monovalent ions. Based on these trends in RNA stability with group I ion size, it is argued that two features of RNA tertiary structures may promote strong interactions with ions at or near the RNA surface: negative charge densities that are higher than found in secondary structures, and the occasional presence of chelation sites, electronegative pockets that selectively bind ions of an optimum size. PMID:19427322

  14. Kinetic Analysis of δ Ribozyme Cleavage†

    PubMed Central

    Mercure, Stéphane; Lafontaine, Daniel; Ananvoranich, Sirinart; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The ability of δ ribozyme to catalyze the cleavage of an 11-mer RNA substrate was examined under both single- and multiple-turnover conditions. In both cases only small differences in the kinetic parameters were observed in the presence of either magnesium or calcium as cofactor. Under multiple-turnover conditions, the catalytic efficiency of the ribozyme (kcat/KM) was higher at 37 °C than at 56 °C. The cleavage reaction seems to be limited by the product release step at 37 °C and by the chemical cleavage step at 56 °C. We observed substrate inhibition at high concentrations of the 11-mer substrate. Cleavage rate constants were determined with a structural derivative characterized by an ultrastable L4 tetraloop. The kinetic parameters (kcat and KM) and dissociation constant (Kd) were almost identical for both ribozymes, suggesting that the stability of the L4 loop has a negligible impact on the catalytic activities of the examined ribozymes. Various cleavage inhibition and gel-shift assays with analogues, substrate, and both active and inactive ribozymes were performed. The 2′-hydroxyl group adjacent to the scissile phosphate was shown to be involved in binding with the ribozyme, while the essential cytosine residue of the J4/2 junction was shown to contribute to substrate association. We clearly show that substrate binding to the δ ribozyme is not restricted to the formation of a helix located downstream of the cleavage site. Using these results, we postulate a kinetic pathway involving a conformational transition step essential for the formation of the active ribozyme/substrate complex. PMID:9836591

  15. Molecular recognition of DNA by ligands: Roughness and complexity of the free energy profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenwei; Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Carloni, Paolo; Clementi, Cecilia

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism by which probes and chemotherapeutic agents bind to nucleic acids is a fundamental issue in modern drug design. From a computational perspective, valuable insights are gained by the estimation of free energy landscapes as a function of some collective variables (CVs), which are associated with the molecular recognition event. Unfortunately the choice of CVs is highly non-trivial because of DNA's high flexibility and the presence of multiple association-dissociation events at different locations and/or sliding within the grooves. Here we have applied a modified version of Locally-Scaled Diffusion Map (LSDMap), a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique for decoupling multiple-timescale dynamics in macromolecular systems, to a metadynamics-based free energy landscape calculated using a set of intuitive CVs. We investigated the binding of the organic drug anthramycin to a DNA 14-mer duplex. By performing an extensive set of metadynamics simulations, we observed sliding of anthramycin along the full-length DNA minor groove, as well as several detachments from multiple sites, including the one identified by X-ray crystallography. As in the case of equilibrium processes, the LSDMap analysis is able to extract the most relevant collective motions, which are associated with the slow processes within the system, i.e., ligand diffusion along the minor groove and dissociation from it. Thus, LSDMap in combination with metadynamics (and possibly every equivalent method) emerges as a powerful method to describe the energetics of ligand binding to DNA without resorting to intuitive ad hoc reaction coordinates.

  16. CENP-B box and pJalpha sequence distribution in human alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR).

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Vladimir; Basar, Ivan; Gluncić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Pilas, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Using our Key String Algorithm (KSA) to analyze Build 35.1 assembly we determined consensus alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR) and consensus distributions of CENP-B box and pJalpha motif in human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 19, and X. We determined new suprachromosomal family (SF) assignments: SF5 for 13mer (2211 bp), SF5 for 13mer (2214 bp), SF2 for 11mer (1869 bp), SF1 for 18mer (3058 bp), SF3 for 12mer (2047 bp), SF3 for 14mer (2379 bp), and SF5 for 17mer (2896 bp) in chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 19, respectively. In chromosome 5 we identified SF5 13mer without any CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, highly homologous (96%) to 13mer in chromosome 19. Additionally, in chromosome 19 we identified new SF5 17mer with one CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, aligned to 13mer by deleting four monomers. In chromosome 11 we identified SF3 12mer, homologous to 12mer in chromosome X. In chromosome 10 we identified new SF1 18mer with eight CENP-B boxes in every other monomer (except one). In chromosome 4 we identified new SF5 13mer with CENP-B box in three consecutive monomers. We found four exceptions to the rule that CENP-B box belongs to type B and pJalpha motif to type A monomers.

  17. Optimizing macromolecular tandem mass spectrometry of large non-covalent complexes using heavy collision gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, Kristina; Versluis, Cees; van Duijn, Esther; van den Heuvel, Robert H. H.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated and optimized conditions for tandem mass spectrometry on macromolecular protein complexes, using a modified Q-ToF instrument varying the gas pressure inside the hexapole collision cell, and studied the influence of using different collision gases, e.g. argon, krypton and xenon. These variations affected ion transmission through the instrument and dissociation efficiency In particular the high mass fragment ions were generated more readily and transmitted more efficiently using the heavier xenon as collision gas. We used the 800 kDa GroEL 14-mer chaperone machinery for these initial studies. Applying the optimized tandem mass spectrometry conditions, i.e. relatively high pressures and xenon as collision gas, we studied in detail the influence the binding of one and two gp5 substrate proteins had on the gas-phase dissociation of the chaperonin complex constructing break-down diagrams. We observed that the binding of substrate polypeptides had a significant effect on the gas-phase stability of the chaperonin complex, with the complex containing one and two substrate molecules being less susceptible towards dissociation than the substrate free GroEL. Interestingly, the GroEL:gp5 and GroEL:(gp5)2 complexes dissociate exclusively via the elimination of GroEL monomeric ions, indicating that both gp5 substrates are likely encapsulated inside the two cavities of, respectively, the cis and trans ring of the GroEL. From all data acquired, we conclude that the heavier xenon is the preferred collision gas for tandem mass spectrometry on very large macromolecular complexes.

  18. Predicted Coverage and Immuno-Safety of a Recombinant C-Repeat Region Based Streptococcus pyogenes Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    McNeilly, Celia; Cosh, Samantha; Vu, Therese; Nichols, Jemma; Henningham, Anna; Hofmann, Andreas; Fane, Anne; Smeesters, Pierre R.; Rush, Catherine M.; Hafner, Louise M.; Ketheesan, Natkuman; Sriprakash, Kadaba S.; McMillan, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the M-protein of Streptococcus pyogenes is a major target for vaccine development. The major feature is the C-repeat region, consisting of 35–42 amino acid repeat units that display high but not perfect identity. SV1 is a S. pyogenes vaccine candidate that incorporates five 14mer amino acid sequences (called J14i variants) from differing C-repeat units in a single recombinant construct. Here we show that the J14i variants chosen for inclusion in SV1 are the most common variants in a dataset of 176 unique M-proteins. Murine antibodies raised against SV1 were shown to bind to each of the J14i variants present in SV1, as well as variants not present in the vaccine. Antibodies raised to the individual J14i variants were also shown to bind to multiple but different combinations of J14i variants, supporting the underlying rationale for the design of SV1. A Lewis Rat Model of valvulitis was then used to assess the capacity of SV1 to induce deleterious immune response associated with rheumatic heart disease. In this model, both SV1 and the M5 positive control protein were immunogenic. Neither of these antibodies were cross-reactive with cardiac myosin or collagen. Splenic T cells from SV1/CFA and SV1/alum immunized rats did not proliferate in response to cardiac myosin or collagen. Subsequent histological examination of heart tissue showed that 4 of 5 mice from the M5/CFA group had valvulitis and inflammatory cell infiltration into valvular tissue, whereas mice immunised with SV1/CFA, SV1/alum showed no sign of valvulitis. These results suggest that SV1 is a safe vaccine candidate that will elicit antibodies that recognise the vast majority of circulating GAS M-types. PMID:27310707

  19. Use of Base Modifications in Primers and Amplicons to Improve Nucleic Acids Detection in the Real-Time Snake Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The addition of relatively short flap sequence at the 5′-end of one of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers considerably improves performance of real-time assays based on 5′-nuclease activity. This new technology, called Snake, was shown to supersede the conventional methods like TaqMan, Molecular Beacons, and Scorpions in the signal productivity and discrimination of target polymorphic variations as small as single nucleotides. The present article describes a number of reaction conditions and methods that allow further improvement of the assay performance. One of the identified approaches is the use of duplex-destabilizing modifications such as deoxyinosine and deoxyuridine in the design of the Snake primers. This approach was shown to solve the most serious problem associated with the antisense amplicon folding and cleavage. As a result, the method permits the use of relatively long—in this study—14-mer flap sequences. Investigation also revealed that only the 5′-segment of the flap requires the deoxyinosine/deoxyuridine destabilization, whereas the 3′-segment is preferably left unmodified or even stabilized using 2-amino deoxyadenosine d(2-amA) and 5-propynyl deoxyuridine d(5-PrU) modifications. The base-modification technique is especially effective when applied in combination with asymmetric three-step PCR. The most valuable discovery of the present study is the effective application of modified deoxynucleoside 5′-triphosphates d(2-amA)TP and d(5-PrU)TP in Snake PCR. This method made possible the use of very short 6-8-mer 5′-flap sequences in Snake primers. PMID:21050073

  20. Evidence of Liquid Crystal-Assisted Abiotic Ligation of Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Rimoldi, Valeria; Clark, Noel A.; Bellini, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of early life must have been marked by the appearance in the prebiotic era of complex molecular structures and systems, motivating the investigation of conditions that could not only facilitate appropriate chemical synthesis, but also provide the mechanisms of molecular selection and structural templating necessary to pilot the complexification toward specific molecular patterns. We recently proposed and demonstrated that these functions could be afforded by the spontaneous ordering of ultrashort nucleic acids oligomers into Liquid Crystal (LC) phases. In such supramolecular assemblies, duplex-forming oligomers are held in average end-to-end contact to form chemically discontinuous but physically continuous double helices. Using blunt ended duplexes, we found that LC formation could both provide molecular selection mechanisms and boost inter-oligomer ligation. This paper provides an essential extension to this notion by investigating the catalytic effects of LC ordering in duplexes with mutually interacting overhangs. Specifically, we studied the influence of LC ordering of 5'-hydroxy-3'-phosphate partially self-complementary DNA 14mers with 3'-CG sticky-ends, on the efficiency of non-enzymatic ligation reaction induced by water-soluble carbodiimide EDC as condensing agent. We investigated the ligation products in mixtures of DNA with poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) at three PEG concentrations at which the system phase separates creating DNA-rich droplets that organize into isotropic, nematic LC and columnar LC phases. We observe remarkable LC-enhanced chain lengthening, and we demonstrate that such lengthening effectively promotes and stabilizes LC domains, providing the kernel of a positive feedback cycle by which LC ordering promotes elongation, in turn stabilizing the LC ordering.

  1. Antioxidant and antityrosinase proanthocyanidins from Polyalthia longifolia leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Liang, Ge; Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Han-Tao; Shi, Yan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study the structure of proanthocyanidins from Polyalthia longifolia leaves was characterized with (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses. The results showed that the proanthocyanidins were mixture of homopolymers of B-type procyanidins with degree of polymerization up to 14-mer. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the proanthocyanidins was studied through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free-radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays. In addition, antityrosinase activity of the proanthocyanidins was investigated. The IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free-radical scavenging activity of the proanthocyanidins were 89.32 ± 12.07 and 76.79 ± 5.88 μg/mL, respectively; the ferric reducing/antioxidant power value was 710.54 ± 142.82 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry weight. The IC50 for antityrosinase activity was 773.09 ± 1.47 μg/mL. In conclusion, the proanthocyanidins from P. longifolia leaves exhibited potent antioxidant and antityrosinase activities. This research would provide scientific evidence for the use of proanthocyanidins from P. longifolia leaves as antioxidant and antityrosinase agents.

  2. The small peptide OGP(10-14) reduces proliferation and induces differentiation of TPO-primed M07-e cells through RhoA/TGFβ1/SFK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Battolla, Barbara; Bernardini, Nunzia; Petrini, Mario; Mattii, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) is a 14-mer peptide found in relevant concentration in blood, and its carboxy-terminal fragment [OGP(10-14)] represents the active portion of the full-length peptide. In addition to stimulating bone formation, OGP(10-14) shows hematological activity. In fact, it highly enhances hematopoiesis-affecting stem progenitors. Moreover, OGP(10-14) reduces the growth and induces the differentiation of the hematological tumour cell line trombophoietin(TPO)-primed M07-e by interfering with RhoA and Src kinase pathways. In the present report, we went deeper into this mechanism and evaluated the possible interference of the OGP(10-14) signal pathway with TGFβ1 and TPO receptor Mpl. Material/Methods In OGP(10-14)-treated M07-e cells cultured with or without RhoA and Src kinases inhibitors (C3 and PP2), expression of TGFβ1, Mpl, and Src kinases was analyzed by immunoperoxidase technique. Activated RhoA expression was studied using the G-LISA™ quantitative test. Results In M07-e cells, both OGP(10-14) and PP2 activate RhoA, inhibit Src kinases, reduce Mpl expression and increase TGFβ1 expression. OGP(10-14) and PP2 show the same behavior, causing an additive effect when associated. Conclusions OGP(10-14) induces TPO-primed M07-e cells differentiation through RhoA/TGFβ1/SFKs signalling pathway. In particular OGP(10-14) acts as a Src inhibitor, showing the same effects of PP2. PMID:21169922

  3. Solution NMR characterization of chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 monomer and dimer binding to glycosaminoglycans: structural plasticity mediates differential binding interactions.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Prem Raj B; Mosier, Philip D; Desai, Umesh R; Rajarathnam, Krishna

    2015-11-15

    Chemokine CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a crucial role in directing neutrophils and oligodendrocytes to combat infection/injury and tumour cells in metastasis development. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers and interaction of both forms with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate these diverse cellular processes. However, very little is known regarding the structural basis underlying CXCL8-GAG interactions. There are conflicting reports on the affinities, geometry and whether the monomer or dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. To resolve these issues, we characterized the binding of a series of heparin-derived oligosaccharides [heparin disaccharide (dp2), heparin tetrasaccharide (dp4), heparin octasaccharide (dp8) and heparin 14-mer (dp14)] to the wild-type (WT) dimer and a designed monomer using solution NMR spectroscopy. The pattern and extent of binding-induced chemical shift perturbation (CSP) varied between dimer and monomer and between longer and shorter oligosaccharides. NMR-based structural models show that different interaction modes coexist and that the nature of interactions varied between monomer and dimer and oligosaccharide length. MD simulations indicate that the binding interface is structurally plastic and provided residue-specific details of the dynamic nature of the binding interface. Binding studies carried out under conditions at which WT CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers provide unambiguous evidence that the dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. Together, our data indicate that a set of core residues function as the major recognition/binding site, a set of peripheral residues define the various binding geometries and that the structural plasticity of the binding interface allows multiplicity of binding interactions. We conclude that structural plasticity most probably regulates in vivo CXCL8 monomer/dimer-GAG interactions and function.

  4. Host defense peptides in skin secretions of Odorrana tiannanensis: Proof for other survival strategy of the frog than merely anti-microbial.

    PubMed

    He, Weiyu; Feng, Feifei; Huang, Yong; Guo, Huanhuan; Zhang, Songyan; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2012-03-01

    Genus Odorrana, among all amphibians studied, is generally reported to have the most abundant and diversified anti-microbial peptides even from a single individual frog. In our previous work, 46 cDNA sequences encoding precursors of 22 different anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) were characterized from the skin of frog, Odorrana tiannanensis. In this work, we reported the purification of three AMPs from skin secretions of O. tiannanensis. Their amino acid sequences matched well with the sequences deduced from cDNAs and they were designated as Odorranain-C7HSa, Brevinin-1-OT2 and Odorranain-G-OT, respectively. Furthermore, we selected to analyze the four most structurally diversified sequences among the 22 AMPs that are significantly different from all reported AMPs. By structural characterization, three of them were designated as pleurain-E-OT, odorranain-G-OT, odorranain-A-OT, belonging to AMP families already identified. The forth one with a unique 14-mer sequence of AILTTLANWARKFLa and C-terminal amidation represents the prototypes of a new class of amphibian AMP, and thereby named tiannanensin. Such broad diversity in sequences and structures are consistent with other species in Genus Odorrana. Multi-functions of the synthesized four special AMPs were screened, including anti-microbial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities. The results suggest that these AMPs may employ sophisticated mechanisms of action in host defense in addition to anti-microbial, although their precise contribution to host defense still seems unclear. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Assembly and Structure of alpha-helical Peptide Films on Hydrophobic Fluorocarbon Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, T.; Samual, N; McCrea, K; Gamble, L; Ward, R; Castner, D

    2010-01-01

    The structure, orientation, and formation of amphiphilic {alpha}-helix model peptide films on fluorocarbon surfaces has been monitored with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The {alpha}-helix peptide is a 14-mer of hydrophilic lysine and hydrophobic leucine residues with a hydrophobic periodicity of 3.5. This periodicity yields a rigid amphiphilic peptide with leucine and lysine side chains located on opposite sides. XPS composition analysis confirms the formation of a peptide film that covers about 75% of the surface. NEXAFS data are consistent with chemically intact adsorption of the peptides. A weak linear dichroism of the amide {pi}* is likely due to the broad distribution of amide bond orientations inherent to the {alpha}-helical secondary structure. SFG spectra exhibit strong peaks near 2865 and 2935 cm{sup -1} related to aligned leucine side chains interacting with the hydrophobic surface. Water modes near 3200 and 3400 cm{sup -1} indicate ordering of water molecules in the adsorbed-peptide fluorocarbon surface interfacial region. Amide I peaks observed near 1655 cm{sup -1} confirm that the secondary structure is preserved in the adsorbed peptide. A kinetic study of the film formation process using XPS and SFG showed rapid adsorption of the peptides followed by a longer assembly process. Peptide SFG spectra taken at the air-buffer interface showed features related to well-ordered peptide films. Moving samples through the buffer surface led to the transfer of ordered peptide films onto the substrates.

  6. Phosphatidylserine: A cancer cell targeting biomarker.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhupender; Kanwar, Shamsher S

    2017-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Many prominent cancer-associated molecules have been identified over the recent years which include EGFR, CD44, TGFbRII, HER2, miR-497, NMP22, BTA, Fibrin/FDP etc. These biomarkers are often used for screening, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction and monitoring of cancer development. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an essential component in all human cells which is present on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. The oxidative stress causes exposure of PS on the surface of the vascular endothelium in the cancer cells (lung, breast, pancreatic, bladder, skin, brain metastasis, rectal adenocarcinoma etc.) but not on the normal cells. The external PS is regulated by calcium-dependent flippase activity. Cancer cell lines with high surface PS have low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium content. Human Annexin-V, PS targeting antibodies (PGN635 and bavituximab and mch1N11), lysosomal protein, phospholipid Saposin C dioleoylphosphatidylserine (SapC-DOPS), peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1, PS-binding 14-mer peptide (PSBP-6) and hexapeptide (E3) have been reported to target PS present on cancer cell surface. High expression of CD47 inhibits tumor cell phagocytosis by macrophages. The PS cancer biomarker has also been used to target the drugs to cancer cells specifically without affecting other healthy cells. Currently, the fusion protein (FP) consisting of L-methionase linked to human Annexin-V has been reported to target the cancer cells. The FP catalyzes the conversion of non-toxic prodrug selenomethionine into toxic methyl selenol which thus also prevents the methionine (essential amino acid) supplementation to the cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of liquid crystal-assisted abiotic ligation of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fraccia, Tommaso P; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Rimoldi, Valeria; Clark, Noel A; Bellini, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of early life must have been marked by the appearance in the prebiotic era of complex molecular structures and systems, motivating the investigation of conditions that could not only facilitate appropriate chemical synthesis, but also provide the mechanisms of molecular selection and structural templating necessary to pilot the complexification toward specific molecular patterns. We recently proposed and demonstrated that these functions could be afforded by the spontaneous ordering of ultrashort nucleic acids oligomers into Liquid Crystal (LC) phases. In such supramolecular assemblies, duplex-forming oligomers are held in average end-to-end contact to form chemically discontinuous but physically continuous double helices. Using blunt ended duplexes, we found that LC formation could both provide molecular selection mechanisms and boost inter-oligomer ligation. This paper provides an essential extension to this notion by investigating the catalytic effects of LC ordering in duplexes with mutually interacting overhangs. Specifically, we studied the influence of LC ordering of 5'-hydroxy-3'-phosphate partially self-complementary DNA 14mers with 3'-CG sticky-ends, on the efficiency of non-enzymatic ligation reaction induced by water-soluble carbodiimide EDC as condensing agent. We investigated the ligation products in mixtures of DNA with poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) at three PEG concentrations at which the system phase separates creating DNA-rich droplets that organize into isotropic, nematic LC and columnar LC phases. We observe remarkable LC-enhanced chain lengthening, and we demonstrate that such lengthening effectively promotes and stabilizes LC domains, providing the kernel of a positive feedback cycle by which LC ordering promotes elongation, in turn stabilizing the LC ordering.

  8. Molecular recognition of DNA by ligands: roughness and complexity of the free energy profile.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwei; Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Vargiu, Attlio Vittorio; Rohrdanz, Mary A; Carloni, Paolo; Clementi, Cecilia

    2013-10-14

    Understanding the molecular mechanism by which probes and chemotherapeutic agents bind to nucleic acids is a fundamental issue in modern drug design. From a computational perspective, valuable insights are gained by the estimation of free energy landscapes as a function of some collective variables (CVs), which are associated with the molecular recognition event. Unfortunately the choice of CVs is highly non-trivial because of DNA's high flexibility and the presence of multiple association-dissociation events at different locations and/or sliding within the grooves. Here we have applied a modified version of Locally-Scaled Diffusion Map (LSDMap), a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique for decoupling multiple-timescale dynamics in macromolecular systems, to a metadynamics-based free energy landscape calculated using a set of intuitive CVs. We investigated the binding of the organic drug anthramycin to a DNA 14-mer duplex. By performing an extensive set of metadynamics simulations, we observed sliding of anthramycin along the full-length DNA minor groove, as well as several detachments from multiple sites, including the one identified by X-ray crystallography. As in the case of equilibrium processes, the LSDMap analysis is able to extract the most relevant collective motions, which are associated with the slow processes within the system, i.e., ligand diffusion along the minor groove and dissociation from it. Thus, LSDMap in combination with metadynamics (and possibly every equivalent method) emerges as a powerful method to describe the energetics of ligand binding to DNA without resorting to intuitive ad hoc reaction coordinates.

  9. Thrombin induces increased expression and secretion of VEGF from human FS4 fibroblasts, DU145 prostate cells and CHRF megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Q; Li, J J; Hu, L; Lee, M; Karpatkin, S

    2001-10-01

    Angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and metastasis. It has recently been suggested that thrombin is a potent promoter of angiogenesis. We therefore examined the possibility that thrombin could be inducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes endothelial growth. Primary human FS4 fibroblasts as well as tumor cell lines: prostate DU145 and megakaryocyte CHRF were incubated with thrombin (0.25-1 unit/ml) for 1-8 hrs and then examined for mRNA by Northern Analysis. Enhanced mRNA (approximately 3-4 fold over base line) was noted at 2-4 hrs, with 0.5 u/ml thrombin. The effect was specific for thrombin activity on its PAR-1 receptor, since equal units of hirudin completely inhibited the response and the thrombin effect could be mimicked with the 14 mer thrombin receptor activation peptide (TRAP). Upregulation of mRNA was associated with enhanced VEGF protein synthesis and secretion as assayed by immunoblot. Enhanced expression of VEGF mRNA was not secondary to enhanced transcription (nuclear run on experiments), but due to an >3 fold stabilization of mRNA (Actinomycin D chase experiment). Enhanced VEGF mRNA stabilization is promoted by the PI3Kinase and serine/threonine kinase pathways, since thrombin-induced mRNA expression is inhibited by Wortmanin and H7. No effect was noted with the MAPKinase inhibitor, PD98059. Thus, thrombin-induced tumorigenesis and metastasis is associated with enhanced VEGF protein synthesis and secretion via the stabilization of VEGF mRNA promoted by the PI3Kinase and serine/threonine kinase pathways. This could help explain how thrombin promotes angiogenesis.

  10. Phosphorothioate 2' deoxyribose oligomers as microbicides that inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and block Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 triggering by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Fraietta, Joseph A; Mueller, Yvonne M; Do, Duc H; Holmes, Veronica M; Howett, Mary K; Lewis, Mark G; Boesteanu, Alina C; Alkan, Sefik S; Katsikis, Peter D

    2010-10-01

    Topical microbicides may prove to be an important strategy for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. We examined the safety and efficacy of sequence-nonspecific phosphorothioate 2' deoxyribose oligomers as potential novel microbicides. A short, 13-mer poly(T) phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (OPB-T) significantly inhibited infection of primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by high-titer HIV-1(Ba-L) and simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIV(mac251)). Continuous exposure of human vaginal and foreskin tissue explants to OPB-T showed no toxicity. An abasic 14-mer phosphorothioate 2' deoxyribose backbone (PDB) demonstrated enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity relative to OPB-T and other homo-oligodeoxynucleotide analogs. When PDB was used to pretreat HIV-1, PDB was effective against R5 and X4 isolates at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of <1 μM in both PBMC and P4-R5 MAGI cell infections. PDB also reduced HIV-1 infectivity following the binding of virus to target cells. This novel topical microbicide candidate exhibited an excellent in vitro safety profile in human PBMC and endocervical epithelial cells. PDB also retained activity in hydroxyethylcellulose gel at pH 4.4 and after transition to a neutral pH and was stable in this formulation for 30 days at room temperature. Furthermore, the compound displayed potent antiviral activity following incubation with a Lactobacillus strain derived from normal vaginal flora. Most importantly, PDB can inhibit HIV-1-induced alpha interferon production. Phosphorothioate 2' deoxyribose oligomers may therefore be promising microbicide candidates that inhibit HIV-1 infection and also dampen the inflammation which is critical for the initial spread of the virus.

  11. Activity of purified hepatitis C virus protease NS3 on peptide substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Steinkühler, C; Urbani, A; Tomei, L; Biasiol, G; Sardana, M; Bianchi, E; Pessi, A; De Francesco, R

    1996-01-01

    The protease domain of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein NS3 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and shown to be active on peptides derived from the sequence of the NS4A-NS4B junction. Experiments were carried out to optimize protease activity. Buffer requirements included the presence of detergent, glycerol, and dithiothreitol, pH between 7.5 and 8.5, and low ionic strength. C- and N-terminal deletion experiments defined a peptide spanning from the P6 to the P4' residue as a suitable substrate. Cleavage kinetics were subsequently measured by using decamer P6-P4' peptides corresponding to all intermolecular cleavage sites of the HCV polyprotein. The following order of cleavage efficiency, in terms of kcat/Km, was determined: NS5A-NS5B > NS4A-NS4B >> NS4B-NS5A. A 14-mer peptide containing residues 21 to 34 of the protease cofactor NS4A (Pep4A 21-34), when added in stoichiometric amounts, was shown to increase cleavage rates of all peptides, the largest effect (100-fold) being observed on the hydrolysis of the NS4B-NS5A decamer. From the kinetic analysis of cleavage data, we conclude that (i) primary structure is an important determinant of the efficiency with which each site is cleaved during polyprotein processing, (ii) slow cleavage of the NS4B-NS5A site in the absence of NS4A is due to low binding affinity of the enzyme for this site, and (iii) formation of a 1:1 complex between the protease and Pep4A 21-34 is sufficient and required for maximum activation. PMID:8794305

  12. Comparison of the solution conformation and dynamics of antifreeze glycoproteins from Antarctic fish.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, A N; Hays, L M; Tsvetkova, N; Feeney, R E; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H

    2000-01-01

    The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra of antifreeze glycoprotein fractions 1-5 from Antarctic cod have been assigned, and the dynamics have been measured using (13)C relaxation at two temperatures. The chemical shifts and absence of non-sequential (1)H-(1)H NOEs are inconsistent with a folded, compact structure. (13)C relaxation measurements show that the protein has no significant long-range order, and that the local correlation times are adequately described by a random coil model. Hydroxyl protons of the sugar residues were observed at low temperature, and the presence of exchange-mediated ROEs to the sugar indicate extensive hydration. The conformational properties of AFGP1-5 are compared with those of the previously examined 14-mer analog AFGP8, which contains proline residues in place of some alanine residues (Lane, A. N., L. M. Hays, R. E. Feeney, L. M. Crowe, and J. H. Crowe. 1998. Protein Sci. 7:1555-1563). The infrared (IR) spectra of AFGP8 and AFGP1-5 in the amide I region are quite different. The presence of a wide distribution of backbone torsion angles in AFGP1-5 leads to a rich spectrum of frequencies in the IR spectrum, as interconversion among conformational states is slow on the IR frequency time scale. However, these transitions are fast on the NMR chemical shift time scales. The restricted motions for AFGP8 may imply a narrower distribution of possible o, psi angles, as is observed in the IR spectrum. This has significance for attempts to quantify secondary structures of proteins by IR in the presence of extensive loops. PMID:10827996

  13. Optimization of adiponectin-derived peptides for inhibition of cancer cell growth and signaling.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Laszlo; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Coroniti, Roberta; Knappe, Daniel; Nollmann, Friederike I; Hoffmann, Ralf; Wade, John D; Lovas, Sandor; Surmacz, Eva

    2015-05-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-excreted adipokine plays protective roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and exerts anti-cancer activities, partially by interfering with leptin-induced signaling. Previously we identified the active site in the adiponectin protein, and generated both a nanomolar monomeric agonist of the adiponectin receptor (10-mer ADP355) and an antagonist (8-mer ADP400) to modulate various adiponectin receptor-mediated cellular functions. As physiologically circulating adiponectin forms multimeric complexes, we also generated an agonist dimer with improved biodistribution and in vitro efficacy. In the current report, we attempted to optimize the monomeric agonist structure. Neither extension of the peptide up to 14-mer analogs nor reinstallation of native residues in permissible positions enhanced significantly the activity profile. The only substitutions that resulted in 5-10-fold improved agonistic activity were the replacement of turn-forming Gly4 and Tyr7 residues with Pro and Hyp, respectively, yielding the more active native β-sheet structure. All peptides retained good stability in human serum exhibiting half-lives >2 h. The cellular efficacy and stability rankings among the peptides followed expected structure-activity relationship trends. To investigate whether simultaneous activation of adiponectin pathways and inhibition of leptin-induced signals can result in cytostatic and anti-oncogenic signal transduction processes, we developed a chimera of the leptin receptor antagonist peptide Allo-aca (placed to the N-terminus) and ADP355 (at the C-terminus). The in vitro anti-tumor activity and intracellular signaling of the chimera were dominated by the more active Allo-aca component. The ADP355 part, however, reversed unfavorable in vivo metabolic effects of the leptin receptor antagonist.

  14. Forced-unfolding and force-quench refolding of RNA hairpins.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D

    2006-05-15

    from fully stretched states are analyzed using a model that accounts for the microscopic steps in the rate-limiting step, which involves the trans to gauche transitions of the dihedral angles in the GAAA tetraloop. The simulations with explicit molecular model for the handles show that the dynamics of force-quench refolding is strongly dependent on the interplay of their contour length and persistence length and the RNA persistence length. Using the generality of our results, we also make a number of precise experimentally testable predictions.

  15. Multiple conformational states of the hammerhead ribozyme, broad time range of relaxation and topology of dynamics.

    PubMed

    Menger, M; Eckstein, F; Porschke, D

    2000-11-15

    The dynamics of a hammerhead ribozyme was analyzed by measurements of fluorescence-detected temperature jump relaxation. The ribozyme was substituted at different positions by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) as fluorescence indicator; these substitutions do not inhibit catalysis. The general shape of relaxation curves reported from different positions of the ribozyme is very similar: a fast decrease of fluorescence, mainly due to physical quenching, is followed by a slower increase of fluorescence due to conformational relaxation. In most cases at least three relaxation time constants in the time range from a few microseconds to approximately 200 ms are required for fitting. Although the relaxation at different positions of the ribozyme is similar in general, suggesting a global type of ribozyme dynamics, a close examination reveals differences, indicating an individual local response. For example, 2-AP in a tetraloop reports mainly the local loop dynamics known from isolated loops, whereas 2-AP located at the core, e.g. at the cleavage site or its vicinity, also reports relatively large amplitudes of slower components of the ribozyme dynamics. A variant with an A-->G substitution in domain II, resulting in an inactive form, leads to the appearance of a particularly slow relaxation process (tau approximately 200 ms). Addition of Mg(2+) ions induces a reduction of amplitudes and in most cases a general increase of time constants. Differences between the hammerhead variants are clearly demonstrated by subtraction of relaxation curves recorded under corresponding conditions. The changes induced in the relaxation response by Mg(2+) are very similar to those induced by Ca(2+). The relaxation data do not provide any evidence for formation of Mg(2+)-inner sphere complexes in hammerhead ribozymes, because a Mg(2+)-specific relaxation effect was not visible. However, a Mg(2+)-specific effect was found for a dodeca-riboadenylate substituted with 2-AP, showing that the fluorescence of 2

  16. Multiple conformational states of the hammerhead ribozyme, broad time range of relaxation and topology of dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Marcus; Eckstein, Fritz; Porschke, Dietmar

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of a hammerhead ribozyme was analyzed by measurements of fluorescence-detected temperature jump relaxation. The ribozyme was substituted at different positions by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) as fluorescence indicator; these substitutions do not inhibit catalysis. The general shape of relaxation curves reported from different positions of the ribozyme is very similar: a fast decrease of fluorescence, mainly due to physical quenching, is followed by a slower increase of fluorescence due to conformational relaxation. In most cases at least three relaxation time constants in the time range from a few microseconds to ~200 ms are required for fitting. Although the relaxation at different positions of the ribozyme is similar in general, suggesting a global type of ribozyme dynamics, a close examination reveals differences, indicating an individual local response. For example, 2-AP in a tetraloop reports mainly the local loop dynamics known from isolated loops, whereas 2-AP located at the core, e.g. at the cleavage site or its vicinity, also reports relatively large amplitudes of slower components of the ribozyme dynamics. A variant with an A→G substitution in domain II, resulting in an inactive form, leads to the appearance of a particularly slow relaxation process (τ ≈200 ms). Addition of Mg2+ ions induces a reduction of amplitudes and in most cases a general increase of time constants. Differences between the hammerhead variants are clearly demonstrated by subtraction of relaxation curves recorded under corresponding conditions. The changes induced in the relaxation response by Mg2+ are very similar to those induced by Ca2+. The relaxation data do not provide any evidence for formation of Mg2+-inner sphere complexes in hammerhead ribozymes, because a Mg2+-specific relaxation effect was not visible. However, a Mg2+-specific effect was found for a dodeca-riboadenylate substituted with 2-AP, showing that the fluorescence of 2-AP is able to indicate inner sphere

  17. Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Conjugate Vaccine against Disseminated Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong; Cartmell, Jonathan; Bailey, Justin J.; Dziadek, Sebastian; Bundle, David R.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2012-01-01

    Our research on pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis led to the discovery that antibodies specific for Candida albicans cell surface β-1, 2–mannotriose [β-(Man)3] protect mice. A 14 mer peptide Fba, which derived from the N-terminal portion of the C. albicans cytosolic/cell surface protein fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, was used as the glycan carrier and resulted in a novel synthetic glycopeptide vaccine β-(Man)3-Fba. By a dendritic cell-based immunization approach, this conjugate induced protective antibody responses against both the glycan and peptide parts of the vaccine. In this report, we modified the β-(Man)3-Fba conjugate by coupling it to tetanus toxoid (TT) in order to improve immunogenicity and allow for use of an adjuvant suitable for human use. By new immunization procedures entirely compatible with human use, the modified β-(Man)3-Fba-TT was administered either alone or as a mixture made with alum or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvants and given to mice by a subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Mice vaccinated with or, surprisingly, without adjuvant responded well by making robust antibody responses. The immunized groups showed a high degree of protection against a lethal challenge with C. albicans as evidenced by increased survival times and reduced kidney fungal burden as compared to control groups that received only adjuvant or DPBS buffer prior to challenge. To confirm that induced antibodies were protective, sera from mice immunized against the β-(Man)3-Fba-TT conjugate transferred protection against disseminated candidiasis to naïve mice, whereas C. albicans-absorbed immune sera did not. Similar antibody responses and protection induced by the β-(Man)3-Fba-TT vaccine was observed in inbred BALB/c and outbred Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that addition of TT to the glycopeptide conjugate results in a self-adjuvanting vaccine that promotes robust antibody responses without the need for additional adjuvant, which is novel and represents a

  18. Probing the Orientation and Conformation of alpha-Helix and beta-Strand Model Peptides on Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Sum Frequency Generation and NEXAFS Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, T.; Apte, J; Gamble, L; Castner, D

    2010-01-01

    The structure and orientation of amphiphilic {alpha}-helix and {beta}-strand model peptide films on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been studied with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The {alpha}-helix peptide is a 14-mer, and the {beta}-strand is a 15-mer of hydrophilic lysine and hydrophobic leucine residues with hydrophobic periodicities of 3.5 and 2, respectively. These periodicities result in the leucine side chains located on one side of the peptides and the lysine side chains on the other side. The SAMs were prepared from the assembly of either carboxylic acid- or methyl-terminated alkyl thiols onto gold surfaces. For SFG studies, the deuterated analog of the methyl SAM was used. SFG vibrational spectra in the C-H region of air-dried peptides films on both SAMs exhibit strong peaks near 2965, 2940, and 2875 cm{sup -1} related to ordered leucine side chains. The orientation of the leucine side chains was determined from the phase of these features relative to the nonresonant gold background. The relative phase for both the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-strand peptides showed that the leucine side chains were oriented away from the carboxylic acid SAM surface and oriented toward the methyl SAM surface. Amide I peaks observed near 1656 cm{sup -1} for the {alpha}-helix peptide confirm that the secondary structure is preserved on both SAMs. Strong linear dichroism related to the amide {pi}* orbital at 400.8 eV was observed in the nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra for the adsorbed {beta}-strand peptides, suggesting that the peptide backbones are oriented parallel to the SAM surface with the side chains pointing toward or away from the interface. For the {alpha}-helix the dichroism of the amide {pi}* is significantly weaker, probably because of the broad distribution of amide bond orientations in the {alpha}-helix secondary structure.

  19. Structural dynamics of the box C/D RNA kink-turn and its complex with proteins: the role of the A-minor 0 interaction, long-residency water bridges, and structural ion-binding sites revealed by molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Spacková, Nad'a; Réblová, Kamila; Sponer, Jirí

    2010-08-19

    bound water, which is adenine-specific similarly as the original interaction. The 16(O2')-7(N1) H-bond is stabilized by protein binding. The stabilizing effect is more visible with the human 15.5 kDa protein, which is attributed to valine to arginine substitution in the binding site. The behavior of the A-minor interaction is force-field-dependent because the parmbsc0 force field attenuates the A-minor fluctuations compared to parm99 simulations. Behavior of other regions of the box C/D RNA is not sensitive to the force field choice. Simulation with net-neutralizing Na(+) and 0.2 M excess salt conditions appear in all aspects equivalent. The simulations show loss of a hairpin tetraloop, which is not part of the K-turn. This was attributed to force field limitations.

  20. Solution structure of a metal-binding site in the major groove of RNA complexed with cobalt (III) hexammine.

    PubMed

    Kieft, J S; Tinoco, I

    1997-05-15

    Solvated metal ions are critical for the proper folding and function of RNA. Despite the importance of these ions, the details of specific metal ion-RNA interactions are poorly understood. The crystal structure of a group I intron ribozyme domain characterized several metal-binding sites in the RNA with osmium (III) hexammine bound in the major groove. A corresponding method for locating and characterizing metal-binding sites of RNA in solution is of obvious interest. NMR should be ideal for localizing metal hexammine ions bound to the RNA because of the large concentration of protons around the metal center. We have solved the solution structure of the P5b stem loop from a group I intron ribozyme bound to a cobalt (III) hexammine ion. The location of the ion is precisely determined by intermolecular nuclear Overhausser effect cross-peaks between the cobalt (III) hexammine protons and both exchangeable and non-exchangeable RNA protons in the major groove. The binding site consists of tandem G-U base pairs in a sequence of four consecutive G residues ending in a GAAA tetraloop, as originally identified in the crystal structure. The edges of the bases in the major groove present an electrostatically negative face and a variety of hydrogen-bond acceptors for the cobalt (III) hexammine ion. The metal ion ligand is bound near the guanosine nucleotides of the adjacent G-U base pairs, where it makes hydrogen bonds with the N7 and carbonyl groups of both guanines. The carbonyl groups of the uracil residues add to the negative surface of the binding pocket, but do not form hydrogen bonds with the hexammine. Additional hydrogen bonds form with other guanine residues of the GGGG sequence. The structure of the binding site does not change significantly on binding the cobalt (III) hexammine. The structure of the complex in solution is very similar to the structure in the crystal. The structure presents a picture of how tandem G-U base pairs bind and position metal ions within

  1. Insulin-stimulated kinase from rat fat cells that phosphorylates initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 on the rapamycin-insensitive site (serine-111).

    PubMed

    Heesom, K J; Avison, M B; Diggle, T A; Denton, R M

    1998-11-15

    The effects of insulin and rapamycin on the phosphorylation of the translation regulator, initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) have been studied in rat fat cells by following changes in the incorporation of 32P from [32P]Pi under steady-state conditions. Both unbound 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP1 bound to eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were isolated from the cells and then digested with trypsin and other proteases; the radiolabelled phosphopeptides were then separated by two-dimensional thin- layer analysis and HPLC. The results provide confirmation of the conclusion of Fadden, Haystead and Lawrence [J. Biol. Chem. (1997) 272, 10240-10247] that insulin increases the phosphorylation of four sites that fit a Ser/Thr-Pro motif (Thr-36, Thr-45, Ser-64 and Thr-69) and that taken together these phosphorylations result in the dissociation of 4E-BP1 from eIF4E. The effects of insulin on the phosphorylation of these sites, and hence dissociation from eIF4E, are blocked by rapamycin. However, the present study also provides evidence that insulin increases the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 bound to eIF4E on a further site (Ser-111) and that this is by a rapamycin-insensitive mechanism. Extraction of rat epididymal fat cells followed by chromatography on Mono-S and Superose 12 columns resulted in the separation of both an insulin-stimulated eIF4E kinase and an apparently novel kinase that is highly specific for Ser-111 of 4E-BP1. The 4E-BP1 kinase was activated more than 10-fold by incubation of the cells with insulin and was markedly more active towards 4E-BP1 bound to eIF4E than towards unbound 4E-BP1. The effects of insulin were blocked by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin. A 14-mer peptide based on the sequence surrounding Ser-111 of 4E-BP1 was also a substrate for the kinase, but peptide substrates for other known protein kinases were not. The kinase is quite distinct from casein kinase 2, which also phosphorylates Ser-111 of 4E-BP1. The possible importance of these

  2. Competitive formation of DNA linkage isomers by a trinuclear platinum complex and the influence of pre-association.

    PubMed

    Moniodis, Joseph J; Thomas, Donald S; Davies, Murray S; Berners-Price, Susan J; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2015-02-28

    2D [(1)H, (15)N] HSQC NMR spectroscopy has been used to monitor the reaction of fully (15)N-labelled [{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2(μ-trans-Pt(NH3)2{NH2(CH2)6NH2}2)](4+) (BBR3464 ((15)N-1)) with the 14-mer duplex (5'-{d(ATACATG(7)G(8)TACATA)}-3'·5'-{d(TATG(18)TACCATG(25)TAT)}-3' or I) at pH 5.4 and 298 K, to examine the possible formation of 1,4 and 1,5-GG adducts in both 5'-5' and 3'-3' directions. In a previous study, the binding of the dinuclear 1,1/t,t to I showed specific formation of the 5'-5' 1,4 G(8)G(18) cross-link, whereas in this case a mixture of adducts were formed. Initial (1)H NMR spectra suggested the presence of two pre-associated states aligned in both directions along the DNA. The pre-association was studied in the absence of covalent binding, by use of the "non-covalent" analog [{trans-Pt(NH3)3}2(μ-trans-Pt(NH3)2{NH2(CH2)6NH2}2)](6+) (AH44, 0). Chemical shift changes of DNA protons combined with NOE connectivities between CH2 and NH3 protons of 0 and the adenine H2 protons on I show that two different molecules of 0 are bound in the minor groove. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the interaction of 0 at the two pre-association sites using charges derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Structures where the central platinum is located in the minor groove and the aliphatic linkers extend into the major groove, in opposite directions, often represent the lowest energy structures of the snapshots selected. In the reaction of (15)N-1 and I, following the pre-association step, aquation occurs to give the mono aqua monochloro species 2, with a rate constant of 3.43 ± 0.03 × 10(-5) s(-1). There was evidence for two monofunctional adducts (3, 4) bound to the 3' (G8) and 5' (G7) residues and the asymmetry of the (1)H,(15)N peak for 3 suggested two conformers of the 3' adduct, aligned in different directions along the DNA. The rate constant for combined monofunctional adduct formation (0.6 ± 0.1 M(-1)) is ca. 2-fold lower