Science.gov

Sample records for 14-month low-cost maintenance

  1. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI`s previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station.

  2. A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Erickstad, M; Gutierrez, E; Groisman, A

    2015-01-07

    A source of collimated ultraviolet (UV) light is a central piece of equipment needed for lithographic fabrication of microfluidic devices. Conventional UV light sources based on high-pressure mercury lamps require considerable maintenance and provide broad-band illumination with intensity that often changes with time. Here we present a source of narrow-band UV light based on an array of nine 365 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Each LED has two dedicated converging lenses, reducing the divergence of light emanating from it to 5.4°. Partial overlap of the areas illuminated by individual LEDs provides UV illumination with a mean intensity of ~1.7 mW cm(-2) and coefficient of variation <3% over a 90 × 90 mm target area. The light source was used to lithographically fabricate micro-reliefs with thicknesses from ~25 to 311 μm with SU8 photoresists. A cumulative irradiation of 370 mJ cm(-2) (4 min exposure) produced reliefs of good quality for all SU8 thicknesses. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replicas of the SU8 reliefs had microchannels with nearly rectangular cross-sections that were highly consistent over the entire target area, and partitions between the channels had depth to width ratios up to 5. The UV light source has also been successfully used for photolithography with positive photoresists, AZ40XT and SPR-220. The proposed light source is built with a total cost of <$1000, consumes a minimal amount of power, is expected to last for ~50,000 exposures, is maintenance-free, and is particularly appealing for small research-and-development microfluidic fabrication.

  3. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  4. Evaluation of a low-cost transient mass measurement system in vehicle inspection and maintenance testing: results of a Gordon-Darby Study.

    PubMed

    Ensfield, Carl; Gordon, Jay; Lindner, Jim

    2003-09-01

    A study was performed at a Gordon-Darby centralized inspection and maintenance (I/M) test lane in Phoenix, AZ, in December 1999 for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy of production Vehicle Mass Analysis System (VMAS) equipment relative to standard IM240 equipment. Simultaneous transient mass measurements were made on random vehicles using VMAS and IM240 systems on two test lanes during regular I/M testing. Cumulative mass emissions for 846 valid tests were correlated using least-squares regression analysis. Correlation indices were > 0.99 for both carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) and 0.93 for hydrocarbon (HC), and the standard errors of regression were 1.38 g/mi, 0.123 g/mi, and 0.245 g/mi for CO, NO, and HC, respectively. These strong correlation results are reflected by high excess emission identification rates of 99.4% for CO, 99.3% for NO, and 94.5% for HC when applying final IM240 cut points with a < 2% error of commission for all pollutants.

  5. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    PubMed

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date.

  6. New Low Cost Resin Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    difference between resins 1 and 2 was the type of phosphorous containing compound, where resin 3 was the same as resin 1 with the addition of melamine ...SBIR N03-120 New Low Cost Resin Systems Applied Poleramic, Inc. Final Report Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Feb 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Low Cost Resin Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-03-M-0304 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. Low Cost Graphics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    This manual describes the CALM TV graphics interface, a low-cost means of producing quality graphics on an ordinary TV. The system permits the output of data in graphic as well as alphanumeric form and the input of data from the face of the TV using a light pen. The integrated circuits required in the interface can be obtained from standard…

  8. Low Cost Sensor Calibration Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost sensors ($1 D0-500) represent a unique class of air monitoring devices that may provide for more ubiquitous pollutant monitoring. They vary widely in design and measure pollutants, ranging from ozone, particulate matter, to volatile organic compounds. Many of these senso...

  9. Low-cost microsensors program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Jurgelewicz, K.; Radford, William A.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2001-10-01

    The objectives of the Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program are twofold. The first is to develop and deliver a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 512 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The second is to develop an expendable microsensor built upon a VOx 160 X 128 format FPA engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions and is a reusable asset. The 160 X 120 sensor is designed for applications where miniaturization is required as well as low cost and low power. The 160 X 120 is also intended for expendable military applications. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  10. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  11. Low-cost microsensors program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Hegg, Ronald G.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2002-07-01

    The Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program recently demonstrated state-of-the-art imagery in a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 480 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  12. Low cost omega navigation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a low cost Omega navigation receiver is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the completion and testing of a modular, multipurpose Omega receiver which utilizes a digital memory-aided, phase-locked loop to provide phase measurement data to a variety of applications interfaces. The functional units contained in the prototype device are described. The receiver is capable of receiving and storing phase measurements for up to eight Omega signals and computes two switch-selectable lines of position, displaying this navigation data in chart-recorded form.

  13. Low-cost aquatic lab animal holding system.

    PubMed

    Hohn, Claudia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a low-cost aquatic animal holding system that provides an alternative to expensive, commercially available systems. Our flow-through system is especially useful for programs that are limited in space and funding. The easy assembly and maintenance of the system are advantages for the researchers who may be unfamiliar with aquatic animals.

  14. Sound symbolism facilitates word learning in 14-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association.

  15. Low Cost Mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik; Püsler, H.; Braukhane, A.; Gülzow, P.; Bauer, W.; Vollhardt, A.; Romberg, O.; Scheibe, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Bürner, A.

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars. The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • multispectral line scanner for Martian cloud investigations and Deimos (and Phobos) stereo pictures during close flybys • Deimos framing camera for high resolution pictures of Deimos (and Phobos) including video mode • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of Martian (also Deimos and Phobos) silicates and surface temperature measurements • radio science for research of Deimos ( Phobos) gravity, profiling of Mars ionosphere, occurrence of third meteoritic ionosphere layer; sounding of neutral atmosphere; solar corona activity This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos.

  16. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  17. Low Cost Large Space Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Freeland, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The mobile communication community could significantly benefit from the availability of low-cost, large space-deployable antennas. A new class of space structures, called inflatable deployable structures, will become an option for this industry in the near future. This new technology recently made significant progress with respect to reducing the risk of flying large inflatable structures in space. This progress can be attributed to the successful space flight of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment in May of 1996, which prompted the initiation of the NASA portion of the joint NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program, which will develop the technology to be used in future mobile communications antennas along with other users. The NASA/DOD coordinated Space Inflatables Program was initiated in 1997 as a direct result of the Inflatable Antenna Experiment. The program adds a new NASA initiative to a substantial DOD program that involves developing a series of ground test hardware, starting with 3 meter diameter units and advancing the manufacturing techniques to fabricate a 25 meter ground demonstrator unit with surface accuracy exceeding the requirements for mobile communication applications. Simultaneously, the program will be advancing the state of the art in several important inflatable technology areas, such as developing rigidizable materials for struts and tori and investigating thin film technology issues, such as application of coatings, property measurement and materials processing and assembly techniques. A very important technology area being addressed by the program is deployment control techniques. The program will sponsor activities that will lead to understanding the effects of material strain energy release, residual air in the stowed structure, and the design of the launch restraint and release system needed to control deployment dynamics. Other technology areas directly applicable to developing inflatable mobile communication antennas in the near

  18. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-01

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cm×45 cm×30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  19. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-28

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cmx45 cmx30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  20. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  1. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  2. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers.

  3. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  4. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  5. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  6. Low-Cost Aircraft Structural Repair and Maintenance Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    associated with the research and development of a military aircraft system are those required to design, fabricate, test , and evaluate the air...vehicle system . For aircraft structures, this would include the costs for conducting research and evaluation testing of new materials, processes, and...unlimited. Document partially illegible. Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov’t. agencies only; Test and Evaluation; MAR 1977. Other requests shall be

  7. Low-cost robotic arm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  8. Low Cost, Advanced, Integrated Microcontroller Training Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somantri, Y.; Fushshilat, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the design of an AVR microcontroller training kit with a low cost and the additional feature of an integrated downloader. The main components of this device include: Microcontroller, terminal, I/O keypad, push button, LED, seven segment display, LCD, motor stepper, and sensors. The device configuration results in low cost and ease of use; this device is suitable for laboratories with limited funding. The device can also be used as a training kit for the teaching and learning of microcontrollers.

  9. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  10. Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Low Cost Constellations to Assist the Warfighter Stuart Eves (SSTL), David Carter (EADS- Astrium ), David Beard (Dstl) Email: s.eves@sstl.co.uk Tel... Astrium Ltd Earth Observation & Science Anchorage Road Portsmouth, Hampshire PO3 5PU UK davidj.carter@astrium.eads.net David Beard DSTL

  11. Simplified, low cost below-knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kijkusol, D

    1986-08-01

    Problems are encountered in using standard prostheses in developing countries, especially when the prostheses need repair and the amputees cannot come back to the workshop. Very simple, low cost and durable prostheses can solve this problem. The solution described has worked well with villagers in some rural areas of Thailand, where the inexpensive prosthesis permits walking bare-foot and through water and mud.

  12. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period January through March 1978 is reported. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.

  13. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  14. Low-cost image analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  15. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  16. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  17. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  18. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  19. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  20. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  1. Low cost paths to binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Arthur; Domash, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing. An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.

  2. Low-Cost Instant Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1983-06-01

    A low-cost, battery-operated surveillance system was developed for use in international nuclear safeguards. The resulting system utilizes components of the commercial Polavision instant movie system to provide single-frame color or black/white images which are automatically developed and displayed by a portable Polavision Player whenever it is desired to stop and view the film. The system is designed for long-term unattended use, triggered by a timer or other input signal. To provide positive assurance of continuing operation, a self-diagnostic module was designed to detect the most common failure modes and transmit real-time status data to a remote location. The resulting system provides a low-cost surveillance capability which may be useful in various law enforcement applications.

  3. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Lixin, Yu; Heping, Peng; Wei, Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies.

  4. Epitaxial technology for low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressel, H.; Raccah, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    Epitaxial solar cell structures on low cost silicon substrates are compared to direct diffusion substrates. Dislocation density in the epitaxial layers is found to be significantly lower than that of the substrate material. The saturation current density of diodes epitaxially formed on the substrate is commonly 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than for diodes formed by direct diffusion. Solar cells made epitaxially are substantially better than those made by direct diffusion into similar material.

  5. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  6. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G...Edelstein, 2004; Burnette, 2008), we suggested a method for mitigating the problem of 1/f noise. We and others ( Guedes , 2008) have been utilizing...6. Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - 3magnetoresistive/microelectromechanical devices for static field modulation and sensor 1/f noise

  7. Low Cost Space Experiments. Study Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Air Force Phillips Laboratory with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory . The goals of ALTAIR...Cs<- &l. LOW COST SPACE EXPERIMENTS STUDY REPORT 6 December 1991 19980302 059 Phillips Laboratory /SXL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-6008 TVPTT" OTT...Report Corporate Author or Publisher: Phillips Laboratory /SXL, Kirtland AFB,NM 87117-6008 Publication Date: Dec 06, 1991 Pages: 176 Comments

  8. Rugged low-cost display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Roger; Chiang, Anne; Hermanns, Anno; Vicentini, Frederic; Jacobsen, Jeffrey; Atherton, Jim; Boling, Ed; Cuomo, Frank; Drzaic, Paul; Pearson, Sean

    2002-08-01

    Alien technology has developed a family of rugged, plastic displays for portable devices like SmartCards, electronic signs, cellular telephones and military devices. These displays are driven by ultra-miniaturized silicon integrated circuits called NanoBlcok ICs that are put together using a Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) process. This low-cost, high- volume manufacturing technique makes possible new types of liquid crystal and OLED display products.

  9. Experience with low cost jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is given of the results of a NASA program for reducing the cost of turbojet and turbofan engines. The design, construction, and testing of a simple turbojet, designed for use in missiles, is described. Low cost axial stage fabrication, the design of a fan jet engine suitable for propulsion of light aircraft, and application of such engines to provide higher flight speeds, are discussed.

  10. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  11. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  12. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  13. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  14. LSA Low-cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period October through December, 1977 are reported. The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  15. Low-cost microprocessor controlled shadowband radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Lebaron, B. A.; Harrison, L. C.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes the second phase in the development of a low-cost microprocessor-controlled rotating shadowband radiometer at PNL. The initial work, to develop a solar photometer, resulted in a mechanical design that is adopted for the solar radiometer with only minor changes. The goals of this effort are: (1) to improve the data acquisition system; and (2) to derive corrections for the silicon cell-based pyranometer that would allow measurements of total horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct normal solar radiation approaching first-class instrumentation accuracy at a fraction of the cost. Significant progress on temperature, cosine and spectral corrections is achieved.

  16. A low cost LST pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.; Nurre, G. S.; Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1975-01-01

    Vigorous efforts to reduce costs, coupled with changes in LST guidelines, took place in the Fall of 1974. These events made a new design of the LST and its Pointing and Attitude Control System possible. The major design changes are summarized as: an annular Support Systems Module; removal of image motion compensation; reaction wheels instead of CMG's; a magnetic torquer system to also perform the emergency and backup functions, eliminating the previously required mass expulsion system. Preliminary analysis indicates the Low Cost LST concept can meet the newly defined requirements and results in a significantly reduced development cost.

  17. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David; Roig, Ana B.

    2014-05-27

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  18. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  19. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Roig, Ana B.; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David

    2014-05-01

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  20. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  1. Low cost Michelson-Morley interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, Shirish; Kurmude, Vikrant

    2016-11-01

    The Michelson-Morley interferometer is an important and challenging experiment in many undergraduate as well as post-graduate physics laboratories. The apparatus required for this experiment is costly and delicate to handle. It also requires considerable skill to obtain a set of sharp fringes. This frontline presents a low cost (~US50) design of the experiment, which can be easily fabricated in any undergraduate laboratory. It is easy to handle as well as any part of this set up being easily replaced in case of any damage.

  2. Polymeric MST - high precision at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderstig, Håkan; Larsson, Olle

    1997-09-01

    A low-cost production process for fabrication of polymeric microstructures from micromachined silicon is demonstrated in a splice for the splicing of optical fibers and an optical motherboard. Measurements on splices showed less than 0.5 dB insertion losses. The prototype polymeric motherboard concisted of an optical receiver module. The detector that was mounted on the polymeric optical motherboard detected about 70% of the transferred light. Measurements with modulated light indicates an optical bandwidth of 5 GHz at 2 V reverse current on the pin-diode.

  3. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project are described for the period April through June 1978. The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  4. Company outlines low cost spaceplane option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, Dan; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    1987-12-01

    A concept is proposed for an unmanned space launch vehicle that would be air-launched from a modified 747 and fly a lifting trajectory to orbit using cryogenic propellants, and which could be built with existing technology. Complete reusability and engine-out capability would allow a 6300-kg payload to be carried to a space station orbit, or a 4000-kg payload to a low-polar orbit, at low cost. The system configuration and operational characteristics are reviewed. It is noted that the spaceplane is optimized for freight hauling. Modifications to the 747 to achieve the necessary ascent profile are discussed.

  5. A Low Cost Electrostatically Focused TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ring-loop circuits are well known for their simplicity, low cost, compactness, low mass, high gain and efficiency and absence of backward wave oscillations. Peak powers over 20 kw have been achieved. They also have low harmonic output and excellent phase performance. We have developed a double ring-loop circuit that permits electrostatic focusing of an electron beam to at least 0.4 micro pervs. This eliminates the magnet stack and further lowers cost and weight. It permits glass rod fastening of circuit elements as well as gun and collector assemblies, as is done in cathode ray tubes. Using CRT construction techniques, the TWT can be built on automated equipment.

  6. Low cost point focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts and plans for mass-production facilities and equipment, field installation, and maintenance were developed and used for cost analysis of a pneumatically stabilized plastic film point focus solar concentrator which has potential application in conjunction with Brayton cycle engines or supply of thermal energy. A sub-scale reflector was fabricated and optically tested by laser ray tracing to determine focal deviations of the surface slope and best focal plane. These test data were then used for comparisons with theoretical concentrator performance modeling and predictions of full-scale design performance. Results of the economic study indicate the concentrator design will have low cost when mass-produced and has cost/performance parameters that fall within current Jet Propulsion Laboratory goals.

  7. Low Cost Air Combat Training System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Earl

    1987-10-01

    Air combat training has evolved into a highly sophisticated and expensive process. To effectively train fighter pilots in air-to-air combat, interaction between pilots is essential. This interaction can be accomplished using multiple low cost laser image projections of friend and/or foe aircraft controlled by pilots in a multiple dome configuration. A Laser Target Projector (LTP) produces a calligraphically written aircraft model comprised of up to 200 vectors which are updated at a 60 Hz rate. The resulting wire frame image imparts both position, velocity, distance and altitude information to the pilots. Using a laser light source guarantees high luminance levels and provides large depths of field. This large depth of field allows for unique packaging arrangements and cost saving attributes. The LTP has total dome coverage via a computer-controlled, servo-driven, gimb-alled two-axis assembly that projects the wire frame aircraft image onto the dome surface. To unburden the host computer, all dome-to-dome communication, real world-to-dome coordinate transformations and all geometry corrections are done by a special purpose high-speed computer called a Dome Master. Each dome has one Dome Master that can drive up to six LTP's. This paper will deal with the technical aspects of the design and development of the LTP and Dome Master as a low cost air combat training system.

  8. Abstract Rule Learning in 11- and 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koulaguina, Elena; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that distributional information can guide infants in the generalization of word order movement rules at the initial stage of language acquisition. Participants were 11- and 14-month-old infants. Stimuli were sentences in Russian, a language that was unknown to our infants. During training the word order of each…

  9. Low Cost Methods to Accomplish Aeronomy Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accomplishment of aeronomy science using low cost methods involves a number of innovative considerations. These methods will be discussed. They include making broad use of internet to control and operate distributed sensors. Sensor controls should be simple and most important reliable. Imagers are a common sensor for optical systems and include common computer interfaces and menu driven operations which often don't require special software or engineering development. Small, inexpensive but reliable satellite systems are evolving in the Cubesat community. Effective use of students is invaluable, giving them responsibility to operate instrumentation and to routinely archive the data. Management of students is especially important in the early phase of their training to insure quality performance. These ideas will be elaborated on, and most importantly, the science motive is the most important driver for what is done.

  10. Low-cost solar array structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  11. Development of low-cost rotational rheometer.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lasse; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Skov, Kristian Thaarup

    2015-01-01

    Liquids with non-Newtonian properties are presented in many engineering areas, as for example in membrane bioreactors where active sludge exhibits shear thinning properties. Therefore, the ability to determine the rheology's dependence on shear is important when optimising systems with such liquids. However, rheometers capable of determining the viscosity are often expensive and so a cheaper alternative is constructed with this exact capability. Using the principle of rotating rheometers, a low-cost rheometer was built to determine the rheology of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The general principles and background assumptions and the physics are described. The rheometer was calibrated by comparison with measurements conducted on a Brookfield viscometer for Newtonian liquids. For validation measurements on non-Newtonian liquids, xanthan gum solutions were made and compared with measurements on the Brookfield viscometer and with values from other sources. Furthermore, the effect of excluding the different shear rates in the system is discussed and good practice hereto is given.

  12. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  13. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background

  14. Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Boeing Information, Space, and Defense Systems executed a Low Cost Large Core Vehicle Structures Assessment (LCLCVSA) under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) between November 1997 and March 1998. NASA is interested in a low-cost launch vehicle, code named Magnum, to place heavy payloads into low earth orbit for missions such as a manned mission to Mars, a Next Generation Space Telescope, a lunar-based telescope, the Air Force's proposed space based laser, and large commercial satellites. In this study, structural concepts with the potential to reduce fabrication costs were evaluated in application to the Magnum Launch Vehicle (MLV) and the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB) shuttle upgrade program. Seventeen concepts were qualitatively evaluated to select four concepts for more in-depth study. The four structural concepts selected were: an aluminum-lithium monocoque structure, an aluminum-lithium machined isogrid structure, a unitized composite sandwich structure, and a unitized composite grid structure. These were compared against a baseline concept based on the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) construction. It was found that unitized composite structures offer significant cost and weight benefits to MLV structures. The limited study of application to LFBB structures indicated lower, but still significant benefits. Technology and facilities development roadmaps to prepare the approaches studied for application to MLV and LFBB were constructed. It was found that the cost and schedule to develop these approaches were in line with both MLV and LFBB development schedules. Current Government and Boeing programs which address elements of the development of the technologies identified are underway. It is recommended that NASA devote resources in a timely fashion to address the specific elements related to MLV and LFBB structures.

  15. Maintained hand function and forearm bone health 14 months after an in-home virtual-reality videogame hand telerehabilitation intervention in an adolescent with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Golomb, Meredith R; Warden, Stuart J; Fess, Elaine; Rabin, Bryan; Yonkman, Janell; Shirley, Bridget; Burdea, Grigore C

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality videogames can be used to motivate rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation can be used to improve access to rehabilitation. These uses of technology to improve health outcomes are a burgeoning area of rehabilitation research. So far, there is a lack of reports of long-term outcomes of these types of interventions. The authors report a 15-year-old boy with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and epilepsy because of presumed perinatal stroke who improved his plegic hand function and increased his plegic forearm bone health during a 14-month virtual reality videogame hand telerehabilitation intervention. A total of 14 months after the intervention ended, repeat evaluation demonstrated maintenance of both increased hand function and forearm bone health. The implications of this work for the future of rehabilitation in children with neurological disabilities are discussed in this article.

  16. Circofer -- Low cost approach to DRI production

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.; Bresser, W.; Hirsch, M. )

    1994-09-01

    Lurgi's Circofer Process for reducing fine ores with coal in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) is a direct approach by using a widely applied and proven reactor in commercializing a state of the art technology. The technology is in response to the demand for a direct reduction process of the future by making possible: the use of low cost ore fines and inexpensive primary energy, fine coal; production of a high grade product used as feedstock by mini mills with the additional advantage of dilution of contaminants introduced by scrap; low environmental impact; and low specific investment costs due to the closed energy circuit. With the incorporation of the latest developments in CFB technology, Circofer offers excellent heat and mass transfer conditions and, consequently, improved gas and energy utilization. High gas conversions using recycle gas have a positive influence on the process economics whereby no export gas is produced. Sticking, accretion and reoxidation problems, which have plagued all previous attempts at developing direct reduction processes using fine ore and coal as a reductant, are avoided, essentially by operating with defined amounts of excess carbon and separation of the reduction and gasifying zones.

  17. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN; csn.caltech.edu), operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009; qcn.stanford.edu; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  18. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  19. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  20. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  1. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  2. Low Cost Ozone Generation in Corona Streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, B.; Knijnik, A.; Korobtsev, S.; Medvedev, D.; Shiryaevsky, V.

    1998-10-01

    There is an interesting experimental result (S. Korobtsev, D. Medvedev et al , ISPC 13,1997, vol.2, p. 755. ) for low cost ozone generation (7-8 eV/molec in air) in streamer with dominant energy consumption in streamer channel (where molecular vibrations are excited). For explanation we considered the effect of vibrational pumping saturation, when vibrational energy was increased (due to the super-elastic processes) and the change of electron cross-sections due to vibrational excitation, which could also lead to efficiency growth. Boltzmann equation solution showed that both effects required too large energy consumption in discharge (>0.7 eV/mole). Thus we went to conclusion, that some direct energy transfer from vibrational degrees of freedom to electronic degrees should take place. One of the possible new mechanisms is the reaction: N2 (v)+N2 (v)=N2 (A)+N_2. Our numerical model of vibrational kinetic in air with this reaction showed that dependence of ozone generation cost upon energy consumption in streamer channel had a minimum with the value of the cost about 8-10 eV/molec.

  3. Low-Cost Oil Quality Sensor Based on Changes in Complex Permittivity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Angel Torres; Hadfield, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Real time oil quality monitoring techniques help to protect important industry assets, minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs. The measurement of a lubricant’s complex permittivity is an effective indicator of the oil degradation process and it can be useful in condition based maintenance (CBM) to select the most adequate oil replacement maintenance schedules. A discussion of the working principles of an oil quality sensor based on a marginal oscillator to monitor the losses of the dielectric at high frequencies (>1 MHz) is presented. An electronic design procedure is covered which results in a low cost, effective and ruggedized sensor implementation suitable for use in harsh environments. PMID:22346666

  4. The 14 month wind stressed residual circulation (pole tide) in the North Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    From published research it is known that a quasi-periodic 14 month atmospheric pressure oscillation of a few tenths of a millibar exists in the region of the North and Baltic Seas. At some time in the cycle the associated wind stress has a westerly component that drives a circulation in the North Sea. The results of a dynamical model and comparisons with several North Sea residual circulation studies show that a large sea level gradient results along the Dutch coast. It is this feature that has been referred to as the enhanced pole tide. The dynamical similarity of this pole tide in the North and Baltic Seas to the annual and seasonal wind forced circulations is considered. It is inferred that the large deviations of the pole tide from equilibrium at coastal stations are the result of this sea level set up forces by the 14 month wind stress cycle.

  5. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  6. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  7. Low-cost sustainable wall construction system

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

  8. Manufacturing Large Membrane Mirrors at Low Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive processes have been developed for manufacturing lightweight, wide-aperture mirrors that consist mainly of reflectively coated, edge-supported polyimide membranes. The polyimide and other materials in these mirrors can withstand the environment of outer space, and the mirrors have other characteristics that make them attractive for use on Earth as well as in outer space: With respect to the smoothness of their surfaces and the accuracy with which they retain their shapes, these mirrors approach the optical quality of heavier, more expensive conventional mirrors. Unlike conventional mirrors, these mirrors can be stowed compactly and later deployed to their full sizes. In typical cases, deployment would be effected by inflation. Potential terrestrial and outer-space applications for these mirrors include large astronomical telescopes, solar concentrators for generating electric power and thermal power, and microwave reflectors for communication, radar, and short-distance transmission of electric power. The relatively low cost of manufacturing these mirrors stems, in part, from the use of inexpensive tooling. Unlike in the manufacture of conventional mirrors, there is no need for mandrels or molds that have highly precise surface figures and highly polished surfaces. The surface smoothness is an inherent property of a polyimide film. The shaped area of the film is never placed in contact with a mold or mandrel surface: Instead the shape of a mirror is determined by a combination of (1) the shape of a fixture that holds the film around its edge and (2) control of manufacturing- process parameters. In a demonstration of this manufacturing concept, spherical mirrors having aperture diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 m were fabricated from polyimide films having thicknesses ranging from <20 m to 150 m. These mirrors have been found to maintain their preformed shapes following deployment.

  9. Novel approaches to low-cost MRI.

    PubMed

    Macovski, A; Conolly, S

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a combination of speculative approaches, some related to earlier work and some apparently novel, which show great promise in providing a new class of MRI machines that would be considerably less expensive. This class would have advantages and disadvantages as compared to existing MRI, over and above that of low cost. The disadvantages include the apparent inability to perform classic spectroscopy, and limited flexibility in the area of selective excitation. The advantages include a fundamental immunity to inhomogeneity and susceptibility problems, the ability to create a wide class of machines that are designed for specific anatomy-related applications, the ability to design open machines for physician access, and improved capability for high speed imaging. Generic to all of the methods presented are a pulsed polarizing field and an oscillatory read-out bias field. The pulsed field initially polarizes the magnetic moments. Since it is not on during the readout operation it has negligible homogeneity requirements since changes in the field amplitude will merely shade the image intensity. During readout a relatively low bias field is used. To enable the use of a relatively inhomogeneous bias field, an oscillatory field is used that has a zero average value. This prevents any long-term buildup of phase errors due to a frequency error associated with inhomogeneity. Thus the average bias frequency will be determined solely by the frequency rather than the amplitude of the bias field. Three methods are described, all including the above features. The first two involve imaging in the laboratory frame, while the third involves imaging in the rotating frame. The second approach requires no RF excitation and the third approach uses RF bias and gradient signals. Some approaches to slice selection are described.

  10. Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William

    1997-08-01

    A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory. Some highlights of this temperature controller include the elimination of dangerous flames and cumbersome water baths, maintenance of temperature over a wide range within 1 °C and compact electronics. In addition, the IC power supply circuit is self-contained thus eliminating the need for bulky transformers and additional power related circuitry. Secondary school and undergraduate laboratories can build many units for the cost of a commercially comparable one while simultaneously putting to practice several electronic principles taught in most instrumental analysis courses.

  11. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  12. A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-20

    AFFTC-PA-12423 A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) Pallavi Sandhiya AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA 2/20/13 A F...20-02-2013) 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/12 -- 10/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT...CC: 012100 14. ABSTRACT This paper details design, development and test of the Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) LCT2-040-2200

  13. Low Cost Cryocoolers for High Temperature Superconductor Communication Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Davina

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed by a consortium of Industry and Government to develop low cost cryocoolers. The specific application was for low cost commercial based high temperature superconductor communication filters. This program was initiated in January 1995 and resulted in the successful demonstration of an HTS filter dewar cooled by a low cost pulse tube cryocooler. Further development of this cryocooler technology is proceeding through various contracts underway and proposed at this time.

  14. Subclinical Cardiotoxicity Detected by Strain Rate Imaging up to 14 months After Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Florian, Anca; Slagmolen, Pieter; Sweldens, Caroline; Jurcut, Ruxandra; Wildiers, Hans; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Weltens, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Strain rate imaging (SRI) is a new echocardiographic modality that enables accurate measurement of regional myocardial function. We investigated the role of SRI and troponin I (TnI) in the detection of subclinical radiation therapy (RT)-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This study prospectively included 75 women (51 left-sided and 24 right-sided) receiving adjuvant RT to the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes. Sequential echocardiographs with SRI were obtained before RT, immediately after RT, and 8 and 14 months after RT. TnI levels were measured on the first and last day of RT. Results: Mean heart and left ventricle (LV) doses were both 9 ± 4 Gy for the left-sided patients and 4 ± 4 Gy and 1 ± 0.4 Gy, respectively, for the right-sided patients. A decrease in strain was observed at all post-RT time points for left-sided patients (−17.5% ± 1.9% immediately after RT, −16.6% ± 1.4% at 8 months, and −17.7% ± 1.9% at 14 months vs −19.4% ± 2.4% before RT, P<.01) but not for right-sided patients. When we considered left-sided patients only, the highest mean dose was given to the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall (25 ± 14 Gy) and the lowest to the inferior LV wall (3 ± 3 Gy). Strain of the anterior wall was reduced after RT (−16.6% ± 2.3% immediately after RT, −16% ± 2.6% at 8 months, and −16.8% ± 3% at 14 months vs −19% ± 3.5% before RT, P<.05), whereas strain of the inferior wall showed no significant change. No changes were observed with conventional echocardiography. Furthermore, mean TnI levels for the left-sided patients were significantly elevated after RT compared with before RT, whereas TnI levels of the right-sided patients remained unaffected. Conclusions: In contrast to conventional echocardiography, SRI detected a regional, subclinical decline in cardiac function up to 14 months after breast RT. It remains to be determined whether these changes are related to clinical

  15. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  16. Talent identification and deliberate programming in skeleton: ice novice to Winter Olympian in 14 months.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Nicola; Gulbin, Jason P; Martin, David T; Ross, Angus; Holland, Terry; Marino, Frank

    2009-02-15

    The aims of this study were to talent transfer, rapidly develop, and qualify an Australian female athlete in the skeleton event at the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games and quantify the volume of skeleton-specific training and competition that would enable this to be achieved. Initially, 26 athletes were recruited through a talent identification programme based on their 30-m sprint time. After attending a selection camp, 10 athletes were invited to undertake an intensified skeleton training programme. Four of these athletes were then selected to compete for Australia on the World Cup circuit. All completed runs and simulated push starts were documented over a 14-month period. The athlete who eventually represented Australia at the Torino Winter Olympic Games did so following approximately 300 start simulations and about 220 training/competition runs over a period of 14 months. Using a deliberate programming model, these findings provide a guide to the minimum exposure required for a novice skeleton athlete to reach Olympic representative standard following intensified sport-specific training. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the deliberate practice theory and offer the term "deliberate programming" as an alternative way of incorporating all aspects of expert development.

  17. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  18. Low cost attitude control system reaction wheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of a low power and low cost Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. The details of the versatile design resulting from this effort are addressed. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  19. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  20. Design of a Low Cost Avionics System for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kevin; Wallace, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has long been one of the leaders in development of propulsion systems. Due to current launch vehicle costs, Marshall Space Flight Centers (MSFC) Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) office has emphasized the development of low cost launch vehicles. The Bantam launch vehicle is one of the primary programs that has low cost as a requirement. One of the driving factors for a low cost launch vehicle is a low cost avionics system. This paper will summarize MSFC's Astrionics Laboratories efforts in designing a low cost avionics system. MSFC has done Phase A avionics system design and has been working with various contractors on a Phase B preliminary avionics design. Deriving the major requirements, trade studies and cost drivers are some of the topics to be discussed.

  1. Torsion of Undescended Testis in a 14-Month-Old Child Refusing to Bear Weight

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Ryan M; Cuenca, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we discuss a case of a 14-month-old male presenting in the emergency department with refusal to bear weight on his left leg. Plain radiographic studies revealed no evidence of effusion, fracture, or dislocation. Laboratory studies were significant for an elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Further studies included unremarkable ultrasound of the left hip and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both hips. An incidental finding on MRI was a left inguinal mass concerning an incarcerated hernia. Ultrasound of this mass demonstrated a left undescended testis within the inguinal canal and possible incarcerated paratesticular inguinal hernia. The final pathologic diagnosis of a torsed gangrenous left testicle within the inguinal canal was confirmed during surgery. PMID:22224149

  2. Successful surgical repair of pentalogy of cantrell at 14 months of age.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Khurram; Sultan, Mehboob; Ahmed, Waqar; Ullah, Maad; Sadiq, Nadeem

    2014-05-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell with ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly, first described in 1958 by Cantrell, has a reported incidence of around 5-10 cases per one million live births with wide variety of clinical presentations. We are reporting a child with ectopia cordis along with cleft lower sternum, upper abdominal wall defect, ectopic umbilicus and diaphragmatic defect. Echocardiography in first month of life revealed a restrictive perimembranous ventricular septal defect and a small patent Foramen Ovale, both closed spontaneously in infancy. CT angiography at 10 months of age revealed a defect in the thoracic and abdominal walls along with herniation of left ventricular apex into epigastrium. The two ventriculi formed a tail that looked like a crocodile. This patient underwent surgical correction at our institution at 14 months of age and recovered well with no residual issue.

  3. Simulation of the 14-month Chandler wobble in a global climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, S.; Currie, R.G. )

    1989-03-01

    The agent that generates and maintains the 14-month Chandler wobble of the solid earth about its rotation axis has remained unresolved for a century with first the atmosphere, later earthquakes, and more recently the earth's fluid core proposed as candidates. Here the authors report that surface air pressure calculated in a coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) displays a 14.7 month signal, whose amplitude is similar to that found by Maksimov (1960) in station data; they identify it as the atmospheric Chandler wobble. This result indicates that changes in atmospheric mass distribution excite and maintain the wobble of the solid earth, and that neither earthquakes nor the fluid core are significant contributors. Another result is that in the GCM, the amplitude of the wobble at high latitudes is a substantial fraction of the annual cycle, and thus is an important factor in climate formation as Maksimov (1960) suggested.

  4. Fatal Meningitis in a 14-Month-Old with Currarino Triad

    PubMed Central

    Suliman Aljoqiman, Khalid; Arabi, Hisham; Al Shaalan, Hesham

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph. The patient succumbed to complications of meningitis. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the potentially fatal complication of Currarino triad and sensitize radiologists to look actively for sacral anomalies on abdominal radiographs, especially of children with chronic constipation. PMID:27597920

  5. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  6. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  7. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  8. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  9. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  10. Low cost voice compression for mobile digital radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for low cost rubust voice compression at 4800 bits per second was studied. The approach was based on using a cascade of digital biquad adaptive filters with simplified multipulse excitation followed by simple bit sequence compression.

  11. A microcomputer-based low-cost Omega navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.; Salter, R. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The application of a low cost, commercially available microcomputer as the navigation processor for a simplified OMEGA navigation system is an area of current research. The interface of a low cost front end OMEGA sensor is described and an example of the phase processing software and navigation routines is given. Emphasis is placed on the description of results obtained with the software version of the OMEGA burst filter known as the memory aided phase locked loop.

  12. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  13. A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-19

    AFFTC-PA-12422 A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) Pallavi Sandhiya AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA 2/19/13 A F...19-02-2013) 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/12 -- 10/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT... OFDM waveform uses space, frequency and time diversity, as well as innovative signal processing techniques to achieve five times the spectral

  14. The REFSAT approach to low-cost GPS terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sennott, J. W.; Choudhury, A. K.; Taylor, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A concept utilizing a geostationary reference satellite (REFSAT) that broadcasts navigation aiding signals to low cost civil user terminals which employ the constellation of 24 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for position determination is described. The signal acquisition, tracking and position fixing properties of such low cost, dual channel, L-band, civil user receiver designed to receive both GPS navigation and REFSAT navigation aiding signals is presented. REFSAT reduces the cost of user equipment.

  15. Feasibility Study of Low-Cost Image-Based Heritage Documentation in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhonju, H. K.; Xiao, W.; Sarhosis, V.; Mills, J. P.; Wilkinson, S.; Wang, Z.; Thapa, L.; Panday, U. S.

    2017-02-01

    Cultural heritage structural documentation is of great importance in terms of historical preservation, tourism, educational and spiritual values. Cultural heritage across the world, and in Nepal in particular, is at risk from various natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, flooding, rainfall etc), poor maintenance and preservation, and even human destruction. This paper evaluates the feasibility of low-cost photogrammetric modelling cultural heritage sites, and explores the practicality of using photogrammetry in Nepal. The full pipeline of 3D modelling for heritage documentation and conservation, including visualisation, reconstruction, and structure analysis, is proposed. In addition, crowdsourcing is discussed as a method of data collection of growing prominence.

  16. Low cost anti-soiling coatings for CSP collector mirrors and heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Barton Barton; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A; Lee, Dominic F; Datskos, Panos G

    2014-01-01

    Most concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the USA are located in the desert southwest of the country where land and sunshine are abundant. But one of the significant maintenance problems and cost associated with operating CSP facilities in this region is the accumulation of dust, sand and other pollutants on the collector mirrors and heliostats. In this paper we describe the development of low cost, easy to apply anti-soiling coatings based on superhydrophobic (SH) functionalized nano silica materials and polymer binders that posses the key requirements necessary to inhibit particulate deposition on and sticking to CSP mirror surfaces, and thereby significantly reducing mirror cleaning costs and facility downtime.

  17. In situ visualization and photoablation of individual neurons using a low cost fiber optic based system.

    PubMed

    Libersat, F; Mizrahi, A

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a low-cost system for in situ visualization and photoablation of single neurons. The system includes a fiber optics light source equipped with a filter port, a blue excitation filter and a yellow barrier filter, and a light guide which terminates with a focusing lens. This system is inexpensive, easy to use, and requires minimal maintenance. Given its price, this system is readily accessible and has the potential of becoming standard equipment for in situ visualization and killing of individual neurons.

  18. Geowall: Investigations into low-cost stereo display technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  19. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  20. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  1. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  2. Conceptual Study of a Low Cost Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    problem at the moment is the lack of long-mission reliability of small piston engines , originally designed for low-cost civil applications such as "Go...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natio5nal Technical Information Service AD-A025 652 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF A LOW COST TURBOJET ENGINE AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF...Turbojet 6. Thesis Engine s. ,.I. G ORG. REPORT NUMER AUTHOR(..) ’ I.’-NTKACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) Tommy J. Kent Captain, USAF I. PERPIORMING ORGANIZATION

  3. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  4. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  5. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-06-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  6. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  7. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  8. Neural Correlates of Action Observation and Execution in 14-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related EEG Desynchronization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Young, Thomas; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in neurobiological methods for investigating the shared representation of action perception and production in early development. We explored the extent and regional specificity of EEG desynchronization in the infant alpha frequency range (6-9 Hz) during action observation and execution in 14-month-old infants.…

  9. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  10. Bioinspired, Mobile Robots With High Stability, Functionality and Low Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-19

    MOBILE ROBOTS WITH HIGH STABILITY, FUNCTIONALITY AND LOW COST W911NF-11-1-0094 FINAL REPORT 2/15/11 – 9/30/13 THE HARVARD TEAM DARPA /DSO...ATTN: BAA 10-65 Dr. Gill Pratt 3701 North Fairfax Drive Arlington VA 22203-1714 Technical POC: Dr. Gill Pratt, DARPA /DSO Submission

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  12. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  13. A Low-Cost, Effective, Fumes Exhaust System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding welding fumes. The sources of these fumes are presented in a table. Criticizes currently used ventilation systems and reviews the Occupational Safety and Health Act requirements. Describes a low-cost exhaust system developed for agricultural mechanics laboratories. (LRA)

  14. Sport for All: Low-Cost Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report is an outgrowth of discussions held by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) in Cologne, Germany from September 26-30, 1967 aimed at organizing a systematic exchange of information among European countries for the purpose of providing low-cost sport facilities. Part I deals with fundamental priorities, type, size, and site. The…

  15. Low-cost point-focus solar concentrator, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. V.; Derbidge, T. C.; Erskine, D.; Maraschin, R. A.; Niemeyer, W. A.; Matsushita, M. J.; Overly, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the preliminary design study for the low cost point focus solar concentrator (LCPFSC) development program are presented. A summary description of the preliminary design is given. The design philosophy used to achieve a cost effective design for mass production is described. The concentrator meets all design requirements specified and is based on practical design solutions in every possible way.

  16. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  17. Special human vulnerability to low-cost collective punishment.

    PubMed

    Ross, Don

    2012-02-01

    Guala notes that low-cost punishment is the main mechanism that deters free-riding in small human communities. This mechanism is complemented by unusual human vulnerability to gossip. Defenders of an evolutionary discontinuity supporting human sociality might seize on this as an alternative to enjoyment of moralistic aggression as a special adaptation. However, the more basic adaptation of language likely suffices.

  18. Low-cost coding techniques for digital fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avizienis, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Published report discusses fault location properties of arithmetic codes. Criterion for effectiveness of given code is detection probability of local fault by application of checking algorithm to results of entire set of algorithms of processor. Report also presents analysis of arithmetic codes with low-cost check algorithm which possesses partial fault-location properties.

  19. A low-cost propulsion option for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, Jerry Jon; Meerman, Maarten; Paul, Malcolm; Sweeting, Martin

    1995-03-01

    Low-cost satellites require low-cost propulsion systems. This paper starts with a brief history of the University of Surrey Satellite (UoSAT) missions and the on-going efforts to provide affordable access to space. Future mission options are discussed along with the need for low-cost propulsion to make them possible. Following this introduction, a review of the potential propulsion system options available to the satellite designer is presented along with a discussion of the choices that are currently available off-the-shelf and their potentially high cost. Research into low-cost propulsion options at the University of Surrey are then discussed. The ultimate objective of this research is to develop and operate a small satellite propulsion system for a fraction of the cost of traditional systems. Emphasis is given to a hydrogen peroxide/polyethylene hybrit rocket motor option. This system is currently being tested to characterize combustion parameters and assess its long-term potential as a satellite upper-stage. The current status of this research program is discussed fully including a description of the hardware, preliminary test results and future plans.

  20. Low Cost Coherent Doppler Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this paper details the development of a low-cost, short-development time data acquisition and processing system for a coherent Doppler lidar. This was done using common laboratory equipment and a small software investment. This system provides near real-time wind profile measurements. Coding flexibility created a very useful test bed for new techniques.

  1. Leveraging Knowledge: Impact on Low Cost Planetary Mission Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momjian, Jennifer

    This paper discusses innovations developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) librarians to reduce the information query cycle time for teams planning low-cost, planetary missions. The first section provides background on JPL and its library. The second section addresses the virtual information environment, including issues of access, content,…

  2. A low cost route to hexagonal mesostructured carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Pinnavaia, T J

    2001-12-07

    A mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with a hexagonal framework structure (denoted C-MSU-H) has been prepared using a MSU-H silica template that can be assembled from a low cost soluble silicate precursor at near-neutral pH conditions.

  3. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  4. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing…

  5. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  6. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various operating methodologies to achieve low-cost space operations were investigated as part of the Space Transportation System (STS) planning. The emphasis was to show that the development investment, initial fleet costs, and supporting facilities for the STS could be effectively offset by exploiting the capabilities of the STS to satisfy mission requirements and reduce the cost of payload programs. The following major conclusions were reached: (1) the development of an on-orbit servicer maintenance system is compatible with many spacecraft programs and is recommended as the most cost-effective system, (2) spacecraft can be designed to be serviceable with acceptable design, weight, volume, and cost effects, (3) use of on-orbit servicing over a 12 year period results in savings ranging between four and nine billion dollars, (4) the pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared, (5) orbital maintenance has no significant impact on the STS.

  7. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-01-01

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique. PMID:27517931

  8. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-08-10

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  9. Use of talc as low-cost clarifier for wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grafia, Ana L; Castillo, Luciana A; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2014-01-01

    Talc is proposed as a low-cost mineral for wastewater clarification. In this sense, adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions was studied comparatively by using sepiolite (qualified as very good adsorbent) and two talc samples with different particle size and purity degree. The MB adsorption was assessed by determining remnant dye in the supernatant using UV-vis spectroscopy and by detecting dye adsorbed on mineral samples through thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Both isothermal curves and kinetic studies demonstrate that talc is a good dye adsorbent. Particularly, with dye concentrations similar to those of textile wastewater, talc was demonstrated to adsorb the same dye content of sepiolite at similar times. Natural talc could be employed as a low-cost alternative in wastewater treatment for the removal of cationic dyes.

  10. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two-axis, sun tracking solar energy collector is described. The collector design was specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion was used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, was the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allowed the control system to counter wide tolerances specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and to perform within a small tracking error.

  11. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two axis sun tracking solar energy collector are described. The collector design is specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes being limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion is used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, is the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allows the control system to counter wide tolerances that will be specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and perform within a small tracking error.

  12. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  13. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental work demonstrating the feasibility of the MIDFILM process as a low cost means of applying solar cell collector metallization as reported. Cell efficiencies of above 14% (AMl, 28 C) were achieved with fritted silver metallization. Environmental tests suggest that the metallization is slightly humidity sensitive and degradation is observed on cells with high series resistance. The major yield loss in the fabrication of cells was due to discontinuous grid lines, resulting in high series resitance. Standard lead-tin solder plated interconnections do not appear compatible with the MIDFILM contact. Copper, nickel and molybdemun base powder were investigated as low cost metallization systems. The copper based powder degraded the cell response. The nickel and molybdenum base powders oxidized when sintered in the oxidizing atmosphere necessary to ash the photoresin.

  14. Low-cost, focused-science Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Water Mission (MOWM) is discussed as an example of a low-cost, low-risk focused-science Mars mission which might be implemented in the near term within recently imposed fiscal constraints. MOWM is designed to act as a follow-on to the Viking results in the areas of comparative climatology and water, carbon dioxide and dust inventories. The STS-compatible space vehicle would be based on proven earth-orbiting satellite hardware, fulfilling requirements for both spinning and despun components, operation with nonoptimum solar cell orientation, PAM-A upper stage compatibility, and data storage for delayed transmission. Study results have shown the technical and economic feasibility of missions based on any of four submitted designs which meet these requirements, and of low-cost, well-focused science objective Mars missions in general.

  15. Printed organic transistors for low-cost RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, V.; Frechet, J. M. J.; Chang, P. C.; de la Fuente Vornbrock, A.; Huang, D. C.; Lee, J. B.; Mattis, B. A.; Molesa, S.; Murphy, A. R.; Redinger, D. R.; Volkman, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    Printed electronics is attractive as a pathway towards the realization of ultra-low-cost RFID tags for replacement of conventional optical barcodes. While this application has received tremendous attention in recent years, it also represents one of the most challenging applications for organic transistors, based on both the performance requirements and the process complexity and cost implications. Here, we report on our progress in developing materials and processes for the realization of printed transistors for low-cost RFID applications. Using inkjet printing of novel conductors, dielectrics, and organic semiconductors, we have realized printed transistors with mobilities >0.1cm2/V-s, which is approaching the requirements of certain RFID applications. We review the performance of these devices, and discuss optimization strategies for achieving the ultimate performance goals requisite for realizing printed RFID.

  16. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val

    1991-01-01

    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  17. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  18. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  19. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  20. Zero-Net Power, Low-Cost Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-04-15

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified very low-power, low-cost sensors as a critical technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. This research addressed that need by developing an ultra low-power, low-cost sensor platform based on microsensor (MS) arrays that includes MS sensors, very low-power electronics, signal processing, and two-way data communications, all integrated into a single package. MSs were developed to measure carbon dioxide and room occupancy. Advances were made in developing a coating for detecting carbon dioxide and sensing thermal energy with MSs with a low power electrical readout. In addition, robust algorithms were developed for communications within buildings over power lines and an integrated platform was realized that included gas sensing, temperature, humidity, and room occupancy with on-board communications.

  1. Glass as encapsulation for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this paper, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The desired characteristics of glass encapsulation are (1) low degradation rates, (2) high transmittance, (3) high reliability, (4) low-cost, and (5) high annual production capacity. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources, prices, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  2. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, Jacqueline

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  3. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  4. Development of a low cost, portable solar hydrogen generation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kyle; Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, Ashok; Wingo, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen is a clean energy source that is environmentally friendly and safe. It is well known that electrolysis is a common method used to produce hydrogen. Other high cost methods for hydrogen production can be countered by the development of this low cost pulse width modulated circuit, using direct current provided by naturally existing solar energy as a power source. Efforts are being made in the scientific community to produce a low cost, portable, solar hydrogen generating device for a number of clean energy applications such as fuel cells and energy storage. Proof of concept has already been tested in the laboratory and a small prototype system is being designed and fabricated in the workshop at Alabama A&M University. Our results of this study and details of the electronic circuit and the prototype are presented.

  5. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  6. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  7. Improved Low-Cost Multi-Hit Transparent Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    MD Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069 ABSTRACT Operation Iraqi Freedom has clearly demonstrated the criticality of transparent armor in...Motyka at ARL) A polymer backing acts as a spall shield and holds fractured armor in place. Interlayer between polycarbonate and ceramics is...Hsieh, Gary A. Gilde U.S. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD IMPROVED LOW-COST MULTI-HIT TRANSPARENT ARMOR Distribution A

  8. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  9. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  10. A Novel Approach for a Low-Cost Deployable Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amend, Chris; Nurnberger, Michael; Oppenheimer, Paul; Koss, Steve; Purdy, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has designed, built, and fully qualified a low cost, low Passive Intermodulation (PIM) 12-foot (3.66-m) diameter deployable ultra high frequency (UHF) antenna for the Tacsat-4 program. The design utilized novel approaches in reflector material and capacitive coupling techniques. This paper discusses major design trades, unique design characteristics, and lessons learned from the development of the Tacsat 4 deployable antenna. This antenna development was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  11. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  12. Low-Cost, Net-Shape Ceramic Radial Turbine Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Garrett Turbine Engine Company AE OKUI UBR 111 South 34th Street, P.O. Box 2517 Phoenix, Arizona 85010 %I. CONTROLLING...processing iterations. Program management and materials characterization were conducted at Garrett Turbine Engine Company (GTEC), test bar and rotor...automotive gas turbine engine rotor development efforts at ACC. xvii PREFACE This is the final technical report of the Low-Cost, Net- Shape Ceramic

  13. Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lawler, J P

    1995-05-01

    Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method.

  14. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  15. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Methods are explored for economically generating electrical power to meet future requirements. The Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) was established to reduce the price of solar arrays by improving manufacturing technology, adapting mass production techniques, and promoting user acceptance. The new manufacturing technology includes the consideration of new silicon refinement processes, silicon sheet growth techniques, encapsulants, and automated assembly production being developed under contract by industries and universities.

  16. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  17. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  18. a Low-Cost Markerless Tracking System for Trajectory Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laggis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Protopapadakis, E.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2017-02-01

    The tracking abilities of 1st generation Kinect sensors have been tested over common trajectories of folk dances. Trajectories related errors, including offset, curve shape, noisy points are investigated and mitigated using well-known signal processing filters. Low cost depth trackers can contribute towards the remote tutoring of folk dances, by providing adequate data to instructors and explicit details to the trainees which segments of their dance trajectories need more work.

  19. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  20. Investigation of permanent magnets in low-cost position tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ryan; Lasso, Andras; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: Low cost portable ultrasound systems could see improved utility if similarly low cost portable trackers were developed. Permanent magnet based tracking systems potentially offer adequate tracking accuracy in a small workspace suitable for ultrasound image reconstruction. In this study the use of simple permanent magnet tracking techniques is investigated to determine feasibility for use in an ultrasound tracking system. METHODS: Permanent magnet tracking requires finding a position input into a field model which minimizes the error between the measured field, and the field expected from the model. A simulator was developed in MATLAB to determine the effect of sources of error in permanent magnet tracking systems. Insights from the simulations were used to develop a calibration and tracking experiment to determine the accuracy of a simple and low cost permanent magnet tracking system. RESULTS: Simulation and experimental results show permanent magnet based tracking to be highly sensitive to errors in sensor measurements, calibration and experimental setup. The reduction in field strength of permanent magnets lowers with the cube of distance, which leads to very poor signal-to-noise ratios at distances above 20 cm. Small errors in experimental setup also led to high tracking error. CONCLUSION: Permanent magnet tracking was found to be less accurate than is clinically useful, and highly sensitive to errors in sensors and experimental setup. Sensor and calibration limitations make simple permanent magnet tracking systems a poor choice given the present state of sensor technology.

  1. A miniature, low cost CTD system for coastal salinity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ivanov, Stanislav Z.; Fries, David P.

    2007-11-01

    In this work we describe a small, low cost conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) system for measurements of salinity in coastal waters. The system incorporates three low cost expendable sensors, a novel planar four-electrode conductivity cell, a planar resistive temperature device and a piezoelectric pressure sensor. The conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device were fabricated using novel printed circuit board (PCB) microelectromechanical (MEMS) techniques combined with a new thin-film material, liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Printed circuit board techniques allow for mass production of the sensors, thereby lowering the cost of the system. The three sensors are packaged so that they are independent of one another and can be quickly replaced if bio-fouled or damaged. Deployments in Bayboro Harbor, St Petersburg, FL demonstrate that the novel CTD systems are capable of obtaining highly resolved in situ salinity measurements comparable to measurements obtained using commercially available instruments. The estimated accuracies for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors are ±1.47%, ±0.546 °C and ±0.02 bar, respectively. This work indicates that a small, low cost CTD system with expendable/replaceable sensors can be used to provide accurate, precise and highly resolved conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements in a coastal environment.

  2. Low-Cost Optical Camera System for Disaster Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, F.; Meynberg, O.; Rosenbaum, D.; Türmer, S.; Reinartz, P.; Schroeder, M.

    2012-07-01

    Real-time monitoring of natural disasters, mass events, and large accidents with airborne optical sensors is an ongoing topic in research and development. Airborne monitoring is used as a complemental data source with the advantage of flexible data acquisition and higher spatial resolution compared to optical satellite data. In cases of disasters or mass events, optical high resolution image data received directly after acquisition are highly welcomed by security related organizations like police and rescue forces. Low-cost optical camera systems are suitable for real-time applications as the accuracy requirements can be lowered in return for faster processing times. In this paper, the performance of low-cost camera systems for real-time mapping applications is exemplarily evaluated based on already existing sensor systems operated at German Aerospace Center (DLR). Focus lies next to the geometrical and radiometric performance on the real time processing chain which includes image processors, thematic processors for automatic traffic extraction and automatic person tracking, data downlink to the ground station, and further processing and distribution on the ground. Finally, a concept for a national airborne rapid mapping service based on the low-cost hardware is proposed.

  3. Low Cost, High Accuracy Positioning In Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hide, Chris; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris; Park, David

    It is well known that GPS measurements are regularly obstructed in urban environments. Positioning accuracy in such environments is significantly degraded and in many areas, it is not possible to obtain a GPS position fix at all. There are currently two methods that can be used to improve availability in the urban environment. Firstly, GPS receivers can be augmented with dead reckoning sensors such as an INS. Alternatively, High Sensitivity GPS (HSGPS) receivers can be used which are able to acquire and track very weak signals. This paper assesses the performance obtained from a GPS and low cost INS integrated system and a HSGPS receiver in an urban environment in Nottingham, UK. The navigation systems are compared to a high accuracy integrated GPS/INS system which is used to provide a reference trajectory. It is demonstrated that the differential GPS and low cost INS system can provide horizontal positioning accuracy of better than 2·5 m RMS in real-time, and better than 1 m RMS in post-processing, whereas the non-differential HSGPS receiver provides a real-time performance of 5 m RMS. These results were obtained in an environment where, with conventional GPS receivers, a position solution is only available 48·4% of the time. Operational considerations such as initial alignment of the GPS and low cost INS are also discussed when comparing the two systems for urban positioning applications.

  4. A low-cost rugged solution for solar lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathwaj, A. N.; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2009-08-01

    We have explored the use of a low-cost, rugged optical system to collect and distribute natural sunlight for daytime lighting purposes. The sunlight collection and delivery is performed using a simple lens system in combination with a plastic optical fiber bundle. Based on such a system, we have demonstrated the ability to provide diffuse lighting over a 100 sq. ft. area. The work included the optimization of the lens and the fiber bundle according to data collected on the spatial distribution of focused sunlight. A key aspect of our work is the use of mirrors which could be easily maneuvered to maintain optimum coupling of light in the fiber throughout the day. An important issue that we addressed in our work is the devising of a low cost tracking mechanism to ensure nearuniform lighting throughout a day. The tracking system is an open loop system that is based on apriori data on the sun's movement and an initial alignment procedure. We have collected such data by tracking a beam of light reflected from a stationary mirror. Our data shows that the mirror needs to be rotated at the rate of 0.25 degrees/minute to maintain a fixed position at the collection plane. We expect to achieve a scalable, modular low cost lighting solution that works in conjunction with a LED array to illuminate common areas of commercial buildings during the daytime.

  5. Low Cost Space Demonstration for a Single-Person Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Dischinger, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for a single-person spacecraft and presents plans for flying a low-cost, robotic demonstration mission. Called FlexCraft, the vehicle integrates propulsion and robotics into a small spacecraft that enables rapid, shirt-sleeve access to space. It can be flown by astronauts or tele-operated and is equipped with interchangeable manipulators used for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. Most FlexCraft systems are verified using ground facilities; however, a test in the weightless environment is needed to assess propulsion and manipulator performance. For this, a simplified, unmanned, version of FlexCraft is flown on a low-cost launch vehicle to a 350 km circular orbit. After separation from the upper stage, the vehicle returns to a target box mounted on the stage testing the propulsion and control capability. The box is equipped with manipulator test items that are representative of tasks performed on ISS, asteroid missions, or for satellites servicing. Nominal and off-nominal operations are conducted over 3 days then the vehicle re-enters the atmosphere without becoming a debris hazard. From concept to management to operations, the FlexCraft demonstration is designed to be low cost project that is launched within three years. This is possible using a simplified test configuration that eliminates nine systems unique to the operational version and by designing-to-availability. For example, the propulsion system is the same as the Manned Maneuvering Unit because it capable, simple, human-rated and all components or equivalent parts are available. A description of the launch vehicle options, mission operations, configuration, and demonstrator subsystems is presented.

  6. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  7. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  8. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  9. Low-cost digital visualization and high-speed tracking of supersonic shockwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.; Skeen, Andrew J.; Timmerman, Brenda H.; Dunkley, P.; Paduano, James D.; Guenette, G. R., Jr.

    2003-11-01

    A low-cost and low-maintenance digital focused shadowgraph flow visualization system has been developed to provide fast diagnostics of rapidly changing phenomena in supersonic flows. The system is particularly designed for tracking shock positions in a supersonic inlet, enabling high-speed active shock control. It is based on a low-cost, high-intensity white LED light source, which can be flashed with microsecond pulses enabling freeze-frame imaging of constant illumination quality. The system features three modes of operation: (1) High-resolution digital still frames and sequences (1280 x 1024, 2fps), (2) High-resolution digital frames and sequences showing spatial-temporal variation in flow field (1280 x 1024, 12 fps), (3) Adjustable windowed digital frames at reduced resolution, but at high frame rates (980 fps at 1280 x 8 pixel viewing area). The three modes of operation allow high-speed tracking of flow features such as moving of shock waves (up to 980 Hz) as well as overall instantaneous views of the flow. Furthermore, it allows direct identification of areas where high-speed changes occur. The positional shock data can be transmitted directly to a shock-stabilizing control system. Results are presented of the unsteady flow generated by an aspirated cone-shaped nozzle in a supersonic flow in the supersonic wind tunnel of the MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory.

  10. Development of low cost contacts to silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the second phase of the program of developing low cost contacts to silicon solar cells using copper are presented. Phase 1 yielded the development of a plated Pd-Cr-Cu contact system. This process produced cells with shunting problems when they were heated to 400 C for 5 minutes. Means of stopping the identified copper diffusion which caused the shunting were investigated. A contact heat treatment study was conducted with Pd-Ag, Ci-Ag, Pd-Cu, Cu-Cr, and Ci-Ni-Cu. Nickel is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier to copper.

  11. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  12. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  13. High efficiency, low cost thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space-resistant, high efficiency, light-weight, low-cost GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells for space application is demonstrated. This program addressed the optimal preparation of ultrathin GaAs single-crystal layers by AsCl3-GaAs-H2 and OMCVD process. Considerable progress has been made in both areas. Detailed studies on the AsCl3 process showed high-quality GaAs thin layers can be routinely grown. Later overgrowth of GaAs by OMCVD has been also observed and thin FaAs films were obtained from this process.

  14. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mads S; Kessler, Tommy O; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  15. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinding, Mads S.; Kessler, Tommy O.; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  16. FINDR: Low-Cost Indoor Positioning Using FM Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papliatseyeu, Andrei; Kotilainen, Niko; Mayora, Oscar; Osmani, Venet

    This paper presents an indoor positioning system based on FM radio. The system is built upon commercially available, short-range FM transmitters. The features of the FM radio which make it distinct from other localisation technologies are discussed. Despite the low cost and off-the-shelf components, the performance of the FM positioning is comparable to that of other positioning technologies (such as Wi-Fi). From our experiments, the median accuracy of the system is around 1.3 m and in 95% of cases the error is below 4.5 m.

  17. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  18. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  19. The Wacker approach to low-cost silicon material technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtl, E.

    Proprietary, long-term materials research programs concerned with processes having high cost/energy-saving potential for the production of high-purity solar cell silicon are discussed. Program goals include the development of rugged, high-throughput rate production equipment, and impurity handling, or defect engineering standards, which will yield photovoltaic solar energy conversion efficiencies of a minimum of 10%. Different starting materials for a variety of low-cost crystallization techniques, the machining and slicing of silicon, and such diagnostic techniques as topographic methods, multielement analysis, identification of point defects, and photovoltaic evaluation, are discussed.

  20. Low cost coherent demodulation for mobile satellite terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Santanu; Henely, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes some low cost approaches to coherent BPSK demodulation for mobile satellite receivers. The specific application is an Inmarsat-C Land Mobile Earth Station (LMES), but the techniques are applicable to any PSK demodulator. The techniques discussed include combined sampling and quadrature downconversion with a single A/D and novel DSP algorithms for carrier acquisition offering both superior performance and economy of DSP resources. The DSP algorithms run at 5.7 MIPS, and the entire DSP subsystem, built with commercially available parts, costs under $60 at quantity-10,000.

  1. Low-cost commodity depth sensor comparison and accuracy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Timo; Bodensteiner, Christoph; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Low cost depth sensors have been a huge success in the field of computer vision and robotics, providing depth images even in untextured environments. The same characteristic applies to the Kinect V2, a time-of-flight camera with high lateral resolution. In order to assess advantages of the new sensor over its predecessor for standard applications, we provide an analysis of measurement noise, accuracy and other error sources with the Kinect V2. We examined the raw sensor data by using an open source driver. Further insights on the sensor design and examples of processing techniques are given to completely exploit the unrestricted access to the device.

  2. Low-cost thermoforming of micro fluidic analysis chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truckenmüller, R.; Rummler, Z.; Schaller, Th; Schomburg, W. K.

    2002-07-01

    We present a new method for the low-cost manufacture of micro fluidic devices from polymers for single use. Within a one-step or two-step process inside a hot embossing press, micro channels are thermoformed into a thin plastic film and welded on to a thicker plastic film or sheet. Sterile, hermetically sealed micro fluidic structures were fabricated from polystyrene for easy opening immediately before use. It even appears to be possible to produce micro fluidic analysis chips from polymers on a coil from which single devices are cut off for use.

  3. Low cost production of disposable microfluidics by blister packaging technology.

    PubMed

    Disch, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2007-01-01

    Large scale production of disposable microfluidics mostly is accomplished by injection moulding techniques today. A cost effective alternative to injection moulding might be vacuum thermoforming of polymer films. Vacuum thermoforming is the basis for medical and pharmaceutical packaging such as pharmaceutical blister packs. It allows for cheap and reliable forming of polymer films and thus seems suitable for the fabrication of disposables. Our goal is to investigate and demonstrate the potential of vacuum thermoforming for the fabrication of microtechnology components. For this purpose we have developed a simple low cost process allowing for the fabrication of disposable microfluidics by vacuum thermoforming.

  4. Flight System Testbed for Low Cost Spacecraft Interface Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Thomas, N.

    1994-01-01

    A world leader in space technology, JPL has over 30 years experience in developing spacecraft systems and managing deep space missions for NASA. Future scientific missions will require the rapid development of small, lightweight, high-technology, low-cost spacecraft. JPL is developing a method of meeting these requirements: a test facility specifically for supporting a rapid prototyping development environment that creates a virtual (simulated) spacecraft in which system-level evaluations of components can be carried out very early in the development cycle, long before an actual spacecraft is built.

  5. A Mobile and Low-Cost System for Environmental Monitoring: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Alejandro; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Northern Italy has one of the highest air pollution levels in the European Union. This paper describes a mobile wireless sensor network system intended to complement the already existing official air quality monitoring systems of the metropolitan town of Torino. The system is characterized by a high portability and low cost, in both acquisition and maintenance. The high portability of the system aims to improve the spatial distribution and resolution of the measurements from the official static monitoring stations. Commercial PM10 and O3 sensors were incorporated into the system and were subsequently tested in a controlled environment and in the field. The test in the field, performed in collaboration with the local environmental agency, revealed that the sensors can provide accurate data if properly calibrated and maintained. Further tests were carried out by mounting the system on bicycles in order to increase their mobility. PMID:27196912

  6. A Mobile and Low-Cost System for Environmental Monitoring: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Alejandro; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2016-05-17

    Northern Italy has one of the highest air pollution levels in the European Union. This paper describes a mobile wireless sensor network system intended to complement the already existing official air quality monitoring systems of the metropolitan town of Torino. The system is characterized by a high portability and low cost, in both acquisition and maintenance. The high portability of the system aims to improve the spatial distribution and resolution of the measurements from the official static monitoring stations. Commercial PM 10 and O 3 sensors were incorporated into the system and were subsequently tested in a controlled environment and in the field. The test in the field, performed in collaboration with the local environmental agency, revealed that the sensors can provide accurate data if properly calibrated and maintained. Further tests were carried out by mounting the system on bicycles in order to increase their mobility.

  7. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  8. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Additionally, these sensors have the potential to improve the spatial resolution of monitoring networks and provide a better understanding of neighborhood- and local-scale air quality and sources. However, many new sensors have not been evaluated to determine their long-term performance and capabilities. In this study, nine different low-cost sensor models, including O3, NO2 and particle sensors, were deployed in Denver, CO from September 2015 to February 2016. Three sensors of each type were deployed to evaluate instrument precision and consistency over the time period. Sensors were co-located with reference monitors at the Denver NCore site in order to evaluate sensor accuracy and precision. Denver was chosen as the location for this study to evaluate sensor performance in dry, high altitude, and low winter temperatures. Sensors were evaluated for data completeness, performance over time, and comparison with regulatory monitors. This presentation will also address challenges and approaches to data logging and processing. Preliminary analysis revealed that most sensors had high data completeness when data loggers were operational (e.g., the Aeroqual O3 sensor ranged from 94-100%), and exhibited

  9. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  10. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  11. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H.

    1998-08-01

    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  12. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  13. Low-cost dipole hydrophone for use in towed arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1996-04-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a low-cost acoustic particle velocity sensor are described. The primary design parameters for the dipole hydrophone are low-cost, low-mass, and small size. The sensor uses commercially available geophones to locally measure one or more components of the acoustic particle velocity field. The geophones are encapsulated in a syntactic foam to reduce their average density and hence increase their acoustic sensitivity. This method of fabrication greatly reduces costs compared to conventional methods which use machined cases. The on-axis voltage sensitivity was measured experimentally using two methods. The first used a uniaxial vibration shaker to estimate the intrinsic velocity sensitivity of the encapsulated geophone with the case fixed to the shaker head. The second measured the {ital in} {ital situ} acoustic sensitivity in water. Theoretical models of the voltage sensitivity for these two cases are developed and the results compare very well with the experimental data. Additionally, rotator tests were performed at frequencies of 100, 500, 600, and 1000 Hz to measure the quality of the dipole directivity pattern in water. Near-theoretical dipole patterns, with nulls better than 30 dB, were measured. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Low-cost and biocompatible long-period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Olmos, Jorge A.; Oropeza-Ramos, Laura; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induced by a polymeric microstructure is demonstrated. LPFGs are induced on a tapered optical fiber (TOF) when a periodic micro-grating comes into contact with the thin region of the fiber. The micro-grating device is made using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an inexpensive, nontoxic and optically transparent polymer that is extensively used in microfluidics, organic electronics and biotechnological applications. Soft lithography, along with molds built from thermoplastic polystyrene sheets, makes the fabrication straightforward and extremely low-cost. Additionally, no precision machining is necessary and the resolution of the microstructures is limited only by the resolution of the laser printer used for patterning the polystyrene sheets. The TOF and the micro-grating were dimensionally characterized using optical microscopy and white light interferometry, respectively. Variations on the optical spectrum due to pressure and temperature were observed and their magnitudes were similar to those obtained using metallic microstructures. Thus, LPFGs can be made in an inexpensive and expeditious way using PDMS and TOFs. These polymeric devices can be integrated into microfluidic and other labon- a-chip systems where biocompatibility is a valuable characteristic.

  15. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  16. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  17. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  18. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  19. COMPASS Final Report: Low Cost Robotic Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling for the Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team designed a robotic lunar Lander to deliver an unspecified payload (greater than zero) to the lunar surface for the lowest cost in this 2006 design study. The purpose of the low cost lunar lander design was to investigate how much payload can an inexpensive chemical or Electric Propulsion (EP) system deliver to the Moon s surface. The spacecraft designed as the baseline out of this study was a solar powered robotic lander, launched on a Minotaur V launch vehicle on a direct injection trajectory to the lunar surface. A Star 27 solid rocket motor does lunar capture and performs 88 percent of the descent burn. The Robotic Lunar Lander soft-lands using a hydrazine propulsion system to perform the last 10% of the landing maneuver, leaving the descent at a near zero, but not exactly zero, terminal velocity. This low-cost robotic lander delivers 10 kg of science payload instruments to the lunar surface.

  20. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  1. LOW COST PRODUCTION OF CARBON FIBERS FROM LIGNIN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Darren A; Baker, Frederick S

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Vehicle Technologies-funded work at ORNL is directed to the development of processes for the low cost production of carbon fibers. The objective of the project is to develop more energy-efficient, cost-effective processes for production of carbon fibers for use in composite materials for vehicles, which would substantially reduce vehicle weight, increase vehicle fuel economy, and result in lower CO2 emissions. Carbon fibers have the potential for substantial weight saving in vehicles because of their remarkable high strength, high modulus, and low density. However, carbon fibers are currently too expensive for large scale automotive use, which necessitates a large reduction in the cost of commercial grade fiber from about $20/lb to $5-7/lb. Lignin, a renewable resource material, has significant potential as a precursor material for low cost carbon fiber production. In this paper we report on progress to demonstrate the melt-spinning of precursor fibers from various lignin sources, the subsequent processing of the lignin precursor fibers into carbon fibers, and carbon fiber properties.

  2. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  3. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  4. Flight results of a low-cost attitude determination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, John C.; Cutler, James W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents flight results of the attitude determination system (ADS) flown on the Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellites, RAX-1 and RAX-2, which are CubeSats developed to study space weather. The ADS sensors include commercial-off-the-shelf magnetometers, coarse sun sensors (photodiodes), and a MEMs rate gyroscope. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is used for attitude estimation. On-orbit calibration was developed and applied to compensate for sensor and alignment errors, and attitude determination accuracies of 0.5° 1-σ have been demonstrated on-orbit. The approach of using low-cost sensors in conjunction with on-orbit calibration, which mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration and high-tolerance alignment during spacecraft assembly, reduces the time and cost associated with the subsystem development, and provides a low-cost solution for modest attitude determination requirements. Although the flight results presented in this paper are from a specific mission, the methods used and lessons learned can be used to maximize the performance of the ADS of any vehicle while minimizing the pre-flight calibration and alignment requirements.

  5. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  6. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  7. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Bogena, Heye Reemt; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Schilling, Bernd; Weuthen, Ansgar; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8). Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process. PMID:28117731

  8. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  9. A Low-Cost Real Color Picker Based on Arduino

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J.; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option. PMID:25004152

  10. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts.

  11. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  12. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Roland R.; Richards, William A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; McCann, Una D.; Jesse, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose. This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70kg) administered on the other session(s). During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a “complete” mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life, and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously-occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives. PMID:18593735

  13. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Rr; Richards, Wa; Johnson, Mw; McCann, Ud; Jesse, R

    2008-08-01

    Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however, little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose. This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/ spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70 kg) administered on the other session(s). During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated that the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a 'complete' mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives.

  14. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  15. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  16. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  17. Design and Construction of an Autonomous Low-Cost Pulse Height Analyzer and a Single Channel Analyzer for Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, A.A.; Trujillo, J.M.; Morales, A.L.; Tobon, J.E.; Gancedo, J.R.; Reyes, L.

    2005-04-26

    A multichannel analyzer (MCA) and a single channel-analyzer (SCA) for Moessbauer spectrometry application have been designed and built. Both systems include low-cost digital and analog components. A microcontroller manages, either in PHA or MCS mode, the data acquisition, data storage and setting of the pulse discriminator limits. The user can monitor the system from an external PC through the serial port with the RS232 communication protocol. A graphic interface made with the LabVIEW software allows the user to adjust digitally the lower and upper limits of the pulse discriminator, and to visualize as well as save the PHA spectra in a file. The system has been tested using a 57Co radioactive source and several iron compounds, yielding satisfactory results. The low cost of its design, construction and maintenance make this equipment an attractive choice when assembling a Moessbauer spectrometer.

  18. A Low Cost Grism Spectrometer for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and built a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer for the University of Iowa's robotic observatory. Grism spectrometers differ from simple transmission grating systems by partially compensating for the curved focal plane using a wedge prism. The spectrometer has five optical elements, and was designed using a ray tracing program. The collimating and focusing optics are easily modified for other telescope optics. The optics are mounted in an enclosure made with a 3-d printer. The spectrometer was installed in a modified (extended) filter wheel and has been in routine operation since January 2016. I will show sample spectra using this system and discuss spectral calibration, and optical design considerations for other telescopes. I will also discuss how low-resolution spectrometers can be used in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  19. Low cost cylindrical converter for measuring lead efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, G. L.; Nakata, L.; Britt, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost cylindrical thermionic converter has been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in a NASA-JPL program to directly measure converter lead efficiencies using various electrode materials and surfaces. Efficiency measurements are made using input emitter heater power, output power at the leads, and calculated values of the parasitic losses that would not be present in the application configuration. This information can be used to predict the performance characteristics of the advanced converters currently under development. A series of five converters has been tested. Both structured and smooth molybdenum collectors have been used. Emitters included smooth molybdenum, smooth rhenium, and microstructured rhenium. Cesium pressure families of current-voltage curves are presented for emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, and 1800 K, along with measured efficiencies as a function of converter current densities for each temperature.

  20. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-14

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system is illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperature in a lake.

  1. Low-cost inertial navigation for moderate-g missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost inertial navigation system (INS) concept is described for flight missions characterized by moderate accelerations and limited attitude variations. These missions involve general aviation aircraft, helicopters, or remotely piloted vehicles. The significance of the moderate acceleration and limited attitude is reviewed with respect to platform mechanization and instrumentation. A hybrid mechanization, partially gimballed and partially strapdown, is presented. The INS is implemented by an unbalanced two axis gimbal system and controlled by a two degree of freedom gyro. The INS provides locally level two axis acceleration information along with pitch and roll measurements. Heading information is provided by a second gyro mounted in the inner gimbal. The system error model is equivalent to that of a conventional platform with a tilt error determined by the integral of the gyro drift rate and an equivalent accelerometer type errors are also cancelled. Rapid gyro-compassing, implemented with opened gimbal control loops, and a strapdown procedure provides calibration of gyro drift rate biases.

  2. A Low-Cost, Portable, Parallel Computing Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Daniel; Poppeliers, Christian; Allen, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Research in modern physical sciences has placed an increasing demand on computers for complex algorithms that push the limits of consumer personal computers. Parallel supercomputers are often required for large-scale algorithms, however the cost of these systems can be prohibitive. The purpose of this project is to construct a low-cost, portable, parallel computer system as an alternative to large-scale supercomputers, using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components. These components can be networked together to allow processors to communicate with one another for faster computations. The overall design of this system is based on the development of ``Little Fe'' at Contra Costa College in San Pablo, California. Revisions to this design include improved design components, smaller physical size, easier transportation, less wiring, and a single AC power supply.

  3. Demonstration of the Low-Cost Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, David; Montes, Leticia; Ramos, Angel; Joyce, Brendan; Lumia, Ron

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a low-cost approach of remotely controlling equipment. Our demonstration system consists of a PC, the PUMA 560 robot with Barrett hand, and commercially available controller and teleconferencing software. The system provides a graphical user interface which allows a user to program equipment tasks and preview motions i.e., simulate the results. Once satisfied that the actions are both safe and accomplish the task, the remote user sends the data over the Internet to the local site for execution on the real equipment. A video link provides visual feedback to the remote sight. This technology lends itself readily to NASA's upcoming Mars expeditions by providing remote simulation and control of equipment.

  4. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  5. Low-cost directionally-solidified turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sink, L. W.; Hoppin, G. S., III; Fujii, M.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost process of manufacturing high stress rupture strength directionally-solidified high pressure turbine blades was successfully developed for the TFE731-3 Turbofan Engine. The basic processing parameters were established using MAR-M 247 and employing the exothermic directional-solidification process in trial castings of turbine blades. Nickel-based alloys were evaluated as directionally-solidified cast blades. A new turbine blade, disk, and associated components were then designed using previously determined material properties. Engine tests were run and the results were analyzed and compared to the originally established goals. The results showed that the stress rupture strength of exothermically heated, directionally-solidified MAR-M 247 turbine blades exceeded program objectives and that the performance and cost reduction goals were achieved.

  6. Low-cost home experiments and demonstrations in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.; Serna, J.; Piquero, G.

    2005-10-01

    More than 60 demonstrations and basic experiments in Optics have been compiled. They can be carried out by secondary and university students in the classroom or at home, and have been conceived considering low cost and easy-to-get materials. The goal is to offer didactic resources, showing that Optics can be taught in an attractive and amusing way. The experiments try to stimulate scientific curiosity, and generate interest in the observation of our physical world. The work could be collected as a book, where each demonstration would be contained in one or two pages, including a title, a list of the required materials and a concise explanation about what to do and observe. Associated with the experimental content, we propose a web page, namely, http://www.ucm.es/info/expoptic, that accepts experiments sent by anyone interested in Optics, which can be used as a forum to interchange information on this educational topic.

  7. Cryogenic characterization of low-cost Joule-Thomson coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Jerome; Cottereau, Alain; Chazot, Dominique

    2000-12-01

    This paper highlights two main achievements which were performed by AIR LIQUIDE during the last decade in the field of low cost Joule-Thomson coolers. On one hand, in order to comply with new geometrical requirements, AIR LIQUIDE is able to propose a flat cooler. This compact geometry is enabled by a new, cheap, type of heat exchanger. It offers a better resistance to external vibrations. On the other hand AIR LIQUIDE has developed, in the frame of a commercial program, a complete cryogenic cooling system, composed of a dual flow Joule-Thomson cooler, a pressurized gas capacity equipped with a manifold block and a pyrotechnic actuator, and the requested pipes and connectors. The dual flow is enabled by flexion of a washer made of shape memory alloy.

  8. Low-cost aircraft collision-avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Herbert L.

    1993-10-01

    There exists a need for a low-cost aircraft collision-avoidance system suitable, and affordable, for general aviation use. The fact that most of all of mid-air collisions occur under high visibility conditions, and many in and near terminal airspace, allows the consideration of optical means such as a LIDAR system for ranging and tracking to other aircraft to determine if a collision threat exists. This paper presents a system parametric analysis and discusses the LIDAR design tradeoffs with consideration of atmospheric attention, false target discrimination, threat scenario, scanning dynamics, wide FOV retroreflector array performance, and sizing for airframe ease of mounting and minimal aerodynamic effects. Further, concepts for the optical design and mechanization of the scanner are presented as well as a pilot warning/display means for evasive maneuver consideration.

  9. Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto

    2005-03-01

    This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data. Experimental tests of the apparatus were performed by measuring the rotation angle of solutions of ( )-adrenaline and by following the kinetics of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose.

  10. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of glass encapsulation that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems are discussed. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the low-cost solar array project goals for arrays: (1) a low degradation rate, (2) high reliability, (3) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (4) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (5) a production capacity of 500,000 kW/yr. The glass design areas discussed include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties, and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings.

  11. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs.

  12. Low-Cost Graphite-Based Free Chlorine Sensor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si; Deen, M Jamal; Ghosh, Raja

    2015-11-03

    Pencil lead was used to fabricate a graphite-based electrode for sensing applications. Its surface was electrochemically modified using ammonium carbamate to make it suitable for sensing free chlorine in water samples. Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in the water industry, and the residual free chlorine concentration in water distributed to the consumers must be lower than that stipulated by regulatory bodies. The graphite-based amperometric sensor gave a selective and linear response to free chlorine in the relevant concentration range and no response to commonly interfering ions. It was evaluated further for storage stability, response time, and hysteresis. This sensor is being proposed as a low-cost device for determining free chlorine in water samples. Its ease-of-use, limitations, and feasibility for mass-production and application is discussed.

  13. Low-Cost, Large C-SiC Blisk Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowbel, W.; Effinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    C-SiC composites offer unique properties for propulsion applications. However, fabrication of low-cost, thick, large scale C-SiC disk for integrally bladed disk (blisk) applications has not been established yet. MER has demonstrated a new process to address this issue. Polymer-based processing was employed for interfacial coatings, consolidation and densification. Up to 40" O.C., 2" thick C-SiC composite processing was established, yielding in excess of 1.8 g/cu cm density. Computer tomography (CT) scans on the 40" O.D., 2" thick C-SiC disk showed no visible delamination, and good density uniformity. Stress-rupture testing in air was conducted at 2200 F, 2400 F and 2550 F.

  14. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  15. Low cost flatbed scanner label-free biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, Ugur; Avci, Oguzhan; Seymour, Elif; Sevenler, Derin D.; Urey, Hakan; Ünlü, M. Selim; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate utilization of a commercial flatbed document scanner as a label-free biosensor for highthroughput imaging of DNA and protein microarrays. We implemented an interferometric sensing technique through use of a silicon/oxide layered substrate, and easy to implement hardware modifications such as re-aligning moving parts and inserting a custom made sample plate. With a cost as low as 100USD, powered by a USB cable, and scan speed of 30 seconds for a 4mm x 4 mm area with ~10μm lateral resolution, the presented system offers a super low cost, easy to use alternative to commercially available label-free systems.

  16. Low cost wafer metrology using a NIR low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Gwang; Seo, Yong Bum; Joo, Ki-Nam

    2013-06-03

    In this investigation, a low cost Si wafer metrology system based on low coherence interferometry using NIR light is proposed and verified. The whole system consists of two low coherence interferometric principles: low coherence scanning interferometry (LCSI) for measuring surface profiles and spectrally-resolved interferometry (SRI) to obtain the nominal optical thickness of the double-sided polished Si wafer. The combination of two techniques can reduce the measurement time and give adequate dimensional information of the Si wafer. The wavelength of the optical source is around 1 μm, for which transmission is non-zero for undoped silicon and can be also detected by a typical CCD camera. Because of the typical CCD camera, the whole system can be constructed inexpensively.

  17. A Large Lunar Surface Testbed from Low Cost Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    For users needing to simulate the lunar surface, several distinct avenues have been used. Numerous volcanic areas, including Hawaii, have been used. While providing very large areas and scenic interest, field parties to such an area is expensive and limits testing time. An alternative is to build test facilities locally. This has been done many ways, contrast GRC-1, GSC-1, BP-1 and the KSC Morpheus facility [1-4]. GRC-1 is a mixture of sand and clay; GSC-1 and BP-1 are waste materials created in the process of crushing basaltic rock. The Morpheus field used salvaged concrete and crushed quartz rock [5]. Here I report about a 30 m X 30 m test area at MSFC which was both low cost and relatively high fidelity [6].

  18. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Fastier-Wooller, Jarred; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Nguyen, Tuan-Khoa; Cameron, Andrew; Öchsner, Andreas; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement. PMID:27509496

  19. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  20. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985

  1. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system is illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperature in a lake. PMID:28098819

  2. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  3. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  4. Electricity from sunlight. [low cost silicon for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Miller, J. W.; Lutwack, R.; Hsu, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of new unconventional processes proposed for the low-cost production of silicon for solar cells. Consideration is given to: (1) the Battelle process (Zn/SiCl4), (2) the Battelle process (SiI4), (3) the Silane process, (4) the Motorola process (SiF4/SiF2), (5) the Westinghouse process (Na/SiCl4), (6) the Dow Corning process (C/SiO2), (7) the AeroChem process (SiCl4/H atom), and the Stanford process (Na/SiF4). Preliminary results indicate that the conventional process and the SiI4 processes cannot meet the project goal of $10/kg by 1986. Preliminary cost evaluation results for the Zn/SiCl4 process are favorable.

  5. Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayler, Michael C. D.; Sakellariou, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5 mm bore size and field up to nearly 2 T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1 mL of pure [13C ]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10-10 T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency 1JCH = 140.7 (1) Hz.

  6. Generating clean energy at high efficiency and low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan P.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is related to thermal energy conversion with particular attention to the utilization of thermal energy from environmental fluids according to concepts in equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The first step is to prove that a single fluid heat source can produce useful work, so that thermal energy of environmental fluids is not at 'dead state.' An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system can be easily constructed at higher efficiency and lower cost than existing OTEC systems. An atmosphere thermal energy conversion (ATEC) system of high efficiency and low cost is more sophisticated. It requires open or closed counter-clockwise cycles comprising isothermal compressible flow with or without heat transfer. Combination of one of such ATEC System and a cyclic system, and supplementation of fossil or nuclear fission fuel as an additional heat source are discussed for particular applications.

  7. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  8. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-09-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing characteristics of products as income rises over time. The crucial distinction turns out to be the way sharing is handled in the two cases. In the one no sharing is allowed while in the other sharing is the basis of the entire product design. Put somewhat differently, the one computer is intensive in a high-income characteristic whereas the other relies entirely on a low-income characteristic.

  9. Mercury content in low cost skin lightening cream products.

    PubMed

    Naser, J; Kirm, I

    2012-04-01

    Skin lightening creams were randomly collected from local markets in Sultanate of Oman for analysis of mercury (II) content. All the products collected were of low cost imported materials from different countries. Cream samples were digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at elevated temperature using a microwave digester. The mercury content was measured using Flow Injection Atomic Spectroscopy (FIAS)-Mercury Hydride System. Out of forty cream samples analyzed, about one fourth of the samples contained higher levels of mercury which is more than the maximum mercury content of 1 microg/g permitted by the Food and Drug Administration regulation. The mercury level in the analyzed samples is found to be in the range from 0.02 to 25.7 microg/g. Among the analyzed skin lightening cream samples half of the materials did not have any detectable mercury content.

  10. Fast, Dense Low Cost Scintillator for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Craig

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the morphology, transparency, and optical properties of SrHfO{sub 3}:Ce ceramics. Ceramics can be made transparent by carefully controlling the stoichiometry of the precursor powders. When fully dense, transparent samples can be obtained. Ceramics with a composition close to stoichiometry (Sr:Hf ~ 1) appear to show good transparency and a reasonable light yield several times that of BGO. The contact and distance transparency of ceramics hot-pressed at about 1450ºC is very good, but deteriorates at increasingly higher hot-press temperatures. If these ceramics can be produced in large quantities and sizes, at low cost, they may be of considerable interest for PET and CT.

  11. Sensor integration in a low cost land mobile mapping system.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved.

  12. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  13. Low-cost packaging of high-performance optoelectronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Pocha, M.; Strand, O.T.

    1994-08-01

    Optoelectronic component costs are often dominated by the costs of attaching fiber optic pigtails--especially for the case of single transverse mode devices. We present early results of our program in low-cost packaging. We are employing machine-vision controlled automated positioning and silicon microbench technology to reduce the costs of optoelectronic components. Our machine vision approach to automated positioning has already attained a positional accuracy of less than 5 microns in less than 5 minutes; accuracies and times are expected to improve significantly as the development progresses. Complementing the machine vision assembly is our manufacturable approach to silicon microbench technology. We will describe our silicon microbench optoelectronic device packages that incorporate built-in heaters for solder bonding reflow.

  14. Simulating low-cost cameras for augmented reality compositing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Georg; Murray, David W

    2010-01-01

    Video see-through Augmented Reality adds computer graphics to the real world in real time by overlaying graphics onto a live video feed. To achieve a realistic integration of the virtual and real imagery, the rendered images should have a similar appearance and quality to those produced by the video camera. This paper describes a compositing method which models the artifacts produced by a small low-cost camera, and adds these effects to an ideal pinhole image produced by conventional rendering methods. We attempt to model and simulate each step of the imaging process, including distortions, chromatic aberrations, blur, Bayer masking, noise, sharpening, and color-space compression, all while requiring only an RGBA image and an estimate of camera velocity as inputs.

  15. Low-cost passive UHF RFID tags on paper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajal, Sayeed Zebaul Haque

    To reduce the significant cost in the widespread deployment of UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, an UHF RFID tag design is presented on paper substrates. The design is based on meander-line miniaturization techniques and open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR) elements that reduce required conducting materials by 30%. Another passive UHF RFID tag is designed to sense the moisture based on the antenna's polarization. An inexpensive paper substrate and copper layer are used for flexibility and low-cost. The key characteristic of this design is the sensitivity of the antenna's polarization on the passive RFID tag to the moisture content in the paper substrate. In simulations, the antenna is circularly-polarized when the substrate is dry and is linearly-polarized when the substrate is wet. It was shown that the expected read-ranges and desired performance could be achieved reducing the over-all cost of the both designs.

  16. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wilding; D. Bramwell

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG&E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California.

  17. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  18. Synthesis of CZTS Nanoparticles for Low-Cost Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha; Shim, Joongpyo; Kim, Doyoung; Choi, Wonseok; Park, Yong Seob; Choi, Youngkwan; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, uniformly sized Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles with easy control of chemical composition were synthesized and printable ink containing CZTS nanoparticles was prepared for low-cost-solar cell applications. In addition, we studied the effects of synthesis conditions, such as reaction temperature and time, on properties of the CZTS nanoparticles. For CZTS nanoparticles synthesis process, the reactants were mixed as the 2:1:1:4 molar ratios. The reaction temperature and time was varied from 220 degrees C to 320 degrees C and from 3 hours to 5 hours, respectively. The crystal structure and morphology of CZTS nanoparticles prepared under the various conditions were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used for compositional analysis of the CZTS nanoparticles.

  19. Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR.

    PubMed

    Tayler, Michael C D; Sakellariou, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5mm bore size and field up to nearly 2T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1mL of pure [(13)C]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10(-10)T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency (1)JCH=140.7(1)Hz.

  20. Low-cost EEG-based sleep detection.

    PubMed

    Van Hal, Bryan; Rhodes, Samhita; Dunne, Bruce; Bossemeyer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A real-time stage 1 sleep detection system using a low-cost single dry-sensor EEG headset is described. This device issues an auditory warning at the onset of stage 1 sleep using the "NeuroSky Mindset," an inexpensive commercial entertainment-based headset. The EEG signal is filtered into low/high alpha and low/high beta frequency bands which are analyzed to indicate the onset of sleep. Preliminary results indicate an 81% effective rate of detecting sleep with all failures being false positives of sleep onset. This device was able to predict and respond to the onset of drowsiness preceding stage 1 sleep allowing for earlier warnings with the result of fewer sleep-related accidents.

  1. Low-cost DH and quantum well laser array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Geoffroy, Leo M.; Pesarcik, Scott F.; Magee, Carl J.

    1989-01-01

    The intial results of a program aimed at developing low-cost diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps are reported. MOCVD is used to demonstrate excellent run-to-run reproducibility in emission wavelength, threshold current density, and quantum efficiency. For this first experimental series, J(th) values of approximately 1310 Amps/sq cm were obtained for broad-area unthinned devices from the growth runs. Differential quantum efficiencies of between 41 percent and 47 percent were measured on the non-facet-coated devices from all four runs. Single quantum well, separate confinement heterostructure lasers fabricated from wafers grown in the same MOCVD reactor exhibited near single-mode emission, with J(th) values of approximately 300 Amps/sq cm. Photoluminescence data confirm quantum well widths of 80 A and 150 A for two different MOCVD growth runs.

  2. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1981-01-01

    The MIDFILM cell fabrication and encapsulation processes were demonstrated as a means of applying low-cost solar cell collector metallization. The average cell efficiency of 12.0 percent (AM1, 28 C) was achieved with fritted silver metallization with a demonstration run of 500 starting wafers. A 98 percent mechanical yield and 80 percent electrical yield were achieved through the MIDFILM process. High series resistance was responsible for over 90 percent of the electrical failures and was the major factor causing the low average cell efficiency. Environmental evaluations suggest that the MIDFILM cells do not degrade. A slight degradation in power was experienced in the MIDFILM minimodules when the AMP Solarlok connector delaminated during the environmental testing.

  3. Development of a low cost potentiostat using ATXMEGA32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muid, Abdul; Djamal, Mitra; Wirawan, Rahadi

    2014-03-01

    Potentiostat is principal devices in modern electrochemical research especially in the investigation of mechanism reaction which associated with the redox chemistry reaction and other chemical phenomena. Several applications measurement is developed based on this tool such as measurement of sample concentrations, quality test of food and medicine, environmental monitoring and biosensors or development of a protein sensor. We have developed a low cost, simple and portable potentiostat with a relatively small dimension. TLC2264 op-amp and ATMEGA32 microcontroller is used to build controller circuit system. Range potential measurement of this tool is between -1600mV and +1600mV within frequency range 1Hz - 1 kHz. The developed instrument has been tested for measuring samples using different voltammetry techniques, like cyclic, square wave, and linear sweep with relative error under 2.5%.

  4. Low-Cost Peptide Microarrays for Mapping Continuous Antibody Epitopes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface.

  5. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  6. A low cost, high performance remotely controlled backhoe/excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses a state of the art, low cost, remotely controlled backhoe/excavator system for remediation use at hazardous waste sites. The all weather, all terrain, Remote Dig-It is based on a simple, proven construction platform and incorporates state of the art sensors, control, telemetry and other subsystems derived from advanced underwater remotely operated vehicle systems. The system can be towed to a site without the use of a trailer, manually operated by an on board operator or operated via a fiber optic or optional RF communications link by a remotely positioned operator. A proportional control system is piggy backed onto the standard manual control system. The control system improves manual operation, allows rapid manual/remote mode selection and provides fine manual or remote control of all functions. The system incorporates up to 4 separate video links, acoustic obstacle proximity sensors, and stereo audio pickups and an optional differential GPS navigation. Video system options include electronic panning and tilting within a distortion-corrected wide angle field of view. The backhoe/excavator subsystem has a quick disconnect interface feature which allows its use as a manipulator with a wide variety of end effectors and tools. The Remote Dig-It was developed to respond to the need for a low-cost, effective remediation system for use at sites containing hazardous materials. The prototype system was independently evaluated for this purpose by the Army at the Jefferson Proving Ground where it surpassed all performance goals. At the time of this writing, the Remote Dig-It system is currently the only backhoe/excavator which met the Army`s goals for remediation systems for use at hazardous waste sites and it costs a fraction of any known competing offerings.

  7. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (<3.5 cm3 in volume and <500 mW in power consumption) that costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  8. Parametric perfusion imaging based on low-cost ultrasound platform.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaolin; Zhong, Hui; Wan, Mingxi; Hu, Xiaowen; Lv, Dan; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to implement parametric perfusion imaging to quantify blood perfusion based on modified low-cost ultrasound platform. A novel ultrasound contrast-specific imaging method called pulse-inversion harmonic sum-squared-differences (PIHSSD) was proposed for improving the sensitivity for detecting contrast agents and the accuracy of parametric perfusion imaging, which combined pulse-inversion harmonic (PIH) with pulse-inversion sum-squared-differences (PISSD) threshold-based decision. PIHSSD method just involved simple operations including addition and multiplication and was easy to realize. The sequences of contrast images without logarithmic compression were used to acquire time intensity curves (TICs) from numerous equal-sized regions-of-interest (ROI) covering the entire image plane. Parametric perfusion images were obtained based on the parameters extracted from the TICs, including peak value (PV), area under curve (AUC), mean transit time (MTT), peak value time (PVT), peak width (PW) and climbing rate (CR). Flow phantom was used for validation and the results suggested that PIHSSD method provided 9.6 to 20.3 dB higher contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) than PIH method. The results of the experiments of rabbit kidney also showed that the CTR of PIHSSD images was higher than that of PIH images, and the parametric perfusion images based on PIHSSD method provided more accurate quantification of blood perfusion compared with those based on PIH and PISSD methods. It demonstrated that the parametric perfusion imaging achieved good performance though implemented on low-cost ultrasound platform. (E-mail: mxwan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn).

  9. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  10. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  11. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  12. Investigation of a low cost method to quantify cosmetic defect.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Thomas; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-01-01

    For many patients, the motivation in seeking treatment is the improvement of their appearance rather than to correct an underlying skeletal deformity, so cosmetic concerns and the psychosocial impacts of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are important factors in the clinical decision-making process. In the current environment of evidence based medicine there is a growing need to quantify back surface shape and general body asymmetry with the objective of producing an agreed scoring to be used in developing treatment plans and assessing outcomes but to date many clinics continue to rely on qualitative or expensive methods to describe cosmetic deformity. In November 2010, Microsoft® Corporation launched the low cost Kinect™ camera with 18 million units sold (as at January 2012) throughout the world. The device incorporates proprietary light coding technology that reconstructs the three dimensional location of an estimated 50,000 projected points illuminating objects within its field of view in approximately 1/30th of a second. The aim of the research was to investigate the capabilities of a low cost, reliable and inherently safe apparatus based on Kinect depth sensing and video technology to simultaneously acquire back surface shape and the locations of bony landmarks with the goal of providing data to describe cosmetic defect. Work has been completed using both the apparatus and a commercially available optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, U.K.) to acquire data from a test object representing an unaffected human torso. Results were obtained to compare tri-dimensional bony landmark reconstruction accuracy and combined with analyses of point cloud data to describe back shape. Early indications are that the proposed apparatus has potential to be a clinically useful tool.

  13. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  14. Synovial haemangioma of the knee joint: an unusual cause of knee pain in a 14-month old girl.

    PubMed

    Wen, D W; Tan, T J; Rasheed, S

    2016-06-01

    We report a histologically proven case of synovial haemangioma of the knee in a 14-month old girl who presented to the emergency department with an acute 1-day history of refusing to weight-bear on the right leg and a preceding 3-week history of a right knee lump. Physical examination revealed a non-tender, soft lump over the lateral infrapatellar region. Radiographs revealed a poorly defined soft tissue density over the infrapatellar fat pad and a suprapatellar joint effusion. Ultrasound was used to confirm the presence of a vascular soft tissue mass compatible with a synovial haemangioma within the infrapatellar fat pad which showed both intra-articular and extra-articular extension. There was good correlation of the ultrasound findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the potential clinical utility of ultrasound as an alternative imaging modality in establishing the pre-operative diagnosis and extent of a synovial haemangioma about the knee joint.

  15. Orbital Observatory for Planetary Science on Low Cost Autonomous Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavrov, Alexander; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Vedenkin, Nikolay; Korablev, Oleg; Markov, Alexander; Kiselev, Alexander; Kokorich, Mikhail

    The Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science (IKI RAS) and Dauria Aerospace are currently developing the middle class space telescope project aiming to observe Solar system planets by a long term spectroscopy and polarimetry monitoring, as well aiming to extra solar planets (exoplanets) engineering and scientific goals. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in 2017. It is planned first to be delivered on board of the ISS by the Progress spacecraft, then it will be released to the desired orbit approx. 550 km by the Progress in the way to its final destination. The “Planetary monitoring” telescope has a 0.6 meter primary mirror diameter Telescope currently includes 5 science instruments: NIR: 1000..4000 nm high-resolution spectrometer with the spectral resolution of R>10000; Visible Field camera with filters wheel; UV-VIS field resolved Fourier spectrometer; UV-VIS spectropolarimeter; Stellar coronagraph linked with a low-resolution spectrometer. The scientific goals of the “Planetary monitoring” telescope are devoted to explore not yet well studied questions on Mars (methane, ozone, dust and clouds, isotope ratio of HDO/H2O), on Venus (UV absorber, night glow, atmosphere dynamics), icy and gaseous Solar system planets, Jovian moons, Lunar exosphere, comets, meteorites. This telescope aims also for engineering development of exoplanet study by stellar coronagraphy linked with a low-resolution spectrometry. This Orbital Observatory mission uses the first low cost small satellite platform developed by the Dauria Aerospace® - Russian private company and reuses the Progress to elevate the observatory orbit. The Progress launches four times per year to provide supplies and scientific instruments to the ISS. The Progress is capable of raising the height of the orbit for the piggyback scientific missions; therefore, the implementation of the Orbital Observatory mission is considered not just as a development of a successful science mission so it

  16. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic

  17. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  18. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  19. The Aluminum Falcon: a Low Cost Modern Commercial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Mark; Hernandez, Estela; King, Gregory; Lor, Alex Choua; Musser, Jana; Trigs, Deanne; Yee, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) released a Request For Proposal (RFP) in the form of an undergraduate design competition for a 153 passenger jet transport with a range of 3,000 nautical miles. The primary requirement for this aircraft was low cost, both in acquisition and operation, with a technology availability date of the year 2000. This report presents the Non-Solo Design Group's response to the RFP, the Aluminum Falcon (AF-1). Non-Solo's approach to development was to take the best elements of seven individual preliminary designs, then combine and refine them. The resulting aircraft meets or exceeds all requirements of both the RFP and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Highlights include a revolutionary wing planform, known as an M-wing, which offers many advantages over a conventional aft swept wing. For example, the M-wing lessens the travel in the aircraft center of gravity caused by fuel being stored in the wing. It also reduces the amount of torque imposed on the center wing box because more of the lifting load acts near the fuselage joint, rather than behind it. In essence, the M-wing offers the best of both worlds: using a forward swept wing root places the aerodynamic center of the wing further forward and allows the landing gear to be placed without the use of a yahudi. At the same time, with the outboard section swept backward the tip retains an amount of aeroelastic dampening that is lost on a completely forward swept wing. The result is a wing which has many advantages of a straight, unswept wings without the severe compressibility effects at high Mach numbers. Other highlights include judicious use of composites, giving recognition to the importance of weight and its effect on aircraft cost and performance, and an advanced passenger entertainment system which can be used as a source of revenue for the airlines. This aircraft meets the low-cost doctrine with an acquisition cost of $29 million and a direct

  20. netPICOMAG: a low-cost turn-key magnetometer for aurora detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I.; Connors, M.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work on development of a compact, low-cost, fluxgate magnetometer, dubbed PICOMAG, yielded a 1-nanotesla resolution, 1-second cadence instrument, suitable for research or teaching solar/terrestrial physics. With a low-cost magnetic instrument and the wider availability of Internet connectivity in the auroral zone (of Canada for example), the potential exists to fill gaps in spatial coverage that still plague auroral geomagnetic research. Thus, the ability to widely distribute accurate, low cost magnetometers was the motivating factor to develop PICOMAG. NetPICOMAG was developed in the effort to refine PICOMAG into a turn-key magnetometer data collection system that is self contained, simple to install and requires zero-maintenance. Once the unit is placed in the ground and connected to the Internet, it locks onto a GPS time signal and begins to transmit magnetic field measurements back to a central data repository, where it is archived, processed and plotted for public viewing via the World Wide Web. It is envisaged (among many other uses) that science teachers can use real scientific data provided by netPICOMAG in teaching the interactions between the sun and the Earth's magnetic field, manifesting itself in the phenomenon known as the northern lights. As such, netPICOMAG can be aptly described and is being promoted as an aurora detector. The netPICOMAG unit is based around three spatially oriented Speake and Company FGM-3/3h series magnetic field sensors that each emit a pulse stream whose frequency is related to the magnetic field along these three axes, and is nearly linearly related to magnetic field perturbations relevant to auroral studies. The individual pulse frequencies are measured by two PIC18F252 programmable microcontrollers. The measurements are combined with a GPS timestamp from a Garmin GPS 18 LVC GPS receiver, and transmitted as plain text as UDP datagrams by a Rabbit Semiconductor RCM4010 8-bit, networked microcontroller module. The self

  1. Low-cost hadron colliders at Fermilab: A discussion paper

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.W.; Malamud, E.

    1996-06-21

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in collider energies as represented by the well known Livingston plot. The old idea of low cost, low field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (2) accurate remote guidance systems for tunnel survey and boring machine steering, (3) high T{sub c} superconductors operating at liquid N{sub 2} or liquid H{sub 2} temperatures, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables, (6) achievement of high luminosities in p-p and p-{anti P} colliders. The goal of this paper is to stimulate continuing discussions on approaches to this new collider and to identify critical areas needing calculations, construction of models, proof of principle experiments, and full scale prototypes in order to determine feasibility and arrive at cost estimates.

  2. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  3. Implementation of a Low Cost Structured Light Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaei, M.; Mousavi, S. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a practical 3D scanner based on coded structured light principle is reported. The system integrates the technology of close range photogrammetry and Gray code structured light together with multi-line shift processing methodology. This 3D acquisition device allows bulding highly dense and accurate models of real world in a cost- and time-effective manner. The configuration consists of a digital multimedia projector and two digital cameras. One advantage of this configuration is, that the projection device can, but is not required to be stable over time nor it does have to be calibrated. Given a point on left image, the correspondent point on right image is the intersection of coded light stripes with the same code and epipolar line. Then, the depth is estimated by triangulation. The experimental restults have showen that, the proposed solution for essential matrix derivation and applying it to find correspondent points throughout Grey coded multi-line data sets yields high accuracy and density surface reconstruction with the lowest percentage of mismatch or blunder even for semi-complex objects. Some other advantages of this system lie in its design simplicity, low cost and the potential for fast and robust implementation.

  4. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  5. Low Cost CE-NMR with Microcoils for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K; Klunder, G; Demas, V; Malba, V; Bernhardt, A; Evan, L; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Herberg, J L

    2009-01-08

    Understanding speciation in solids and solutions is important for environmental and toxicological purposes. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a simple rapid separation technique that can be used to identify species in solution. CE is particularly is well suited for rapid separations of metal containing samples. Direct on-capillary measurement of metal compound speciation can be obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The development of a low-cost microcoil CE-NMR system for in situ characterization of samples of interest is discussed. High precision laser lithography is used to produce copper sputtered microcoils that have comparable resistivity and quality factors to that of hand wound microcoils. A portable NMR system coupled with a CE system has the potential to identify chemical species in aqueous solutions. In addition, transient isotachophoresis can separate and pre-concentrate samples of interest to obtain separate chemical peaks for speciation by online NMR analysis. We are developing separation assays to determine the speciation of chemical complexes in solutions with minimal perturbation to the original sample equilibrium. On-line NMR measurements will be made downstream of the UV detector.

  6. Low Cost CE-NMR with Microcoils for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K L; Klunder, G; Demas, V; Malba, V; Bernhardt, A; Evan, L; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Herberg, J

    2008-07-25

    Understanding speciation in solids and solutions is important for environmental and toxicological purposes. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a simple rapid separation technique that can be used to identify species in solution. CE is particularly is well suited for rapid separations of metal containing samples. Direct on-capillary measurement of metal compound speciation can be obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The development of a low-cost microcoil CE-NMR system for in situ characterization of samples of interest is discussed. High precision laser lithography is used to produce copper sputtered microcoils that have comparable resistivity and quality factors to that of hand wound microcoils. A portable NMR system coupled with a CE system has the potential to identify chemical species in aqueous solutions. In addition, transient isotachophoresis can separate and pre-concentrate samples of interest to obtain separate chemical peaks for speciation by online NMR analysis. We are developing separation assays to determine the speciation of chemical complexes in solutions with minimal perturbation to the original sample equilibrium. On-line NMR measurements will be made downstream of the UV detector.

  7. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  8. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  9. Measurement of luminescence decays: High performance at low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulkes, Mark; Sulkes, Zoe

    2011-11-01

    The availability of inexpensive ultra bright LEDs spanning the visible and near-ultraviolet combined with the availability of inexpensive electronics equipment makes it possible to construct a high performance luminescence lifetime apparatus (˜5 ns instrumental response or better) at low cost. A central need for time domain measurement systems is the ability to obtain short (˜1 ns or less) excitation light pulses from the LEDs. It is possible to build the necessary LED driver using a simple avalanche transistor circuit. We describe first a circuit to test for small signal NPN transistors that can avalanche. We then describe a final optimized avalanche mode circuit that we developed on a prototyping board by measuring driven light pulse duration as a function of the circuit on the board and passive component values. We demonstrate that the combination of the LED pulser and a 1P28 photomultiplier tube used in decay waveform acquisition has a time response that allows for detection and lifetime determination of luminescence decays down to ˜5 ns. The time response and data quality afforded with the same components in time-correlated single photon counting are even better. For time-correlated single photon counting an even simpler NAND-gate based LED driver circuit is also applicable. We also demonstrate the possible utility of a simple frequency domain method for luminescence lifetime determinations.

  10. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  11. A Low-Cost Device for Automatic Photometric Titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2000-02-01

    Electronics is an important topic in chemistry courses. However, the introduction of basic concepts is often difficult and the lab instruments are frequently seen as "black boxes". To address this problem, we propose the construction of a simple, low-cost (about $150 U.S.) automatic photometric titrator employing a light-emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor. The electronic circuit can be assembled by the students themselves. The device was employed to implement a common procedure in chemical labs, making feasible the introduction of concepts related to electronics in undergraduate chemistry courses. The titrator is able to work automatically, since a feedback system permits stopping the addition of titrant solution when the end-point is achieved. With this demonstration, it can be stressed that automatic procedures can be implemented without expensive instruments. Additionally, a classical procedure becomes more attractive to the students and its importance to chemical analysis can be emphasized. The feasibility of the titrator was demonstrated by acid-base titrations of HCl solutions with NaOH in the presence of phenolphthalein and by iodimetric determination of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and lemon juice. Precise results (0.7% relative standard deviation, n = 10) in agreement at the 95% confidence level with those attained by a conventional procedure were obtained.

  12. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (< $500 US) sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sensors can potentially allow larger fleets of monitors to be deployed to better study the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants. The small size and light weight of these sensors also allows for the possibility of wearable or drone applications. Sensor networks will very likely play a key role in future estimates of human health impacts of pollutants, in particular particulate matter (PM), and will allow for the better characterization of pollutant sources and source regions.We will present measurements from an assortment of sensors, costing $20-$700, that have been used to measure air pollution in the US, India, and China with a focus on estimating PM concentrations. Their performance has been evaluated in these very different settings with low concentrations seen in the US (up to approximately 20 ug m-3) and much higher concentrations measured in India and China (up to approximately 300 ug m-3). Based on these studies the optimal concentration ranges of these sensors have been determined. Used in conjunction with data from a carbon dioxide sensor, emissions factors were estimated in some of the locations. In addition temperature and humidity sensors can be used to calculate c

  13. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-10

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a {sup 252}Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>{mu}s) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS--an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS - a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS - a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD - a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  14. Odometry and Low-Cost Sensor Fusion in Tmm Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzino, A. M.; Taglioretti, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the most powerful motion model and filtering technique to represent an urban terrestrial mobile mapping (TMM) survey and ultimately to obtain the best representation of the car trajectory. The authors want to test how far a motion model and a more or less refined filtering technique could bring benefits in the determination of the car trajectory. To achieve the necessary data for the application of the motion models and the filtering techniques described in the article, the authors realized a TMM survey in the urban centre of Turin by equipping a vehicle with various instruments: a low-cost action-cam also able to record the GPS trace of the vehicle even in the presence of obstructions, an inertial measurement system and an odometer. The results of analysis show in the article indicate that the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) technique provides good results in the determination of the vehicle trajectory, especially if the motion model considers more states (such as the positions, the tangential velocity, the angular velocity, the heading, the acceleration). The authors also compared the results obtained with a motion model characterized by four, five and six states. A natural corollary to this work would be the introduction to the UKF of the photogrammetric information obtained by the same camera placed on board the vehicle. These data would permit to establish how photogrammetric measurements can improve the quality of TMM solutions, especially in the absence of GPS signals (like urban canyons).

  15. Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode.

    PubMed

    Xue, Leigang; Li, Yutao; Gao, Hongcai; Zhou, Weidong; Lü, Xujie; Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, John B

    2017-02-15

    Potassium has as rich an abundance as sodium in the earth, but the development of a K-ion battery is lagging behind because of the higher mass and larger ionic size of K(+) than that of Li(+) and Na(+), which makes it difficult to identify a high-voltage and high-capacity intercalation cathode host. Here we propose a cyanoperovskite KxMnFe(CN)6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) as a potassium cathode: high-spin Mn(III)/Mn(II) and low-spin Fe(III)/Fe(II) couples have similar energies and exhibit two close plateaus centered at 3.6 V; two active K(+) per formula unit enable a theoretical specific capacity of 156 mAh g(-1); Mn and Fe are the two most-desired transition metals for electrodes because they are cheap and environmental friendly. As a powder prepared by an inexpensive precipitation method, the cathode delivers a specific capacity of 142 mAh g(-1). The observed voltage, capacity, and its low cost make it competitive in large-scale electricity storage applications.

  16. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  17. Novel Low-Cost Technologies for Communicating Astronomical Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Cole, B. N.; Lierheimer, D. C.; Insight Lab, RIT

    2012-01-01

    We are committed to the development of educational technology tools that are designed with cost and "user-tinkerability" in mind. We strive to increase the potential for technology-rich access to scientific data to be in the hands of a much larger slice of the educational community. Here we present three low cost educational technology tools developed by a diverse team including many undergraduate and high school students. The tools we present are the Planeterrainium -- A digital interactive floor projection system allowing users to explore planetary surfaces in 3D; the Digital Solar Explorer -- a 5 foot inflatable sphere designed to allow for the exploration of solar imagery; and the Scube -- a digital immersive tentware system. In addition to the system development, we describe projects that involve both undergraduate and high school students in the development of content for these systems, encouraging the growth of both scientific and technological literacy in the process. Funding for this work was provided in part by education supplements to NASA contracts NNX08AO03G and NNX07AM68G, and by the RIT Provost's Office and Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science.

  18. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  19. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors.

    PubMed

    Salai, Mario; Vassányi, István; Kósa, István

    2016-01-01

    The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study ( n = 5), we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97%) correlated, low average error (2.2%) data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study ( n = 46) included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices.

  20. Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Parashari, A.; Singh, V.; Sehgal, A.; Satyanarayana, L.; Sodhani, P.; Gupta, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology. PMID:10994279

  1. Development of a portable low-cost LIBS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea, O.; Urquidi, O.; Casazola, D.

    2013-11-01

    This article reports the construction of a portable, low-cost LIBS (Light Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) system for use in the Bolivian mining industry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of mineral samples. The device consists of a portable laser, a medium-resolution spectrometer and an optomechanical light collection system. The laser developed for the device is a YAG:Nd+++ with an estimated power output of 10 MW/cm2. Weighing approximately 3 kg and powered by lithium ion batteries, it is easily carried and can be used in remote locations. The spectrometer has a resolution of 0.3 nm allowing the detection fine spectral features, while its range of 80 nm is broad enough to simultaneously show many of the principal spectral lines of the element of interest. A monochromatic CCD camera was used as the detector of the spectrometer and was fitted with an external trigger to coordinate the camera frames with the firing of the laser. The light emitted by the plasma is collected with a photographic objective and is transmitted to the spectrometer via a fiber optics cable. A mechanical system was incorporated to make, both the laser beam and the receptor positionable. In the preliminary tests of the prototype, a LIBS spectrum of a Bolivian copper coin was obtained. Analysis showed that the spectral lines obtained coincide with those of a copper reference spectrum and demonstrate the capacity of the device to perform qualitative analysis of materials.

  2. Development of a Low Cost Telescope System for VHE Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querrard, Rodney; Perkins, Jeremy S.

    2017-01-01

    Ground based gamma-ray astronomy has progressed dramatically over the past 40 years. Currently there are 176 confirmed sources detected above 100 GeV ranging from Supernova Remnants (SNR) to Active Galaxies and other objects The next generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) is currently being developed. The CTA, or Cherenkov Telescope Array, will be a ground-breaking facility made up of a few dozen telescopes of multiple sizes with a sensitivity an order of magnitude greater than the current generation. Nevertheless, an opportunity will remain for smaller, less-expensive instruments to make important contributions to the field of Cherenkov Imaging astronomy.We are investigating an approach that will use an inexpensive array of ground based telescopes built from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products. This array will be capable of studying supernova remnants, gamma-ray-burst afterglows, and active galactic nuclei as well as other sources above 2 TeV at a cost which is much lower than larger facilities like the CTA. We are developing a single prototype telescope that will be installed at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory in Greenbelt, MD. We discuss issues arising from and technical solutions to challenges of using COTS components whose primary purpose is not astronomy for this application. We detail progress in the telescope development and outline future work to complete the prototype and to duplicate it for creation of a low-cost Cherenkov array.

  3. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  4. In situ measurements of phytoplankton fluorescence using low cost electronics.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S; Wright, Dana L

    2013-06-19

    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  5. Low cost alternatives to commercial lab kits for physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodejška, Č.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubínek, R.; Říha, J.

    2015-08-01

    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace in the case of professional kits such as Vernier, Pasco or Coach costs around 800 euros. In this paper some physics experiments in which a computer, or a tablet with Microsoft Windows, is used as the measuring device, along with available physical devices such as a laser pointer, a solar cell or an electret microphone, are presented as suitable and alternative ways to carry out lab work. We show that it is possible to perform very simple school experiments (both as a central demonstration and as individual experimentation), in which high accuracy and clear final conclusions can be achieved at a very low cost. Further information is published on the specialized webpage www.sclpx.eu/index.php?lang=en. The worksheets are in Czech, but the English version is in preparation.

  6. A low-cost B-mode USB ultrasound probe.

    PubMed

    Richard, William D; Zar, David M; Solek, Roman

    2008-01-01

    The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is now the ubiquitous interface bus of choice for connecting peripherals to personal computers and laptops. USB 2.0 is a half-duplex bus running at 480 Mb/s and each peripheral can draw as much as 500 mA of current at a nominal 5 V from the USB connector. We have developed a family of USB-based, B-mode probes that connect directly to a personal computer or laptop and that draw as little as 250 mA (1.25 W) when forming ten 5 MHz images/second. The pulser/receiver, high voltage supply, analog-to-digital converter, servo and USB interface are implemented on a small circuit board inside the probe body. After raw data are transferred to the computer, gain compensation, interpolation, filtering and other data processing are performed by the host processor. This gives flexibility to developers and allows enhancements to the system to be incorporated via software updates. In addition, the raw data are available for storage and later postprocessing. There are several advantages to this architectural approach to B-mode imaging, including low cost, portability and optimal signal-to-noise performance. This paper describes the advantages of the architecture of the probe family, discusses the hardware/software division of the required processing steps and presents example images from a 12.5 MHz ophthalmic probe.

  7. Low-Cost WDM-PON With Colorless Bidirectional Transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Jae; Keh, Y. C.; Kwon, J. W.; Lee, E. H.; Lee, J. K.; Park, M. K.; Park, J. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, S. W.; Yun, I. K.; Shin, H. C.; Heo, D.; Lee, J. S.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, H. S.; Park, S. B.; Jung, D. K.; Hwang, Seongtaek; Oh, Y. J.; Jang, D. H.; Shim, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost bidirectional (BiDi) wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) employing colorless uncooled BiDi transceivers (TRxs) and superluminescent diode (SLD)-based broadband light sources (BLSs). The C band is allocated for upstream and the E+ band for downstream in consideration of BiDi packaging, SLD development, and wavelength alignment of dual-window arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). The BiDi TRx integrates an uncooled Fabry-Pérot laser diode (FP-LD), a p-i-n photodiode (PD), and a 45°-angled thin-film filter in a small-form-factor (SFF) package. The SLD-based BLSs provide 13-dBm amplified spontaneous emissions (ASEs) with spectral ripples of < 3 dB and polarization dependencies of < 1 dB. Colorless operations over 32 100-GHz-spaced channels are demonstrated from -20 to 80°C in 155-Mb/s BiDi transmissions over 25 km.

  8. Applications Of A Low Cost System For Industrial Automatic Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krey, C.; Ayache, A.; Bruel, A.

    1987-05-01

    In industrial environment, some repetitive tasks wich do not need a high degree of understanding, can be solved automatically owing to Vision. Among the systems available on the market, most of them are rather expensive with various capabilities. The described system is a modular system, built with some standard circuit boards. One of the advantages of this system is that its architecture can be redefined for each application, by assembling judiciously the standard modules. The vision system has been used successfully to sort fruits according to their colour and diameter. The system can sort 8 fruits per second on each sorting line and manage simultaneously up to 16 lines. An application of sheep skin cutting has been implemented too. After chemical and mechanical treatments, the skins present many defaults all around their contour, that must be cut off. A movable camera follows and inspects the contour ; the vision system determines where the cutting device must cut the skin. A third application has been implemented ; it concerns automatic recording and reproduction of logotypes. A moving camera driven by the system picks up the points, of the logotype contours. Before reproduction, programs can modify the logotypes shape, change the scale, and so on. For every application, the system uses the world smallest CCD camera developped in the laboratory. The small dimensions of the vision system and its low cost are major advantages for a wide use in industrial automatic inspection.

  9. A Novel and Low Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Keith; Meldrum, David; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Maksym, Ted; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance buoys (IMBs) deployed over the past two decades have contributed to our understanding of ice growth and decay processes, deployment has been limited, in part, by the cost of such systems. Routine, basin-wide monitoring of the ice cover is realistically achievable through a network of reliable and affordable autonomous instrumentation. We describe the development of a novel autonomous platform and sensor that replaces the traditional thermistors string for monitoring temperature profiles in the ice and snow using a chain of inexpensive digital temperature chip sensors linked by a single-wire data bus. By incorporating a heating element on each sensor, the instrument is capable of resolving material interfaces (e.g. air-snow and ice-ocean boundaries) even under isothermal conditions. The instrument is small, low-cost and easy to deploy. Field and laboratory tests of the sensor chain demonstrate that the technology can reliably resolve material boundaries to within a few centimetres and over 50 scientific deployments have been made with encouraging results. The discrimination between different media based on sensor thermal response is weak in some deployments and efforts to optimise the measurement continue.

  10. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  11. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Wright, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. PMID:23783738

  12. Fresnel-based beamforming for low-cost portable ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Mung, Jay; Yen, Jesse T

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified electronic Fresnel-based beamforming method for low-cost portable ultrasound systems. This method uses a unique combination of analog and digital beamforming methods. Two versions of Fresnel beamforming are presented in this paper: 4-phase (4 different time delays or phase shifts) and 8-phase (8 different time delays or phase shifts). The advantage of this method is that a system with 4 to 8 transmit channels and 2 receive channels with a network of switches can be used to focus an array with 64 to 128 elements. The simulation and experimental results show that Fresnel beamforming image quality is comparable to traditional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming in terms of spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) under certain system parameters. With an f-number of 2 and 50% signal bandwidth, the experimental lateral beamwidths are 0.54, 0.67, and 0.66 mm and the axial pulse lengths are 0.50, 0.51, and 0.50 mm for DAS, 8-phase, and 4-phase Fresnel beamforming, respectively. The experimental CNRs are 4.66, 4.42, and 3.98, respectively. These experimental results are in good agreement with simulation results.

  13. A low cost color visual stimulator for fMRI.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bill; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Garza, Bryan De La; Harrison, Joseph M; Roby, John; Duong, Timothy Q

    2012-03-15

    This low cost visual stimulator was developed for use in small animal imaging. The stimulator uses a single tri-color LED for each eye and can output red, green, or blue light or any combination of the three. When all three LED colors are illuminated at the same time achromatic light is the output. The stimulator is almost entirely implemented in software with only minimal electronics. The LEDs are controlled via the parallel port of a desktop computer. Flicker frequency, wavelength, intensity and waveform shape are under software control. The LEDs are coupled to fiber optic cables which run into the MRI scanner room leaving the LEDs and the power source in the control room. Calibration with a radiometer shows the light output to be very linear from zero to full intensity. The stimulator was used in fMRI visual stimulation studies performed on Sprague Dawley rats with an 11.7Tesla magnet. As the stimulator is software driven, modifications to accommodate other protocols and extensions for new functionality can be readily incorporated. With this in mind, the visual stimulator circuit diagram and software including source code are available upon request.

  14. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  15. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  16. Low-Cost, Lightweight Pressure Vessel Proof Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanez, Eric

    This experiment seeks to determine the burst strength of the low-cost, lightweight pressure vessel fabricated by the Suborbital Center of Excellence (SCE). Moreover, the test explores the effects of relatively large gage pressures on material strain for ‘pumpkin-shaped' pressure vessels. The SCE team used pressure transducers and analog gauges to measure the gage pressure while a video camera assembly recorded several gores in the shell for strain analysis. The team loaded the vessel in small intervals of pressure until the structure failed. Upon test completion, the pressure readings and video recordings were analyzed to determine the burst strength and material strain in the shell. The analysis yielded a burst pressure of 13.5 psi while the strain analysis reported in the shell. While the results of this proof test are encouraging, the structure's factor of safety must be increased for actual balloon flights. Furthermore, the pressure vessel prototype must be subjected to reliability tests to show the design can sustain gage pressures for the length of a balloon flight.

  17. Modernizing Plunger Control with Low-Cost Digital Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, Patrick; Kuta, Trenton; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    The plunger technique provides a valuable tool for measuring lifetimes of excited states in the 1-100 ps range. The plunger consists of a thin foil target and stopper foil separated by some controllable distance; beam-induced reactions occur in the target and the resulting nucleus of interest leaves the target foil and is completely stopped by the stopper foil. The Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory has a plunger device which is approximately 30 years old. In the Notre Dame plunger apparatus, the separation between foils is measured via capacitance between the foils and is used to control the position of three servo motors. Our work this summer focused on a complete rebuild of the plunger control electronics including two major upgrades: (1) a precision capacitance-measuring circuit based on the phase-shift of a sinusoidal signal which follows a development in the mid 1990's, (2) and a low-cost microcontroller-based feedback loop for precisely controlling servo motors with quadrature encoder outputs. After demonstrating that the upgrades are successful, we will carry out reactions in the Nuclear Science Laboratory and measure the lifetimes of excited states in several rare earth nuclei.

  18. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  19. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Salai, Mario; Kósa, István

    2016-01-01

    The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study (n = 5), we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97%) correlated, low average error (2.2%) data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study (n = 46) included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices. PMID:27372071

  20. Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

    2000-05-26

    A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

  1. Low cost energy storage flywheels from structural sheet molding compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. F.

    Compression molded structural sheet molding compound (SMC) composed of S-2 Glass and polyester resin has been used to fabricate energy storage flywheel rotors. This technique has the potential of low cost, high throughput production of rotors for the automobile industry. An isophthalic polyester resin and chopped S-2 Glass were used to mold flat, constant cross section discs 53.3 cm (21 innches) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1.0 inches) thick, and 49.5 kg (22.5 pounds) in weight. Materials characterizations have shown a tensile strength of 337 MPa (49 ksi) for the S-2 Glass reinforced rotors, which would allow the rotor to store 28.6 watt-hours per kilogram (13 watt-hours per pound) at 330 hertz when a filament wound carbon fiber/epoxy ring is fitted around the SMC core. A dynamic test of an SMC flywheel has shown an energy storage density of 27.7 watt-hours per kilogram (12.6 watt-hours per pound) at 330 hertz.

  2. Low cost split stirling cryogenic cooler for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Zechtzer, Semeon; Pundak, Nachman; Riabzev, Sergey; Kirckconnel, C.; Freeman, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic coolers are used in association with sensitive electronics and sensors for military, commercial or scientific space payloads. The general requirements are high reliability and power efficiency, low vibration export and ability to survive launch vibration extremes and long-term exposure to space radiation. A long standing paradigm of using exclusively space heritage derivatives of legendary "Oxford" cryocoolers featuring linear actuators, flexural bearings, contactless seals and active vibration cancellation is so far the best known practice aiming at delivering high reliability components for the critical and usually expensive space missions. The recent tendency of developing mini and micro satellites for the budget constrained missions has spurred attempts to adapt leading-edge tactical cryogenic coolers to meet the space requirements. The authors are disclosing theoretical and practical aspects of a collaborative effort on developing a space qualified cryogenic refrigerator based on the Ricor model K527 tactical cooler and Iris Technology radiation hardened, low cost cryocooler electronics. The initially targeted applications are cost-sensitive flight experiments, but should the results show promise, some long-life "traditional" cryocooler missions may well be satisfied by this approach.

  3. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  4. Novel Low-Cost Thermotherapy for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Witzig, Richard S.; Boggild, Andrea K.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C±2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy. PMID:23658851

  5. Potential contribution of low cost materials in clean technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smail, Heman A.; Shareef, Kafia M.; Ramli, Zainab

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population approaches more than 9 billion, the strain on the planet's resources is steadily increasing. This demand can only be met by improving production methods to reduce the use of chemicals and the amount of chemical waste. Zeolites are among the least-known products for environmental pollution control, separation science and technology. This study investigates whether the use of geological sources as low-cost materials are suitable for zeolite synthesis and future applications. In this investigation natural montmorillonite clay, locally available in Erbil-Kurdistan, was used as raw material. The experiments were carried out in the presence of ultrasound 30KHz at 60°C and for different crystallization times (5, 10 &15 hours) and the results were compared with those obtained by performing conventional alkaline hydrothermal static syntheses under similar conditions and crystallization time of (90 hours). The raw material as well as the products was analyzed using; Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental data were ascertained the formation of Zeolite successfully. Crystallization by ultrasound has been demonstrated to offer the possibilities of increasing the nucleation and crystallization rates of zeolites, improving the yield and directing the synthesis towards different crystal phases.

  6. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  7. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  8. Mars Relay Spacecraft: A Low-Cost Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SvitekT, .; King, J.; Fulton, R.; McOmber, R.; Hastrup, R.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The next phase of Mars exploration will utilize numerous globally distributed small low-cost devices including landers penetrators microrovers and balloons. Direct-to-Earth communications links if required for these landers will drive the lander design for two reasons: a) mass and complexity needed for a steerable high-gain antenna and b) power requirements for a high-power amplifier (i.e. solar panel and battery mass). Total mass of the direct link hardware for several recent small-lander designs exceeded the mass of the scientific payload. Alternatively if communications are via a Mars-orbiting relay spacecraft resource requirements for the local UHF communication link are comparatively trivial: a simple whip antenna and less than 1 watt power. Clearly using a Mars relay spacecraft (MRS) is the preferred option if the MRS mission can be accomplished in an affordable and robust way. Our paper describes a point design for such a mission launched in the s001 or 2003 opportunity.

  9. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  10. Low-cost, multiplexed biosensor for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, Christopher J.; Delaney, Marie; Todorof, Kathryn; Heil, James; Givens, Monique; Schooley, Robert T.; Lochhead, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Cost-effective disease diagnosis in resource-limited settings remains a critical global health challenge. Qualitative rapid tests based on lateral flow technology provide valuable screening information, but require relatively expensive confirmatory tests and generally lack quantitation. We report on a fluorescence technology that combines low cost instrumented readout with passive pumping in a disposable cartridge. The detection system utilizes a novel waveguide illumination approach in conjunction with commercial CMOS imagers. Total instrument cost in production are projected to be around $100 This cost structure and instrument ease of use will enable use in point-of-care settings, outside of centralized laboratories. The system has been used for detection and analysis of proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cells. Here we will report first on our development of a multiplexed, array-based serology assay for HIV and common AIDS co-infections. Data will be presented for HIV/HCV antibody testing in human serum samples. In addition, we will present data on the use of the system for sensitive detection of bacterial RNA. Current detection limit for the model multiplexed RNA sandwich assay is 1 femtomolar target RNA. Finally, a high magnification version of the system is used to image immunostained human T cells.

  11. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. A Low Cost Spacecraft Architecture for Robotic Lunar Exploration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Lawrence G.; Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    constitute the majority of spacecraft mass; saving development and integration cost on these elements is critical to controlling cost. Therefore, a low cost, modular design for spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems is presented which may be easily scaled up or down for either insertion into lunar orbit or braking for landing on the lunar surface. In order to effectively use the approx.3 Mt mass-to-TLI of the EELV, two low cost spacecraft will be manifested on the same launch. One spacecraft will be located on top of the other for launch and the two will have to be released in sequence in order to achieve all mission objectives. The two spacecraft could both be landers, both orbiters, or one lander and one orbiter. In order to achieve mass efficiency, the body of the spacecraft will serve the dual purposes of carrying launch loads and providing attachment points for all the spacecraft subsystems. In order to avoid unaffordable technology development costs, small liquid propulsion components and autonomous, scene-matching navigation cameras may be adapted from military missile programs in order to execute precision soft landings.

  13. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Garrabrant, Michael; Keinath, Christopher

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  14. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (<100€) consists of a vertical geophone with a natural frequency of 10 Hz, an Arduino or similar board, a 16-bit ADC capable of amplify and convert the output signal of the geophone. The latter, connected to a Raspberry Pi, gathers the data from the geophone using a Python script, slices it in 1-hour intervals and draws waveform and frequency spectrum graph for quick analysis with Matplotlib, a common graphing library in Python. The data can be gathered using several methods: If a Wi-Fi network is available, the instrument can be directly connected to the Internet and the data uploaded in real time. If there is no such connection available, a GSM shield can be used to upload the data, and in the worst-case scenario, the data can be accessed directly on the field via Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM

  15. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  16. Low-cost small satellites for astrophysical missions

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    A miniature satellite is a low-cost platform to support a small space experiment. Space astrophysics has been hindered by decades-long delays in important experiments. With miniature satellites, one hopes to reduce both experiment cost and lead time to an affordable level. Miniature satellites are not a new idea. The first scientific satellites, including Explorer I, were small and developed on a timescale of months. Important science was done by these pioneer missions. Though the easy discoveries have been made, important missions in exploration and follow-up can still be carried out from small platforms. Successful small satellite programs continue to this day. These include the OSCAR amateur radio satellite program, in which 12 small satellites, built by amateurs, have been flown over 25 years with no satellite failures (Fleeter, 1988). Two small free-flyers, GLOMAR and NUSAT, were ejected from the Shuttle in 1985. GLOMAR, a radio-relay experiment, was built in less than a year for under $1 million, and operated over a year in orbit. Small satellite projects continue to this day. Approaching launch are the Air Force STACKSAT array of 3 small satellites (P87-2), a number of other small satellites under Department of Defense auspices. The Air Force Space Test Program is developing a standard small experiment platform called STEP (Space Test Experiment Platform). NASA has started a small explorer program, beginning with SAMPEX, a solar and magnetospheric particle explorer, FAST, a fast auroral snapshot experiment, and SWAS, a submillimeter astronomy experiment. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  18. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Monjid

    2013-08-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm²); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  19. Low-Cost Approaches to Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, G. F.; Edwards, C. D.; Schober, W. R.; Hooke, A. J.; Tai, W. S.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The past decade has brought about a radical transformation in NASA's planetary exploration program. At the beginning of this decade, NASA was focused on the Cassini mission to Saturn. Following on the heels of the successful Voyager and Galileo missions, Cassini represents the culmination of an evolution towards successively larger, more complex, and more expensive spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft weighs in at over 5 metric tons, and carries an entry probe and a sophisticated suite of sensors supporting 27 different science investigations enabling a comprehensive scientific investigation of Saturn with a single spacecraft. The cost of this spacecraft exceeded $2B, including the cost of the large Titan IV launch vehicle. During Cassini development, NASA realized that it could no longer afford these "flagship" missions, and the agency moved aggressively towards a "faster, better, cheaper" design philosophy of focused science goals and simpler, rapidly-developed spacecraft, allowing much more frequent launches of smaller, lower-cost missions. The Mars Global Surveyor, launched in November 1996, is an example of this new paradigm. Developed in less than 3-years, MGS is only one-fifth the mass of Cassini, and only cost on the order of $220M. The reduced spacecraft mass allows use of the smaller, lower cost Delta launch vehicle. Currently in orbit about Mars, MGS carries a focused suite of six science instruments that are currently returning high-resolution remote sensing of the Martian surface. The future calls for continued even more aggressive mass and cost targets. Examples of these next-generation goals are embodied in the Mars Micromission spacecraft concept, targeted for launch in 2003. With a mass of only 200kg, this lightweight bus can be tailored to carry a variety of payloads to Mars or other inner-planet destinations. The design of the Micromission spacecraft enable them to be launched at extremely low cost as a secondary "piggyback" payload.

  20. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nichiolas William; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Keffer, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for

  1. A novel low-cost sodium–zinc chloride battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-19

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  2. Feasibility of a low-cost sounding rockoon platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okninski, Adam; Raurell, Daniel Sors; Mitre, Alberto Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses and simulations for the design of a small sounding platform, dedicated to conducting scientific atmospheric research and capable of reaching the von Kármán line by means of a rocket launched from it. While recent private initiatives have opted for the air launch concept to send small payloads to Low Earth Orbit, several historical projects considered the use of balloons as the first stage of orbital and suborbital platforms, known as rockoons. Both of these approaches enable the minimization of drag losses. This paper addresses the issue of utilizing stratospheric balloons as launch platforms to conduct sub-orbital rocket flights. Research and simulations have been conducted to demonstrate these capabilities and feasibility. A small sounding solid propulsion rocket using commercially-off-the-shelf hardware is proposed. Its configuration and design are analyzed with special attention given to the propulsion system and its possible mission-orientated optimization. The cost effectiveness of this approach is discussed. Performance calculation outcomes are shown. Additionally, sensitivity study results for different design parameters are given. Minimum mass rocket configurations for various payload requirements are presented. The ultimate aim is to enhance low-cost experimentation maintaining high mobility of the system and simplicity of operations. An easier and more affordable access to a space-like environment can be achieved with this system, thus allowing for widespread outreach of space science and technology knowledge. This project is based on earlier experience of the authors in LEEM Association of the Technical University of Madrid and the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program developed at the Institute of Aviation and Warsaw University of Technology in Poland.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  4. Low-cost Ku band interferometer for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Daniel E.; Saez, Alejandro F.; Dauvin, Louise

    2016-07-01

    Latest discoveries in the field of astronomy have been associated to the development of extremely sophisticated instruments. With regards to radio-astronomy, instrumentation has evolved to higher processing data rates and a continuous performance improvement, in the analog and digital domain. Developing, maintaining, and using such kinds of instruments - especially in radio-astronomy - requires understanding complex processes which involve plenty of subtle details. The above has inspired the engineering and astronomical communities to design low-cost instruments, which can be easily replicated by the non-specialist or highly skilled personnel who possess a basic technical background. The final goal of this work is to provide the means to build an affordable tool for teaching radiometry sciences. In order to take a step further this way, a design of a basic interferometer (two elements) is here below introduced, intended to turn into a handy tool for learning the basic principles behind the interferometry technique and radiometry sciences. One of the pedagogical experiences using this tool will be the measurement of the sun's angular diameter. Using these two Ku band receptors, we aim to capture the solar radiation in the 11-12GHz frequency range, the power variations at the earth spin, with a proper phase-lock of the receptors will generate a cross-correlation power oscillation where we can obtain an approximation of the angular sun's diameter. Variables of interest in this calculation are the declination of the sun (which depends on the capture date and location) and the relation between maximal and minimal power within a fringe cycle.

  5. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  6. A versatile, low-cost approach to dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pristinski, Denis; Chastek, Thomas Q.

    2009-04-01

    We describe a method for constructing a fiber-optic-based dynamic light scattering (DLS) instrument from commonly available components, without a need for custom-made parts. Details are provided that allow for academic researchers from diverse backgrounds to build this DLS instrument with minimal effort and at a low cost. This approach, while providing good sensitivity and high accuracy (e.g., measuring the size of latex standards to within 1% relative standard deviation), possesses several advantages not found, in their entirety, in existing DLS instrumentation. It was observed that, even though an arbitrary scattering angle could be selected, aligning this instrument to obtain optimal detection efficiency can be completed in as little as a few minutes. Also, complications associated with light refraction at the sample cell interface are avoided. Small volumes (<10 µL) can be measured, for example, by hanging a solution droplet from the fiber optic probe tips. In addition, use of fiber optic probes allows the beam path length to be as short as 1.6 mm while measuring at 90°, which reduces the likelihood of multiple scattering. With minimal customization, compact submersible probes and a portable battery-operated DLS instrument were made as examples of potential implementation. Finally, this approach is versatile, and can be incorporated into a wide variety of reactors, for in situ characterization, and other instrumentation for hybrid measurements. This type of in situ measurement was conducted after mounting the DLS probes inside a standard three-neck flask. This allowed for direct monitoring of the growth of silica nanoparticles prepared via Stöber synthesis.

  7. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project

  8. Results from a 14-month hydroacoustic monitoring of the three mid-oceanic ridges in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J.-Y.; Dziak, R. P.; Delatre, M.; Chateau, R.; Brachet, C.; Haxel, J. H.; Matsumoto, H.; Goslin, J.; Brandon, V.; Bohnenstielh, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    From October 2006 to January 2008, an hydroacoustic experiment in the Indian Ocean was carried out by the CNRS/University of Brest and NOAA/Oregon State University to monitor the low-level seismic activity associated with the three contrasting spreading ridges and deforming zones in the Indian Ocean. Three autonomous hydrophones were moored in the SOFAR channel by R/V Marion Dufresne for 14 months in the Madagascar Basin, and northeast and southwest of Amsterdam Island, complementing the two permanent hydroacoustic stations of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) located near Diego Garcia Island and off Cape Leeuwin. The three instruments successfully collected 14 month of continuous acoustic records. Combined with the records from the permanent stations, the array detected 1780 acoustic events consisting mostly of earthquake generated T-waves, but also of iceberg tremors from Wilkes Land, Antarctica. Within the triangle defined by the temporary array, the three ridges exhibit contrasting seismicity patterns. Along the Southeast Indian ridge (SEIR), the 272 acoustic events (vs 24 events in the NEIC catalog) occur predominantly along the transform faults ; only one ridge segment (76˚E) displays a continuous activity for 10 months. Along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), seismicity is distributed along fracture zones and ridge segments (269 events vs 45 NEIC events), with two clusters of events near the triple junction (24-25S) and south of Marie-Celeste FZ (18.5S). Along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the 222 events (vs 31 NEIC events) are distributed along the ridge segments with a larger number of events west of Melville FZ and a cluster at 58E. The immediate vicinity of the Rodrigues triple junction shows periods of quiescence and of intense activity. Some large earthquakes (Mb>5) near the triple junction (SEIR and CIR) seem to be preceded by several acoustic events that may be precursors. Finally, off-ridge seismicity is mostly

  9. The dynamics of herpesvirus and polyomavirus reactivation and shedding in healthy adults: a 14-month longitudinal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Lednicky, John A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; White, Zoe S.; Peng, RongSheng; Liu, Zhensheng; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Smith, E. O'Brian; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Humans are infected with viruses that establish long-term persistent infections. To address whether immunocompetent individuals control virus reactivation globally or independently and to identify patterns of sporadic reactivation, we monitored herpesviruses and polyomaviruses in 30 adults, over 14 months. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was quantitated in saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cytomegalovirus (CMV) was assayed in urine, and JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) DNAs were assayed in urine and PBMCs. All individuals shed EBV in saliva, whereas 67% had >or=1 blood sample positive for EBV. Levels of EBV varied widely. CMV shedding occurred infrequently but occurred more commonly in younger individuals (P<.03). JCV and BKV virurias were 46.7% and 0%, respectively. JCV shedding was age dependent and occurred commonly in individuals >or=40 years old (P<.03). Seasonal variation was observed in shedding of EBV and JCV, but there was no correlation among shedding of EBV, CMV, and JCV (P>.50). Thus, adults independently control persistent viruses, which display discordant, sporadic reactivations.

  10. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development.

  11. Handedness for grasping objects and pointing and the development of language in 14-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Esseily, Rana; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between object-related handedness and handedness for communicative gestures. We observed 22 infants aged 14 months on a baby laterality test consisting of grasping objects in different conditions, on a pointing task with targets placed out of reach at different spatial positions from left to right, and on word understanding and word production. Results show that 77% of infants pointed to the left, middle, and right targets. The majority of infants were right-handed for pointing--except for the far left target--and, to a lesser extent, for grasping objects, but there was no significant relation between the two measures of handedness. The frequency of pointing tended to be related to the number of words understood, and infants right-handed for pointing understood and produced significantly more words than non-right-handed pointers. These results are interpreted as confirming the link between pointing and language development, and as showing that communicative gesture lateralisation is not a mere consequence of object-related handedness, at least during development. Whether lateralised communicative gesture reinforces a pre-existing tendency to use the right hand to interact with objects remains an open question.

  12. A 14-month study of change in disability and mood state in patients with chronic migraine associated to medication overuse.

    PubMed

    Raggi, A; Leonardi, M; Giovannetti, A M; Schiavolin, S; Bussone, G; Grazzi, L; Usai, S; Curone, M; Di Fiore, P; D'Amico, D

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to evaluate changes in disease severity, disability and mood state in patients with chronic migraine associated to medication overuse (CM-MO). MIDAS was used for assessing disease activity, WHO-DAS-2 for disability, DBI-2 for mood state. ANOVA was used to test change over time; t-test to assess follow-up differences in WHO-DAS-2 and BDI-2 between patients with MIDAS ≤20 and ≥21. Change in MIDAS, WHO-DAS-2 and BDI-2 scores were computed: Pearson's index was used to assess correlation between them; linear regression to assess change in WHO-DAS-2, using MIDAS and BDI-2 change as predictors. Mean MIDAS decreased significantly (from 101.9 to 52.0). In 26.1 % of the sample, MIDAS fell below 21 at follow-up: these patients had lower WHO-DAS-2 score. WHO-DAS-2 change was little correlated to MIDAS change and strongly correlated to changes in BDI-2 scores. 57.1 % of WHO-DAS-2 change variance is explained by change in BDI-2 and MIDAS scores. There was a clear clinical improvement 14 months after detoxification, and a modest reduction in disability which is explained by reduced disease activity and improved mood state. An appropriate treatment of CM-MO, based on detoxification and prophylaxis, is likely to reduce disease burden: recognition and treatment of mood problems may be a key factor to reduce disability.

  13. Reliability improvement of low-cost camera for microsatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Wang; Shen, Weimin

    2009-07-01

    Remote sensing is one of the most defective means for environment monitor, resource management, national security and so on, but existing conventional satellites are too expensive for common users to afford. Microsatellites can reduce their cost and optimize their image products for specific applications. Space camera is one of their important payloads. The trade-off faced in a cost driven camera design is how to reduce cost while still have the required reliability. This paper introduces our path to develop reliable and low-cost space camera. The space camera has two main parts: optical system and camera circuits. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lenses are difficult to maintain their imaging performance under space environment. Our designed optical system adopts catadioptric layout, so that its temperature sensitivity is low. The material and structure of camera lens can bear the vibration and shock during its launch. Its mechanical reliability is approved through mechanical test. A window made of synthetic fused silica is used to protect the lens and CCD sensor from space radiation. Optical system is completed with compact structure, wide temperature range, large relative aperture, high imaging quality and pass through the mechanical test, thermal cycling and vacuum thermal test. Modular concept is developed within the space camera circuit, which is composed of seven modules which are power supply unit, microcontroller unit, waveform generator unit, CCD unit, CCD signal processor unit, LVDS unit, and current surge restrain unit. Module concept and the use of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) components can simplify the design and the maintainability and can minimize size, mass, and power consumption. Through the destructive physical analysis (DPA), screening, and board level burn-in select the PEMs than can replace the hermetically sealed microcircuits(HSMs). Derating, redundancy, thermal dissipation, software error detection and so on are adopted in the

  14. Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

    2011-03-17

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton

  15. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  16. Satellite Attitude Determination with Low-Cost Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, John C.

    This dissertation contributes design and data processing techniques to maximize the accuracy of low-cost attitude determination systems while removing pre-flight calibration requirements. This enables rapid development of small spacecraft to perform increasingly complex missions. The focus of this work is magnetometers and sun sensors, which are the two most common types of attitude sensors. Magnetometer measurements are degraded by the magnetic fields of nearby electronics, which traditionally limit their utility on satellites unless a boom is used to provide physical separation between the magnetometer and the satellite. This dissertation presents an on-orbit, attitude-independent method for magnetometer calibration that mitigates the effect of nearby electronics. With this method, magnetometers can be placed anywhere within the spacecraft, and as demonstrated through application to flight data, the accuracy of the integrated magnetometer is reduced to nearly that of the stand-alone magnetometer. Photodiodes are light sensors that can be used for sun sensing. An individual photodiode provides a measurement of a single sun vector component, and since orthogonal photodiodes do not provide sufficient coverage due to photodiode field-of-view limitations, there is a tradeoff between photodiode orientation and sun sensing angular accuracy. This dissertation presents a design method to optimize the photodiode configuration for sun sensing, which is also generally applicable to directional sensors. Additionally, an on-orbit calibration method is developed to estimate the photodiode scale factors and orientation, which are critical for accurate sun sensing. Combined, these methods allow a magnetometer to be placed anywhere within a spacecraft and provide an optimal design technique for photodiode placement. On-orbit calibration methods are formulated for both types of sensors that correct the sensor errors on-orbit without requiring pre-flight calibration. The calibration

  17. A low-cost CMOS neurological sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Paul J.; Lisner, Peter; Yeow, Y.; Choy, Peng; Lavidis, Nick A.

    2005-02-01

    Current methods used to study neural communication have not been able to achieve both good spatial and temporal resolution of recordings. There are two ways to record synaptic potentials from nerve endings: recordings using single or dual intracellular or extra cellular metal electrodes give good temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution, and recording activity with fluorescent dyes gives good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Such medical research activity in the area of neurological signal detection has thus identified a requirement for the design of a CMOS circuit that contains an array of independent sensors. As both spatial and temporal distribution of acquired data is required in this application, the circuit must be capable of continuous measurement of synaptic potentials from an array of points on a tissue sample, with a 10 μm separation between sensor points. The major requirement for the circuit is that it is capable of sensing synaptic potentials of the order of several mV, with a resolution of 0.05 mV. For data recording purposes, the circuit must amplify these synaptic potentials and digitise them together with their locations in the sensor array. Finally, the circuit must be biologically inert, to avoid specimen deterioration. This paper presents the design of a prototype single-chip circuit, which provides a 6 x 3 array of independent synaptic potential sensors. The signal from each of the sensors is amplified and time-multiplexed into an on-chip A/D converter. The circuit provides an 8-bit synaptic potential value, together with an 8-bit field containing array location and trigger signals suitable for external data acquisition instrumentation. Our test circuit is implemented in a low-cost 0.5 um, 5 V CMOS process. The fabricated die is mounted in a standard 40 pin DIP ceramic package, with no lid to allow direct contact of the die surface with the tissue sample. The only post-processing step required for these packages is to

  18. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  19. Low-cost bump bonding activities at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähänen, S.; Tick, T.; Campbell, M.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional bumping processes used in the fabrication of hybrid pixel detectors for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use electroplating for Under Bump Metallization (UBM) and solder bump deposition. This process is laborious, involves time consuming photolithography and can only be performed using whole wafers. Electroplating has been found to be expensive when used for the low volumes which are typical of HEP experiments. In the low-cost bump bonding development work, electroless deposition technology of UBM is studied as an alternative to the electroplating process in the bump size / pitch window beginning from 20 μm / 50 μm. Electroless UBM deposition used in combination with solder transfer techniques has the potential to significantly lower the cost of wafer bumping without requiring increased wafer volumes. A test vehicle design of sensor and readout chip, having daisy chains and Kelvin bump structures, was created to characterize the flip chip process with electroless UBM. Two batches of test vehicle wafers were manufactured with different bump pad metallization. Batch #1 had AlSi(1%) metallization, which is similar to the one used on sensor wafers, and Batch #2 had AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization, which is very similar to the one used on readout wafers. Electroless UBMs were deposited on both wafer batches. In addition, electroplated Ni UBM and SnPb solder bumps were grown on the test sensor wafers. Test assemblies were made by flip chip bonding the solder-bumped test sensors against the test readout chips with electroless UBMs. Electrical yields and individual joint resistances were measured from assemblies, and the results were compared to a well known reference technique based on electroplated solder bumps structures on both chips. The electroless UBMs deposited on AlSi(2%)Cu(1%) metallization showed excellent electrical yields and small tolerances in individual joint resistance. The results from the UBMs deposited on AlSi(1%) metallization were non

  20. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  1. Low-cost water supplies and their contribution to health.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    1992-11-01

    The importance of low cost water supplies and sanitation facilities is heightened in drought conditions such as occurred in Zimbabwe during 1991-92. A summary of water and toilet systems is given. Zimbabwe must recognize that it is a dry country and adopt water and sanitation services appropriate to the climate. Since 1980, 10,000 water sources have been protected. The Blair Latrine has been installed in 300,000 locations and uses little or no flush system, is odorless, free of insects, and doubles as a bathroom. The target is to install 1.4 million Blair toilets, 576 piped water supplies, and 36,000 primary water supplies between 1985-2005. When piped water supplies are used in conjunction with the Blair toilet, a tank replaces the soil-lined pit. A Harare based company is currently manufacturing a 1-liter flush toilet instead of a 10-liter one. The Vonder Rig is another technological improvement being tested by the Blair Research Institute, which is effective in drilling through soils and rocky areas in the Epworth area which has a high water table. However, Epworth water supplies were installed in just a few homes; wells currently in use are placed too close to pit latrines and are dry due to the drought. Save the Children Fund (SCF) has been involved with rural water programs, but finds hauling water to rural areas too expensive. People must move into the city with friends and relatives. A SCF engineer has upgraded and dug 1000 wells in the past year, and finds that the Vonder Rig is suitable only where the water is near the surface and soil conditions are right. The SCF has improved existing wells by reinforcing the well lining and headworks and adding a long-lasting windlass plus an apron and cover for prevention of contamination. The SCF develops ways of obtaining water through rural participation. Africare, a US nongovernmental organization, prefers digging boreholes and has completed 800 at a cost of $10 million. However, boreholes dry out, suffer

  2. Low-cost human motion capture system for postural analysis onboard ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, Erica; Ackermann, Sebastiano; Del Pizzo, Silvio; Menna, Fabio; Troisi, Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    The study of human equilibrium, also known as postural stability, concerns different research sectors (medicine, kinesiology, biomechanics, robotics, sport) and is usually performed employing motion analysis techniques for recording human movements and posture. A wide range of techniques and methodologies has been developed, but the choice of instrumentations and sensors depends on the requirement of the specific application. Postural stability is a topic of great interest for the maritime community, since ship motions can make demanding and difficult the maintenance of the upright stance with hazardous consequences for the safety of people onboard. The need of capturing the motion of an individual standing on a ship during its daily service does not permit to employ optical systems commonly used for human motion analysis. These sensors are not designed for operating in disadvantageous environmental conditions (water, wetness, saltiness) and with not optimal lighting. The solution proposed in this study consists in a motion acquisition system that could be easily usable onboard ships. It makes use of two different methodologies: (I) motion capture with videogrammetry and (II) motion measurement with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The developed image-based motion capture system, made up of three low-cost, light and compact video cameras, was validated against a commercial optical system and then used for testing the reliability of the inertial sensors. In this paper, the whole process of planning, designing, calibrating, and assessing the accuracy of the motion capture system is reported and discussed. Results from the laboratory tests and preliminary campaigns in the field are presented.

  3. A Low-Cost and Fast Real-Time PCR System Based on Capillary Convection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianbo; Ge, Shengxiang; Gao, Pengfei; Li, Ke; Yang, Yongliang; Zhang, Shiyin; Ye, Xiangzhong; Xia, Ningshao; Qian, Shizhi

    2017-02-01

    A low-cost and fast real-time PCR system in a pseudo-isothermal manner with disposable capillary tubes based on thermal convection for point-of-care diagnostics is developed and tested. Once stable temperature gradient along the capillary tube has been established, a continuous circulatory flow or thermal convection inside the capillary tube will repeatedly transport PCR reagents through temperature zones associated with the DNA denaturing, annealing, and extension stages of the reaction. To establish stable temperature gradient along the capillary tube, a dual-temperature heating strategy with top and bottom heaters is adopted here. A thermal waveguide is adopted for precise maintenance of the temperature of the top heater. An optimized optical network is developed for monitoring up to eight amplification units for real-time fluorescence detection. The system performance was demonstrated with repeatable detection of influenza A (H1N1) virus nucleic acid targets with a limit of detection of 1.0 TCID50/mL within 30 min.

  4. Steam driven centrifugal pump for low cost boiler feed service

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article describes a steam driven centrifugal pump for boiler feed-water and other high pressure water applications, which was awarded Top Honors in the special pumps category of the 1982 Chemical processing Vaaler competition, because the simple design with turbine, pump and controls combined in an integral unit provides high operating efficiency and reliable performance with minimal maintenance. Single source responsibility for all components when the pump may have to be serviced is another advantage. These features meet the requirements for boiler feed pumps that are critical to maintaining a consistent steam supply in a process plant where downtime can be extremely expensive. The annual cost to operate the pump for 8000 hours is about $100,000, if electricity costs 5 cents/kwh. These pumps can be run for about $30,000 on steam, if natural gas costs $4.00/mcf. Cost savings are $70,000 annually.

  5. State-of-the-art review of low-cost collector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, W. A.

    1981-06-01

    A brief but concise review is provided of low-cost solar collector technologies and their potential for application within the military. Low-cost, light-weight concepts for flat-plate collectors, parabolic trough collectors, heliostats and parabolic dish collectors are covered. In addition, several criteria are evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies. These include reliability, maintainability, survivability, motility/erectibility, environmental impact and economics. Research and development requirements and ongoing activities are also summarized.

  6. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  7. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  8. A low cost ERT prototype in the Cultural Heritage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a well-established geophysical technique useful in geology and environmental studies. Its low intrusivity, which is a key feature for its success in the above-mentioned fields, can be a strong limitation for the systematic application of the ERT in the Cultural Heritage and civil infrastructures monitoring application fields. In fact, usually, the injection of the electric current in the structure (or ground) is realized through stainless steel electrodes, which have to be fixed into the medium so to achieve a good electric contact with a low electrode resistance. However, Geophysical characterization of Cultural Heritage needs more stringent requirements in terms of minimal or not-intrusivity. To comply with this requirement, in this work an ERT system has been developed, which is based on the use of medical Ag/AgCl electrodes located on the structure also thanks to the help of and conductive gel so to keep low the electric contact resistance; the electrodes are excited by a classical DC georesistivimeter. Such a type of low cost electrodes makes it possible to perform non invasive diagnostics by also ensuring a stability of measurement in a time period comparable with the ones required for the survey in cultural heritage. In addition, the use of Ag/AgCl minimizes electrode polarization phenomena. This work is concerned with the set-up and the testing of a prototypical ERT system, where the Ag/AgCl electrodes are commanded by the IRIS Syscal Junior georesistivimeter, which is of interest Cultural Heritage and civil infrastructures characterization and monitoring. Preliminary test have demonstrated the possibility to inject electrical current (10-30 mA) into reinforced concrete and marble and measure an induced voltage of the order of ranging from 0.1 to 10 mV; also the electrodes exhibit a good stability even if they are used as current electrodes. The use of an electroconductive material such as a water based gel, which

  9. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    ) sites in eastern Virginia indicated that non C-amended biosolids could be applied at loading rates of up to 75 Mg/ha without significant local ground-water effects, but that significant elevation of nitrate-N in shallow root-zone (75 cm) percolates was observed the first winter after application. Addition of palatable C (as sawdust) to adjust the applied biosolids C:N ratio to 25:1 significantly reduced nitrate-N in root-zone percolates and would allow for higher loading rates where indicated. Lime-stabilized biosolids (100 Mg/ha; 15 to 25% CCE) have also been used to permanently stabilize and revegetate large areas (> 100 ha) acid-sulfate (pH < 3.5) soils disturbed by construction in eastern Virginia with minimal local water quality effects. Parallel studies at our sites in the USA have indicated no significant heavy metal leaching or plant uptake risks as long as sludge quality and soil pH are controlled. Finally, long-term (10 yr) results from Katowice, Poland, indicate that high rates (> 250 Mg/ha) of biosolids co-applied with waste limes can be utilized to permanently stabilize and revegetate a wide range of phytotoxic and heavily contaminated Pb/Zn smelter slags and processing tailings. Biosolids are generally available at very low cost for land rehabilitation since their cost of transport and application is usually born by the producer or source municipality. Their use is particularly cost-effective when lime-stabilized materials are applied to strongly acidic or metalliferous sites.

  10. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  11. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  12. Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. The expanding role of space in today's marketplace combined with the increased sophistication and capabilities of modern satellites has created a need for more efficient, lower cost solutions to complete command and control systems. Recent technical advances have resulted in commercial-off-the-shelf products which greatly reduce the complete life-cycle costs associated with satellite launch and control system procurements. System integrators and spacecraft operators have, however, been slow to integrate these commercial based solutions into a comprehensive command and control system. This is due, in part, to a resistance to change and the fact that many available products are unable to effectively communicate with other commercial products. The United States Air Force, responsible for the health and safety of over 84 satellites via its Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), has embarked on an initiative to prove that commercial products can be used effectively to form a comprehensive command and control system. The initial version of this system is being installed at the Air Force's Center for Research Support (CERES) located at the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The first stage of this initiative involved the identification of commercial products capable of satisfying each functional element of a command and control system. A significant requirement in this product selection criteria was flexibility and ability to integrate with other available commercial products. This paper discusses the functions and capabilities of the product selected to provide orbit determination functions for this comprehensive command and control system.

  13. Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Taylor; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William; Hartenstine, John; Stern, Theodore; Walmsley, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kW(sub e) range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kW(sub e) non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water. By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POC(TradeMark) foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. A two-heat pipe radiator prototype, based on the single facesheet direct-bond concept, was fabricated and tested to verify the ability of the direct-bond joint to withstand coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) induced stresses during thermal cycling. The thermal gradients along the bonds were measured before and after thermal cycle tests to determine if the performance degraded. Overall, the results indicated that the initial uniformity of the adhesive was poor along one of the heat pipes. However, both direct bond joints showed no measureable amount of degradation after being thermally cycled at both moderate and aggressive conditions.

  14. Low cost sensors for PM and related air pollutants in the US and India

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging air quality sensors have a variety of possible applications. If accurate and reliable, they have a number of benefits over conventional monitors. They are low-cost, lightweight, and have low power consumption. Because of their low cost, a dense array of sensors instal...

  15. Affordability of Private Schools: Exploration of a Conundrum and towards a Definition of "Low-Cost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Longfield, David

    2016-01-01

    The affordability of private education is a contentious issue. While the extent of "low-cost" private schooling is widely accepted, there is no agreement on what "low-cost" means in this context and how this relates to affordability for poor families. This paper addresses the lacuna in the literature by defining…

  16. A Low-Cost, In Situ Resistivity and Temperature Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a low-cost, reliable method for long-term in situ autonomous monitoring of subsurface resistivity and temperature in a shallow, moderately heterogeneous subsurface. Probes, to be left in situ, were constructed at relatively low cost with close electrode spacing. Once i...

  17. NEW APPROACHES: Low-cost, high-tech experiments for educational physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodl, Hans-Jörg; Eckert, Bodo

    1998-07-01

    The advantage of low-cost experiments is obvious and the real-life aspects of high-tech experiments appeal to pupils. The benefits of hands-on experiments that are both low-cost and high-tech are described here. Four detailed examples are given, which include the use of contact lenses and CDs, and other ideas are provided.

  18. State-of-the-Art Review of Low-Cost Collector Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Mobility Low-Cost Parabolic Trough Survivability Light-Weight Thin-Film Reliability Heliostats Polymers Military 20. ABSTRACT (Contine an revers. deo It... heliostats and parabolic dish collectors. In addition several criteria were evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies These included...has produced collectors which incorporate sophisticated materials, = Heliostat heavy components, expensive seals and compli- o- (Point Focus) cated

  19. 10 CFR 440.20 - Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. 440.20 Section 440.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.20 Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. (a) An eligible dwelling unit may...

  20. Changes in excitatory and inhibitory circuits of the rat hippocampus 12-14 months after complete forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Arabadzisz, D; Freund, T F

    1999-01-01

    Changes in interneuron distribution and excitatory connectivity have been investigated in animals which had survived 12-14 months after complete forebrain ischemia, induced by four-vessel occlusion. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin revealed massive Schaffer collateral input even to those regions of the CA1 subfield where hardly any surviving pyramidal cells were found. Boutons of these Schaffer collaterals formed conventional synaptic contacts on dendritic spines and shafts, many of which likely belong to interneurons. Mossy fibres survived the ischemic challenge, however, large mossy terminals showed altered morphology, namely, the number of filopodiae on these terminals decreased significantly. The entorhinal input to the hippocampus did not show any morphological alterations. The distribution of interneurons was investigated by neurochemical markers known to label functionally distinct GABAergic cell populations. In the hilus, spiny interneurons showed a profound decrease in number. This phenomenon was not as obvious in CA3, but the spiny metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha-positive non-pyramidal cells, some of which contain calretinin or substance P receptor, disappeared from stratum lucidum of this area. In the CA1 region, somatostatin immunoreactivity disappeared from stratum oriens/lacunosum-moleculare-associated cells, while in metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha-stained sections these cells seemed unaffected in number. Other interneurons did not show an obvious decrease in number. In stratum radiatum of the CA1 subfield, some interneuron types had altered morphology: the substance P receptor-positive dendrites lost their characteristic radial orientation, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha-expressing cells became extremely spiny. The loss of inhibitory interneurons at the first two stages of the trisynaptic loop coupled with a well-preserved excitatory connectivity among the subfields suggests that

  1. Low-cost bioanalysis on paper-based and its hybrid microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Dou, Maowei; Sanjay, Sharma Timilsina; Benhabib, Merwan; Xu, Feng; Li, XiuJun

    2015-12-01

    Low-cost assays have broad applications ranging from human health diagnostics and food safety inspection to environmental analysis. Hence, low-cost assays are especially attractive for rural areas and developing countries, where financial resources are limited. Recently, paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as a low-cost platform which greatly accelerates the point of care (POC) analysis in low-resource settings. This paper reviews recent advances of low-cost bioanalysis on paper-based microfluidic platforms, including fully paper-based and paper hybrid microfluidic platforms. In this review paper, we first summarized the fabrication techniques of fully paper-based microfluidic platforms, followed with their applications in human health diagnostics and food safety analysis. Then we highlighted paper hybrid microfluidic platforms and their applications, because hybrid platforms could draw benefits from multiple device substrates. Finally, we discussed the current limitations and perspective trends of paper-based microfluidic platforms for low-cost assays.

  2. Use of a low-cost incentive intervention to improve counseling attendance among methadone-maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2005-12-01

    Despite the importance of counseling in methadone maintenance treatment, many patients do not take advantage of these services. Incentives for attending group counseling were offered to methadone-maintained patients during an orientation phase of treatment or during required attendance at a relapse group later in treatment. Upon attending each counseling session, patients could draw for prizes under an escalating draw system with a 50% probability that draws would result in a prize. Incentives included small (1dollar), moderate (5 dollars), and large (20 dollars) prizes, with chances of winning inversely related to prize costs, and a maximum possible total of 160 dollars per patient. It was anticipated that this policy would provide a relatively low-cost approach to improving counseling attendance in our methadone clinic. The incentive policy significantly increased the percent of counseling sessions attended (52% vs. 76%) and promoted periods of continuous attendance. These data further support the effectiveness of low-cost incentive programs in enhancing counseling attendance among methadone patients.

  3. Low-cost Alternative Orbits In The Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    The moon has been the target of innumerous space missions throughout the last decades, and everything indicates that many others will occur. This is especially true due to the fact that lunar bases play a fundamental role in supporting future manned interplanetary missions. Thus, knowledge about low-cost alternative orbits in the Earth-Moon system can be extremely advantageous. In this paper, we presented two regions of alternative orbits in the Earth-Moon system. They are stable orbits around the Moon, whose distance from the lunar surface varies between 400 and 20,000 kilometers. In our studies, we determined the location and size of these regions based on the restricted circular planar problem of 3-body, Earth-Moon-spacecraft. In this system, the regions of stability correspond to quasi-periodic orbits around known periodic orbits (Broucke, 1968). Then, we considered a more realistic model. We adopted the restricted problem of 4-body Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft, taking into account the Earth's oblateness, the eccentricities of the Earth and the Moon, the inclination of the Moon, the obliquity of the Earth and the solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft. The results show that even so, a significant portion of the regions of stability remains. These orbits are stable in the practical sense that the energy of the problem of 2-body Moon-spacecraft remains negative for a period greater than 1000 days. The maintenance cost of orbits in these regions is low, keeping in mind that they are stable regions.

  4. Fostering low-cost soil moisture monitoring techniques to improve irrigation efficiency in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouleau, Clémence; Baracchini, Theo; Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Bolay, Jean-Claude; Perona, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a significant activity in water stressed semi-arid (e.g., the Sahel) regions, thereby yield and water management are fundamental aspects of irrigation success. Small farmers have often difficulties in managing crops and in evaluating water needs resulting in low yield with excessive water consumption, elevated pumping costs and soil degradation. In different proportions, this overuse of water concerns all irrigation techniques: gravity flows from reservoirs, watering cans irrigation from groundwater wells, micro- or drip irrigation. Baseline requirements for supporting sustainable technology are low costs, easy installation, minimal maintenance, and local production. We present and discuss results from the Info4Dourou2.0 explorative project in Burkina Faso, the main goal of which is to improve small-scale agriculture by the use of sensing and communication technologies. In particular, a support system that couples autonomous and continuous measurements of meteorological variables and soil matrix potential as well as soil humidity with agronomic models has been tested in drip-irrigated fields over a three-year period. In particular, the system is collecting data from three water potential sensors at different locations per field and informs the farmers through a simple interface of the correct amount of water needed by the plant. In its simplicity this system provides an easy to use and install irrigation management setup, and is therefore an ideal candidate in favor of sustainability. Info4Dourou2.0 pilot experiments have shown that farmers can obtain significantly higher yields using lower amounts of water. Overall, this methodology allows facing multiple urgent problems such as the use of environmental data to improve agricultural production towards ecosystem conservation, food security issues and adaptation to climatic change scenarios.

  5. Micro-Thermoelectric Generation Modules Fabricated with Low-Cost Mechanical Machining Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dawei; Jin, A. J.; Peng, Wenbo; Li, Qiming; Gao, Hu; Zhu, Lianjun; Li, Fu; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2016-11-01

    Micro/small-scale thermoelectric generation modules are able to produce continuous, noise-free and reliable electricity power using low temperature differences that widely exist in nature or industry. These advantages bring them great application prospects in the fields of remote monitoring, microelectronics/micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), medical apparatus and smart management system, which often require a power source free of maintenance and vibration. In this work, a prototypical thermoelectric module (12 mm × 12 mm × 0.8 mm) with 15 pairs of micro-scale thermoelectric legs (0.2 mm in width and 0.6 mm in height for each leg) is fabricated using a low-cost mechanical machining process. In this process, cutting and polishing are the main methods for the preparation of thermoelectric pairs from commercial polycrystalline materials and for the fabrication of electrode patterns. The as-fabricated module is tested for its power generation properties with the hot side heated by an electrical heater and the cold side by cold air. With the heater temperature of 375 K, the thermoelectric potential is about 9.1 mV, the short circuit current is about 14.5 mA, and the maximum output power is about 32.8 μW. The finite element method is applied to analyze the heat transfer of the module during our test. The temperature difference and heat flux are simulated, according to which the output powers at different temperatures are calculated, and the result is relatively consistent compared to the test results.

  6. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  7. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

  8. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  9. Very low cost infrared array-based detection and imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansi, Mike V.; Porter, Stephen G.; Galloway, J. Lindsay; Sumpter, Neil

    2001-10-01

    The major defence systems companies have been expending considerable effort on the development of thermal imaging and sensing systems technologies for use in the military field for many years. Major efforts have been made to spin-off low cost variants of the technology into the civil market sector with varying degrees of success. IRISYS have approached the civil market opportunity from a different perspective. The company has developed an inherently low cost technology with the objective of achieving a low cost imaging sensor. The achievement of the low price for civil sensing applications is by use of a detector technology that is optimized for the very high volume detection market. The paper reviews the detector technology, design methodologies and implementation of low cost thermal detection and imaging products.

  10. A LOW-COST THREE-DIMENSIONAL SAMPLE COLLECTION ARRAY TO EVALUATE AND MONITOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, ...

  11. Low-Cost Fabrication of Centimetre-Scale Periodic Arrays of Single Plasmid DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Brett; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Peipei; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Lenhert, Steven; Gilbert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We report development of a low-cost method to generate a centimetre-scale periodic array of single plasmid DNA of 11 kilobase pairs. The arrayed DNA is amenable to enzymatic and physical manipulation. PMID:23824041

  12. Navigation for Low-Cost Missions to Small Solar-System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Williams, B. G.; Bollman, W. E.; Davis, R. P.; Helfrich, C. E.; Synnott, S. P.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of low-cost space missions planned by NASA for flight in the late 1990's and early 2000's will involve rendevous with, and orbits about, small solar-system bodies such as asteroids and comets.

  13. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  14. Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The research group at CSU has conducted theoretical and experimental research on 'Ultra-Low-Cost Room Temperature SiC Thin Films. The effectiveness of a ultra-low-cost room temperature thin film SiC growth technique on Silicon and Germanium substrates and structures with applications to space solar sells, ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) cells and microelectronic and optoelectronic devices was investigated and the main result of this effort are summarized.

  15. Feasibility of Developing Academic Laboratories Using a Low-Cost Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    DEVELOPING ACADEMIC LABORATORIES USING A LOW-COST ROBOT by Antonio Valle September 2009 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Second Reader...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Feasibility of Developing Academic Laboratories using a Low-cost Robot 6. AUTHOR(S) Antonio Valle 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...investigate the feasibility of developing new academic laboratories for an introductory robotics course at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) using

  16. Precision Agriculture: Using Low-Cost Systems to Acquire Low-Altitude Images.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Moacir; Chaves, Arthur A; Jorge, Fabio R; Costa, Gabriel B P; Colturato, Adimara; Branco, Kalinka R L J C

    2016-01-01

    Low cost remote sensing imagery has the potential to make precision farming feasible in developing countries. In this article, the authors describe image acquisition from eucalyptus, bean, and sugarcane crops acquired by low-cost and low-altitude systems. They use different approaches to handle low-altitude images in both the RGB and NIR (near-infrared) bands to estimate and quantify plantation areas.

  17. Ability of Low-Cost Force-Feedback Device to Influence Postural Stability.

    PubMed

    Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Tatti, Fabio; Borghese, Nunzio A

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost gaming technology offers promising devices for the rehabilitation of stroke patients at home. While several attempts have been made to use low-cost motion tracking devices (Kinect) or balance boards (Wii Board), the potential of low-cost haptic devices has yet to be explored in this context. The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to influence postural stability with a low-cost device despite its technical limitations, and to explore the most promising modes of haptic interaction to increase and decrease postural stability. Two groups of younger subjects used a high-end (Omega.3) and a low-cost (Falcon) device respectively. A third group of older subjects used the Falcon. We show that light touch contact with the device improves stability, whereas the force tasks decrease it. The effects of the different tasks are consistent in the two age groups. Although there are differences in the participants' interaction with the two devices, the effect of the devices on postural stability is comparable. We conclude that a low-cost haptic device can be used to increase or decrease postural stability of healthy subjects with an age similar to that of typical stroke patients, in a safe and controllable way.

  18. The influence of a hand preference for acquiring objects on the development of a hand preference for unimanual manipulation from 6 to 14 months.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Babik, Iryna; Michel, George F

    2015-05-01

    Development of hand preferences for unimanual manipulation of objects was explored in 90 infants (57 males) tested monthly from 6 to 14 months. From a larger sample of 380 infants, 30 infants with a consistent left hand preference for acquiring objects were matched for sex and development of locomotion skills with 30 infants with a consistent right hand preference for acquisition and 30 with no preference. Although frequency of unimanual manipulations increased during 6-14 month period, infants with a hand preference for acquisition did more object manipulations than those without a preference for acquisition. Multilevel modeling of unimanual manipulation trajectories for the three hand-preference groups revealed that hand preferences for unimanual manipulation become more distinctive with age, and the preference is predicted by the hand preference for object acquisition. Infants with a right and left hand preference for object acquisition develop a right and left (respectively) hand preference for unimanual manipulation. However, the majority of infants at each month do not exhibit hand preferences for unimanual manipulation that are unlikely to occur by chance, even by 14 months. The results are consistent with a cascading theory of handedness development in which early preferences (i.e., for acquisition) are transferred to later developing preferences (i.e., for unimanual manipulation).

  19. Portable and low-cost sensors in monitoring air qualities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Lekan; Jones, Roderic; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    large measurement networks (due to its low cost and power demand) in places such as big cities in China where air quality has become an increasing concern.

  20. Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Rafatullah, Mohd; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Ahmad, Anees

    2010-05-15

    In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of MB, as a pollutant, from waste waters of textile, paper, printing and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to its relatively high cost which led to the researches on alternative non-conventional and low-cost adsorbents. The purpose of this review article is to organize the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially low-cost adsorbents for MB removal. These include agricultural wastes, industrial solid wastes, biomass, clays minerals and zeolites. Agricultural waste materials being highly efficient, low cost and renewable source of biomass can be exploited for MB remediation. It is evident from a literature survey of about 185 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for MB.

  1. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-02-14

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor.

  2. Low-Cost 3D Systems: Suitable Tools for Plant Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor is able to replace an expensive laser scanner in many plant phenotyping scenarios. PMID:24534920

  3. Preparation and properties of low-cost graphene counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wang, Qiandi; Gu, Feng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Linjun

    2013-12-01

    With the advantages of excellent electrical properties, high catalytic activity and low-cost preparation, Graphene is one of the most expected carbon materials to replace the expensive Pt as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this paper, graphene counter electrodes were obtained by simple doctor-blade coating method on fluorine tin oxides (FTOs). The samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then the low-cost graphene electrodes were applied in typical sandwich-type DSSCs with TiO2 or ZnO as photoanodes, and their photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were about 4.34% and 2.28%, respectively, which were a little lower than those of Pt electrodes but much higher than those of graphite electrodes. This law was consistent with the test results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Low-cost graphene electrodes can be applied in DSSCs by process optimization.

  4. A Low-Cost RSSI-Based Localization System for Wildlife Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Markus; Nowak, Thorsten; Patino-Studencki, Lucila; Robert, Jörg; Heuberger, Albert; Thielecke, Jörn

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a low-cost localization system for the high-resolution tracking of bats. The system bases on a ground network consisting of multiple low-cost receiver stations, and ultra-lightweight transmitters mounted on the bats. A main challenge of the received signal strength based localization is the limited dynamic range of the employed low-cost receivers. This challenge is solved using an efficient 2-stage differential correlation concept. It significantly improves the dynamic wrt. conventional power detection methods. In addition, this concept requires low processing power and is robust wrt. frequency offsets. Finally, this paper presents a performance evaluation employing reference measurements recorded in the rain forest of Panama.

  5. Typical low cost biosorbents for adsorptive removal of specific organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Son; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-04-01

    Specific organic pollutants (SOPs) such as phenolic compounds, PAHs, organic pesticides, and organic herbicides cause health and environmental problems due to their excessive toxic properties and poor biodegradability. Low-cost biosorbents are considered as a promising alternative for conventional adsorbents to remove SOPs from water. These materials have several advantages such as high sorption capacities, good modifiability and recoverability, insensitivity to toxic substances, simple operation in the treatment processes. However, previous reports on various types of biosorbents for removing SOPs are still moderately fragmented. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review on using typical low-cost biosorbents obtained from lignocellulose and chitin/chitosan for SOPs adsorption. Especially, their characteristics, biosorption mechanism together with utilization for eliminating SOPs are presented and discussed. The paper also gives a critical view regarding future applications of low-cost biosorbents in SOPs-contaminated water treatment.

  6. Simulation analysis of a microcomputer-based, low-cost Omega navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.; Salter, R. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current status of research on a proposed micro-computer-based, low-cost Omega Navigation System (ONS) is described. The design approach emphasizes minimum hardware, maximum software, and the use of a low-cost, commercially-available microcomputer. Currently under investigation is the implementation of a low-cost navigation processor and its interface with an omega sensor to complete the hardware-based ONS. Sensor processor functions are simulated to determine how many of the sensor processor functions can be handled by innovative software. An input data base of live Omega ground and flight test data was created. The Omega sensor and microcomputer interface modules used to collect the data are functionally described. Automatic synchronization to the Omega transmission pattern is described as an example of the algorithms developed using this data base.

  7. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F.; Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  8. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Deen, M. J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine.

  9. Graphene radio frequency and microwave passive components for low cost wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Hsin Chang, Kuo; Cing Chen, Jia; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Hu, Zhirun

    2016-06-01

    Graphene RF and microwave passive components such as coplanar waveguide transmission lines, open/short-circuited resonators and wideband antenna on paper substrate were designed, screen printed and characterized in this work. The experimental results demonstrate that the screen printed graphene passive components can be used for RF signal transmitting, processing and radiating/receiving; revealing that graphene ink can be a low cost alternative to much more expensive metal nanoparticle inks, such as silver nanoparticle ink. The screen printed graphene is processed at low temperature so that it is compatible with heat-sensitive flexible materials like papers, PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) and textiles. The screen printed graphene passive components reported here are of high conductivity, high flexibility, light weight and low cost, making them ideal candidate for low cost wearable electronics. This work makes it prospective to manufacture RF and microwave passive components in mass production by screen printing in much lower cost to any other known techniques.

  10. Measured performance results: low-cost solar water heating systems in the San Luis Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.

    1983-01-01

    The measured performance of seven low-cost solar water heating systems in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado is summarized. During the summer and fall of 1981, SERI monitored a variety of low-cost solar water heating system designs and components. Five systems had site-built collectors, and four included low-cost tank-in-jacket heat exchanger/storage tank components. Two were air-to-water systems. The five liquid-based systems included a drain-down design, a propylene glycol-charged thermosiphon system, and three pumped-glycol systems. The pumped-liquid systems performed the best, with system efficiencies greater than 20% and solar fractions between 40% and 70%. Tjhe air-to-water systems did not perform as well because of leakage in the collectors and heat exchangers. The thermosiphon system performed at lower efficiency because the collector flows were low.

  11. Mars Relay Satellite: Key to Enabling Low-Cost Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.; Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing evidence of a renewed focus on Mars exploration both by NASA and the international community. The thrust of this renewed interest appears to be manifesting itself in numerous low-cost missions employing small, light weight elements, which utilize advanced technologies including integrated microelectronics. A formidable problem facing these low-cost missions is communications with Earth. Providing adequate direct-link performance has very significant impacts on spacecraft power, pointing, mass and overall complexity. Additionally, for elements at or near the surface of Mars, there are serious connectivity constraints, especially at higher latitudes, which lose view of Earth for up to many months at a time. This paper will discuss the role a Mars relay satellite can play in enabling and enhancing low-cost missions to Mars...

  12. The use of low-cost adsorbents for wastewater purification in mining industries.

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Evgenia; Sillanpää, Mika

    2013-11-01

    Recently, great attention has been paid to the environmental problems in mining industry. At present there are different ways of mineral processing, as well as various methods of wastewater treatment, most of them are expensive. Work is ongoing to find low-cost treatments. In this article, low-cost adsorbents, potentially useful for wastewater treatment on mining and metallurgical plants, are reviewed; their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of their application are compared. Also adsorption of different metals and radioactive compounds from acidic environment similar to composition of mining and metallurgical wastewaters is considered.

  13. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N; Yu, Z; Jaworski, A J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  14. Design study of a low cost civil aviation GPS receiver system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R.; Gilbert, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost Navstar receiver system for civil aviation applications was defined. User objectives and constraints were established. Alternative navigation processing design trades were evaluated. Receiver hardware was synthesized by comparing technology projections with various candidate system designs. A control display unit design was recommended as the result of field test experience with Phase I GPS sets and a review of special human factors for general aviation users. Areas requiring technology development to ensure a low cost Navstar Set in the 1985 timeframe were identified.

  15. Providing Strong Security and High Privacy in Low-Cost RFID Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security algorithms to be designed especially for those tags. In this paper, a complete solution providing strong security and high privacy during the whole product lifetime is presented. Combining bit-wise operations and secret keys, the algorithm proposed addresses and solves all the common security attacks.

  16. Open Source Virtual Worlds and Low Cost Sensors for Physical Rehab of Patients with Chronic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Salvador J.; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Sevillano, José L.; Vognild, Lars

    For patients with chronic diseases, exercise is a key part of rehab to deal better with their illness. Some of them do rehabilitation at home with telemedicine systems. However, keeping to their exercising program is challenging and many abandon the rehabilitation. We postulate that information technologies for socializing and serious games can encourage patients to keep doing physical exercise and rehab. In this paper we present Virtual Valley, a low cost telemedicine system for home exercising, based on open source virtual worlds and utilizing popular low cost motion controllers (e.g. Wii Remote) and medical sensors. Virtual Valley allows patient to socialize, learn, and play group based serious games while exercising.

  17. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  18. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  19. On farm evaluation of the effect of low cost drip irrigation on water and crop productivity compared to conventional surface irrigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisiri, N.; Senzanje, A.; Rockstrom, J.; Twomlow, S. J.

    This on-farm research study was carried out at Zholube irrigation scheme in a semi-arid agro tropical climate of Zimbabwe to determine how low cost drip irrigation technologies compare with conventional surface irrigation systems in terms of water and crop productivity. A total of nine farmers who were practicing surface irrigation were chosen to participate in the study. The vegetable English giant rape ( Brassica napus) was grown under the two irrigation systems with three fertilizer treatments in each system: ordinary granular fertilizer, liquid fertilizer (fertigation) and the last treatment with no fertilizer. These trials were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Biometric parameters of leaf area index (LAI) and fresh weight of the produce, water use efficiency (WUE) were used to compare the performance of the two irrigation systems. A water balance of the inflows and outflows was kept for analysis of WUE. The economic profitability and the operation, maintenance and management requirements of the different systems were also evaluated. There was no significant difference in vegetable yield between the irrigation systems at 8.5 ton/ha for drip compared to 7.8 ton/ha in surface irrigation. There were significant increases in yields due to use of fertilizers. Drip irrigation used about 35% of the water used by the surface irrigation systems thus giving much higher water use efficiencies. The leaf area indices were comparable in both systems with the same fertilizer treatment ranging between 0.05 for surface without fertilizer to 6.8 for low cost drip with fertigation. Low cost drip systems did not reflect any labour saving especially when manually lifting the water into the drum compared to the use of siphons in surface irrigation systems. The gross margin level for surface irrigation was lower than for low cost drip irrigation but the gross margin to total variable cost ratio was higher in surface irrigation systems, which meant that surface

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES - BIRTH COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low cost, low burden monitoring strategies that can be used in a longitudinal epidemiological study that focuses on pregnant women and young children. The focus of this study was on (1) recruiting and retaining partici...

  1. Low-Cost Aids for Elementary Science Teaching in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    Regional workshops sponsored by the National Institute for Educational Research (Japan) were held to strengthen national efforts in the development of elementary science aids/materials. This document provides: (1) guidelines for the development of appropriate and low-cost aids for science instruction; (2) inventory of aids; (3) synthesis of…

  2. Low-Cost Computer-Controlled Current Stimulator for the Student Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guclu, Burak

    2007-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve and muscle tissues is frequently used for teaching core concepts in physiology. It is usually expensive to provide every student group in the laboratory with an individual stimulator. This article presents the design and application of a low-cost [about $100 (U.S.)] isolated stimulator that can be controlled by two…

  3. Investigation of a Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source P...

  4. Investigation of Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source ...

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  6. Low cost sensors: Field evaluations and multi-sensor approaches for emissions factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development, and application of low cost sensors to measure both particulate and gas-phase air pollutants is poised to explode over the next several years. The need for the sensors is driven by poor air quality experienced in inhabited regions throughout the world, in both de...

  7. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost sensors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (< $500 US) sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sens...

  8. Construction and Characterization of a Compact, Portable, Low-Cost Colorimeter for the Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippard, Carrie M.; Hughes, William; Chohan, Balwant S.; Sykes, Danny G.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and portable colorimeter was constructed featuring a low-voltage programmable color light sensor-to-frequency converter, a CMOS 8-bit microcontroller, and an LCD display. The instrument has successfully facilitated the introduction and application of spectroscopy to groups of middle school, high school, and undergraduate students. A…

  9. Development of a Low-Cost Attitude Sensor for Agricultural Vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. The attitude sensor was composed of three vibratory gyroscopes and two inclinometers. A sensor fusion algorithm was developed to estimate tilt angles (roll and pitch) by least-squares method. In the a...

  10. A Simple Low-Cost Lock-In Amplifier for the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Sandip K.; Farnham, Jessica M.; Whitten, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The creation of a simple, low-cost lock-in amplifier (LIA) suitable for use in the chemistry teaching laboratory is described. The use of integrated circuits and few components are necessary to adequately accomplish lock-in amplification limited the total cost of construction to under US$100.

  11. A Low-Cost Celestial Globe for Hands-On Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruangsuwan, Chaiyapong; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost celestial globe is developed to support astronomical coordinate learning. It is used for demonstrating how stars are positioned and to analyse the motion of celestial bodies or diurnal motion. The model was implemented at a weekend astronomy camp provided for students from schools in the northeastern region of Thailand. A series of…

  12. Low-cost high-volume ECCE with PC I0L.

    PubMed

    Khouri, A S

    2000-10-01

    The following two letters address an article that appeared in the October 1999 issue of the Journal: Ruit S, Tabin GC, et al. Low-cost high-volume extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in Nepal. (Ophthalmology 1999;106:1887-92)

  13. A LOW-COST IMPEDANCE METER FOR SENSING THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF IN-SHELL PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low cost impedance meter developed at the National Peanut Research Laboratory described here was used to generate RF signals at frequencies of 1, 5 and 9 MHz. The RF signals were applied to a parallel-plate capacitor holding a sample of peanuts and the capacitance (C), phase angle (') and impedanc...

  14. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  15. Comparison of low cost 3D structured light scanners for face modeling.

    PubMed

    Bakirman, Tolga; Gumusay, Mustafa Umit; Reis, Hatice Catal; Selbesoglu, Mahmut Oguz; Yosmaoglu, Serra; Yaras, Mehmet Cem; Seker, Dursun Zafer; Bayram, Bulent

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to compare three different structured light scanner systems to generate accurate 3D human face models. Among these systems, the most dense and expensive one was denoted as the reference and the other two that were low cost and low resolution were compared according to the reference system. One female face and one male face were scanned with three light scanner systems. Point-cloud filtering, mesh generation, and hole-filling steps were carried out using a trial version of commercial software; moreover, the data evaluation process was realized using CloudCompare open-source software. Various filtering and mesh smoothing levels were applied on reference data to compare with other low-cost systems. Thus, the optimum reduction level of reference data was evaluated to continue further processes. The outcome of the presented study shows that low-cost structured light scanners have a great potential for 3D object modeling, including the human face. A considerable cheap structured light system has been used due to its capacity to obtain spatial and morphological information in the case study of 3D human face modeling. This study also discusses the benefits and accuracy of low-cost structured light systems.

  16. Examining the Effects of a Low-Cost Prompt to Reduce Retail Theft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafacz, Sharlet D.; Boyce, Thomas E.; Williams, W. Larry

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the extent to which a low-cost, antitheft intervention impacted theft and sales in a multiple baseline design across two grocery stores. Previous research has measured the impact on theft of items that have a sign indicating their high theft rate and stickers next to or on the items. In contrast, this study tracked four…

  17. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  18. Low-Cost Magnetic Stirrer from Recycled Computer Parts with Optional Hot Plate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidote, Armando M., Jr.; Pacot, Giselle Mae M.; Cabacungan, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic stirrers and hot plates are key components of science laboratories. However, these are not readily available in many developing countries due to their high cost. This article describes the design of a low-cost magnetic stirrer with hot plate from recycled materials. Some of the materials used are neodymium magnets and CPU fans from…

  19. Performance characteristics of a low-cost, field-deployable miniature CCD spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Simon; Nimmo, Malcolm; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Miniature spectrometers incorporating array detectors are becoming a viable, low-cost option for field and process deployments. The performance characteristics of one such instrument are reported and compared with those of a conventional benchtop instrument. The parameters investigated were wavelength repeatability, photometric linearity, instrumental noise (photometric precision) and instrumental drift. PMID:18924863

  20. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid Removal Process

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient NGL recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing - so that it can be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization.

  1. Early Childhood Benefits at Low Cost--Evidence from a Randomized Trail in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárdenas, Sergio; Evans, David K.; Holland, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evidence that investments in early child development can pay high, long-term dividends, is mounting, both in developed and developing countries. However, recent meta-analysis identified very few studies in developing countries. The authors report on the evaluation impact of a low-cost, community-based parent training program for early child…

  2. Simultaneous master-slave Omega pairs. [navigation system featuring low cost receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Master-slave sequence ordering of the Omega system is suggested as a method of improving the pair geometry for low-cost receiver user benefit. The sequence change will not affect present sophisticated processor users other than require new labels for some pair combinations, but may require worldwide transmitter operators to slightly alter their long-range synchronizing techniques.

  3. An Ultra Low Cost Wireless Communications Laboratory for Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low-cost wireless communications laboratory that is based on a commercial off-the-shelf field programmable gate array (FPGA) development board that is both inexpensive and available worldwide. The total cost of the laboratory is under USD $200, but it includes complete transmission, channel emulation, reception…

  4. Studying Fast Reactions: Construction and Use of a Low-Cost Continuous-Flow Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Patrick J.; Whitten, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The construction and use of a low-cost continuous-flow instrument for measuring the kinetics of fast reaction which include the use of an light emitting diode light source, a photodiode-on-a-chip detector, and a position sensor is demonstrated. The instrument is suitable for the physical chemistry laboratory and could be used to study the kinetics…

  5. Low Budget Biology. A Collection of Low Cost Labs and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartski, Bert; Wartski, Lynn Marie

    This document contains a collection of low cost labs and activities. The activities are organized into the following units: Chemistry; Microbiology; DNA to Chromosomes; Genetics; Evolution; Classification, Protist, and Fungus; Plant; Invertebrate; Human Biology; and Ecology and Miscellaneous. Some of the activities within these units include: (1)…

  6. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  7. Thermal control of power supplies with electronic packaging techniques. [using low cost heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The integration of low-cost commercial heat pipes in the design of a NASA candidate standard modular power supply with a 350 watt output resulted in a 44% weight reduction. Part temperatures were also appreciably reduced, increasing the environmental capability of the unit. A complete 350- watt modular power converter was built and tested to evaluate thermal performance of the redesigned supply.

  8. Laboratory Demonstration of Low-Cost Method for Producing Thin Film on Nonconductors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebong, A. U.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost procedure for metallizing a silicon p-n junction diode by electroless nickel plating is reported. The procedure demonstrates that expensive salts can be excluded without affecting the results. The experimental procedure, measurement, results, and discussion are included. (Author/KR)

  9. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  10. Investment opportunity: the FPL (Forest Products Laboratory) low-cost solar-dry kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Harpole, G.B.

    1988-09-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar-dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying-cycle time, green-lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  11. Fabricating low cost and high performance elastomer lenses using hanging droplets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. M.; Upadhya, A.; Reece, P. J.; Phan, Tri Giang

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for low cost lenses using parallel mold stamping and high temperature reflow requires complex engineering controls to produce high quality lenses. These manufacturing techniques rely on expensive equipment. In this paper, we propose a low cost (< $ 0.01 per pc) flexible moldless lens fabrication method based on curing a hanging transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer droplet on a curved substrate. Additional deposition of hanging droplets in the same manner led to a substantial increase in the lens curvature and concomitant decrease in the focal length of the PDMS lenses down to ~2 mm. The shortest focal length lenses were shown to collimate light from a bare light emitting diode (LED) and image microscopic structures down to around 4 µm with 160x magnification. Our hanging droplet lens fabrication technique heralds a new paradigm in the manufacture of low cost, high performance optical lenses for the masses. Using these lenses, we were able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost digital dermascope (60x magnification) that can readily visualize microscopic structures on skin such as sweat pores. PMID:24877020

  12. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  13. Development of a Low-Cost Four-Color LED Photometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jay R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a low-cost four-color LED photometer developed to overcome the rising cost of laboratory equipment used in general chemistry labs and introduce instrumentation at the undergraduate level. The photometer detects absorbance at selected wavelengths of visible light but retains the advantages of a dual-beam system. The unit is compact and…

  14. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  15. A Low-Cost Liquid-Chromatography System Using a Spectronic 20-Based Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jezorek, John R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the design and evaluation of a Spectronic 20-based detector as well as a simple system for postcolumn derivatization useful for metal-ion chromatographic detection. Both detection and derivatization can be performed in the ultra-violet (UV) mode using a low-cost UV-visible spectrophotometer and UV-region derivatization reagents. (JN)

  16. Automated Flow-Injection Instrument for Chemiluminescence Detection Using a Low-Cost Photodiode Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Papargyris, D.; Stratis, J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an FI analyzer for chemiluminescence detection using a low-cost photoiodide is presented. The experiment clearly demonstrates in a single interdisciplinary project the way in which different aspects in chemical instrumentation fit together to produce a working analytical system.

  17. Design of a low-cost high-performance autonomous robot for nuclear environments

    SciTech Connect

    Burhanpurkar, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents two key aspects of a novel low-cost modular mobile robot architecture for nuclear environments. Key features of the system are (a) a novel ultrasonic sensor for scene analysis in unstructured environments and (b) an efficient ground-search algorithm for ground-level contamination mapping without a priori maps or preprogramming.

  18. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  19. Laser pulse peak holding circuit for low cost laser tracking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, He; Zhang, Xiangjin; Chen, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In the low cost laser tracking applications, the width of the laser echo pulses received by four-quadrant photodetector from an illuminated target are narrow, and are only a few hundred or dozens of nanoseconds. In order to obtain the peak of these narrow laser pulses of nS level, by using peak holding technique, a simplified transconductance peak holding circuit model is constructed, taking into account of low cost applications with large number of requirements. The key parameters of the transconductance peak holding circuit such as response time, droop rate and bandwidth are analyzed for narrow laser pulse signals. The transconductance peak holding circuit is designed using a low-cost integrated chip OPA615, then is simulated by the software PSpice tools. Finally, a circuit board is manufactured for further tests. The results show that: the bandwidth of the circuit is about 76.4 MHz, response time is about 7 ns, and droop rate is about 5.7 mV/μs. The peaks of narrow laser pulses are effectively acquired, meeting the needs for the subsequent low speed and low cost A/D converter.

  20. 10 CFR 440.20 - Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. 440.20 Section 440.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME... items which are primarily directed toward reducing infiltration, including weatherstripping,...

  1. 10 CFR 440.20 - Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low-cost/no-cost weatherization activities. 440.20 Section 440.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME... items which are primarily directed toward reducing infiltration, including weatherstripping,...

  2. Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 15th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period December 1979 to April 1980 is described. Project analysis and integration, technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheet and encapsulation, production process and equipment development, engineering, and operation are included.

  3. CAIRSENSE Study: Real-world evaluation of low cost sensors in Denver, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-cost air pollution sensors are a rapidly developing field in air monitoring. In recent years, numerous sensors have been developed that can provide real-time concentration data for different air pollutants at costs accessible to individuals and non-regulatory groups. Addition...

  4. Mapping Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone in Southern California Using Low-Cost Sensor Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergence of small, portable, low-cost air sensors has encouraged a shift from traditional monitoring approaches for air quality. Over the past years, EPA has been actively involved in the development and testing of these emerging sensor technologies as well as promoting inf...

  5. A microcomputer-based low-cost Omega sensor processor. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, R. J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The engineering approach used in the design of a low cost Omega sensor processor is discussed. The processor and its operations are described, as well as the system hardware and software. Circuit details of the hardware modules and program listings for the FORTRAN and microcomputer software are included.

  6. A Portable, Low-Cost, LED Fluorimeter for Middle School, High School, and Undergraduate Chemistry Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigton, Benjamin T.; Chohan, Balwant S.; McDonald, Cole; Johnson, Matt; Schunk, Doug; Kreuter, Rod; Sykes, Dan

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost portable fluorimeter was constructed using a 360 nm LED for excitation and a silicon photodiode for detection. The instrument is simple to operate and has been used to investigate fluorescent whitening agents extracted from various brands of paper, to determine the linear range and limit of detection of quinine in various commercial…

  7. A Low-Cost Thermistor Device for Measurements of Metabolic Heat in Yeast Cells in Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1980-01-01

    Provides illustrated directions for the construction and use of a low-cost thermistor device. Attached to a servo-type millivolt chart recorder, the device will record minute temperature changes and will simulate data obtained from an oxygen polarograph. Includes results of experiments with baker's yeast. (Author/CS)

  8. Modular Exhaust Design and Manufacturing Techniques for Low Cost Mid Volume Rapid Buidl to Order Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-06

    technical data package will contain the following pieces of information: • Manufacturing Drawings • Code for running CNC machinery • Documentation...MODULAR EXHAUST DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW COST MID VOLUME RAPID BUILD TO ORDER SYSTEMS Kevin Nelson Project Engineer...customizable mufflers, as well as modular manufacturing techniques targeted at mid volume manufacturing quantities. A successful solution would reduce

  9. A low-cost dual-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available remote sensing platform as low-cost and easy-to-use consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for aerial imaging. In this article, we report on a dual-camera imaging system we recently assembled that can capture RGB and near-infrared (NIR) i...

  10. The pole tide/14-month oscillations in the Baltic Sea during the 19th and 20th centuries: Spatial and temporal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Igor P.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Kulikov, Evgueni A.

    2017-04-01

    Sea level changes with a period of 14 months (P14) are usually associated with the pole tide, which is the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble in the Earth's axis of rotation. The amplitudes of these changes in the Baltic Sea are anomalously large, much larger than follows from the equilibrium pole tide theory. It appears that the oscillations are related to meteorological forcing rather than to pole motions. To examine the P14 properties, we used long-term (48-213 years) tide gauge records from 77 stations located in the Baltic Sea and adjacent area of the North Sea. High-resolution sea level spectra revealed a cluster of peaks with periods from 410 to 450 days. The temporal variations in the P14 sea level amplitudes and peak frequencies are found to be considerable and poorly correlated with the modulation of the Earth's pole motions. In contrast, our findings for 1871-2011 demonstrate strong resemblance between temporal (year-to-year) variations of the P14 peak and zonal wind, confirming earlier results of Ekman (1996) and O'Connor et al. (2000), who indicated the major role of the zonal wind in formation of the 14-month oscillations in the Baltic and North seas. The integral amplitudes of the P14 oscillations in the Baltic Sea gradually increase eastward from the entrance (the Danish straits) to the farthest ends of the sea with the largest amplitudes (up to 6.5 cm) observed at the very head of the Gulf of Finland. Similar P14 amplification toward the west coast of Denmark is also observed along the south coast of the North Sea. The geographical distribution of the P14 in these two regions are almost the same as of the seasonal sea level oscillations, indicating presumably similar formation mechanisms. Extensive shallow-water areas in the Baltic Sea and southeastern part of the North Sea, combined with intense meteorological forcing, appear to be two key factors responsible for the formation of anomalously strong 14-month oscillations in these regions.

  11. Low-Cost Rescue Robot for Disaster Management in a Developing Country: Development of a Prototype Using Locally Available Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair

    2010-01-01

    The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.

  12. Electricity production and benzene removal from groundwater using low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cells in a monitoring well.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Hung; Wang, Ruei-Cyun; Lin, Chi-Wen

    2017-05-15

    A low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for treating groundwater that contained benzene in monitoring wells. Experimental results indicate that increasing the length and density, and reducing the size of the char particles in the anode effectively reduced the internal resistance. Additionally, a thinner polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel separator and PVA with a higher molecular weight improved electricity generation. The optimal parameters for the MFC were an anode density of 1.22 g cm(-3), a coke of 150 μm, an anode length of 6 cm, a PVA of 105,600 g mol(-1), and a separator thickness of 1 cm. Results of continuous-flow experiments reveal that the increasing the sets of MFCs and connecting them in parallel markedly improved the degradation of benzene. More than 95% of benzene was removed and electricity of 38 mW m(-2) was generated. The MFC ran continuously up to 120 days without maintenance.

  13. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 2: Technical and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, E. R.; Deats, C. L.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Kyrias, G. M.; Snodgrass, M. R.; Sosnay, R. D.; Spencer, R. A.; Wudell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orbital maintenance concepts were examined in an effort to determine a cost effective orbital maintenance system compatible with the space transportation system. An on-orbit servicer maintenance system is recommended as the most cost effective system. A pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared. It is indicated that orbital maintenance does not have any significant impact on the space transportation system.

  14. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  15. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  16. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; Mayer, David; Quigley, Emmett; Rasay, Mike; Swank, Aaron; Vandersteen, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  17. Weakness and the Inability to Ambulate in a 14-Month-Old Female: A Case Report and Concise Review of Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Scott A.; Akhavan, Mahsa; Avarello, Jahn

    2013-01-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acquired disease of the peripheral nervous system which causes demyelination and leads to weakness, ataxia, and areflexia. There are a variety of forms of the syndrome, and although it is found in all age groups, it is rare in children less than two years of age. The present complaint of weakness, ataxia, or lower extremity pain in the pediatric population should cause the practitioner to consider GBS in the differential. We describe a case of a 14-month-old girl presenting with weakness and the inability to ambulate who was diagnosed with GBS. The purpose of this paper is to review the emergency medicine diagnosis and management of Guillain-Barre syndrome in children. PMID:23431480

  18. A Primer for Telemetry Interfacing in Accordance with NASA Standards Using Low Cost FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jake; Schultz, Ted; Tutt, James; Rogers, Thomas; Miles, Drew; McEntaffer, Randall

    2016-03-01

    Photon counting detector systems on sounding rocket payloads often require interfacing asynchronous outputs with a synchronously clocked telemetry (TM) stream. Though this can be handled with an on-board computer, there are several low cost alternatives including custom hardware, microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This paper outlines how a TM interface (TMIF) for detectors on a sounding rocket with asynchronous parallel digital output can be implemented using low cost FPGAs and minimal custom hardware. Low power consumption and high speed FPGAs are available as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products and can be used to develop the main component of the TMIF. Then, only a small amount of additional hardware is required for signal buffering and level translating. This paper also discusses how this system can be tested with a simulated TM chain in the small laboratory setting using FPGAs and COTS specialized data acquisition products.

  19. Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rupesh; Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Lundberg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

  20. J3Gen: a PRNG for low-cost passive RFID.

    PubMed

    Melià-Seguí, Joan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi

    2013-03-19

    Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal.