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Sample records for 14-month-old abyssinian cat

  1. Acute idiopathic polyneuritis with spontaneous remission in an Abyssinian cat

    PubMed Central

    Jeandel, Aurélien; Matiasek, Kaspar; Blot, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    An Abyssinian kitten was presented after a sudden onset of neurological disorders consistent with a polyneuropathy. Electrophysiological and histological investigations revealed an inflammatory polyneuropathy. No infectious agents were detected. Spontaneous recovery occurred rapidly without relapse (2 years follow-up). This is the first description of a histologically confirmed self-limiting feline polyneuritis. PMID:26663925

  2. Persistent haematuria and proteinuria due to glomerular disease in related Abyssinian cats.

    PubMed

    White, Joanna D; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Fleay, R; Lauer, Chris; Malik, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Eight cases of glomerular disease in young, related Abyssinian cats are described. Haematuria was the most consistent feature. Six cats developed the nephrotic syndrome. The short-term prognosis was good for cats with haematuria and fair for cats with the nephrotic syndrome as oedema resolved in three of the six cats. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsies from three cats was considered normal or revealed only mild abnormalities. In the three cases subjected to necropsy, histological abnormalities included mild mesangial hypercellularity and adhesions between the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule consistent with a focal proliferative glomerulopathy. Further investigation into this glomerulopathy will require ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies to characterise the glomerular abnormality and genetic analyses to investigate its potential to be an inherited disease. Glomerular disease, potentially a familial one, should be considered in the investigation of persistent haematuria or proteinuria in Abyssinian and related cats. PMID:18455462

  3. Tissue distribution of amyloid deposits in Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Tarr, M J; Benson, M D

    1986-07-01

    The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits was studied in 15 related Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis. There was interstitial medullary amyloidosis in the kidneys of all 15 cats but only 11 had detectable glomerular involvement. The thyroid glands, stomach and colon were affected in all cats examined. Most of the cats also had amyloid deposits in the small intestine, spleen, heart, adrenals, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes and bladder. In 50 per cent or fewer of the cats examined, there was involvement of the parathyroids, lung and gonads. The central nervous system was not involved in any of the 3 cats evaluated. In 8 of the cats, no concurrent inflammatory disease could be detected. The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits resembled that found in other breeds of domestic cats with systemic amyloidosis. Despite the wide tissue distribution of amyloid deposits, clinical signs were related to renal amyloidosis. Familial amyloidosis in the Abyssinian cat may represent a valuable spontaneous animal model for the study of Familial Mediterranean Fever in man and the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in general. PMID:3734172

  4. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    PubMed

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date. PMID:27405121

  5. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

  6. Sound symbolism facilitates word learning in 14-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association.

  7. Abstract Rule Learning in 11- and 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koulaguina, Elena; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that distributional information can guide infants in the generalization of word order movement rules at the initial stage of language acquisition. Participants were 11- and 14-month-old infants. Stimuli were sentences in Russian, a language that was unknown to our infants. During training the word order of each…

  8. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented.

  9. Surgical treatment of primary tracheal dyskinesia in a 14-month-old child--case report.

    PubMed

    Jović, Rajko M; Komazec, Zoran; Mitrović, Slobodan; Dragicević, Danijela; Janjević, Dusica

    2010-04-01

    The primary form of tracheal dyskinesia in early childhood is a rare congenital malformation of unknown origin. The degree of the posterior membranous tracheal wall involvement determines the intensity of obstruction and the severity of the clinical picture. The aim of this paper is to present a case of a 14-month-old child with severe tracheal dyskinesia that required surgical treatment. Fascia lata graft fixated with fibrin glue was used in strengthening the posterior tracheal wall. Three years following the surgery, the child is without breathing difficulties. In severe cases of primary dyskinesia, surgical treatment using fascia lata graft, fixated with fibrin glue is recommended in strengthening the posterior tracheal wall.

  10. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia in a 14-month old: a case report and review of imaging differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit; Qin, Curtis; Medarametla, Srikanth; Hegde, Shilpa V

    2016-09-01

    We report a 14-month-old male with craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD). The patient presented with a history of diminishing vision and hearing loss. Cranial computed tomography scan showed diffuse calvarial and skull base hyperostosis with excessive bone narrowing the internal auditory canals and skull base foramina. A subsequent skeletal survey revealed other skeletal abnormalities, which led to the diagnosis of CMD. This was later confirmed by ANKH mutation. CMD is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the group of craniotubular bone dysplasias. It is important to recognize this condition from other causes of craniotubular bone dysplasias to institute early treatment and explain prognosis. PMID:27594963

  11. Torsion of undescended testis in a 14-month-old child refusing to bear weight.

    PubMed

    Knight, Ryan M; Cuenca, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    In this report, we discuss a case of a 14-month-old male presenting in the emergency department with refusal to bear weight on his left leg. Plain radiographic studies revealed no evidence of effusion, fracture, or dislocation. Laboratory studies were significant for an elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Further studies included unremarkable ultrasound of the left hip and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both hips. An incidental finding on MRI was a left inguinal mass concerning an incarcerated hernia. Ultrasound of this mass demonstrated a left undescended testis within the inguinal canal and possible incarcerated paratesticular inguinal hernia. The final pathologic diagnosis of a torsed gangrenous left testicle within the inguinal canal was confirmed during surgery.

  12. Fatal Meningitis in a 14-Month-Old with Currarino Triad

    PubMed Central

    Suliman Aljoqiman, Khalid; Arabi, Hisham; Al Shaalan, Hesham

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph. The patient succumbed to complications of meningitis. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the potentially fatal complication of Currarino triad and sensitize radiologists to look actively for sacral anomalies on abdominal radiographs, especially of children with chronic constipation. PMID:27597920

  13. Fatal Meningitis in a 14-Month-Old with Currarino Triad.

    PubMed

    Al Qahtani, Hanan Mohammed; Suliman Aljoqiman, Khalid; Arabi, Hisham; Al Shaalan, Hesham; Singh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph. The patient succumbed to complications of meningitis. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the potentially fatal complication of Currarino triad and sensitize radiologists to look actively for sacral anomalies on abdominal radiographs, especially of children with chronic constipation. PMID:27597920

  14. [Primary Neisseria meningitidis conjunctivitis in a 14-month-old child].

    PubMed

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Çakır, Murat; Kola, Mehmet; Buruk, Kurtuluş; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2015-07-01

    Meningococcal conjunctivitis is a rare but important infection since it can lead to severe complications and can threaten public health. It may emerge in two forms, either primary or secondary type which is developed after a systemic infection. Accurate diagnosis of primary meningococcal conjunctivitis is very important in addition to ocular complications which can result in loss of vision, the condition can also lead to severe complications like systemic meningococcal disease. However, the lack of specific symptoms which can distinguish meningococcal conjunctivitis from other forms of bacterial conjunctivitis, initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy without performing culture and nonaccurate differentiation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis with commercial kits/systems used in laboratories cause problematic situations. This report describes a case of primary unilateral conjunctivitis in a 14-month-old girl caused by non-groupable N.meningitidis that was resolved without sequelae following treatment. A pre-healthy 14-month-old girl was brought to the pediatric emergency department with redness, crusts and discharge in the left eye that had begun two days earlier. Ocular examination revealed hyperemia and purulent discharge in the left conjunctiva. Purulent conjunctivitis was diagnosed. A conjunctival swab specimen was taken for culture, and the patient was started on topical netilmicin (4x1), topical fusidic acid (2x1) and artificial tears. Microscopic examination of the conjunctival swab revealed polymorphonuclear leukocytes and no visible bacteria. Catalase and oxidase positive, gram-negative diplococci grew purely in culture. The first Gram stain preparation was evaluated again after the growth and small numbers of gram-negative diplococci were observed. The cultivated bacteria were identified as N.meningitidis using MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonics, Germany), but as N.gonorrhoeae with BBL Crystal N/H (Neisseria/Haemophilus) (BD Diagnostic

  15. The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds' imitation.

    PubMed

    Zmyj, Norbert; Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Daum, Moritz M

    2010-08-01

    Human infants have an enormous amount to learn from others to become full-fledged members of their culture. Thus, it is important that they learn from reliable, rather than unreliable, models. In two experiments, we investigated whether 14-month-olds (a) imitate instrumental actions and (b) adopt the individual preferences of a model differently depending on the model's previous reliability. Infants were shown a series of videos in which a model acted on familiar objects either competently or incompetently. They then watched as the same model demonstrated a novel action on an object (imitation task) and preferentially chose one of two novel objects (preference task). Infants' imitation of the novel action was influenced by the model's previous reliability; they copied the action more often when the model had been reliable. However, their preference for one of the novel objects was not influenced by the model's previous reliability. We conclude that already by 14 months of age, infants discriminate between reliable and unreliable models when learning novel actions. PMID:20427052

  16. Selective Imitation of In-Group over Out-Group Members in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttelmann, David; Zmyj, Norbert; Daum, Moritz; Carpenter, Malinda

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants are more likely to engage with in-group over out-group members. However, it is not known whether infants' learning is influenced by a model's group membership. This study investigated whether 14-month-olds ("N" = 66) selectively imitate and adopt the preferences of in-group versus out-group members. Infants…

  17. Neural Correlates of Action Observation and Execution in 14-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related EEG Desynchronization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Young, Thomas; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in neurobiological methods for investigating the shared representation of action perception and production in early development. We explored the extent and regional specificity of EEG desynchronization in the infant alpha frequency range (6-9 Hz) during action observation and execution in 14-month-old infants.…

  18. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  19. Eighteen-Month-Olds, but not 14-Month-Olds, Use Social Context to Bind Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Christine; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that 18-month-olds, but not 14-month-olds, can anticipate others' actions based on an interpretation of shared goals that bind together individual actions into a collaborative sequence. After viewing a sequence of actions performed by two people who socially interact, 18-month-olds bound together the socially engaged actors' actions such that they later expected the actors to share the same final goal. Eighteen-month-olds who saw nonsocially engaged actors did not have this expectation and neither did 14-month-olds when viewing either socially or nonsocially engaged actors. The results are discussed in light of the possibility that experience in collaborations could be necessary for understanding collaboration from a third-person perspective. PMID:26640417

  20. The relationship between deferred imitation, associative memory, and communication in 14-months-old children. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Emelie; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus; Heimann, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The present study combines behavioral observations of memory (deferred imitation, DI, after a brief delay of 30 min and after a long delay of 2–3 weeks) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials, ERPs) measures of associative memory, as well as parental reports of non-verbal and verbal communication in sixteen 14-months-old children. Results show that for DI, the children remembered the stimulus after the brief but not after the long delay. There was a clear electrophysiological response indicating associative memory. Furthermore, a correlation between DI and ERP suggests that both measures of memory (DI and associative memory) tap into similar mechanisms in 14-months-old children. There was also a statistically significant relation between parental report of receptive (verbal) language and the ERP, showing an association between receptive language skills and associative memory. PMID:25852588

  1. Rat bite fever, a fatal case of Streptobacillus moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Ali, Zabiullah; Fowler, David R

    2011-03-01

    Streptobacillus moniliformis is the primary cause of rat bite fever in North America. Children under 12 years of age are primarily infected, presenting with an acute syndrome of fever, rash, and polyarthritis. Common vectors include rats and mice. Transmission is predominantly from a bite or scratch, but contact with or ingestion of food contaminated with feces or saliva has also been reported. We report a fatal case of S. moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old-boy. At home, the child was exposed to filthy living conditions and the family had pet ferrets. Autopsy revealed a red-pink, mostly confluent rash and a circumscribed area suspicious for a possible bite mark. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for S. moniliformis. This case highlighted key features, such as the morbiliform rash, but lacked lymphadenopathy or joint manifestations. It is important to consider rat or rodent exposure as a source of infection.

  2. Morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of pelvic limb bones in 14-month-old female ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Charuta, Anna; Brodzki, Adam; Jóźwik, Artur; Strzałkowska, Nina; Poławska, Ewa; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O

    2016-10-01

    Limited information on physiological characteristic of bones in ostrich skeleton are available, even though bone weaknesses in ostriches are commonplace. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of pelvic limb long bones (femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus) in 14-month-old female ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). After the slaughter procedure, all bones were isolated, cleaned of soft tissues, and bone weight and length were determined. Using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and geometrical parameters of the bones were determined using the quantitative computed tomography (QCT) method. Maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength of the bones were determined using three-point bending test. Significant differences were revealed between morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus in female ostriches at the slaughter age of 14 months. Elaborated experimental model and determination of morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus in female ostriches may serve for further studies on metabolic regulation of skeletal system properties with environmental, physiological, dietary, pharmacological, and toxicological factors.

  3. Morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of pelvic limb bones in 14-month-old female ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Charuta, Anna; Brodzki, Adam; Jóźwik, Artur; Strzałkowska, Nina; Poławska, Ewa; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O

    2016-10-01

    Limited information on physiological characteristic of bones in ostrich skeleton are available, even though bone weaknesses in ostriches are commonplace. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of pelvic limb long bones (femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus) in 14-month-old female ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus). After the slaughter procedure, all bones were isolated, cleaned of soft tissues, and bone weight and length were determined. Using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and geometrical parameters of the bones were determined using the quantitative computed tomography (QCT) method. Maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength of the bones were determined using three-point bending test. Significant differences were revealed between morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus in female ostriches at the slaughter age of 14 months. Elaborated experimental model and determination of morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties of femur, tibia, and tarsometatarsus in female ostriches may serve for further studies on metabolic regulation of skeletal system properties with environmental, physiological, dietary, pharmacological, and toxicological factors. PMID:27333973

  4. Leptomeningeal metastasis from a paraspinal rhabdomyosarcoma with a der(13)t(1;13)(q23;q32) in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kline, R M; Oseas, R S; Jolley, S G; Reyna, T M; Erling, M A; Sandberg, A A; Meloni, A M

    1997-10-15

    Cytogenetic analysis performed on a 14-month-old boy with a primary retroperitoneal/paraspinal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma showed the presence of a der(13)t(1;13)(q23;q32) resulting in partial trisomy of the 1q23-->qter region and loss of the 13q32-->qter region. The present case is discussed with reference to a similar case reported in the literature.

  5. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  6. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  7. Prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis in specific cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Pesteanu-Somogyi, Loretta D; Radzai, Christina; Pressler, Barrak M

    2006-02-01

    Although known that purebreed cats are more likely to develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), previous studies have not examined the prevalence of disease in individual breeds. All cats diagnosed with FIP at a veterinary teaching hospital over a 16-year period were identified. Breed, sex and reproductive status of affected cats were compared to the general cat population and to mixed breed cats evaluated during the same period. As with previous studies sexually intact cats and purebreed cats were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with FIP; males and young cats also had a higher prevalence of disease. Abyssinians, Bengals, Birmans, Himalayans, Ragdolls and Rexes had a significantly higher risk, whereas Burmese, Exotic Shorthairs, Manxes, Persians, Russian Blues and Siamese cats were not at increased risk for development of FIP. Although additional factors doubtlessly influence the relative prevalence of FIP, this study provides additional guidance when prioritizing differentials in ill purebreed cats. PMID:15994104

  8. Monks and Masons at the Monastery of St. Moses the Abyssinian, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R.

    2009-04-01

    The monastery of St. Moses the Abyssinian is located about 90 km north of Damascus, in the Syrian desert mountains. Like many other monasteries, it was founded in the 5th century, but more unusually it survived the Muslim conquest and thrived through the medieval period. It comprises a complex of central buildings, and a system of cave-hermitages spread across the landscape where the monks would have actually lived. Since 2004 the monastery has been the site of fieldwork by the Royal Ontario Museum. Archaeological research at the site has so far included survey of the region to map caves and other features, especially those that help the monks survive in this desert environment; analysis of the architectural history, including assessment of the seismic history; and petrographic analysis of the ceramics to examine place of production.

  9. Widespread retinal degenerative disease mutation (rdAc) discovered among a large number of popular cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, M; David, V A; Pflueger, S; Roelke, M E; Kehler, J; O'Brien, S J; Narfström, K

    2010-10-01

    The recent discovery of a mutational variant in the CEP290 gene (CEP290: IVS50+9T>G), conferring recessive retinal degeneration in Abyssinian and Somali (long-haired Abyssinian) cats (rdAc) prompted a survey among 41 cat breeds (846 individuals) to assess the incidence, frequency and clinical consequence of rdAc. The rdAc allele displayed widespread distribution, observed in 16/43 (37%) breeds, exhibiting a high allele frequency (∼33%) in North American and European Siamese populations. Clinical evaluations demonstrated high concordance between rdAc pathology and the CEP290 (IVS50+9T>G) homozygous genotype (P=1.1E-6), with clinical disease similar to affected Abyssinians/Somalis. This retinal degeneration has not been reported in breeds other than the Abyssinian/Somali and poses a significant health risk particularly in the Siamese breed group. Alertness of the veterinary community and the present availability of commercial diagnostic testing could synergistically enable breeders to reduce the incidence of rdAc blindness in pure-bred cat populations.

  10. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P < 0.001), conversely, shelter cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P < 0.001). These results suggest that while T. foetus is not of importance in feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs. PMID:26933262

  11. Association between age, breed and sex in relation to urinary disorders in insured cats in Japan during fiscal year 2012

    PubMed Central

    YAMAZAKI, Mika; INOUE, Mai; SUGIURA, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Data from 48,187 cats insured between April 2012 and March 2013 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis to determine the association of age, breed and sex with the occurrence of urinary disorders. The overall annual prevalence of urinary disorders was 12.2%. Using crossbreeds as the reference breed, Abyssinian cats had the highest odds of having urinary disorders with a ratio of 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.20–1.63), followed by Norwegian Forest Cats and Somalis. Male cats had higher odds of having urinary disorders with a ratio of 1.27 (1.20–1.35) over female cats. Older cats had higher odds of having urinary disorders than young cats. PMID:27264611

  12. [Characteristics of pedigree cat breeding in the Netherlands: breeds, population increase and litter size].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Huisman, T; Knol, B W

    1999-03-01

    A survey of the Dutch Cat Fancy was carried out to determine reproductive, patterns of pedigree cats. The data of the present study were obtained by questioning the pedigree registers of the cat clubs participating in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The Dutch Cat Fancy registers 34 different cat breeds. From 1992 up to 1996 a total of 25.985 litters were registered. Over this period the number of litters increased from 4989 to 5313. Litters from Longhair and Exotic Shorthair cats comprised the biggest group and accounted for 55% of the total number of litters. However, over this period, the number of Longhair and Exotic Shorthair litters decreased by 9%. Litters from British Shorthair, Birman, Maine Coon and Norwegian Forrest Cat increased in number as did litters from small breeds such as Ragdoll, Bengal and Sphynx. Litters from Abyssinian, Siamese, Oriental Shorthair cats remained relatively the same. The average litter size of the total cat population, based on pedigree certificates, was calculated at 3.3 kittens per litter. For different breeds litter size varied from 2.7 (Longhair and Exotic Shorthair) to 4.3 (Burmese and Maine Coon). Taking into account an average age of 14 years, the total Dutch pedigree cat population was estimated at 240,000 viz. about 10% of the total cat population.

  13. Patterns of contact call differentiation in the panmictic East African Abyssinian White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Ulrich, Werner

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution patterns range from highly disjunct to continuous, depending on their ecological demands and the availability of respective habitats. East African savannahs are mostly interconnected and ecologically comparatively homogenous and thus provide a prerequisite for a rather panmictic distribution pattern for species occurring in this habitat. The Abyssinian white-eye Zosterops abyssinicus is a savannah inhabiting bird species, representing such a continuous distribution. This species occurs in high abundances and is very mobile, and past population genetic studies have suggested that gene flow is high and genetic differentiation is low even across relatively large geographic distances. Further, only little morphological differences were found. In order to test for potential divergence in acoustic traits despite its interconnected geographic distribution, we analyzed 2795 contact calls of Z. abyssinicus, which were recorded at 19 sites across Kenya. Our data indicate weak, but significant differentiation in call characteristics across latitudinal gradients. We found strong changes in call characteristics in populations where Z. abyssinicus occurs in sympatry with its highland congener, Zosterops poliogaster. However, the changes in call characteristics in sympatry were in different directions and lead to strong differentiation of the sympatric populations to other conspecific populations potentially representing a case of cascade reinforcement. The detected spatial gradients likely result from ecological differences and balancing effects of natural and sexual selection. PMID:26811769

  14. Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. To the best of my knowledge, detailed imaging findings of massa intermedia duplication have only been described in a single case report. An additional case of thalamic massa intermedia duplication discovered on a routine brain MR performed for dysmorphic facial features is reported herein. PMID:26622932

  15. "Shall We 'Blick'?": Novel Words Highlight Actors' Underlying Intentions for 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Marian L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    By 14 months, infants have become exquisite observers of others' behavior and successful word learners. But do they coordinate their early observational and language capacities to gain insight into the intentions of others? Building upon Gergely, Bekkering, and Kiraly's (2002) classic head-touch phenomenon, we consider the contribution of language…

  16. Visual Cues Generated during Action Facilitate 14-Month-Old Infants' Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrilli, Nick K.; Wang, Su-hua

    2016-01-01

    Although action experience has been shown to enhance the development of spatial cognition, the mechanism underlying the effects of action is still unclear. The present research examined the role of visual cues generated during action in promoting infants' mental rotation. We sought to clarify the underlying mechanism by decoupling different…

  17. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November 2011. In the collected samples, free felinine and creatinine concentrations were measured. Free felinine concentrations were expressed relative to the urinary creatinine concentration to compensate for possible variations in renal output. The mean (±SD) felinine:creatinine (Fel:Cr) ratio as measured over all cats was 0.702 (±0.265). Both the Abyssinian and Sphynx breeds showed the highest Fel:Cr ratio (0.878 ± 0.162 and 0.878 ± 0.341 respectively) which significantly differed from the ratios of the British Shorthairs (0.584 ± 0.220), Birmans (0.614 ± 0.266), Norwegian Forest cats (0.566 ± 0.296) and Siberian cats (0.627 ± 0.124). The Fel:Cr ratios of the Persians (0.792 ± 0.284) and Ragdolls (0.673 ± 0.256) showed no statistical difference with either of the other breeds. A significant proportion of the observed variation between the different feline breeds could be explained by hair growth, as both hair growth and felinine production compete for available cysteine. Shorthaired and hairless cat breeds generally showed a higher Fel:Cr ratio compared to longhaired cat breeds, with the exception of Persian cats. Further research is warranted to more closely study the effect of hair growth on felinine production. PMID:23819478

  18. Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome

    PubMed Central

    Pontius, Joan U.; Mullikin, James C.; Smith, Douglas R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Gnerre, Sante; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean; Stephens, Robert; Neelam, Beena; Volfovsky, Natalia; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Narfström, Kristina; Murphy, William J.; Giger, Urs; Roca, Alfred L.; Antunes, Agostinho; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Yuhki, Naoya; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Johnson, Warren E.; Bourque, Guillaume; Tesler, Glenn; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequence (1.9-fold coverage) of an inbred Abyssinian domestic cat was assembled, mapped, and annotated with a comparative approach that involved cross-reference to annotated genome assemblies of six mammals (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, and cow). The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene orthologs, and 133,499 conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Additional annotated features include repetitive elements, endogenous retroviral sequences, nuclear mitochondrial (numt) sequences, micro-RNAs, and evolutionary breakpoints that suggest historic balancing of translocation and inversion incidences in distinct mammalian lineages. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletion insertion polymorphisms (DIPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs), suitable for linkage or association studies were characterized in the context of long stretches of chromosome homozygosity. In spite of the light coverage capturing ∼65% of euchromatin sequence from the cat genome, these comparative insights shed new light on the tempo and mode of gene/genome evolution in mammals, promise several research applications for the cat, and also illustrate that a comparative approach using more deeply covered mammals provides an informative, preliminary annotation of a light (1.9-fold) coverage mammal genome sequence. PMID:17975172

  19. Increased risk for lymphoma and glomerulonephritis in a closed population of cats exposed to feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Francis, D P; Essex, M; Jakowski, R M; Cotter, S M; Lerer, T J; Hardy, W D

    1980-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated diseases were observed in a household in eastern Connecticut having 134 cats over a period of five and a half years. FeLV-positive cats had a much higher mortality rate (34.6 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up) than did FeLV-negative cats (8.9 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up). The leading cause of death was glomerulonephritis followed by lymphoma. The relative risk for virus-positive cats as compared to virus-negative cats for the two diseases was 9.9 and 9.6, respectively. The major risk factors for the development of lymphoma were virus positivity and low antibody titer to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA). No significant differences in cancer incidence were seen between the two major breeds (Abyssinian and Burmese) in the household. An older age at arrival in the house decreased death rates for all causes in the household, but it did not significantly affect death rates from lymphoma, although there was a positive trend. PMID:6244730

  20. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  1. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication. PMID:26956354

  2. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  3. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  4. Arterial thromboembolism in cats: acute crisis in 127 cases (1992-2001) and long-term management with low-dose aspirin in 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie A; Tobias, Anthony H; Jacob, Kristin A; Fine, Deborah M; Grumbles, Pamela L

    2003-01-01

    Records of 127 cats with arterial thromboembolism (ATE) were reviewed. Abyssinian, Birman, Ragdoll, and male cats were overrepresented. Tachypnea (91%), hypothermia (66%), and absent limb motor function (66%) were common. Of 90 cats with diagnostics performed, underlying diseases were hyperthyroidism (12), cardiomyopathy (dilated [8], unclassified [33], hypertrophic obstructive [5], hypertrophic [19]), neoplasia (6), other (4), and none (3). Common abnormalities were left atrial enlargement (93%), congestive heart failure (CHF, 44%), and arrhythmias (44%). Of cats without CHF, 89% were tachypneic. Common biochemical abnormalities were hyperglycemia, azotemia, and abnormally high serum concentrations of muscle enzymes. Of 87 cats treated for acute limb ATE, 39 (45%) survived to be discharged. Significant differences were found between survivors and nonsurvivors for temperature (P < .00001), heart rate (P = .038), serum phosphorus concentration (P = .024), motor function (P = .008), and number of limbs affected (P = .001). No significant difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors when compared by age, respiratory rate, other biochemical analytes, or concurrent CHE A logistic regression model based on rectal temperature predicted a 50% probability of survival at 98.9 degrees F (37.2 degrees C). Median survival time (MST) for discharged cats was 117 days. Eleven cats had ATE recurrences, and 5 cats developed limb problems. Cats with CHF (MST: 77 days) had significantly shorter survival than cats without CHF (MST: 223 days; P = .016). No significant difference was found in survival or recurrence rate between cats receiving high-dose aspirin (> or = 40 mg/cat q72h) and cats receiving low-dose aspirin (5 mg/cat q72h). Adverse effects were less frequent and milder for the lower dosage.

  5. [Treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat colony with delayed release ronidazole tablets in the small intestine].

    PubMed

    Reinert, Jacqueline; Gerold, Susanne; Scheurlen, Ulf; Daniels, Rolf; Wolm, Matthias; Iglauer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Seven abyssinian cats (two male, five female) showed intermittent green-yellow mucous diarrhoea, sometimes an inflammation of the anal region and faecal incontinence even after long-time treatment with fenbendazole against Giardia. During necropsy of one of the cats, which had to be euthanized due to another disease, the gut wall of small and large intestine appeared macroscopically thickened. Histological examination indicated flagellates in the lumen of the intestine (initiating at the jejunum) and in the crypts. However Giardia could be excluded. in this case. By PCR of the faeces Tritrichomonas (T) foetus was diagnosed in five of six cats of this colony. Five remaining animals (another cat had to be euthanized) were treated with about 30 mg per kg BW ronidazole p. o. (rededication; Ridzol 10% Bt®, Dr. Hesse Tierpharma GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) daily over 14 days. The special gastro-resistant processing of the ronidazole should ensure a targeted effects. Animals were treated consecutively, isolated from the other cats and were daily examined clinically and neurologically. Neurotoxic adverse effects appeared slightly, therefore--as a precaution--the treatment of two cats was paused for one day. After treatment of all cats, T. foetus wasn't diagnosed by PCR over the period of 345 to > 800 days in any cat. One animal had dubious findings in the ninth week after treatment. Hence it was still kept isolated from the group and PCR showed a negative result at all times afterwards. The treatment protocol shows that elimination of problematic protozoal infections is possible in cat colonies.

  6. The Contribution of Visual and Vestibular Information to Spatial Orientation by 6- to 14-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…

  7. Twelve- to 14-Month-Old Infants Can Predict Single-Event Probability with Large Set Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas "et al.", 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A…

  8. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  9. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  10. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  11. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  12. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  13. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  14. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  15. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  16. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  17. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  18. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  19. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  20. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. PMID:24509255

  1. [Diarrhea in cats].

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C

    1992-11-15

    Diarrhoea is regarded as the characteristic symptom of intestinal disturbances. However, cats with intestinal disturbances can also show other symptoms such as vomiting, increased or decreased appetite and loss of weight. Cats with diarrhoea are usually only referred to the clinic if they have a chronic problem. Acute diarrhoea reacts well to symptomatic treatment, but chronic diarrhoea requires a specific diagnosis for a directed therapy and prognosis. It is essential to examine faeces and blood when evaluating a cat with diarrhoea. In contrast to the situation for dogs, there are no good specific digestion and absorption tests available for cats to evaluate pancreatic and intestinal function. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency rarely occurs in cats. A preliminary diagnosis of small intestine disorders can be made on the basis of the faeces staining positive for fat, an oral fat absorption test and the response to therapy. The definitive diagnosis must usually await the results of histological examination of intestinal biopsy samples. Cats with acute diarrhoea often recover spontaneously, and symptomatic treatment is only necessary for severe cases. A specific diagnosis is needed for cats with chronic diarrhoea, to enable directed treatment. Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of chronic enteritis because of their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. Antibiotics are only indicated for specific bacterial infections (such as Salmonella and Campylobacter), bloody diarrhoea, or rampant bacterial growth. Specially formulated diets play a major role in the treatment of both acute and chronic diarrhoea.

  2. Maternal prenatal psychological distress and temperament in 1-4 month old infants - A study in a non-western population.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amritha; Chowdayya, Roopashree; Selvam, Sumithra; Khan, Arif; Kolts, Russell; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2015-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, conducted in women attending antenatal visits at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic of a general hospital in Bangalore, India, we aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal distress in mothers, and maternal report of infant temperament at four months. 100 mothers with normal full term deliveries completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 item version (GHQ) in the third trimester and postnatally. Salivary cortisol and temperament (using the Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire - EITQ) were assessed in their infants aged 1-4 months. In this study, maternal prenatal psychological distress was not significantly associated with maternal report of difficult temperament in infants. Infants of mothers who were a negative screen for psychological distress (GHQ<7), n=85 had higher scores on the adaptability and approach dimensions of temperament. Infant salivary cortisol was significantly higher in infants with higher intensity scores. These results introduce the possibility of cultural differences in the relationship between prenatal distress in the mother and infant temperament. These could be factors linked to child rearing practices or to the measures employed to study infant temperament. These findings derive from a small sample with few mothers with psychological distress, and need replication in a larger sample. PMID:25766103

  3. Maternal prenatal psychological distress and temperament in 1-4 month old infants - A study in a non-western population.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amritha; Chowdayya, Roopashree; Selvam, Sumithra; Khan, Arif; Kolts, Russell; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2015-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, conducted in women attending antenatal visits at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic of a general hospital in Bangalore, India, we aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal distress in mothers, and maternal report of infant temperament at four months. 100 mothers with normal full term deliveries completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 item version (GHQ) in the third trimester and postnatally. Salivary cortisol and temperament (using the Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire - EITQ) were assessed in their infants aged 1-4 months. In this study, maternal prenatal psychological distress was not significantly associated with maternal report of difficult temperament in infants. Infants of mothers who were a negative screen for psychological distress (GHQ<7), n=85 had higher scores on the adaptability and approach dimensions of temperament. Infant salivary cortisol was significantly higher in infants with higher intensity scores. These results introduce the possibility of cultural differences in the relationship between prenatal distress in the mother and infant temperament. These could be factors linked to child rearing practices or to the measures employed to study infant temperament. These findings derive from a small sample with few mothers with psychological distress, and need replication in a larger sample.

  4. Cat-scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). ... disease: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after playing with your cat. Especially wash any ...

  5. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  6. Pancreatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids.

  7. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  8. [Declawing in cats?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, I

    1983-02-15

    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons. PMID:6836550

  9. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  10. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  11. The molecular cat.

    PubMed

    Pedio, Maddalena; Chergui, Majed

    2009-02-23

    A manifestation of electronic entanglement in core-level spectroscopic measurements of diatomic molecules, reported recently by Schöffler and co-workers, is discussed. The results are reminiscent of Schrödinger's famous Gedanken experiment with the cat (see picture).

  12. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  13. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  14. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  15. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  16. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    SciTech Connect

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man`ko, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}, C{sub 3v} Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states.

  17. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  18. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  19. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  20. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  1. Malignant histiocytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Court, E A; Earnest-Koons, K A; Barr, S C; Gould, W J

    1993-11-01

    A 13-year-old male domestic shorthair cat was found to have normocytic hypochromic regenerative anemia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Transfusions of packed RBC failed to maintain the PCV above 13% for > 8 hours. The cat was euthanatized. At necropsy, the spleen liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow were infiltrated with malignant histiocytes undergoing erythrophagocytosis.

  2. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  3. Phenazopyridine toxicosis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J W; Kornick, H P

    1976-08-01

    Severe illness developed after the oral administration of several drugs, including large doses of phenazopyridine (100 mg TID for 4 days) to a cat with dysuria and hematuria. Hemolysis and icterus were evident in blood serum and plasma after day 4 of drug administration, and many hemolyzed red blood cell "ghosts" containing Heinz bodies were observed on a stained blood smear. The cat became anemic and died within 48 hours after the last dose was administered. In an attempt to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between drug administration and disease, 100 mg of phenazopyridine was given TID (65 mg/kg/day) for 3 days to a clinically normal cat. Nearly 50% of the hemoglobin was oxidized to methemoglobin during the course of phenazopyridine administration. Lower dosages of phenazopyridine (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) for longer periods of administration to 2 other clinically normal cats did not result in illness or anemia; however, the number and size of Heinz bodies and blood methemoglobin content were increased. Evidence of hepatic injury was observed in the clinically affected cat and in 2 of the experimental cats. The relationship between hepatic injury and toxic signs was not determined. Combination products recommeneded for treatment of cystitis in man often contain phenazopyridine. Such products should be avoided in cats unless a safe, effective dosage for phenazopyridine can be established.

  4. Dynamic sound localization in cats

    PubMed Central

    Ruhland, Janet L.; Jones, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  5. Dynamic sound localization in cats.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Janet L; Jones, Amy E; Yin, Tom C T

    2015-08-01

    Sound localization in cats and humans relies on head-centered acoustic cues. Studies have shown that humans are able to localize sounds during rapid head movements that are directed toward the target or other objects of interest. We studied whether cats are able to utilize similar dynamic acoustic cues to localize acoustic targets delivered during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. We trained cats with visual-auditory two-step tasks in which we presented a brief sound burst during saccadic eye-head gaze shifts toward a prior visual target. No consistent or significant differences in accuracy or precision were found between this dynamic task (2-step saccade) and the comparable static task (single saccade when the head is stable) in either horizontal or vertical direction. Cats appear to be able to process dynamic auditory cues and execute complex motor adjustments to accurately localize auditory targets during rapid eye-head gaze shifts. PMID:26063772

  6. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  7. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  8. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  9. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  10. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  11. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  12. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  13. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  14. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  15. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  16. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  17. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Lehman, R.M.; Shiels, W.E.; Blaney, S.M.

    1985-08-01

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis.

  18. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  19. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  20. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  1. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  2. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  3. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  4. Vocalization in the cat and kitten.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Buchwald, J S; Johnson, J R; Mikolich, D J

    1978-11-01

    Vocal responses of kittens and mature cats were recorded in a variety of standard behavioral situations. Sonographic analysis of these responses showed similarities of responses obtained repeatedly from different cats within each recording situation. Marked differences in response patterns were noted in different recording situations. The kitten and cat vocal repertoires thus include a variety of specific responses to particular motivational or behavioral circumstances.

  5. Lily toxicity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2010-11-01

    Lilies are commonly kept flowering ornamental plants that are used in holiday celebrations, weddings, and funerals, and in various floral arrangements. Lilies of genera Lilium and Hemerocallis (day lilies) have been shown to cause nephrotoxicity in cats. Confusion arises because so many different plants are called lilies. Members of the genus Convallaria (lily of the valley), while sparing on the kidneys, elicit toxic effects because they possess potent cardiac glycosides similar to digitalis. Even more confusing as to which lilies are toxic is the fact that many hybrids exist. The majority of the public do not know that lilies can be dangerous to cats and, in fact, cannot correctly identify the plants in their own homes. Cats have been shown to be extremely sensitive to the toxic effects of lilies. As little as 2 leaves or part of a single flower have resulted in deaths. It should be pointed out that the whole plant-petals, stamen, leaves, and pollen are toxic. The exact toxic dose and the precise toxins responsible for renal damage are currently unknown. The quick onset of clinical signs suggests a rapid absorption rate of the toxin. The renal tubular epithelium appears to be the target of the toxin. Studies indicate that it is the water-soluble fraction of the lily that is nephrotoxic. In cats, clinical signs of lily intoxication include salivation, vomiting, anorexia, and depression. Polyuric renal failure leads to dehydration and anuric renal failure and death results. No analytic verification of lily ingestion is currently available. Successful treatment includes initiation of fluid diuresis before the onset of anuric renal failure. Once anuria develops, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is the only potential treatment. Differential diagnoses of lily poisoning include any potential cause of acute renal failure in a cat. Prognosis is excellent if fluid diuresis is started before anuric renal failure has developed. The public must be made aware of potentially

  6. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  7. Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wimpole, Justin A; Adagra, Carl F M; Billson, Mark F; Pillai, Dilo N; Foster, Darren J

    2010-06-01

    Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats. Plasma metanephrine levels are widely considered the diagnostic test of choice for phaeochromocytoma in people but have not been investigated in cats. In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma. Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group. Plasma metanephrine was not significantly different in any of the groups. This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease. These results provide rationale for further studies to establish the use of plasma normetanephrine levels as a potential diagnostic test for phaeochromocytoma in the cat.

  8. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  9. Ovulation without cervical stimulation in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Johnston, S D; Hegstad, R L; Keltner, D G; Owens, S F

    1993-01-01

    Progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay of serum collected at monthly intervals for 9 months (April-December) in 24 adult female American short-hair cats (age 2.5-11 years, mean 7.4 years); 20 cats were intact, and four were ovariohysterectomized controls. One of the 20 intact queens was ovariohysterectomized after 7 months, when pyometra was diagnosed. Cats could see and hear one another, and could see and hear male cats housed individually in the same room. Direct contact with other cats was prevented. Tactile stimulation of the cats' hindquarters and perineal regions by handlers was avoided. Serum progesterone concentration > or = 4.8 nmol l-1 was defined as evidence of ovulation. This concentration was exceeded in seven of 20 intact queens (35%) at one or more occurrences of non-coital ovulation; there were 13 such occurrences in all (1-3 per queen). Serum progesterone concentration ranged from 0.2 to 103.4 (mean 14.09 +/- 2.0) nmol l-1 in these seven cats, and was significantly greater than concentrations in the other intact and neutered cats. In the remaining 13 intact and four ovariohysterectomized cats, serum progesterone concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 (mean 1.24 +/- 1.46) nmol l-1. These data suggest that, at least as far as cats housed in proximity to one another are concerned, intact female cats do not always require cervical stimulation to induce ovulation. PMID:8229985

  10. [Organization of the Dutch Cat Fancy].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O

    1998-11-01

    The present study of the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy' describes the organization and structure of the Dutch Cat Fancy, and is subdivided into three parts. The first part presents a survey of the number of cat clubs, date of their establishment, number of members, associated breed clubs and participation in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The second part describes the basic organization of Dutch cat clubs, including their membership, cattery registration, breed registration, exhibitions and judges, cat magazines, health care and welfare, and breed clubs. The third part focuses attention on other organizational forms such as clubs for a particular breed, seen within the Dutch Cat Fancy.

  11. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  12. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  13. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  14. Hairless cats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hendy-Ibbs, P M

    1984-01-01

    Ten hairless kittens are known to have been born in Britain since 1978. Pedigree study supports the hypothesis of a monogenic, recessive mode of inheritance proposed in previous reports. A review of the literature suggests the possibility of at least two mutations giving rise to hairless cats, one of which has normal whiskers and the other attenuated whiskers. For these, the gene symbols hi, and hr, respectively, have been proposed.

  15. Pharmacodynamics of warfarin in cats.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Kraft, S L; Lewis, D C; Melethil, S; Freeman, L C

    2000-12-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamic response to warfarin in cats. The specific aim was to determine if a log-linear indirect response model (Nagashima et al., 1969) used to describe the in vivo effect of warfarin in humans could be applied to cats. The pharmacokinetics of racemic warfarin were described using a non-compartmental approach. The relationship between prothrombin complex activity (PCA) and normalized prothrombin time (PTR) was defined for feline plasma under our experimental conditions, and determined to be: %PCA=12.38+648 e-PTR/0.492. These data were then integrated and used to predict the warfarin dose associated with therapeutic anti-coagulation defined as an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The maximum prothrombinopenic response to warfarin in cats after a single intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg occurred at 24-48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling suggested that each cat had a narrow therapeutic range of the steady-state concentration of total warfarin required to appropriately block prothrombin complex synthesis (median: 265.2-358.7 ng/mL). The median daily dose range predicted to yield therapeutic concentrations of warfarin was 0.061-0.088 mg/kg per day. Wide inter-individual variations in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic response suggest that a more optimal dosing of warfarin may be possible with the development of individual pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic algorithms, analogous to those currently employed in human patients. PMID:11168910

  16. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  17. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h post-contact, five fleas were found on the receiver cats, with three cats having one flea and one cat, two fleas. The number of fleas recovered on receiver cats increased towards the end of the study. At 24 h, 20% of the fleas were found on the receiver cats, and at 48 h, 23%. In a second experiment, the six flea-free cats were put in contact with the six donor cats which were each infested by 100 fleas 48 h before. Fewer fleas were found on the receiver cats (n = 15), representing 3.8% of all fleas recovered (n = 403). All the observed fleas had fed. The fleas collected on receiving cats comprised 10 males and 5 females, and 4 of the 5 females were engorged and contained eggs. The fleas collected on donor cats comprised 153 males and 235 females, they were all fed and all females contained eggs. This experiment demonstrated that gravid female fleas have a tendency to become permanently but not exclusively parasitic. Nevertheless, a few can change their cat host in as little as 1 h, which may play a role in the rapid introduction of a new flea population into a cat environment. PMID:24309021

  18. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  19. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    PubMed

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (< 2.5 mg/dL) subsequent to enteral alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  20. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  1. Triglyceride response following an oral fat tolerance test in Burmese cats, other pedigree cats and domestic crossbred cats.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Elissa K; Hardman, Chloë; Govendir, Merran; Baral, Randolph M; Sullivan, David R; Snow, David; Malik, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Primary lipid disorders causing fasting triglyceridaemia have been documented infrequently in Burmese cats. Due to the known increased risk of diabetes mellitus and sporadic reports of lipid aqueous in this breed, the aim of this study was to determine whether healthy Burmese cats displayed a more pronounced pre- or post-prandial triglyceridaemia compared to other cats. Serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined at baseline and variably at 2, 4 and 6h after ingestion of a high-fat meal (ie, an oral fat tolerance test) in a representative sample of Burmese and non-Burmese cats. The median 4 and 6h serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in Burmese cats (4h - 2.8mmol/l; 6h - 8.2mmol/l) than in other pedigree and domestic crossbred cats (4h - 1.5mmol/l; 6h - 1.0mmol/l). The non-Burmese group had post-prandial TG concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 3.9mmol/l. Seven Burmese cats had post-prandial TG concentrations between 6.6 and 19.0mmol/l, five had concentrations between 4.2 and 4.7mmol/l, while the remaining 15 had post-prandial concentrations between 0.5 and 2.8mmol/l. None of these Burmese cats had fasting triglyceridaemia. Most Burmese cats with a 4 h TG > 6.0 mmol/l had elevated fasting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations. This study demonstrates that a proportion of Burmese cats in Australia have delayed TG clearance compared to other cats. The potential repercussions of this observation with reference to lipid aqueous, pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus in Burmese cats are discussed.

  2. Cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B

    1996-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) was first described by Debré in 1950, yet the causative bacterial agent of CSD remained obscure until 1992, when Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae was implicated in CSD by serological and microbiological studies. B. henselae had initially been linked to bacillary angiomatosis (BA), a vascular proliferative disease most commonly associated with long-standing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other significant immunosuppression. B. henselae has also been associated with bacillary peliosis, relapsing bacteraemia and endocarditis in humans. Cats are healthy carriers of B. henselae, and can be bacteraemic for months or years. It has recently been demonstrated that B. henselae can be transmitted from cat to cat by the cat flea, but not by direct contact between animals. The author discusses the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis.

  3. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  4. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  5. Studies on poxvirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Baxby, D; Kelly, D F

    1989-01-01

    The development of clinical disease and the pathogenesis of cowpox were studied in domestic cats inoculated by a variety of routes. Intradermal titration in two cats demonstrated that as little as five pfu of cowpox virus caused a primary skin lesion. Intradermal inoculation of greater than or equal to 10(5) pfu cowpox virus resulted in severe systemic disease. Large amounts of virus (greater than or equal to 10(3) pfu/g) were isolated from skin lesions and the turbinates of cats killed at eight and 11 days post-inoculation (dpi). Lesser amounts of virus (congruent to 10(2) pfu/g) were isolated from lymphoid tissues and the lung, and small amounts of virus were isolated from various other tissues. A white cell-associated viraemia was detected from 5 dpi onwards. Skin scarification with 10(3) or 50 pfu cowpox virus enabled reproduction of the naturally-acquired disease. Cat-to-cat transmission was demonstrated from cats inoculated by skin scarification, but caused only subclinical infection in sentinel cats. Oronasal inoculation resulted in transient coryza and milder generalized disease than skin inoculation, and no transmission to sentinel cats. Preliminary investigations showed vaccinia virus (Lister strain) to be of low infectivity in cats while inoculation of ectromelia virus (Mill Hill strain) did not cause any clinical signs.

  6. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  7. Conditioning laboratory cats to handling and transport.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Thomson, Andrea E; Clary, Gillian P; Hamilton, Alexandra K; Hudson, Lola C; Meeker, Rick B; Sherman, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    As research subjects, cats have contributed substantially to our understanding of biological systems, from the development of mammalian visual pathways to the pathophysiology of feline immunodeficiency virus as a model for human immunodeficiency virus. Few studies have evaluated humane methods for managing cats in laboratory animal facilities, however, in order to reduce fear responses and improve their welfare. The authors describe a behavioral protocol used in their laboratory to condition cats to handling and transport. Such behavioral conditioning benefits the welfare of the cats, the safety of animal technicians and the quality of feline research data.

  8. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  9. Cat Heart Muscle in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Page, Ernest; Solomon, A. K.

    1960-01-01

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of total water, inulin space, and K and Na content in muscles of 0.5 to 10 mg. wet weight. These methods have been used to define steady state conditions with respect to intracellular K concentration in papillary muscles from cat hearts perfused and contracting isometrically at 27–28°C. and at 37–38°C. Cell volumes and intracellular ionic concentrations have been followed as a function of the external K concentration and compared with values predicted on the basis of electroneutrality and osmotic equilibrium. PMID:13732016

  10. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  11. The reserpine-treated cat

    PubMed Central

    Withrington, P.; Zaimis, Eleanor

    1961-01-01

    In cats, 24 hr after the administration of 1 mg/kg of reserpine, it was found that (a) the heart is in failure; (b) the sensitivity of the peripheral vessels to adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline, administered intravenously or close-arterially, is decreased; (c) any blood pressure changes are, as a rule, secondary to changes in heart contraction; and (d) the peripheral blood flow passively follows the blood pressure changes. Furthermore, any improvement of the circulation at this stage was found to be almost exclusively the result of an amelioration in the force of cardiac contraction. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig 8 PMID:14007730

  12. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  13. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  14. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  15. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance.

  16. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats. PMID:17845619

  17. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  18. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  19. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  20. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  1. Cows, cats, and FSE: death penalty justified?

    PubMed

    Oomkes, C; van Knapen, F

    2001-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies affect a number of mammalian species. The most common spongiform encephalopathies are scrapie in sheep and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE) is a related disorder in domestic cats. Because of the link between BSE and FSE, cats are put on a par with cattle, in terms of politics and regulations. In the Netherlands, when a case of BSE is found on a farm, not only the ruminants, but also the cats are taken away for post-mortem examination. So far, the cats examined have always been negative for FSE. There are no scientific reasons for destroying the cats on farms where BSE has been found.

  2. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. PMID:19716738

  3. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  4. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  5. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  6. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  7. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  8. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  9. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kordick, D L; Wilson, K H; Sexton, D J; Hadfield, T L; Berkhoff, H A; Breitschwerdt, E B

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a causal relationship between Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae, cat-scratch disease (CSD), and bacillary angiomatosis. Cats appear to be the primary reservoir. Blood from 19 cats owned by 14 patients diagnosed with CSD was cultured. Blood samples from cats owned by veterinary students (n = 25) having no association with CSD or bacillary angiomatosis were cultured as controls. Eighty-nine percent (17 of 19) of cats associated with CSD patients and 28% (7 of 25) of controls were bacteremic with Bartonella species (chi-square = 16.47; P < 0.001). Twenty-three isolates were characterized as B. henselae, while one isolate from the cat of a CSD patient appeared to be a new Bartonella species. Thirteen cats remained culture positive during the ensuing 12-month period. Our results support the conclusion that B. henselae is the predominant species involved in CSD and is transmitted by cats. The incidence of Bartonella bacteremia in control cats suggests that B. henselae bacteremia is prevalent among the domestic cat population in the United States. PMID:8586710

  10. Stance control in the chronic spinal cat.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C A; Fung, J; Macpherson, J M

    1994-05-01

    1. A longitudinal study of the control of quiet and perturbed stance was conducted before and for 1 yr after complete spinal transection (T12) in a cat trained to stand on a moveable force platform. 2. With daily training, the spinal cat recovered full weight support and some intermittent control of lateral stability within 1 mo. Within the second month postspinalization, the spinal cat achieved the ability to maintain independent, unassisted stance (no external support or stimulation) for up to 45 s during quiet stance, as well as for 62-97% of the trials of horizontal translations of the support surface. 3. Control of lateral stability in the spinal cat was severely compromised, however, as eventually the spinal cat always lost its balance. Head movements and the tendency for the hindlimbs to initiate stepping movements were more destabilizing than platform translations. 4. Our preliminary results indicate that the recovery of partial lateral stability of the hindquarters in the spinal cat is the product of passive muscle properties and segmental reflexes, which, in isolation can provide only limited balance control in the chronic spinal cat.

  11. Cat-scratch disease simulating lyphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.Z.; Kruskal, J.; Kane, R.A.; Trey, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is the most common cause of benign lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Rare cases of systemic involvement with deep adenopathy with or without hepatic and/or splenic involvement have been reported. We present an unusual case of cat-scratch disease with imaging findings indistinguishable from lymphoma. Cat-scratch disease should be considered as a possible benign etiology for adenopathy with hepatic or splenic nodules in a young patient, especially if the involved nodes are tender. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  13. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-12-18

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter.

  14. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  15. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  17. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  18. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  Conducted successful underflights of opportunity ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  For more information, please see the  CATS ...

  19. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall. PMID:15789811

  20. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  1. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  2. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  3. Spinal epidural empyema in a cat.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Noritaka; Kanda, Teppei; Sasaki, Takanori; Morita, Takehito; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis and surgical treatment of spinal epidural empyema (SEE) in a 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthaired cat is described. SEE was diagnosed by computed tomographic myelography (CT myelography) and surgical exploration. The lesion was missed on both non-enhanced CT and conventional myelography. SEE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive myelopathy in cats, and CT myelography should be undertaken when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot be performed. PMID:20226705

  4. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    PubMed

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  5. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats. PMID:7195585

  6. Immunologic consequences of taurine deficiency in cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller-Levis, G; Mehta, P D; Rudelli, R; Sturman, J

    1990-04-01

    Our results show that a lack of taurine in the diet of cats results in a significant leukopenia, a shift in the percentage of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes, an increase in the absolute count of mononuclear leukocytes, and a change in the sedimentation characteristics of white cells. Functional studies of polymorphonuclear cells isolated from cats fed taurine-free diets show a significant decrease in the respiratory burst as measured by chemiluminescence as well as a decrease in phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermis compared to cats fed the same diet containing taurine. In addition, serum gamma globulin in cats fed taurine-free diets was significantly increased compared to taurine-supplemented cats, indicating that other immune cells may be affected by taurine deficiency. Histological examination of lymph nodes and spleen revealed regression of follicular centers with depletion of reticular cells, mature and immature lymphocytes (B cell areas), as well as mild extravascular hemolysis. These results indicate that there are profound immunologic consequences in cats with prolonged taurine deficiency. PMID:2319206

  7. Cat or Dog Ownership and Seroprevalence of Ehrlichiosis, Q Fever, and Cat-Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Martina; Daxboeck, Florian; Krause, Robert; Haberl, Renate; Stuenzner, Doris

    2003-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the role of domestic cats or dogs in the acquisition of zoonoses, in particular in pregnant women or immune-suppressed persons. We report that cat or dog ownership is not associated with an increased seroprevalence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagozytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella henselae in symptom-free persons in Styria, Austria. PMID:14609477

  8. Ultrasonographic measurements of adrenal glands in cats with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Peremans, Kathelijne; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Feline hyperthyroidism is potentially associated with exaggerated responsiveness of the adrenal gland cortex. The adrenal glands of 23 hyperthyroid cats were examined ultrasonographically and compared to the adrenal glands of 30 control cats. Ten hyperthyroid cats had received antithyroid drugs until 2 weeks before sonography, the other 13 were untreated. There was no difference in adrenal gland shape between healthy and hyperthyroid cats: bean-shaped, well-defined, hypoechoic structures surrounded by a hyperechoic halo in 43/60 (71.6%) healthy cats and 34/46 (73.9%) hyperthyroid cats; more ovoid in 13/60 (21.6%) healthy cats and 9/46 (19.6%) hyperthyroid cats while more elongated in 4/60 (6.7%) healthy cats, 3/46 (6.5%) hyperthyroid cats. Hyperechoic foci were present in 9/23 (39.1%) hyperthyroid cats and 2/30 (6.7%) healthy cats. The adrenal glands were significantly larger in hyperthyroid cats, although there was overlap in size range. The mean difference between hyperthyroid cats and healthy cats was 1.6 and 1.7 mm in left and right adrenal gland length, 0.8 and 0.9 mm in left and right cranial adrenal gland height, and 0.4 and 0.9 mm in left and right caudal adrenal gland height. There was no significant difference between the adrenal gland measurements in treated and untreated hyperthyroid cats. The adrenomegaly was most likely associated with the hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex documented in hyperthyroid cats. Hyperthyroidism should be an alternative to hyperadrenocorticism, hyperaldosteronism, and acromegaly in cats with bilateral moderate adrenomegaly.

  9. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history. PMID:25573289

  10. Mucins in cat airway secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J R; Gallagher, J T; Richardson, P S; Sheehan, J K; Carlstedt, I

    1991-01-01

    Mucous secretions were obtained from cat tracheas that had received [3H]glucose and [35S]sulphate to radiolabel mucus glycoproteins biosynthetically. Samples were collected under resting ('basal') conditions as well as after pilocarpine stimulation and were separated into gel and sol phases by centrifugation. Macromolecules were partially purified by using gel chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B, and the species that were eluted with the void volume were then separated into two major populations with isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl. The major component from the gel phase of pilocarpine-induced secretions had a buoyant density typical of mucins and was observed as linear and apparently flexible chains by electron microscopy. Reduction of disulphide bonds gave subunits that could be further cleaved by trypsin digestion into components of approximately the same size as the high-Mr glycopeptides obtained from other mucins after this treatment. In contrast, the dominant species in the gel phase of the 'basal' secretion had a significantly higher buoyant density than expected for mucins and was largely unaffected by reduction, as studied by gel chromatography. The macromolecules were fragmented by trypsin, suggesting that they contain a polypeptide backbone. This more dense component also predominated in the sol phase both from the 'basal' secretions and from the pilocarpine-released secretions. Digestion with DNAase, chondroitin ABC lyase or heparan sulphate lyase had no effect, which shows that this component is not DNA, a dermatan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate or a heparan sulphate proteoglycan. In contrast, endo-beta-galactosidase and keratanase caused some fragmentation, suggesting that the molecules contain some linkages of the poly-(N-acetyl-lactosamine) type, although the degradation was not as extensive as expected for keratan sulphate. Treatment with alkaline borohydride resulted in extensive fragmentation of the high-Mr glycopeptides from both

  11. Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Bourdeau, P; Waldman, L; Amiel, S; Zur, G

    2015-12-01

    Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results.

  12. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  13. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging.

  14. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  15. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Kufuor-Mensah, Eric

    2007-02-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Persian cat was referred for evaluation of progressive paraplegia. The cat was thin, cachectic and paraplegic on presentation. The survey radiographs showed a left caudal pulmonary lesion and lytic skeletal lesions at the right iliac crest and left distal scapula. Due to a poor prognosis for complete recovery, the owner opted for euthanasia. Post-mortem examination revealed bilaterally small and irregular kidneys, lysis of the left iliac crest and left distal scapula and a dilated left ventricular lumen with a thin interventricular septum. Histologically, all the lesions were determined to be squamous cell carcinoma. It appears that the origin or the primary site of the malignancy in this case is pulmonary as cardiac and skeletal tissues are primarily mesenchymal in origin and are less likely to develop a primary epithelial malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, there is no description of cardiac or skeletal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat. PMID:16859943

  16. Postanesthetic death in a cat with myopathy.

    PubMed

    Remmers, G; Hayden, D W; Jaeger, M A; Ervasti, J M; Valberg, S J

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of naturally occurring muscular dystrophy in domestic animals. Herein, we describe a case of muscular dystrophy in a 4-year-old neutered male American domestic shorthair cat that died unexpectedly following anesthesia for an elective surgical procedure. Macroscopic muscular hypertrophy and histologic evidence of myofiber size variation, mineralization, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis were compatible with a diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Extensive endomysial fibrosis was noted histologically in the diaphragm. A complete absence of dystrophin protein in Western blot confirmed the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed reduced levels of dystrophin-associated proteins and an upregulation of utrophin at the sarcolemma. Anesthetic deaths can occur in dystrophin-deficient cats, and therefore muscular dystrophy and the associated cardiomyopathy should be considered in the differential diagnoses for perianesthetic death in cats.

  17. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene. PMID:25611903

  18. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat.

  19. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene.

  20. Microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Carminato, Antonio; Vascellari, Marta; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Mutinelli, Franco

    2011-12-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered male cat was presented for a subcutaneous mass on the neck. After surgical removal of the mass, a pet identification microchip was found within the tumour. Histological examination of the mass revealed typical features of the feline postinjection sarcoma. The cat had never received injections at the tumour site; all routine vaccinations were administered in the hindlimbs. Few cases of sarcomas developing at the site of microchip application have been reported in animals, although the contributory role of vaccine administrations has not been ruled out. This is the first report of a microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners vaccination guidelines, avoiding the interscapular area, enabled confirmation of the definitive aetiology of the neoplasia.

  1. Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS).

    PubMed

    Ursin, Holger; Eriksen, Hege R

    2010-05-01

    The cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS) is based on a long series of experiments on animals and on humans, in the laboratory, and in real life situations. From the common sense coping concept formulated by Seymour Levine; coping is when my "tommy" does not hurt, we have advanced to a systematic theory for what is behind the relaxed and happy coping rat (and cat). We also cover the translational leap to humans, starting with the now classic parachutist study. The bridge is based on formal and symbolic definitions, a theoretical short cut that Levine actually never really accepted. The essential pathophysiological concept is the potential pathological effects of sustained activation, which may occur in the absence of coping (positive response outcome expectancy). We review the current status of CATS in Behavioural Medicine by discussing its potential explanatory power in epidemiology, prevention and treatment of "subjective health complaints".

  2. Cervical Vertebral Body Chordoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Hampel, R; Taylor-Brown, F; Priestnall, S L

    2016-05-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered female Maine Coon cat with a 6-week history of progressive ataxia was diagnosed with a cervical vertebral body mass using magnetic resonance imaging. The mass displaced and compressed the cervical spinal cord. The cat was humanely destroyed and necropsy examination confirmed a mass within the second cervical vertebral body. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated ('physaliferous') cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin and the final diagnosis was a cervical, vertebral body chordoma. This is only the third report of a chordoma in this species and the first in this location. Chordoma should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for tumours arising from the cervical vertebrae in the cat.

  3. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  4. [Clinical analysis of cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kusaba, Nobuhide; Sata, Michio

    2010-05-01

    We analyzed the clinical background of 63 patients with serologically confirmed cat scratch disease (CSD), Age range of the patients was 0 to 83 years old and mean age was 35.0 years old. Seasonal patterns of cases was observed. A number of patients with CSD was increased during the summer and fall. The peak incidence of CSD occurred in October. Infection followed direct cat or dog contact. Cat contact occurred in 61 cases (96.8%) and dog contact in 2 cases (3.2%). A specific contact with kittens occurred in 39 cases (61.9%). About 49.2% of patients had a cat scratch, 3.2% had a cat bite, 3.2% had a cat flea bite, 41.2% had no history of animal bite. The papule of inoculation site were seen in 27 cases (42.9%) of CSD. The upper extremities were the most likely locations for scratches. Sixty cases (95.2%) of CSD developed lymphadenopathy, 51.7% of the involved nodes were in the axillary, 31.7% were in the inguinal, 21.7% were in the cervical, 16.7% were in the elbow. The mean incubation period of patients with CSD was 18.9 days. The mean duration of lymphadenopathy after the treatment of antibiotics was 44.2 days. The mean value of white blood cell counts was 8130/microL. The mean value of C-reactive protein level was 2.83 mg/dL.

  5. Nuclear and microtubule remodeling and in vitro development of nuclear transferred cat oocytes with skin fibroblasts of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Yin, X J; Lee, Y H; Jin, J Y; Kim, N H; Kong, I K

    2006-10-01

    The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), a member of the felidae family, is a threatened animal in South Korea. In terms of protecting endangered felids, nuclear transfer (NT) is a potentially valuable technique for assuring the continuation of species with dwindling numbers. In the present experiment, nuclear and microtubule remodeling and the in vitro developmental potential of enucleated domestic cat oocytes reconstructed with nuclei of somatic cells from either domestic cat fibroblast (DCF) or leopard cat fibroblast (LCF) were evaluated. Microtubule aster is allocated to de-condensed chromatin following nuclear transfer (3h after activation) of fibroblast cells from both domestic and leopard cats, suggesting the introduction of a somatic cell centrosome. The transferred fibroblast nuclei formed a large, swollen, pronuclear-like structure in most reconstructed oocytes, in the cat or leopard cat. At 18h following nuclear transfer, mitosis occurred, and according to the photo (F) it appears that spindle microtubules and two asters were observed. The percentages of blastocyst formation from nuclear transfer embryos derived from domestic cat fibroblasts (4/46, 8.6%) were not significantly different than those for nuclear transfer embryos constructed with leopard cat fibroblasts (4/52, 7.6%). These results indicate that nuclear and microtubule remodeling processes and in vitro developmental ability are similar in reconstructed cat oocytes following transfer of nuclei from either domestic or leopard cats. PMID:16310987

  6. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  7. Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William B

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic epilepsy is the most common brain disease in dogs and also occurs in cats. Optimal management entails an accurate diagnosis and appropriate drug therapy. In dogs, either phenobarbital or bromide is appropriate as initial therapy. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for cats. Several other drugs including zonisamide and levetiracetam have the advantage of fewer side effects and are being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. Treatment is successful in most cases, allowing the pet and client to enjoy a good quality of life.

  8. Immune-mediated disorders of cats.

    PubMed

    Werner, L L; Gorman, N T

    1984-09-01

    Immune-mediated disorders in cats share many clinical and pathologic similarities with their counterparts in other species. Cats, however, are unique among domestic animals owing to the involvement of feline leukemia virus. In addition, a number of other infectious organisms can produce immune-mediated sequelae--that is, FIP virus, FeSFV, and H. felis. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aims in the management of feline immune-mediated disorders must take into account the probability of a primary or underlying disease process. PMID:6149649

  9. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  10. Advances in the control of Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) on cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K

    2005-05-01

    Cat fleas are the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. During the past ten years, topical and oral applications of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, lufenuron and, most recently, selamectin have revolutionized cat-flea control. Recent studies show that these therapies eliminate the need to treat indoor and outdoor environments, and their use markedly reduces the severity and prevalence of flea allergic dermatitis. Surveys have yet to reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary community. PMID:15837612

  11. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  12. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  13. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  14. Pulmonary nodules in an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anuja; Burrage, Lindsay C; Gonzalez, Blanca E

    2013-12-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease and pulmonary nodules as part of her initial presentation. Although pulmonary manifestations have been reported with cat scratch disease, nodules are rare in the normal host.

  15. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  16. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats. PMID:26479236

  17. Presumptive acute lung injury following multiple surgeries in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Masaaki; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Rieko; Sasaki, Jun; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Uzuka, Yuji; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Nezu, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old, 3.5-kg spayed female domestic shorthair cat had a tracheal mass identified as malignant B-cell lymphoma. The cat had tracheal resection and subsequently developed laryngeal paralysis. Due to multiple episodes of respiratory distress the cat subsequently had tracheal surgeries. Finally, the cat had a sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and collapsed. Computed tomography imaging and arterial blood gas analysis supported a diagnosis of acute lung injury. PMID:24082167

  18. Pharmacokinetics of oral ivabradine in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Riesen, S C; Ni, W; Carnes, C A; Lindsey, K J; Phelps, M A; Schober, K E

    2011-10-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the measurement of the novel heart rate-lowering drug ivabradine and its major metabolite, S-18982, was cross-validated in the plasma of eight healthy cats. Plasma concentrations were then determined after single and repeated oral administration of ivabradine. Individual plasma concentrations versus time from each cat were used in compartmental analysis using the commercially available software WinNonlin. Both ivabradine and S-18982 reached their maximum concentrations of 103.33 and 3.86 ng/mL within 1 h. Following repeated administration, areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for ivabradine and S-18982 did not significantly increase. Two-compartmental and one-compartmental models with first-order input and elimination provided the best fit to the data for ivabradine and S-18982, respectively. Both models were combined to produce a single 4-compartment model characterizing ivabradine and S-18982 pharmacokinetics. The results of this study indicate that repeated oral doses of ivabradine produced plasma drug concentrations suitable for 12-h dosing intervals in healthy cats. Furthermore, the analytical assay and combined ivabradine/S-18982 model provide tools for further evaluation of ivabradine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in future studies in cats.

  19. Mammary hypertrophy in an ovariohysterectomized cat.

    PubMed

    Pukay, B P; Stevenson, D A

    1983-05-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  20. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  1. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  2. Primary extraskeletal hepatic osteosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Johnson, Todd O; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2003-02-01

    A 13-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with an abdominal mass was evaluated; radiography revealed a radiopaque mass in the cranioventral region of the abdomen. A celiotomy was performed, and the mass was identified histologically as a hepatic osteosarcoma. Complete remission of the tumor was accomplished after partial hepatectomy and adjuvant treatment with carboplatin. PMID:12564597

  3. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  5. Kipling's Cat: Learning from the New Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Richard

    1996-01-01

    International schools can benefit from new students' fresh vision. Some students exhibit "culture shock" on arrival, while others, like Kipling's cat, act as though "all places are alike to them." This article examines the newcomer's adjustment process by proposing a model of personal identity development and poses questions to test the theory…

  6. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  7. Erythromycin induces expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1990-01-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. This gene, like the erythromycin-inducible erm genes, is regulated by translational attenuation. Here we show that cat-86 is also inducibly regulated by erythromycin. cat-86 does not confer resistance to erythromycin. PMID:2115875

  8. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  9. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  11. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  12. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  13. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  14. Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  15. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  16. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa.

  17. [Tritrichomonas fetus: a new intestinal parasite in Swiss cats].

    PubMed

    Burgener, I; Frey, C; Kook, P; Gottstein, B

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports identified Tritrichomonas fetus, the causative agent of bovine trichomonosis, in cats with large-bowel diarrhea in the US. Between July 2007 and August 2008, a total of 105 Swiss cats were tested for T. fetus with the InPouchTM culture system and/or PCR, whereof 27 (26%) yielded positive results. All positive cats were pedigree cats, whereof 22 (81%) were less than 1 year of age (median 5 months). 25 (93%) of these cats lived in multi-cat households, and all but one were kept indoor. The clinical picture was dominated by large bowel diarrhea with increased frequency of defecation and fresh blood and mucus. Furthermore, inflamed anus and fecal incontinence was common. 52% of the T. fetus-positive cats were tested positive for Giardia before, but the treatment with fenbendazole or metronidazole only temporarily alleviated the clinical signs. The treatment with 30 mg/kg of ronidazole q12h p.o. was successful in all but 1 cat with only minor transient adverse effects in 3 cats. In conclusion, T. fetus has to be considered an important causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in cats in Switzerland, especially in young indoor pedigree cats. PMID:19653162

  18. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats.

  19. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account. PMID:27655024

  20. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats.

  1. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  2. CATS landline installed beneath the river Tees

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Press Construction Ltd. has completed installation of the land portion of a new gas pipeline from the North Sea, including a tunnel beneath the River Tees in the north of England. The work was carried out under a multi-million dollar contract from Amoco (UK) Exploration Co. The pipeline is the land portion of the Central Area Transmission System. The 4.6-mile, 36-in. onshore pipeline connects a valve station at the CATS landfall at Coatham Sands, just south of Tees Bay, to a gas terminal north of the River Tees. This paper reports on the entire CATS system which runs for nearly 250 miles from a riser platform in the Central Graben area of the North Sea to the Coatham Sands landfall and then overland to the gas terminal. The gas will fuel a new combined heat-and-power generating plant on Teesside, currently under construction by Teesside Power.

  3. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  4. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  5. Congenital Paraesophageal Hernia in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Tong, Kim; Guillou, Reunan; Vét, Doc

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male domestic shorthair weighing 2 kg was presented for acute onset of anorexia, lethargy, paradoxical breathing, and a palpable mass effect in the cranial abdomen. Initial diagnostics and imaging suggested a pleuroperitoneal or hiatal hernia. Emergency abdominal exploration was performed, and a complex type II paraesophageal hiatal hernia was identified. The entire stomach, greater and lesser omenta, spleen, left limb of the pancreas, and the proximal segment of the descending duodenum were herniated through a discrete defect in the phrenicoesophageal ligament. After reduction of the herniated organs back into the abdomen, a phrenicoplasty, esophagopexy, and left-sided fundic gastropexy were performed. The cat recovered uneventfully from the procedure and was free of any signs of disease for at least 30 mo postoperatively. This is the first detailed report of the findings and successful surgical treatment of a complex congenital, type II paraesophageal hiatal hernia with complete herniation of the stomach, omenta, and spleen in a cat.

  6. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  7. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  8. Cat scratch disease and other Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Zangwill, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    First described in 1931, cat scratch disease remains the most commonly identified clinical syndrome associated with Bartonella infection. Over the last 20 years, however, the discovery and use of modern diagnostic tests has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and treatment options for Bartonella infections of all types. Indeed, each varies substantially depending on the infecting species and the immune status of the host.

  9. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    PubMed

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  10. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  11. Evaluation of fecal α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations in cats with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and cats with gastrointestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kathrin F; Broussard, John D; Ruaux, Craig G; Suchodolski, Jan S; Williams, David A; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gastrointestinal lymphoma are common disorders in cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate fecal α(1)-PI concentrations, a marker of gastrointestinal protein loss, in cats with histopathological evidence of gastrointestinal inflammation or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Fecal and serum samples were obtained from 20 cats with chronic gastrointestinal disease in which endoscopic biopsies were performed. Two groups of cats were assembled based on histopathology: Group A (n = 8), mild to moderate IBD; Group B (n = 12), severe IBD or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Fecal α(1)-PI concentrations and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, cobalamin, folate, pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were determined. Nineteen of the 20 diseased cats had elevated fecal α(1)-PI concentrations, ranging from 1.9 to 233.6 μg/g compared to 20 healthy control cats (normal range: ≤1.6 μg/g). Fecal α(1)-PI concentrations were statistically significantly different between healthy cats and cats of Group A (median: 3.9 μg/g, range: 1.3-9.2 μg/g, P < 0.001) or cats of Group B (median: 20.6 μg/g, 4.3-233.6 μg/g; P < 0.001), and between cats of Groups A and B (P < 0.01). Hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, and hypocobalaminemia were detected in 88%, 83%, and 56% of the diseased cats, respectively. This study suggests that increased fecal α(1)-PI concentrations in association with low serum albumin and total protein concentrations may be a common finding in cats with IBD or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Furthermore, fecal α(1)-PI concentrations appear to be higher in cats with severe IBD or confirmed gastrointestinal neoplasia when compared to cats with mild to moderate IBD. PMID:23231864

  12. COMPARISON OF LUNG ATTENUATION AND HETEROGENEITY BETWEEN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALLERGIC ASTHMA, NATURALLY OCCURRING ASTHMA AND NORMAL CATS.

    PubMed

    Masseau, Isabelle; Banuelos, Alina; Dodam, John; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a prominent feature of feline allergic asthma but requires biopsy for characterization. Computed tomography (CT) has appeal as a minimally invasive diagnostic test. The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to compare indices of airway remodeling between cats with experimentally induced, spontaneous asthma and healthy unaffected cats using CT. We hypothesized that experimental and spontaneous feline asthma would have similar CT airway remodeling characteristics and that these would be significantly different in healthy cats. Experimentally induced asthmatic research cats (n = 5), spontaneously asthmatic pet cats (n = 6), and healthy research cats (n = 5) were scanned unrestrained using a 64-detector row CT scanner. Inspiratory breath-hold CT scans were also performed in experimentally induced asthmatic and healthy cats. Mean ± extent variation of lung attenuation for each cat was determined using an airway inspector software program and CT images were scored for lung heterogeneity by a board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of cat group status. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (unrestrained scans) and the Student's t-test (anesthetized scans) with significance defined as P < 0.10. Experimentally asthmatic and spontaneously asthmatic cats had significantly (P = 0.028 and P = 0.073, respectively) increased lung attenuation compared to healthy cats. Heterogeneity scores were higher in experimentally induced asthmatic cat than in healthy cats. Objective quantification of lung heterogeneity and lung volume did not differ among the three groups (P = 0.311, P = 0.181, respectively). Findings supported our hypothesis. Inspiratory breath-hold anesthetized CT scans facilitated discrimination between asthmatic and healthy cats in comparison to unrestrained CT scans.

  13. [A comparison of corneal sensitivity between healthy cats and cats with corneal sequestra].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Frank; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Heider, Hans-Josef; Görig, Christiane; Nolte, Ingo

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish reference values for corneal sensitivity in ophthalmologically healthy persians (n = 40) and domestic short hair cats (n = 60) a prospective study was conducted. Furthermore corneal sensitivity in 48 cats with a corneal sequestrum was measured. Corneal sensitivity was recorded with the help of the aesthesiometer according to Cochet and Bonnet in five different corneal locations (central, nasal, dorsal, temporal, and ventral). The sensitivity for the central corneal region was recorded as amounting to 3.58 +/- 0.56 cm in ophthalmologically healthy domestic short hair cats and to 2.97 +/- 0.58 cm in healthy persian cats. The sensitivity of the central corneal area of a cat with a corneal sequester only amounts to 2.03 +/- 0.53 cm. Between the diseased and the healthy eyes no statistical difference could be demonstrated for any of the measured corneal locations. The sensitivity of the peripheral corneal locations is significantly lower than that of the central corneal region in all three groups examined. PMID:14526473

  14. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  15. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  16. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  17. Meniscal mineralisation in little spotted cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the stifle joints of little spotted cats in captivity using radiographic and CT studies. The hypothesis was that these animals would have meniscal mineralisation that could be detectable by imaging studies. Twelve intact little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 2 females and 10 males, aged from 1.5 to 11.11 years old and weighing 1.9–3.05 kg were studied. These animals, which were living in the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo, had no symptoms or known disease processes at the time of the study. The plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans of both stifle joints were performed under general anaesthesia. Sequential transverse images were acquired on a spiral scanner. Results No signs of articular disease were observed in any of the animals. Radiographically, the meniscal mineralisation was detected as an oval radiopacity in the cranial compartment on the mediolateral projection, located within the area of the medial meniscus. On craniocaudal projection, the mineralisation was more difficult to visualise. In one of the animals, it was not possible to identify the meniscal mineralisation in either of the stifle joints. Using CT, meniscal mineralisation was best identified in the transverse plane images. Conclusions Meniscal mineralisation appears to be a normal anatomic feature in little spotted cats. PMID:23506083

  18. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  19. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  20. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  1. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  2. Concentration of D-dimers in healthy cats and sick cats with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

    PubMed

    Tholen, Inger; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to measure concentrations of D-dimers in 48 cats with various diseases and in 20 healthy cats to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for D-dimers to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The cats were classified as having DIC if an underlying disease and at least three of the following criteria were present: thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time or thrombin time, schistocytes and/or a reduced antithrombin activity. D-dimer concentrations were measured using a semi-quantitative latex agglutination (LA) test (Accuclot D-Dimer, Sigma Diagnostics). The D-dimer test was positive for 8/12 cats with DIC and for 16/36 sick cats without DIC. D-dimers were negative for all healthy control cats. The comparison of the sick cats with DIC and those without DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of the D-dimer test of 56% and 67%; a comparison of the results for healthy cats and cats with DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The D-dimer LA test is only of limited value for the diagnosis of DIC in cats.

  3. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    SciTech Connect

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  4. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  5. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  6. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  7. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.

  8. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  9. The electric cat: Rotation without net overall spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2013-02-01

    Two schools of thought have developed regarding the method used by a falling cat to rotate in air: the "legs in-legs out" method and the "tuck and turn" or rotating spine method. Since photographic evidence has not settled the debate, we develop a mathematical model called the "electric cat" to show quantitatively that the first method is not sufficient for a cat's full rotation in air during a safe drop.

  10. Intestinal obstruction caused by Taenia taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rebbecca S; Bowman, Dwight D; Barr, Stephen C; Euclid, James M

    2009-01-01

    An adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cat was presented with acute vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and dyspnea. The cat's clinical status worsened over 24 hours with conservative medical management. An exploratory celiotomy was performed. Acute intestinal obstruction resulting from infection with Taenia (T.) taeniaeformis was diagnosed. Surgical removal of the cestodes via multiple enterotomies resolved the obstruction. This paper reports, for the first time, small intestinal obstruction caused by T. taeniaeformis infection in a cat.

  11. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O'Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  12. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  13. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  14. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  15. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  16. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  17. Quantum cellular biology: a curious example of a cat.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, M

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, as a curious example of Schrodinger's cat, quantum cellular biology describes the similarity between a 'Schrodinger's cat' and a 'Schrodinger's cat-like state' of a single cell made by the microcell fusion method. Mutations result from quantum processes involving molecules that cross over an energy barrier from one stable configuration to a different stable configuration. As we allow in principle for the aspects of this phenomena, this insight may suggest a new quantum cellular biology.

  18. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Hernández-Coronado, H.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems.

  19. Prevalence of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mutations in Siamese cats.

    PubMed

    Crawley, A C; Muntz, F H; Haskins, M E; Jones, B R; Hopwood, J J

    2003-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease, is one of the more prevalent inherited diseases in cats and is commonly found in cats with Siamese ancestry. The prevalence of 2 known MPS VI mutations in cats was investigated in 101 clinically normal Siamese cats, in 2 cats with clinical signs of MPS VI, and in 202 cats from 4 research colonies. The mutation L476P which causes a severe clinical phenotype, was present on both alleles in the known MPS VI cats from Italy and North America and was present in all research colonies that originated from North America. However, LA76P was not detected in the Siamese population screened. In contrast, the mutation D520N, which causes a mild clinical phenotype, was identified in 23 of 202 (11.4%) alleles tested in Siamese cats from 3 continents, 2 of which were homozygous for D520N. Thus, the D520N mutation was widespread, and it is likely that cats inheriting both mutations (LA76P/D520N compound heterozygotes) would be in the general Siamese population, particularly in North America. Practitioners should note the high incidence of degenerative joint disease in these animals.

  20. Comparison of digital rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in cats.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges.

  1. Cats are not small dogs: the emergence of feline medicine.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Amy

    2006-11-01

    Cats have finally garnered the attention they deserve in veterinary medicine, however, there is still much to learn about this unique species and new challenges surface daily. For example, at the time of writing, avian influenza in cats is being closely monitored by world veterinary and health officials. Controversial topics, such as how to manage the homeless cat population, declawing, and cloning will continue to spark active debate. However, the future appears promising for cats as more veterinarians, researchers, and organizations increase their focus on felines. PMID:17526136

  2. Toxoplasmosis in two cats with inflammatory intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J L; Willard, M D; Lees, G E; Lappin, M R; Dieringer, T; Floyd, E

    1991-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, was diagnosed in 2 cats. In 1 cat, recurrence of clinical signs after initiating treatment was attributed to relapse of the inflammatory intestinal disease, but was found to be attributable to relapsing toxoplasmosis secondary to immunosuppressive drug therapy. Treatment with clindamycin resolved the recurrent toxoplasmosis. In the second cat, clinical signs of toxoplasmosis did not develop, but serologic testing yielded evidence of active toxoplasmosis. Treatment with clindamycin caused the titers to decrease. Relapsing toxoplasmosis may be responsible for apparent resistance to treatment in cats for inflammatory intestinal disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  3. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats in Saitama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nogami, S; Sato, T

    1997-10-01

    To clarify Dirofilaria immitis infection among cats in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, 1,840 cats were examined postmortem for adult worms and microfilariae in the blood from 1989 to 1995. As a reference control, 500 dogs from the same area were examined in the same way and period. D. immitis worms were found in 15 cats, one of which had microfilariae in the blood. Prevalence rate of D. immitis infection was 0.8% (15/1,840) in cats and 46.8% (234/500) in dogs examined, whereas it was 4.1% and 64.6% in cats and dogs, respectively, aged 2 years and over. Worm burden per positive cat was 1.5 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SD), the maximum number of worm was 3 in 2 cats, and 10 cats had a single worm each. All the worm-positive cats were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in sera. Positive rates of coinfection with D. immitis were 26.7% and 13.3% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. PMID:9362033

  4. From pedigree cats to fluffy-bunnies.

    PubMed

    Dunningham, Jacob; Rau, Alexander; Burnett, Keith

    2005-02-11

    We consider two distinct classes of quantum mechanical entanglement. The first "pedigree" class consists of delicate highly entangled states, which hold great potential for use in future quantum technologies. By focusing on Schrodinger cat states, we demonstrate not only the possibilities these states hold but also the difficulties they present. The second "fluffy-bunny" class is made up of robust states that arise naturally as a result of measurements and interactions between particles. This class of entanglement may be responsible for the classical-like world we see around us. PMID:15705839

  5. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  6. Renal glomerular fibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Shibata, S; Shirota, K; Abe, K; Uetsuka, K; Nakayama, H; Goto, N; Doi, K

    1996-11-01

    Renal glomerular fibrosis was observed in a 1-year-old spayed female Japanese domestic cat that showed clinically advanced renal failure. In the glomeruli, increased homogeneous materials were stained strongly with aniline blue by Masson's trichrome and positive for anti-type III collagen antibody by immunohistochemical staining, causing mesangial sclerosis and capillary collapse. By electron microscopy, randomly arranged fibrils were observed in the expanded subendothelial and mesangial areas, and the fibrils showed periodicity characteristic of collagen fibers in longitudinal sections. These findings of glomerular lesions closely resemble those of human "collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy," which has recently been described as a new type of glomerulonephropathy. PMID:8952029

  7. Osteochondrodysplasia in three Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Oh, Sunkyoung; Lee, Sungok; Kim, Gyeongmin; Kim, Haksang; Kweon, Ohkyeong; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2007-09-01

    This report explains typical radiographic features of Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia. Three Scottish Fold cats suffering from lameness were referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Seoul National University, Korea. Based on the breed predisposition, history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiographic findings, Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia was confirmed in three cases. Radiographic changes mainly included exostosis and secondary arthritis around affected joint lesions, and defective conformation in the phalanges and caudal vertebrae. The oral chondroprotective agents such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate make the patients alleviate their pain without adverse effects. PMID:17679781

  8. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  9. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  10. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (<10 eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  11. Risk analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in Tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) and domestic cats using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Hanae; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Hiyama, Tomotsugu; Murayama, Akira; Mori, Hiroshi; Sugitani, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Shin-ichi

    2010-09-01

    In this study, based on the data from FIV screening surveys of captive cats conducted by the Kyushu Veterinary Union and collaborators as part of the infection control program for Tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus), we elucidated the spatial distribution of FIV-positive individuals among leopard cats and domestic cats using a geographic information system. Data from FIV screening surveys carried out among 86 leopard cats (1996-2006) and 713 captive domestic cats (2001-2006) were used for analysis. The analysis results were then spatially layered with the population density of leopard cats and that of captive domestic cats estimated from the number of households and used for assessment of FIV infection risk in each area. The prevalence rates of FIV were 3% (3/86) in leopard cats in Kami-shima, 13.6% (38/280) in domestic cats in Kami-shima and 10.6% (46/433) in domestic cats in Shimo-shima. The distribution of FIV on Tsushima Island was not uniform; on Kami-shima Island, FIV-positive domestic cats were concentrated in particular areas. We also performed risk analysis based on the population density of leopard cats, the prevalence rate of FIV among domestic cats in each area and the estimated population density of captive domestic cats and identified high FIV infection risk areas. All FIV-positive leopard cats were found in the identified high FIV infection risk areas.

  12. Hypo-osmotic test in cat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Comercio, E A; Monachesi, N E; Loza, M E; Gambarotta, M; Wanke, M M

    2013-10-01

    The hypo-osmotic (HOS) test has been used in other species as an indicator of the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to assess the response of domestic cat spermatozoa to the hypo-osmotic test, to determine the type of solution, concentration and time of incubation needed to obtain a maximum percentage of swelling, to correlate the selected combination with the percentages of progressive motility and to evaluate whether dilution of the ejaculate alters the results. Incubation for 30 and 45 min in solutions of fructose and of citrate of 50 and 100 mOsmol kg⁻¹ was evaluated. The highest percentage of swelling was obtained using the 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ solution, and no significant differences were observed between the times of exposure to the solutions. A positive correlation was observed between the percentage of individual progressive motility and the percentage of sperm swelling in a 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ fructose solution, with no significant differences being observed between raw and diluted semen samples. The results of this study suggest that the HOS test could be useful for evaluating membrane function in domestic cat spermatozoa, both in raw semen and in samples diluted in the EZ Mixin® commercial extender, and thus could be incorporated into routine semen evaluation protocols.

  13. Hypo-osmotic test in cat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Comercio, E A; Monachesi, N E; Loza, M E; Gambarotta, M; Wanke, M M

    2013-10-01

    The hypo-osmotic (HOS) test has been used in other species as an indicator of the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to assess the response of domestic cat spermatozoa to the hypo-osmotic test, to determine the type of solution, concentration and time of incubation needed to obtain a maximum percentage of swelling, to correlate the selected combination with the percentages of progressive motility and to evaluate whether dilution of the ejaculate alters the results. Incubation for 30 and 45 min in solutions of fructose and of citrate of 50 and 100 mOsmol kg⁻¹ was evaluated. The highest percentage of swelling was obtained using the 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ solution, and no significant differences were observed between the times of exposure to the solutions. A positive correlation was observed between the percentage of individual progressive motility and the percentage of sperm swelling in a 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ fructose solution, with no significant differences being observed between raw and diluted semen samples. The results of this study suggest that the HOS test could be useful for evaluating membrane function in domestic cat spermatozoa, both in raw semen and in samples diluted in the EZ Mixin® commercial extender, and thus could be incorporated into routine semen evaluation protocols. PMID:22928866

  14. Systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Kirby, Kerry D; Sanchez, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Our study describes a case of systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat with acute dyspnea, anorexia, and aggressiveness. Physical examination revealed multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions on the abdomen, neck, and thorax. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound showed multiple mediastinal nodules and marked pleural effusion, respectively. A cutaneous biopsy from the ulcerated wounds revealed necrogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal culture on fresh swab samples from the cutaneous lesions yielded growth of a fungal organism that was further identified as Trichosporon loubieri by PCR and DNA sequencing. The cat was subsequently euthanized and submitted to autopsy. Gross pathology changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing white nodules ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter that expanded the mediastinal fat, intrathoracic lymph nodes, lungs, and costal pleura. These lesions consisted of areas of necrogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae morphologically similar to those observed in the cutaneous biopsy sample. Gross and histologic changes were consistent with a systemic fungal infection, and the etiologic diagnosis was supported by fungal culture. Fungal identity was confirmed by DNA sequencing of D1-D2 and TS1 regions. PMID:27016724

  15. Deterministic Creation of Macroscopic Cat States

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Daniel; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite current technological advances, observing quantum mechanical effects outside of the nanoscopic realm is extremely challenging. For this reason, the observation of such effects on larger scale systems is currently one of the most attractive goals in quantum science. Many experimental protocols have been proposed for both the creation and observation of quantum states on macroscopic scales, in particular, in the field of optomechanics. The majority of these proposals, however, rely on performing measurements, making them probabilistic. In this work we develop a completely deterministic method of macroscopic quantum state creation. We study the prototypical optomechanical Membrane In The Middle model and show that by controlling the membrane’s opacity, and through careful choice of the optical cavity initial state, we can deterministically create and grow the spatial extent of the membrane’s position into a large cat state. It is found that by using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a membrane high fidelity cat states with spatial separations of up to ∼300 nm can be achieved. PMID:26345157

  16. Isolated mediastinal necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenopathy due to cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Lovis, A; Clerc, O; Lazor, R; Jaton, K; Greub, G

    2014-02-01

    We report a patient suffering from cat-scratch disease limited to mediastinal lymphadenitis. Although rare, cat-scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenitis, especially when patients were exposed to cats.

  17. On the Trail of a Cosmic Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of the vast cloud known as the Cat's Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, and is heavily obscured by intervening dust clouds. Few objects in the sky have been as well named as the Cat's Paw Nebula, a glowing gas cloud resembling the gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. British astronomer John Herschel first recorded NGC 6334 in 1837 during his stay in South Africa. Despite using one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time, Herschel seems to have only noted the brightest part of the cloud, seen here towards the lower left. NGC 6334 lies about 5500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Scorpius (the Scorpion) and covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. The nebula appears red because its blue and green light are scattered and absorbed more efficiently by material between the nebula and Earth. The red light comes predominantly from hydrogen gas glowing under the intense glare of hot young stars. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy and has been extensively studied by astronomers. The nebula conceals freshly minted brilliant blue stars - each nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and born in the last few million years. The region is also home to many baby stars that are buried deep in the dust, making them difficult to study. In total, the Cat's Paw Nebula could contain several tens of thousands of stars. Particularly striking is the red, intricate bubble in the lower right part of the image. This is most likely either a star expelling large amount of matter at high speed as it nears the end of its life or the remnant of a star that already has exploded. This new portrait of the Cat's Paw Nebula was created from images taken with the Wide Field

  18. Population Structure of Bartonella henselae in Algerian Urban Stray Cats

    PubMed Central

    Azzag, Naouelle; Haddad, Nadia; Durand, Benoit; Petit, Elisabeth; Ammouche, Ali; Chomel, Bruno; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2012-01-01

    Whole blood samples from 211 stray cats from Algiers, Algeria, were cultured to detect the presence of Bartonella species and to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA). Bartonella henselae was the only species isolated from 36 (17%) of 211 cats. B. henselae genotype I was the predominant genotype (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles as compared to only 3 profiles using MLST. Of these 52 profiles, 48 (92.3%) were identified for the first time. One-third of the cats harbored one MLVA profile only. As there was a correlation between the age of cats and the number of MLVA profiles, we hypothesized that the single profile in these cats was the profile of the initial infecting strain. Two-third of the cats harbored 2 to 6 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering indicate that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously: independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain. PMID:22956995

  19. Local Dependence in an Operational CAT: Diagnosis and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; Segall, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of CAT scores can be negatively affected by local dependence if the CAT utilizes parameters that are misspecified due to the presence of local dependence and/or fails to control for local dependence in responses during the administration stage. This article evaluates the existence and effect of local dependence in a test of…

  20. Aging does not influence feeding behavior in cats.

    PubMed

    Peachey, Sarah E; Harper, E Jean

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to see whether aging influences feeding behavior in cats. Two studies were carried out. In the first study, a standard canned cat food was fed to six young adult and six senior cats for 10 d on an ad libitum basis. Feeding behavior was monitored during the final 5 d. In the second study, diets enriched with beef tallow, olive oil or sunflower oil were fed at an equivalent energy intake for 21 d. Feeding behavior was monitored during the final 5 d. The results of both studies indicated no significant differences between the young and old cats in the number of meals consumed, the amount consumed at each meal or the duration of each meal when fed either ad libitum or at equivalent energy intakes. Daily feeding patterns were similar for each of the 5 d for each cat, with cats tending to consume regular small meals throughout the day and night. The only significant differences noted were among the fat-enriched diets. The diet enriched with beef tallow had fewer refusals compared to the diets enriched with olive oil and sunflower oil, indicating a possible palatability differential. It was concluded that cats of all ages are habitual feeders with similar daily feeding patterns, which may be altered only with a change in diet. Given that no differences were seen between the young and senior cats, it cannot be assumed that feeding patterns are responsible for the previously observed age-related decreases in apparent digestibility. PMID:12042511

  1. Helicobacter pylori isolated from the domestic cat: public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J; Paster, B J; Yan, L L; Rozmiarek, H; Rufo, R; Stalis, I H

    1994-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been directly linked with active chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Although a substantial portion of the human population is colonized with H. pylori, the patterns of transmission of the organism remain in doubt, and reservoir hosts have not been identified. This study documents the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats obtained from a commercial vendor. The isolation of H. pylori from these cats was confirmed by morphologic and biochemical evaluations, fatty acid analysis, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. H. pylori was cultured from 6 cats and organisms compatible in appearance with H. pylori were observed in 15 additional cats by histologic examination. In most animals, H. pylori was present in close proximity to mucosal epithelial cells or in mucus layers of the glandular or surface epithelium. Microscopically, H. pylori-infected cat stomachs contained a mild to severe diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with small numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in the subglandular and gastric mucosae. Lymphoid follicles were also noted, particularly in the antrum, and often displaced glandular mucosal tissue. Thus, the domestic cat may be a potential model for H. pylori disease in humans. Also, the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats raises the possibility that the organism may be a zoonotic pathogen, with transmission occurring from cats to humans. Images PMID:8188360

  2. Cats: their history and our evolving relationship with them.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cats have had a long relationship with people, and their history as a domesticated animal can be traced back as far as 2000 BC. Delegates at a recent conference titled 'People, cats and vets through history' delved a little deeper into the changing nature of this relationship. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27389749

  3. EzCatDB: the enzyme reaction database, 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nozomi; Nakayama, Naoko; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Fukuie, Masaru; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Doi, Takuo; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tomii, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The EzCatDB database (http://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/) has emphasized manual classification of enzyme reactions from the viewpoints of enzyme active-site structures and their catalytic mechanisms based on literature information, amino acid sequences of enzymes (UniProtKB) and the corresponding tertiary structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Reaction types such as hydrolysis, transfer, addition, elimination, isomerization, hydride transfer and electron transfer have been included in the reaction classification, RLCP. This database includes information related to ligand molecules on the enzyme structures in the PDB data, classified in terms of cofactors, substrates, products and intermediates, which are also necessary to elucidate the catalytic mechanisms. Recently, the database system was updated. The 3D structures of active sites for each PDB entry can be viewed using Jmol or Rasmol software. Moreover, sequence search systems of two types were developed for the EzCatDB database: EzCat-BLAST and EzCat-FORTE. EzCat-BLAST is suitable for quick searches, adopting the BLAST algorithm, whereas EzCat-FORTE is more suitable for detecting remote homologues, adopting the algorithm for FORTE protein structure prediction software. Another system, EzMetAct, is also available to searching for major active-site structures in EzCatDB, for which PDB-formatted queries can be searched.

  4. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  5. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  6. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  10. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  11. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  12. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  14. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  15. Plasma amylin and insulin concentrations in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, T A; Rand, J S

    1996-01-01

    The recently discovered pancreatic peptide amylin is postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus. However, plasma amylin concentrations in normal and diabetic cats have not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to validate a commercial amylin radioimmunoassay kit for the measurement of feline amylin in unextracted plasma, and to measure plasma amylin concentrations in normal and diabetic cats. The kit had satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision, and can be recommended for measurement of feline amylin in unextracted EDTA plasma, when nonspecific binding of plasma samples is used in the calculation of measured amylin concentration. Fasting amylin concentration in cats with normal glucose tolerance was 97 +/- 4 pmol/L. Plasma amylin increased in parallel with insulin after glucose administration in cats with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. In contrast to cats with normal glucose tolerance, cats with impaired glucose tolerance had markedly delayed amylin and insulin secretion. Diabetic cats had basal hypoinsulinemia combined with hyperamylinemia. Hyperamylinemia may lead to reduced insulin secretion and insulin resistance, and contribute to the development of feline diabetes. In conclusion, feline amylin can be measured in unextracted EDTA plasma. Fasting amylin concentrations are approximately 100 pmol/L, and amylin and insulin are cosecreted in cats with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. Increased amylin concentrations may contribute to the development of feline diabetes mellitus. PMID:8746416

  16. Vestibular and optokinetic responses of the white cat.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, R A; Polsinelli, D J; Knister, J R; Kohut, R I

    1977-01-01

    The vestibular and optokinetic responses of a group of white cats were evaluated and compared with the responses from a control group of pigmented animals. The results indicate that in all cases the white cats exhibited varying degrees of vestibular and/or optokinetic dysfunction, which in some animals varied from test session to test session.

  17. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    PubMed

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-06-19

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats.

  18. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung.

    PubMed Central

    Daignault, D; Chouinard, L; Møller, K; Ahrens, P; Messier, S; Higgins, R

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed. PMID:9919368

  19. Overview of Practical Issues in a CAT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has become increasingly common in large-scale testing programs. This paper considers relevant practical issues that are likely to be faced by the developers and managers of a CAT program. The first cluster of issues is that of item pool development and maintenance. It includes such considerations as item pool…

  20. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    This program listing is a supplement to the Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). The driver textfile program allows access to major subprograms of the CAT project. The test administration textfile program gives examinees a prescribed set of subtests. The parameter management textfile program establishes a file containing…

  1. Raising awareness of common problems in older cats.

    PubMed

    2016-08-13

    The need to actively look for signs of disease in older cats was discussed during a recent conference held by the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) in Malta. Delegates heard that many older cats could be suffering from diseases associated with ageing but might show only subtle clinical signs. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:27516559

  2. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  3. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  4. Contact to cat or dog, allergies and parental education.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.

  5. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  6. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  7. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  8. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-02-02

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times.

  9. Acute myopericarditis associated with cat scratch disease in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Barson, William J; Honegger, J Robert; Texter, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is generally characterized by a self-limited chronic regional lymphadenopathy, but numerous other clinical manifestations involving a variety of organ systems have been reported. Cardiac involvement is unusual and when reported, it has been associated with culture-negative endocarditis in adults. We present the case of an adolescent male with typical cat scratch disease and associated myopericarditis.

  10. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  11. EzCatDB: the enzyme reaction database, 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nozomi; Nakayama, Naoko; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Fukuie, Masaru; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Doi, Takuo; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tomii, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The EzCatDB database (http://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/) has emphasized manual classification of enzyme reactions from the viewpoints of enzyme active-site structures and their catalytic mechanisms based on literature information, amino acid sequences of enzymes (UniProtKB) and the corresponding tertiary structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Reaction types such as hydrolysis, transfer, addition, elimination, isomerization, hydride transfer and electron transfer have been included in the reaction classification, RLCP. This database includes information related to ligand molecules on the enzyme structures in the PDB data, classified in terms of cofactors, substrates, products and intermediates, which are also necessary to elucidate the catalytic mechanisms. Recently, the database system was updated. The 3D structures of active sites for each PDB entry can be viewed using Jmol or Rasmol software. Moreover, sequence search systems of two types were developed for the EzCatDB database: EzCat-BLAST and EzCat-FORTE. EzCat-BLAST is suitable for quick searches, adopting the BLAST algorithm, whereas EzCat-FORTE is more suitable for detecting remote homologues, adopting the algorithm for FORTE protein structure prediction software. Another system, EzMetAct, is also available to searching for major active-site structures in EzCatDB, for which PDB-formatted queries can be searched. PMID:25324316

  12. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats.

  13. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R W; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K M; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2016-05-27

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as "cat states," have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger's famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication. PMID:27230374

  14. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-03-02

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  15. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  16. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  17. Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat.

    PubMed

    Adams, R J; Garosi, L; Matiasek, K; Lowrie, M

    2015-04-01

    A one-year-old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3-C4 acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later.

  18. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats. PMID:17317801

  19. Identification of Haemobartonella felis (Mycoplasma haemofelis) in captive nondomestic cats.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Monika; Burke, Thomas J; Kitchell, Barbara E; Lamont, Leigh A; Schaeffer, David J; Behr, Melissa; Messick, Joanne B

    2003-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether Haemobartonella felis (Mycoplasma haemofelis), the causative bacterial agent of feline infectious anemia, infects nondomestic cats. Routine complete blood count and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to detect the gene for 16S ribosomal RNA for the organism. Sixty-four blood samples were collected from 54 nondomestic cats, including tigers (Panthera tigris), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), lions (P. leo), mountain lions (Felis concolor), snow leopards (P. unica), and a jaguar (P. onca). Some cats were sampled on two or three different dates. Two tigers were positive for H. felis by PCR analysis. As previously described in domestic cats, the parasitemia appears to be intermittent in nondomestic cats. PMID:12885130

  20. Recent developments in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in cats.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gwendolyn L; Simonson, Stephanie M

    2005-01-01

    Pain, particularly chronic pain, is an underestimated ailment in cats. Veterinarians tend to under-diagnose and under-treat pain in this aloof and stoic species. Until recently, there was only one analgesic (i.e., butorphanol) approved in the United States for use in cats; but many analgesics, particularly opioids, have been used extra-label for this purpose. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used sparingly in cats because of safety concerns, which are less of an issue with the newer agents. Meloxicam is the only NSAID labeled for use in cats in the United States, but other agents are available in this country and are labeled for use in cats in other countries. PMID:16267058

  1. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R W; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K M; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2016-05-27

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as "cat states," have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger's famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  2. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R. W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K. M.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  3. A case of indirect exposure to cat at school.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Perfetti, L; Moscato, G

    2003-01-01

    Indirect exposure to cat allergens may exacerbate asthma in sensitized subjects. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl referred to our Unit for cough, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, nasal itching and obstruction during the past six months, with improvement during summer holidays. Skin prick tests were positive for cat and Alternaria alternata. She had no cats at home. Spirometry was normal and methacoline bronchial challenge was negative. PEF monitoring showed a mean value of 80% of the predicted value with a variability higher than 20% in a few occasions. At a follow up visit PEF recording showed an increase of 80 litres/min during a 2 weeks Christmas holidays, and a subsequent reduction after being back at school. At a further questioning we found that in her class there was a girl who owned 23 cats. It is likely that PEF and symptoms in our patient were affected by indirect cat exposure at school.

  4. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations.

    PubMed

    Levy, Julie K

    2011-07-01

    Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment and on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective non-lethal population control method but is limited in scope because of expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multiyear contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats.

  5. Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric

  6. Fictive motor patterns in chronic spinal cats.

    PubMed

    Pearson, K G; Rossignol, S

    1991-12-01

    1. Fictive motor patterns were recorded in hind leg nerves of 10 adult chronic spinal cats (spinalized at T13). Four of these animals had been trained to step with their hind legs on a treadmill (late-spinal animals), whereas the remainder received no training and were examined a short time after spinalization (early-spinal animals). 2. A fictive pattern resembling the locomotor pattern for stepping was evoked in all animals in response to stimulation of the skin of the perineal region. (2-[2,6-Dichloroaniline]-2-imidazoline) hydrochloride (Clonidine) at doses ranging from 100 to 500 micrograms/kg iv facilitated the production of this pattern, particularly in early-spinal animals. 3. The fictive locomotor pattern in late-spinal animals was more complex than that occurring in early-spinal animals. In the latter the pattern consisted of an alternation of activity in flexor and extensor nerves, and changing leg position did not qualitatively alter the pattern, whereas in late-spinal animals the relative durations of the bursts in different flexors were usually not the same, and the pattern of flexor activity was dependent on leg position. 4. Moving the legs from extension to flexion progressively decreased the duration of flexor bursts, increased the cycle period, and decreased the ease with which the pattern could be evoked in both early- and late-spinal animals. 5. 1-beta-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)/Isonocotinic acid 2-[(2-benzylcarbamoyl)ethyl]hydrazide (Nialamide) treatment following Clonidine in early-spinal animals increased the complexity of flexor burst activity. This, and other observations, indicates that DOPA and Clonidine do not have strictly identical actions on the locomotor pattern generator. 6. Stimulation of the paws in late-spinal animals produced two patterns of activity distinctly different from the locomotor pattern. of activity distinctly different from the locomotor pattern. One was a short sequence of high-frequency rhythmic activity (at

  7. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  8. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-08-15

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events.

  9. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered. PMID:27045191

  10. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  11. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life.

  12. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a young cat.

    PubMed

    Asano, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Ohno, Koichi; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2008-12-01

    A 9-month-old male Japanese domestic cat showed pleural effusion, ascites, azotemia, hypoproteinemia and severe proteinuria. Histopathology of the percutaneous renal biopsy specimen revealed that all glomeruli showed intense mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls, resulting in lobular accentuation of the glomerular tufts. Frequent duplication of the capillary walls was also observed. Immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle actin distinctly revealed mesangial interposition. Diffuse global and linear deposition of C3 and IgG was observed mostly along the peripheral capillary loops. Electron microscopy confirmed frequent circumferential mesangial interposition and subendothelial dense-deposits in the glomerulus. The glomerular lesion was consistent with human membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I, and might be a rare case that developed at young age. PMID:19122409

  13. Plasma pharmacokinetics of warfarin enantiomers in cats.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Kraft, S L; Lewis, D C; Freeman, L C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dispositions of S-warfarin and R-warfarin in normal cats following intravenous and oral administrations of racemic warfarin. Citrated blood samples were collected from 10 cats prior to and at times 5, 15, and 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following a single intravenous bolus of 0.5 mg/kg of racemic warfarin. After a 21-day washout period, samples were then similarly collected in three groups of four cats for 120 h following oral administration of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg racemic warfarin. S-warfarin and R-warfarin were detected using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay validated for cat plasma. Drug concentration-time curves were subjected to non-compartmental analysis. Median pharmacokinetic parameters associated with the intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg racemic warfarin were as follows: t1/2 (S:28.2, R:18.3 h), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; S:33.0, R:24.6 h*microg/mL), area under the moment curve (AUMC; S:1889, R:527.8 h*h*microg/mL), and mean residence time (MRT; S:38.7, R:20.9 h). For each parameter, S-warfarin was significantly different from R-warfarin (P<0.05). Warfarin was absorbed rapidly after oral administration, and the dosage did not affect the time to maximum concentration (S:0.87, R:0.75 h). Oral dosage significantly influenced maximum plasma concentration (ng/mL, S:1267, R:1355 at 0.5 mg/kg; S:614.9, R:679.4 at 0.25 mg/kg; S:250.5, R:367.6 at 0.1 mg/kg), AUC (h*microg/mL, S:45.12, R:30.91 at 0.5 mg/kg; S:22.98:, R:18.99 at 0.25 mg/kg; S:3.922, R:3.570 at 0.1 mg/kg) and AUMC (h*h*microg/mL, S:2135, R:1062 at 0.5 mg/kg; S:943.1, R:599.9 at 0.25 mg/kg; S:132.2, R:59.03 at 0.1 mg/kg), but not t1/2 (S:23.5, R:11.6 h) nor MRT (S:26.3, R:13.5 h). Both warfarin enantiomers were highly (>96.5%) protein-bound. Quantitation of the warfarin content in commercially available tablets indicated an unequal distribution of the drug throughout the

  14. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  15. Schroedinger cat states and multilevel atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Knight, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    We demonstrate that the generalization of the two-level Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) to an N-level atom leads to the creation of up to N macroscopically distinct field states. These field states are Schmidt-orthogonalized superpositions of Fock states. They correspond to macroscopic states of the field, attainable with large mean photon numbers. Unlike the situation with a two-level atom and a coherent-state field, which evolves into a macroscopic coherent superposition state (a Schrodinger cat), we find that when the additional levels participate strongly in the excitation (e.g all transitions are resonant with equal dipole moments) then the system does not evolve into a pure state. We will present some examples of special cases, giving insight into the behavior of three-level atoms and the two-level two-photon JCM.

  16. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Klishko, Alexander N; Farrell, Bradley J; Beloozerova, Irina N; Latash, Mark L; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2014-09-15

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it ("bad variance," variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not ("good variance," variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  17. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Alexander N.; Farrell, Bradley J.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  18. Ecology Driving Genetic Variation: A Comparative Phylogeography of Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) and Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shomita; Krishnan, Anand; Tamma, Krishnapriya; Home, Chandrima; R, Navya; Joseph, Sonia; Das, Arundhati; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative phylogeography links historical population processes to current/ecological processes through congruent/incongruent patterns of genetic variation among species/lineages. Despite high biodiversity, India lacks a phylogeographic paradigm due to limited comparative studies. We compared the phylogenetic patterns of Indian populations of jungle cat (Felis chaus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). Given similarities in their distribution within India, evolutionary histories, body size and habits, congruent patterns of genetic variation were expected. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected scats from various biogeographic zones in India and analyzed mtDNA from 55 jungle cats (460 bp NADH5, 141 bp cytochrome b) and 40 leopard cats (362 bp NADH5, 202 bp cytochrome b). Jungle cats revealed high genetic variation, relatively low population structure and demographic expansion around the mid-Pleistocene. In contrast, leopard cats revealed lower genetic variation and high population structure with a FST of 0.86 between North and South Indian populations. Niche-model analyses using two approaches (BIOCLIM and MaxEnt) support absence of leopard cats from Central India, indicating a climate associated barrier. We hypothesize that high summer temperatures limit leopard cat distribution and that a rise in temperature in the peninsular region of India during the LGM caused the split in leopard cat population in India. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that ecological variables describing a species range can predict genetic patterns. Our study has also resolved the confusion over the distribution of the leopard cat in India. The reciprocally monophyletic island population in the South mandates conservation attention. PMID:21060831

  19. Biases Towards Internal Features in Infants' Reasoning about Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, George E.; Herrmann, Patricia; Wynn, Karen; Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two sets of studies demonstrating 14-month-olds' tendency to associate an object's behavior with internal, rather than external features. In Experiment 1 infants were familiarized to two animated cats that each exhibited a different style of self-generated motion. Infants then saw a novel individual that had an…

  20. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat’s locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

  1. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  2. Is cognitive adaptation training (CAT) compensatory, restorative, or both?

    PubMed

    Fredrick, Megan M; Mintz, Jim; Roberts, David L; Maples, Natalie J; Sarkar, Sonali; Li, Xueying; Velligan, Dawn I

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) is a psychosocial treatment incorporating environmental supports including signs, checklists to bypass the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Our objective was to examine the association between CAT, functional outcomes, and cognitive test performance (cognition). The two research questions were as follows: 1) Does cognition mediate the effect of CAT intervention on functional outcome? 2) Does CAT impact cognitive test performance? A total of 120 participants with schizophrenia were randomized to one of three treatments: 1) CAT (weekly for 9months; monthly thereafter), 2) generic environmental supports (given to participants on clinic visits to promote adaptive behavior), or 3) treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments of cognition and functional outcome were conducted at baseline, 9 and 24months. Mediation analyses and mixed effects regression were conducted. Mediation analyses revealed that during the initial 9months, the direct path from treatment group to functional outcome on the primary measure was positive and highly significant. CAT significantly improved functional outcome compared to the other treatments. However, paths involving cognition were negligible. There was no evidence that cognition mediated improvement in functional outcomes. At 24months, cognition improved more in CAT compared to other treatment groups. The test for cognition mediating improvement in functional outcomes was not significant at this time point. However, improvement in functional outcome led to better performance on cognitive testing. We concluded that improvement in cognition is not a necessary condition for improvement in functional outcome and that greater engagement in functional behavior has a positive impact on cognition.

  3. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  4. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  5. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation.

  6. Communicative and psychological dimensions of the KiddyCAT

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Chagit E.; Conture, Edward G.; Frankel, Carl B.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying constructs of the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (KiddyCAT; Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2007), especially those related to awareness of stuttering and negative speech-associated attitudes. Method Participants were 114 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS; n = 52; 15 females) and children who do not stutter (CWNS; n = 62; 31 females). Their scores on the KiddyCAT were assessed to determine whether they differed with respect to talker group (CWS vs. CWNS), chronological age, younger versus older age groups, and gender. A categorical data principal components factor analysis (CATPCA) assessed the quantity and quality of the KiddyCAT dimensions. Results Findings indicated that preschool-age CWS scored significantly higher than CWNS on the KiddyCAT, regardless of age or gender. Additionally, the extraction of a single factor from the CATPCA indicated that one dimension—speech difficulty—appears to underlie the KiddyCAT items. Conclusions As reported by its test developers, the KiddyCAT differentiates between CWS and CWNS. Furthermore, one factor, which appears related to participants’ attitudes towards speech difficulty, underlies the questionnaire. Findings were taken to suggest that children’s responses to the KiddyCAT are related to their perception that speech is difficult, which, for CWS, may be associated with relatively frequent experiences with their speaking difficulties (i.e., stuttering). PMID:22333753

  7. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and at 2 and 3 days after each post treatment reinfestation flea eggs were collected from the pan under each cat cage. Eggs were counted and viability assessed by evaluating adult flea emergence 28 days after egg collection. Three days after treatment or infestation, each cat was combed to remove and count live fleas. Results Treatment with indoxacarb provided 100% efficacy following infestations on day -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and efficacy was 99.6% following infestations on days 35 and 42. Egg production from indoxacarb treated cats was reduced by 99.9% within 72 hours of treatment. For subsequent infestations no eggs were produced from treated cats from day 8 through day 30. Egg production was still reduced by ≥95.8% through day 45. Indoxacarb treatment also reduced adult flea emergence from eggs for 5 weeks after treatment. The combination of reduction in egg numbers and egg viability from indoxacarb treated cats reduced predicted flea emergence by 100% from days 2 – 31 and 99.9%, 100%, 96.4% and 99.0% on days 37, 38, 44 and 45, respectively. Conclusions A topical spot-on formulation of indoxacarb provided ≥99.6% efficacy against flea infestations on cats for 6 weeks following a single treatment. Indoxacarb also eliminated or markedly reduced egg production for the entire evaluation period and reduced the viability of the few eggs that were produced from Day 1 through Day 38. Given indoxacarb’s effect on adult fleas, egg production and egg viability; this formulation can

  8. Feasibility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Thomas; Willard, Michael D; Ruhnke, Isabelle; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Cats are predisposed to diseases of the biliary tract and the exocrine pancreas and these can be challenging to diagnose. In humans and dogs > 10 kg, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been successfully used to diagnose some of these disorders. The purpose of our study was to determine whether ERCP would also be feasible in cats using a pediatric duodenoscope. Four purpose-bred, clinically healthy, castrated domestic shorthair cats participated in two studies. Study 1 compared standard white light endoscopy with chromoendoscopy for localizing the major duodenal papilla. In Study 2 ERCP was performed. Repeated clinical examinations and measurements of serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) were performed before and up to 18 hours after interventions on all cats. Chromoendoscopy was subjectively judged to be superior for localizing the major papilla. Insertion of the ERCP catheter was best accomplished when cats were in dorsal recumbency. Complete ERCP was successful in two cats. In the other cats, either retrograde cholangiography or pancreatography was possible. Serum fPLI concentrations increased temporarily in two cats during Study 2 when measured immediately, 2, 4, and 18 h after ERCP. Peak fPLI concentrations were detected either immediately after ERCP or 2 h later. No clinical signs of complications were observed within 18 h after the procedures. Findings indicated that ERCP is technically demanding but feasible in healthy cats. Future studies need to determine whether the temporary increases in serum fPLI concentrations are clinically important and to investigate the utility of ERCP in feline patients.

  9. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    PubMed Central

    Sicuto de Oliveira, Adriana; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Captive domestic cats frequently suffer from the lack of physical space and opportunities to perform species-typical behaviors, such as climbing or hiding. Environmental enrichment is a technique that helps transform the space available to animals into a more appropriate habitat. In this study, we tested horizontal and vertical refuge boxes as environmental enrichment for cats living communally in a cat rescue shelter. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. Abstract The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics

  10. Helicobacter infection in dogs and cats: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Neiger, R; Simpson, K W

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of the spiral bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its causative role in gastric disease in humans has brought a dramatic change to gastroenterology. Although spiral bacteria have been known for more than a century to infect the stomachs of dogs and cats, recent research has been conducted mainly in the wake of interest in H. pylori. H. pylori has not been found in dogs and only very rarely in cats and zoonotic risk is minimal. A variety of other Helicobacter spp. can infect the stomach of pets; however, their pathogenic role is far from clear, and they have a small but real zoonotic potential. The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats is high, irrespective of clinical signs, and as in human medicine, mode of transmission is unclear. The relationship of Helicobacter spp. to gastric inflammation in cats and dogs is unresolved, with inflammation, glandular degeneration, and lymphoid follicle hyperplasia accompanying infection in some but not all subjects. Circulating anti-Helicobacter immunoglobulin G antibodies have been detected in 80% of dogs with naturally acquired infection and most dogs and cats with experimental infection. The gastric secretory axis is similar in infected and uninfected cats and dogs and no relationship of infection to gastrointestinal ulcers has been found. Differences in the pathogenicity of Helicobacter spp. are apparent, because infection with H pylori is associated with a more severe gastritis than infection with other Helicobacter spp. in both cats and dogs. Rapid urease test, histopathology, and touch cytology are all highly accurate invasive diagnostic tests for gastric Helicobacter-like organisms in dogs and cats, whereas culture and polymerase chain reaction are the only means to identify them to the species level. Urea breath and blood tests or serology can be used to diagnose Helicobacter spp. noninvasively in dogs and cats. Most therapeutic studies in pets have not shown long-term eradication of

  11. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat. PMID:19876518

  12. A retrospective study of daylily toxicosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Hadley, R M; Richardson, J A; Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2003-02-01

    The Easter, Japanese, stargazer and tiger lilies (Lilium sp) are nephrotoxic to cats. This study examined risks posed to cats by the common daylily (Hemerocallis sp: H. dumortierei, H. fulvi, H. graminea, H. seiboldii) following ingestion. Records describing ingestion of Hemerocallis sp between January 1998 and June 2002 were reviewed for signalment, quantity ingested, clinical signs (onset, severity, duration), treatments administered, and outcome. Twenty-two cases of confirmed exposure resulting in toxicosis were evaluated. Cats that ingest daylilies are at risk for gastrointestinal distress and acute renal failure. Successful treatment can be accomplished with early decontamination and aggressive fluid therapy. PMID:12583697

  13. Three Ways To Be a Saber-Toothed Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. D.; Babiarz, J. P.; Naples, V. L.; Hearst, J.

    Saber-toothed carnivores, until now, have been divided into two groups: scimitar-toothed cats with shorter, coarsely serrated canines coupled with long legs for fast running, and dirk-toothed cats with more elongate, finely serrated canines coupled to short legs built for power rather than speed. In the Pleistocene of North America, as in Europe, the scimitar-cat was Homotherium; the North American dirk-tooth was Smilodon. We now describe a new sabercat from the Early Pleistocene of Florida, combining the scimitar-tooth canine with the short, massive limbs of a dirk-tooth predator. This presents a third way to construct a saber-toothed carnivore.

  14. Erosive polyarthritis associated with Mycoplasma gateae in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zeugswetter, Florian; Hittmair, Katharina M; de Arespacochaga, Abigail G; Shibly, Sarina; Spergser, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Erosive polyarthritis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old neutered male Egyptian Mau-cross cat with concurrent glucocorticoid-responsive dermatitis. Clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, serological tests and radiographic appearance could not differentiate between immune-mediated and infective arthritis. Mycoplasma gateae was isolated by strictly anaerobic culture of the synovial fluid. Treatment with Enrofloxacin led to a rapid improvement of the cat's condition. Two months later the cat was euthanased because of severe glomerulonephritis and direct Coombs' test positive anaemia, possibly caused by mycoplasma infection. M gateae could not be isolated at post-mortem examination. PMID:17175189

  15. Restoration of auditory nerve synapses in cats by cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, D K; Kretzmer, E A; Niparko, J K

    2005-12-01

    Congenital deafness results in abnormal synaptic structure in endings of the auditory nerve. If these abnormalities persist after restoration of auditory nerve activity by a cochlear implant, the processing of time-varying signals such as speech would likely be impaired. We stimulated congenitally deaf cats for 3 months with a six-channel cochlear implant. The device used human speech-processing programs, and cats responded to environmental sounds. Auditory nerve fibers exhibited a recovery of normal synaptic structure in these cats. This rescue of synapses is attributed to a return of spike activity in the auditory nerve and may help explain cochlear implant benefits in childhood deafness. PMID:16322457

  16. [Hemangioma, the most frequent hepatic tumor. Diagnosis with dynamic CAT].

    PubMed

    Cuevas Ibáñez, A; Santos Cores, J; Molina López-Nava, P; Fernández Iglesias, P; Bones Purkiss, J

    1994-08-01

    The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of dynamic CAT with contrast piston-stroke performed at a single cut are described for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. We analyzed the correlation between the findings obtained through dynamic CAT and those obtained through echography, PAAF, analytic and clinical study of the patients with suspicion of hepatic hemangioma. The following values were obtained: sensitivity 92.3%; specificity 50%; VPP 88.8%; VPN 60%; and global diagnostic affectivity 84.37%. According to these results, we think that dynamic CAT is a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.

  17. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnar, J.; Valastyan, I.

    2008-12-08

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using {sup 18}F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms.

  18. Chronic Vomiting in Cats: Etiology and Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Shannon Ryan; Gisselman, Kelly; Cordner, Amy; Nicholson, Angela Gasser

    2016-01-01

    Chronic vomiting in cats is a common presenting problem seen in veterinary practice today. The initial step when presented with a vomiting patient is to differentiate between vomiting and regurgitation or dysphagia. There are numerous causes for chronic vomiting in cats, and therefore a detailed and comprehensive patient history and a systematic diagnostic approach are key steps in determining the cause for vomiting and the most appropriate treatment plan. Common causes for chronic vomiting in cats may include inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, gastrointestinal motility disorders, neoplasia, and extra-gastrointestinal diseases, such as renal disease, hepatobiliary disease, and hyperthyroidism. PMID:27487349

  19. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnár, J.; Valastyán, I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  20. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  1. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  2. Cat-scratch disease in Northern Italy: atypical clinical manifestations in humans and prevalence of Bartonella infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, E; Fabbi, M; Ferraioli, G; Prati, P; Filice, C; Sassera, D; Dalla Valle, C; Bandi, C; Vicari, N; Marone, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report an investigation on cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Northern Italy. Seventy-four cases of CSD were diagnosed at the San Matteo hospital, Pavia, during the period 2005-2010. Of these 74 patients, 18 (24.3 %) reported atypical clinical manifestations such as ocular papillitis, maculopapular eruptions, vertebral infection, pulmonary infiltrates, and granulomatous hepatitis. Contact with cats was documented for 61 patients (82.4 %), while cat-related trauma was reported for 49 patients (66.2 %). We subsequently investigated the presence of Bartonella infection in cats belonging to the above patients and in other domestic and stray cats from three provinces of Northern Italy. Among the 27 domestic cats tested, nine of the 11 belonging to the CSD patients and two of the remaining 16 were infected by B. henselae (81.8 % vs. 12.5 %). Out of over 1,300 stray cats examined, 23.1 % were seropositive for B. henselae; after culturing and genotyping, 17 % were found to be infected by B. henselae (15.5 %) or B. clarridgeiae (1.5 %).

  3. Sickness behaviors in response to unusual external events in healthy cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judi L.; Lord, Linda K.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Design Prospective observational study. Animals 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Procedures Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks. Results An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs. PMID:21194324

  4. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  5. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and cats. 2.133 Section 2.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  6. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other..., cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats..., such as a humane shelter or contract pound. (b) No person shall obtain live dogs, cats, or...

  7. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  8. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  9. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and cats. 2.133 Section 2.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  10. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and cats. 2.133 Section 2.133 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  11. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other..., cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats..., such as a humane shelter or contract pound. (b) No person shall obtain live dogs, cats, or...

  12. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other..., cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats..., such as a humane shelter or contract pound. (b) No person shall obtain live dogs, cats, or...

  13. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold and care for the dog or cat for a period of not less than 5 full days after acquiring the animal,...

  14. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other..., cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats..., such as a humane shelter or contract pound. (b) No person shall obtain live dogs, cats, or...

  15. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E

    2015-05-01

    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (P<0.001). Both kitten and parturition-related complaints showed a prominent seasonal pattern, peaking in April and May, respectively, and declining gradually until November. 'Kittens' or 'parturition' were explicitly mentioned in 38%, 39% and 19%, respectively, of the complaints regarding cat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of

  16. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  17. Diesel oil-induced alopecia in two cats.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Jan; De Bosschere, Hendrik

    2009-04-01

    Two cats were presented for acute onset of rapidly progressive, bilaterally symmetrical hair loss of the ventrum and limbs. Alopecia occurred within 2 weeks after accidental skin exposure to diesel oil. The remaining hair epilated easily in affected areas. Denuded skin was strikingly dry and had adherent scale. Erythema and demarcation between affected and normal skin by a liquid-line were present in one case. Above this line, the hair could not be removed. The head and the footpads were not involved. Systemic signs were not observed. Both cats made a complete recovery without treatment. Histological examination in one cat revealed severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, mild to moderate acanthosis, follicular keratosis, a moderate dermal infiltrate of mast cells and an almost complete absence of sebaceous glands. If skin contact with diesel oil occurs in a cat, thorough washing of skin and haircoat after soaking in prue vegetable oil is recommended.

  18. Diagnosis and Outcome of Periosteal Chondrosarcoma in Two Cats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Fauber, Amy E; Pool, Roy R

    2016-01-01

    Two cats, both over 10 yr old, were presented for evaluation of non-painful bony proliferations on the appendicular skeleton. These proliferations were identifiable via palpation. Radiographs showed a smooth, proliferative bony lesion of the distal femur (case 1) and tarsus (case 2) with mild soft tissue swelling. Surgical debulking with incomplete resection was performed in each cat. Subsequent histopathology resulted in a diagnosis of periosteal chondrosarcoma (PC). Although both cats have experienced local recurrence, both are still alive more than 2.5 yr after mass debulking. Periosteal chondrosarcoma is a differential diagnosis in proliferative cortical bony lesions near an articular surface in older cats. Partial resection of these masses can lead to an excellent quality of life, and proper diagnosis can avoid amputation or even euthanasia. PMID:27487347

  19. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  20. Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin in a cat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sonya C; Smith, Annette N; Kuo, Kendon W; Fish, Eric J; Koehler, Jey W; Martinez-Romero, Gisela; Bacek, Lenore M

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old, female spayed Domestic Shorthair cat was presented to the Auburn University Emergency and Critical Care service for evaluation of pleural effusion and a suspected intrathoracic mass. Computed tomography was performed which confirmed the presence of a large intrathoracic mass, likely heart-based. Fine-needle aspirates were obtained and a cytologic diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor was made. Treatment with toceranib phosphate was briefly attempted at home by the owners. The cat died at home approximately 6 weeks after diagnosis. Necropsy and subsequent histopathologic examination revealed a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin. Aortic body tumors are extremely rare in cats and to the authors' knowledge, a neuroendocrine carcinoma of aortic body origin with distant metastases has not yet been reported in a cat. PMID:27564688

  1. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  2. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding.

  3. Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161086.html Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC But there's no need ... enter the skin and infect the person," said lead researcher Dr. Christina Nelson, a CDC medical officer. ...

  4. Surgical access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radkevich, L. A.; Ayzikov, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A posteroventral approach for access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve is presented which permits simultaneous surgical access to the ampullary and otolithic nerves. Surgical procedures are discussed.

  5. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  6. Accuracy of microchip identification in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, M A; Buss, M S; Tyler, J W

    1995-09-15

    A study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available microchip identification system approximately 1 year after implantation in dogs and cats. Thirty-three dogs and 16 cats in which a microchip had been implanted and 31 dogs and 18 cats in which a microchip had never been implanted were included in the study. In cats, sensitivity and specificity of microchip identification were 1.00. In dogs, sensitivity and specificity were 0.97 and 1.00, respectively. The chip had migrated in the 1 dog with a false-negative result, but the chip remained functional, and identification was established in this dog following closer physical examination and scanning.

  7. Quantum self-controlling free-falling cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Hernández-Coronado, H.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2015-06-01

    In the separation of rotations from internal motions in the n-body problem, there appear some gauge fields which physically represent Coriolis effects. These fields are also present in the “falling cat” problem: at the kinematical level they map changes in the cat's shape to changes in its orientation whereas at the dynamical level they show up as gauge potentials in the Hamiltonian. Classically, the vanishing angular momentum condition allows for the orientation degrees of freedom to decouple from the internal ones and the cat's re-orientation can be accounted for at the kinematical level, partially. In the quantum case the cat's reorientation description requires to be done on dynamical grounds. In this paper we explore the quantum version of the falling cat modelled as a three body problem.

  8. q -deformed noncommutative cat states and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib

    2015-02-01

    We study several classical-like properties of q -deformed nonlinear coherent states as well as nonclassical behaviors of q -deformed version of the Schrödinger cat states in noncommutative space. Coherent states in q -deformed space are found to be minimum uncertainty states together with the squeezed photon distributions unlike the ordinary systems, where the photon distributions are always Poissonian. Several advantages of utilizing cat states in noncommutative space over the standard quantum mechanical spaces have been reported here. For instance, the q -deformed parameter has been utilized to improve the squeezing of the quadrature beyond the ordinary case. Most importantly, the parameter provides an extra degree of freedom by which we achieve both quadrature squeezed and number squeezed cat states at the same time in a single system, which is impossible to achieve from ordinary cat states.

  9. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    PubMed

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake.

  10. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  11. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  12. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  13. Frequency of feline diabetes mellitus and breed predisposition in domestic cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lederer, R; Rand, J S; Jonsson, N N; Hughes, I P; Morton, J M

    2009-02-01

    The frequency of diabetes mellitus is described for cats that received veterinary care from two large feline-only clinics in Brisbane, Australia. Frequency was estimated using period prevalences (the proportion of the population at risk that was affected by diabetes at any point during a specified time period). Of the 12,576 study cats, 93 were affected with diabetes during the 5-year study period, resulting in a 5-year period prevalence of 7.4 per 1000 cats. Period prevalence was significantly higher in Burmese cats (22.4 cats per 1000) than domestic short and longhaired cats (7.6 cats per 1000) and the mean age at first diagnosis during the study period was significantly higher amongst Burmese cats (13.6 years) compared to domestic short and longhaired cats (10.9 years). Further investigations into the apparent predisposition of Burmese cats to diabetes mellitus are indicated.

  14. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  15. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-07-02

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  16. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  17. A stimulator for laboratory studies of motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A motion sickness device is described which produces motion sickness in about 40 percent of an unselected population of unrestrained female cats during a 30-min exposure at 0.28 Hz. The apparatus provides a gentle wave stimulus, similar to that provided by an amusement park Ferris Wheel. Two cats may be tested at the same time. This device is useful for studies of putative antimotion sickness drugs or the biochemical basis of the emetic response to motion.

  18. A stimulator for laboratory studies of motion sickness in cats.

    PubMed

    Crampton, G H; Lucot, J B

    1985-05-01

    A motion sickness device is described which produces motion sickness in about 40% of an unselected population of unrestrained female cats during a 30-min exposure at 0.28 Hz. The apparatus provides a gentle wave stimulus, similar to that provided by an amusement park Ferris Wheel. Two cats may be tested at the same time. This device is useful for studies of putative antimotion sickness drugs or the biochemical basis of the emetic response to motion.

  19. North American snake envenomation in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Brunker, Jill

    2011-11-01

    Snake envenomation can be a cause of significant morbidity in dogs and cats in North America. Being familiar with the venomous snakes in your area and understanding the mechanisms of action of their venom will allow for successful treatment of envenomation cases. Treatment of snake envenomation revolves around supportive care in mild to moderate cases and venom neutralization with antivenom in severe cases. Dogs and cats envenomated by North American snakes have a good prognosis if treated appropriately.

  20. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  1. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  2. Studying Cat (Felis catus) Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, Stijn J. M.; Forcada, Yaiza; Mantis, Panagiotis; Lamb, Christopher R.; Harrington, Norelene; Fowkes, Rob; Korbonits, Márta; Smith, Ken; Church, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in domestic cats (Felis catus). It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay), followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml) through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1%) demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6–28.6%). Of these cats a subset of 63 (20%) underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89%) had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90–100%), thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2–28.6%). Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease. PMID:26023776

  3. Mite infestations of man contracted from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Thomsett, L R

    1968-07-13

    Acarine infestations of the dog and cat are transmissible to man. The relation between age incidence in the host, duration of disease, and circumstances under which the animal is kept are stated. Fifty out of 65 human contacts at risk to 42 infected dogs and cats showed lesions of mite infestation; 48% of these lesions were confined to the arms and torso.It is important to consider animal mite infestation in the differential diagnosis of human pruritic and papular skin disease.

  4. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  5. Sodium current kinetics in cat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Follmer, C H; ten Eick, R E; Yeh, J Z

    1987-01-01

    1. Na+ current kinetics were studied in isolated atrial myocytes from the adult cat using the single suction-pipette voltage-clamp technique. 2. Current-voltage and conductance-voltage relationships were similar to those described in other cardiac myocyte preparations. 3. Analysis of Na+ current decay using single-pulse, double-pulse and tail current measurements were in agreement and demonstrate a second-order process of current decay. 4. Voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves was not symmetrical, having an inflexion at about -90 mV. These results suggest more than a single inactivation process for Na+ channel in the negative potential region. 5. Recovery of Na+ current from inactivation had a sigmoid time course: an initial slow component (delay) followed by a fast and then a second slow component. Increasing the pre-pulse duration slowed the time course of recovery. 6. Taken together, the results were consistent with the presence of multiple inactivated states for the atrial myocyte Na+ channel. PMID:2443658

  6. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Ritz, Susanne

    2008-05-15

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection resulting in clinical signs is invariably fatal despite clinical intervention. As FIP is an immune-mediated disease, treatment is mainly aimed at controlling the immune response triggered by the infection with the feline coronavirus (FCoV). Immune suppressive drugs such as prednisone or cyclophosphamide may slow disease progression but do not produce a cure. In nearly every published case report of attempted therapy for clinical FIP, glucocorticoids have been used; there are, however, no controlled studies that evaluate the effect of glucocorticoids as a therapy for FIP. Some veterinarians prescribe immune modulators to treat cats with FIP with no documented controlled evidence of efficacy. It has been suggested that these agents may benefit infected animals by restoring compromised immune function, thereby allowing the patient to control viral burden and recover from clinical signs. However, a non-specific stimulation of the immune system may be contraindicated as clinical signs develop and progress as a result of an immune-mediated response to the mutated FCoV.

  7. Corneal dystrophy in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Cooley, P L; Dice, P F

    1990-05-01

    Two types of epithelial dystrophy have been described in dogs, one each in the Boxer and Shetland Sheepdog breeds, both of which can be associated with corneal erosions. Medical therapy is recommended when erosions or tear film abnormalities are present. Stromal dystrophies documented in dogs appear to be a primary lipid deposition in various layers of the stroma, depending on the breed. Stromal dystrophies seldom lead to loss of vision, but vision loss has been observed in middle aged Airedale Terriers and aged Siberian Huskies. Treatment is usually unnecessary. The dog demonstrates two types of endothelial dystrophy, one of which (posterior polymorphous dystrophy in the American Cocker Spaniel) does not lead to corneal edema. Endothelial dystrophy observed in the Boston Terrier, Chihuahua, and other breeds is associated with progressive corneal edema, which can lead to bullous keratopathy and corneal erosions. Stromal and endothelial dystrophies, both of which are associated with rapid progression of corneal edema, occur rarely in the cat. Treatment of dystrophies with progressive corneal edema is symptomatic and palliative.

  8. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE CAT MYOCARDIUM

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Don W.; McNutt, N. Scott

    1969-01-01

    The ultrastructure of cat papillary muscle was studied with respect to the organization of the contractile material, the structure of the organelles, and the cell junctions. The morphological changes during prolonged work in vitro and some effects of fixation were assessed. The myofilaments are associated in a single coherent bundle extending throughout the fiber cross-section. The absence of discrete "myofibrils" in well preserved cardiac muscle is emphasized. The abundant mitochondria confined in clefts among the myofilaments often have slender prolongations, possibly related to changes in their number or their distribution as energy sources within the contractile mass. The large T tubules that penetrate ventricular cardiac muscle fibers at successive I bands are arranged in rows and are lined with a layer of protein-polysaccharide. Longitudinal connections between T tubules are common. The simple plexiform sarcoplasmic reticulum is continuous across the Z lines, and no circumferential "Z tubules" were identified. Specialized contacts between the reticulum and the sarcolemma are established on the T tubules and the cell periphery via subsarcolemmal saccules or cisterns. At cell junctions, a 20 A gap can be demonstrated between the apposed membranes in those areas commonly interpreted as sites of membrane fusion. In papillary muscles worked in vitro without added substrate, there is a marked depletion of both glycogen and lipid. No morphological evidence for preferential use of glycogen was found. PMID:4891913

  9. Linear summation of cat motor cortex outputs.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Christian; Brizzi, Laurent; Darling, Warren G; Capaday, Charles

    2006-05-17

    Recruitment of movement-related muscle synergies involves the functional linking of motor cortical points. We asked how the outputs of two simultaneously stimulated motor cortical points would interact. To this end, experiments were done in ketamine-anesthetized cats. When prolonged (e.g., 500 ms) trains of intracortical microstimulation were applied in the primary motor cortex, stimulus currents as low as 10-20 microA evoked coordinated movements of the contralateral forelimb. Paw kinematics in three dimensions and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight muscles were simultaneously recorded. We show that the EMG outputs of two cortical points simultaneously stimulated are additive. The movements were represented as displacement vectors pointing from initial to final paw position. The displacement vectors resulting from simultaneous stimulation of two cortical points pointed in nearly the same direction as the algebraic resultant vector. Linear summation of outputs was also found when inhibition at one of the cortical points was reduced by GABAA receptor antagonists. A simple principle emerges from these results. Notwithstanding the underlying complex neuronal circuitry, motor cortex outputs combine nearly linearly in terms of movement direction and muscle activation patterns. Importantly, simultaneous activation does not change the nature of the output at each point. An additional implication is that not all possible movements need be explicitly represented in the motor cortex; a large number of different movements may be synthesized from a smaller repertoire.

  10. Home range and diet of feral cats in Hawaii forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smucker, T.D.; Lindsey, G.D.; Mosher, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Feral cat Felis catus home range in a Hawaiian montane wet forest and their diet in three habitats - montane wet forest, subalpine dry forest, and lowland dry forest - were determined to provide baseline ecological data and to assess potential impacts to native terrestrial fauna. Seven cats (three males and four females) were captured in 624 trap nights. Mean weight of adult cats was 2.85 ?? 0.27 (SE) Kg for males and 1.87 ?? 0.03 kg for females. Mean diumal home range using the adaptive kernel method was 5.74 ?? 2.73 km2 for three males and 2.23 ?? 0.44 km2 for two females. Daytime locations were always within the montane wet forest with the borders on one or more sides of the home ranges of all cats defined by open grassland pastures. Rodents comprised the majority of the cat diets in all three habitats, with the frequencies of occurence between 0.88 and 0.91. Bird remains were a regular component of the diet of cats, with montane wet forest having the highest frequency of occurence (0.68), followed by subalpine dry forest (0.53), and lowland dry forest (0.21).

  11. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam.

  12. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  13. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  14. Four glycoproteins are expressed in the cat zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Stetson, I; Avilés, M; Moros, C; García-Vázquez, F A; Gimeno, L; Torrecillas, A; Aliaga, C; Bernardo-Pisa, M V; Ballesta, J; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2015-04-15

    The mammalian oocyte is surrounded by a matrix called the zona pellucida (ZP). This envelope participates in processes such as acrosome reaction induction, sperm binding and may be involved in speciation. In cat (Felis catus), this matrix is composed of at least three glycoproteins called ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. However, recent studies have pointed to the presence of a fourth protein in several mammals (rat, human, hamster or rabbit), meaning that a reevaluation of cat ZP is needed. For this reason, the objective of this research was to analyze the protein composition of cat ZP by means of proteomic analysis. Using ZP from ovaries and oocytes, several peptides corresponding to four proteins were detected, yielding a coverage of 33.17%, 71.50%, 50.23%, and 49.64% for ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4, respectively. Moreover, the expression of four genes was confirmed by molecular analysis. Using total RNA isolated from cat ovaries, the complementary deoxyribonucleic acids encoding cat ZP were partially amplified by reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, ZP1 was totally amplified for the first time in this species. As far as we are aware, this is the first study that confirms the presence of four proteins in cat ZP.

  15. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs. PMID:27106666

  16. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended. PMID:26387062

  17. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.

  18. Systemic response to low-dose endotoxin infusion in cats.

    PubMed

    DeClue, Amy E; Williams, Kurt J; Sharp, Claire; Haak, Carol; Lechner, Elizabeth; Reinero, Carol R

    2009-12-15

    Sepsis is a common problem in feline patients and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. There has been little research investigating the physiologic response to bacterial infection in cats, in part because appropriate models have not been developed. The objective of this study was to characterize the response to low-dose LPS infusion in conscious, healthy cats. Measures of systemic inflammation, hemodynamic stability, coagulation, metabolic function, and organ damage were compared between placebo and low-dose LPS infusion (2mcg/kg/hx4h, IV) in cats, with each cat serving as its own control. Markers of systemic inflammation including temperature, plasma TNF activity, IL-6, CXCL-8 and IL-10 concentrations were significantly increased and white blood cell counts were significantly decreased after LPS infusion. A biphasic hypotensive response was observed after initiation of LPS infusion without concurrent tachycardia. Additionally, LPS administration significantly increased blood glucose, lactate and creatinine concentrations. Patchy alveolar congestion, multifocal acute alveolar epithelial necrosis, and mild pulmonary edema were noted in the lungs along with acute centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, and mild lymphocyte apoptosis in the spleen and/or intestinal Peyer's patches. No biologically significant alterations in coagulation parameters developed after LPS infusion. Low-dose LPS infusion in cats induced systemic inflammation, hemodynamic derangement, metabolic alterations and mild organ damage. Low-dose endotoxin infusion is a viable pre-clinical model to study naturally developing sepsis in cats.

  19. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  20. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriana Sicuto; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-04-24

    The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats' welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes.

  1. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriana Sicuto; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats' welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes. PMID:26479233

  2. CAT5, a new gene necessary for derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Proft, M; Kötter, P; Hedges, D; Bojunga, N; Entian, K D

    1995-01-01

    PCK1 encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is transcriptionally regulated by two upstream activating elements. By screening for mutants that failed to derepress a UAS2PCK1-CYC1-lacZ reporter gene we isolated the new recessive derepression mutation cat5. The CAT5 gene encodes a protein of 272 amino acids showing a 42% identity to the ZC395.2 gene product of Caenorhabditis elegans whose function is unknown. Deletion of CAT5 caused a complete loss of glucose derepression affecting gluconeogenic key enzymes. Respiration, but not mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity, was also affected. CAT5 expression is 5- to 6-fold repressed by glucose, and CAT5 transcriptional activation was dependent on CAT1 (SNF1), CAT8 and CAT5 itself. The CAT5 gene is necessary for UAS1PCK1 and UAS2PCK1 protein binding since a carbon source-specific interaction was no longer detectable in cat5 mutants. Glucose derepression of gluconeogenesis depends on the active Cat1 (Snf1) protein kinase and the Cat8 zinc cluster activator. Mig1p-independent overexpression of CAT8 did not stimulate activation of gluconeogenic promoters in cat1 and in cat5 mutants. Since Cat8p multicopy expression suppresses the ethanol growth deficiency in cat1 (snf1) mutants, these results indicate that activation of Cat8p by the Cat1p (Snf1p) kinase and the Cat5p protein might be necessary for release from glucose repression. Images PMID:8557031

  3. Vitamin D intoxication caused by ingestion of commercial cat food in three kittens.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.

  4. Cloning and characterization of two catA genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii K24.

    PubMed

    Kim, S I; Leem, S H; Choi, J S; Chung, Y H; Kim, S; Park, Y M; Park, Y K; Lee, Y N; Ha, K S

    1997-08-01

    Two novel type I catechol 1,2-dioxygenases inducible on aniline media were isolated from Acinetobacter lwoffii K24. Although the two purified enzymes, CD I1 and CD I2, had similar intradiol cleavage activities, they showed different substrate specificities for catechol analogs, physicochemical properties, and amino acid sequences. Two catA genes, catA1 and catA2, encoding by CD I1 and CD I2, respectively, were isolated from the A. lwoffii K24 genomic library by using colony hybridization and PCR. Two DNA fragments containing the catA1 and catA2 genes were located on separate regions of the chromosome. They contained open reading frames encoding 33.4- and 30.4-kDa proteins. The amino acid sequences of the two proteins matched well with previously determined sequences. Interestingly, further analysis of the two DNA fragments revealed the locations of the catB and catC genes as well. Moreover, the DNA fragment containing catA1 had a cluster of genes in the order catB1-catC1-catA1 while the catB2-catA2-catC2 arrangement was found in the catA2 DNA fragment. These results may provide an explanation of the different substrate specificities and physicochemical properties of CD I1 and CD I2. PMID:9260969

  5. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides f. felis) is the dominant flea on domestic dogs and cats in Australian veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Slapeta, Jan; King, Jessica; McDonell, Denise; Malik, Richard; Homer, David; Hannan, Pip; Emery, David

    2011-08-25

    This study was undertaken to determine the flea diversity on urban dogs and cats in Australia in 2009-2010. A total of 2530 fleas were recovered from 291 animals (151 dogs, 69 cats and 71 uncategorised dogs or cats) from veterinary clinics across five states of Australia. The majority of specimens were from coastal areas. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis) was the most frequent flea species identified (98.8%, 2500/2530). The only other flea species identified was the stickfast flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea) from Western Australia. Sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II mtDNA revealed a single haplotype across Australia within a subset of C. f. felis (n=19). Our study demonstrated dominance and haplotype homogeneity of C. f. felis on dogs and cats. Although Ctenocephalides canis was recovered from a feral fox, it was not identified from the sample of fleas analysed. This suggests that, under current conditions, it is unlikely that foxes are reservoirs of C. canis for domestic dogs or cats residing in coastal Australia, as previously speculated. PMID:21515000

  6. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  7. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  8. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Bosward, Katrina L; Heller, Jane; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-15

    The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cats in eastern Australia is unknown, and the risk of transmission from cats to humans is undetermined. This study aimed to determine the exposure of cats to C. burnetii in four distinct cat subpopulations. An indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for detection of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans were adapted, verified for use on feline serum, and compared. Cat serum samples (n=712) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [cattery-confined breeding cats, pet cats, feral cats and shelter cats]. The proportions of seropositive cats were; cattery-confined breeding cats (35/376, 9.3%), pets (2/198, 1%), feral cats (0/50), shelter cats (0/88). The significant variables in C. burnetii seropositivity were cattery-confined breeding cat subpopulation and sterilisation status, with infected cats 17.1 (CI 4.2-70.2; P<0.001) times more likely to be cattery-confined breeding cats and 6.00 (CI 2.13-16.89; P<0.001) times more likely to be entire than sterilised. ELISA was used on 143 of 712 sera tested with IFA, and the Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.75 indicated 92.2% agreement between the two assays. These results confirm that Australian cats have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii is seen amongst cattery-confined breeding cats. Cat breeders and veterinary personnel involved in feline reproductive procedures may be at higher risk of exposure to C. burnetii.

  9. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  10. Corticocortical connections of cat primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schwark, H D; Esteky, H; Jones, E G

    1992-01-01

    The organization of corticocortical connections in the representation of the forepaw in cat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) was studied following injections of various tracers into different cortical cytoarchitectonic areas. Small injections of horseradish peroxidase, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated HRP, Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin, or fast blue were placed into the representation of the forepaw in areas 3b, 1, or 2. The positions of labeled neurons in SI and the surrounding cortical areas were plotted on flattened surface reconstructions to determine the organization of the corticocortical connections within SI. A strong, reciprocal projection linked the two forepaw representations which have been described in area 3b and the part of area 2 which lies in the anterior bank of the lateral ansate sulcus (see Iwamura and Tanaka 1978a, b). Dense projections also linked these areas with SII, as previously reported (Burton and Kopf 1984a). Additional projections to area 3b arose primarily from areas 3a and 1. Projections to area 2 were more widespread than those to area 3b, and arose from all other areas of SI as well as from areas 4 and 5a. All injections into SI tended to label groups of neurons which lay in mediolateral strips. Corticocortical projection neurons which were most heavily labeled by SI injections were pyramidal cells in layer III. Additional projections from area 2 to 3b, area 5a to 2, and SII to areas 2 and 3b arose from layer VI as well. Although neurons of layers III and VI were always the most densely labeled, large injections into SI labeled neurons in layers II and V as well. PMID:1282890

  11. Reirradiation of tumors in cats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Theon, A.P.

    1988-08-15

    Fifty-one cats and dogs with tumor recurrence after irradiation were treated with a second course of radiotherapy, using either teletherapy or brachytherapy. Eighty-six percent of the tumors had partial or complete response at 2 months after reirradiation. Tumor response was significantly (P = 0.041) affected when the interval between the 2 courses of irradiation was greater than 5 months. The estimated local tumor control rate was 38% at 1 year after reirradiation. Of all the factors examined, complete response at 2 months, reirradiation field size less than or equal to 10 cm2, and reirradiation dose greater than 40 gray emerged as predictors of local tumor control. The estimated overall survival rate was 47% at 2 years. Tumor location had a significant (P = 0.001) influence on overall survival; animals with cutaneous tumors had the longest survival times, and those with oral tumors had the shortest survival times. The other significant (P = 0.001) factor affecting overall survival time was the field size of the reirradiated site. Estimated survival time after reirradiation was 41% at 1 year. Favorable prognostic indicators were complete response at 2 months and location of tumor; animals with skin tumors had a favorable prognosis. The acute effects of reirradiation on normal tissues were acceptable, but 12% of the animals had severe delayed complications. Significant risk of complications after reirradiation was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.015) and reirradiated field size greater than 30 cm2 (P = 0.056). When the interval between irradiations was greater than 5 months, the risk of complications was significantly (P = 0.022) lower.

  12. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    PubMed

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  13. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1-3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37°C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p>0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  14. Annotated features of domestic cat – Felis catus genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. Feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. A rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotation a highly informative resource that facilitates multifaceted research endeavors. Findings Here we report a preliminary annotation of the whole genome sequence of Cinnamon, a domestic cat living in Columbia (MO, USA), bisulfite sequencing of Boris, a male cat from St. Petersburg (Russia), and light 30× sequencing of Sylvester, a European wildcat progenitor of cat domestication. The annotation includes 21,865 protein-coding genes identified by a comparative approach, 217 loci of endogenous retrovirus-like elements, repetitive elements which comprise about 55.7% of the whole genome, 99,494 new SNVs, 8,355 new indels, 743,326 evolutionary constrained elements, and 3,182 microRNA homologues. The methylation sites study shows that 10.5% of cat genome cytosines are methylated. An assisted assembly of a European wildcat, Felis silvestris silvestris, was performed; variants between F. silvestris and F. catus genomes were derived and compared to F. catus. Conclusions The presented genome annotation extends beyond earlier ones by closing gaps of sequence that were unavoidable with previous low-coverage shotgun genome sequencing. The assembly and its annotation offer an important resource for connecting the rich veterinary and natural history of cats to genome discovery. PMID:25143822

  15. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  16. Secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Castro, Verônica S P; Tonin, Alexandre A; Brendler, Sabrina; Costa, Marcio M; Jaques, Jeandre A; Bertoletti, Bianca; Zanette, Régis A; Raiser, Alceu G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis causes enteric infections in humans and animals worldwide. Inefficiency of metronidazole is commonly reported in the veterinary clinic routine in the treatment of giardiasis in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of secnidazole in the control of infection caused by G. duodenalis in naturally infected cats. For this purpose two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment seven cats were infected with G. duodenalis and treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). In the second experiment a total of 16 cats were used, 11 naturally infected with G. duodenalis and five negative for the parasite. Animals were divided into three groups: group A (n=5) was composed by non-infected animals (negative control), group B (n=5) consisted of infected but untreated animals and group C (n=6) was composed by cats treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. The first experiment reached 100% of efficacy because no cysts were found in the feces after treatment. However, doubts about intoxication and interference with hematological and biochemical parameters came to light. No side effects were observed, and the biochemical and hematological parameters of treated animals remained within physiological range, except for one feline which had elevation of liver enzymes. Based on these results, the utilization of secnidazole could be suggested for the treatment of giardiasis in cats. The main advantage of this treatment is that only a single dose is required, which is interesting in animals hard to handle like cats. PMID:21763779

  17. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T J; Sirota, M G; Guttentag, A I; Ogorodnikov, D A; Shah, N A; Beloozerova, I N

    2014-09-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required for successful walking, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5-m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body's speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats' gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62-84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior "gaze stepping". Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75-80cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7-1.2s and 1.1-1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5-21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface.

  18. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T J; Sirota, M G; Guttentag, A I; Ogorodnikov, D A; Shah, N A; Beloozerova, I N

    2014-09-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required for successful walking, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5-m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body's speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats' gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62-84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior "gaze stepping". Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75-80cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7-1.2s and 1.1-1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5-21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  19. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    PubMed

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.

  20. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    PubMed

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. PMID:26379227

  1. Harvesting implementation for the GI-cat distributed catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Mazzetti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat framework implements a distributed catalog service supporting different international standards and interoperability arrangements in use by the geoscientific community. The distribution functionality in conjunction with the mediation functionality allows to seamlessly query remote heterogeneous data sources, including OGC Web Services - e.e. OGC CSW, WCS, WFS and WMS, community standards such as UNIDATA THREDDS/OPeNDAP, SeaDataNet CDI (Common Data Index), GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) services and OpenSearch engines. In the GI-cat modular architecture a distributor component carry out the distribution functionality by query delegation to the mediator components (one for each different data source). Each of these mediator components is able to query a specific data source and convert back the results by mapping of the foreign data model to the GI-cat internal one, based on ISO 19139. In order to cope with deployment scenarios in which local data is expected, an harvesting approach has been experimented. The new strategy comes in addition to the consolidated distributed approach, allowing the user to switch between a remote and a local search at will for each federated resource; this extends GI-cat configuration possibilities. The harvesting strategy is designed in GI-cat by the use at the core of a local cache component, implemented as a native XML database and based on eXist. The different heterogeneous sources are queried for the bulk of available data; this data is then injected into the cache component after being converted to the GI-cat data model. The query and conversion steps are performed by the mediator components that were are part of the GI-cat framework. Afterward each new query can be exercised against local data that have been stored in the cache component. Considering both advantages and shortcomings that affect harvesting and query distribution approaches, it comes out that a user driven tuning is required to take the best

  2. Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, M L; Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G

    1984-01-01

    From the foregoing discussion of the nutritional requirements and some of the metabolic anomalies of the cat, it is clear that the cat is adapted to eating a carnivorous diet. It may, however, have less capability than omnivores and herbivores to adapt to wide ranges in dietary composition. For example, the lack of ability to synthesize sufficient vitamin A from carotene, ornithine from glutamic acid, arachidonate from linoleate, and taurine from cysteine results from a complete deletion or severe limitation of the enzyme or pathway that makes each nutrient. Other nutrient requirements, such as the absolute requirement for niacin and the high protein requirement, appear to result from the high activity of one or more enzymes and the fact that these enzymes are not adaptive in the cat. For example, the cat cannot decrease picolinic carboxylase in order to force tryptophan toward the niacin-synthetic pathway (244) nor can it decrease the urea cycle enzymes when dietary protein is decreased in the diet in order to conserve nitrogen (209). Indeed, the cat appears to have less capability to adapt to most changes in dietary composition because it cannot change the quantities of enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways (209). This evolutionary development has resulted in more stringent nutritional requirements for cats than for omnivores such as the rat, dog, and man. What little evidence exists for other carnivore species leads us to suggest that this pattern may well be common among other strict carnivores. The metabolic differences between the cat and omnivores provide the researcher with a useful animal model for studying the biochemical basis of some nutrient requirements. For example, because there is no significant conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver (101, 150, 231), the physiological functions of linoleate can be determined independent of it having a role as a precursor of arachidonate (150). This has not been possible with other species. It is

  3. Cat sensitivity: 7-yr audit in children attending a paediatric allergy clinic in North Italy.

    PubMed

    Pescollderungg, L; Pietrobelli, A; Boner, A L

    2000-11-01

    Sensitivity to cats and exposure to cat allergen is a common cause of asthma exacerbation in children. To date, there is no data on the prevalence of cat sensitivity in children living in North Italy. Therefore, a 7-yr survey was performed in patients attending an allergy clinic for the first time. Skin prick tests (SPT) for perennial allergens and for pollens relevant to the region were performed in 4,957 children attending the outpatient clinic 1992-1998. A questionnaire on present or past cat ownership was presented to all cat-skin prick test positive children. An evaluation of cat ownership on the general population was made by telephone interview on a random sample of 1,268 families living in the same area. With a 3-mm wheal as a positive cut-off 439 (8.85%) children had a positive SPT to cats. Of these 103 (23.4%) had a cat at home and 336 (76.6%) never had a cat in the house. With a greater positive cut-off(a wheal diameter > or =4 mm) 140 (2.8%) showed a positive SPT to cats of these 35 (25%) had a cat at home and 105 (75%) had only an indirect exposure to the pet. Of the telephone interviewed families; 16% stated they had a cat at home. Cat sensitivity is less prevalent in Italy, in this hospital based population, compared with other European countries and this is in agreement with a lower rate of cat ownership. Cat sensitivity was three times more frequent in children who never had a cat at home, than in children living with cats, when the selected positive cut-off was either a wheal diameter of 3 mm or > or =4 mm. Thus in a population with a low prevalence of cat ownership public exposure seems to be more important than domestic exposure for the development of sensitivity.

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in a Siamese/short-haired European cat.

    PubMed

    Macrì, B; Marino, F; Mazzullo, G; Trusso, A; De Maria, R; Amedeo, S; Divari, S; Castagnaro, M

    2002-10-01

    A 3-year-old Siamese/short-haired European cat was referred for clinical disease characterized by dwarfism, facial dysmorphia, paralysis, small and curled ears, corneal clouding and large areas of alopecia. X-ray examination showed multiple bone dysplasia. On the basis of clinical features a form of mucopolysaccharidosis was suspected. The cat, killed at the owner's request, presented several severe skeletal deformities such as long caudal limbs, enlarged thorax with sunken breastbone, vertebral ankylosis in many spinal segments and visceral involvement. Histologically, the cat showed diffuse vacuolization and enlargement of cells in cartilage, bone and visceral organs. Ultrastructurally, membrane-bound vacuoles were filled with fibrillar and fluffy-material or concentrically whorled lamellae. Arylsulphatase B activity was 3.24 nm/mg/h in the affected cat and 30.6 in a normal age-matched control (NC). The L-iduronidase activity was slightly increased. Quantitation of total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) revealed a 4.5-fold increase in the affected cat as compared with NC, while electrophoretic run of specific GAGs [chondroitin sulphate (CA); hyaluronan (HA); heparan sulphate (HS); dermatan sulphate (DS); keratan sulphate (KS)] performed on a cellulose acetate sheet, showed a striking increase in the DS band. On densitometric analysis of the electrophoretic run stained with Alcian Blue 8GX, the absorption of DS was eight-fold increased as compared with NC. The clinical and morphological features, and the biochemical findings, were consistent with the diagnosis of feline mucopolysaccharidosis VI.

  5. Axillary temperature measurement: a less stressful alternative for hospitalised cats?

    PubMed

    Girod, M; Vandenheede, M; Farnir, F; Gommeren, K

    2016-02-20

    Rectal temperature measurement (RTM) can promote stress and defensive behaviour in hospitalised cats. The aim of this study was to assess if axillary temperature measurement (ATM) could be a reliable and less stressful alternative for these animals. In this prospective study, paired rectal and axillary temperatures were measured in 42 cats, either by a veterinarian or a student. To assess the impact of these procedures on the cat's stress state, their heart rate was checked and a cat stress score (CSS) was defined and graded from 1 (relaxed) to 5 (terrified). A moderate correlation was found between RTM and ATM (r=0.52; P<0.0001). RTM was on average 0.9 °C (1.6 °F) higher than ATM (P<0.0001), although a wide variation was found in the difference between these two measurements (-2.1 °C to 3.6 °C (-3.8 °F to 6.5 °F)). ATM failed to identify hypothermia in 25 per cent of the cases and hyperthermia in 19 per cent of the cases but may be considered less stressful than RTM. Indeed, RTM induced a mildly greater increase in heart rate (+6 bpm; P=0.01) and in CSS (+0.2; P=0.001) than ATM. The results were not affected by operator type. In conclusion, RTM should remain the standard method to obtain accurate temperatures in cats.

  6. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  7. Ultrasonographic characteristics of lipiduria in clinically normal cats.

    PubMed

    Sislak, Meg D; Spaulding, Kathy A; Zoran, Debra L; Bauer, John E; Thompson, James A

    2014-01-01

    Echoes are frequently seen in the urinary bladder of cats during abdominal ultrasound. These have been attributed to hematuria, pyuria, crystalluria, and lipid. However, sonographic findings have not been previously correlated with urinalysis. We prospectively evaluated 40 clinically normal cats via ultrasound, serum chemistry, and urinalysis. Thin layer chromatography was performed on the urine to determine the amount (mg) of lipid subfractions including diacylglycerol, triglyceride, phospholipid, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and cholesterol ester. Ninety percent (36/40) of the cats in our population had sonographic echoes suspended in the urinary bladder, with most having a subjective score of mild echoes (n = 20). None of the sonographic echoes were gravity dependent or caused distal acoustic shadowing, reverberation, or twinkle artifact. Of the cats with sonographic echoes in the urine, 66% (24/36) had no significant findings on urinalysis other than the presence of lipid. The total amount of subjective sonographic echoes was not significantly related to the total amount of fat measured on thin layer chromatography or the number of lipid droplets seen on urinalysis. An increased amount of urine diacylglycerol was significantly associated with clumping of echoes (P = 0.02) and the amount of lipid droplets seen on urinalysis (P = 0.04). An association between increased amounts of urine diacylglycerol and the amount of echoes seen on ultrasound approached significance (P = 0.05). Findings from this study support previously published theories that sonographic echoes within the urinary bladder of clinically normal cats may be due to urine lipid. PMID:24102935

  8. Laser Acupuncture for Postoperative Pain Management in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Virgínia I.; Cassu, Renata N.; Nascimento, Felipe F.; Tavares, Rafaela C. P.; Crociolli, Giulliane C.; Guilhen, Rafael C.; Nicácio, Gabriel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg kg−1), midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1), and tramadol (2 mg kg−1). Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. Anaesthesia was induced using intravenous propofol (4 mg kg−1) and maintained with isoflurane. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated by a blinded assessor for 24 h following extubation using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analogue Scale and Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale. Rescue analgesia was provided with IM tramadol (2 mg kg−1), and the pain scores were reassessed 30 min after the rescue intervention. If the analgesia remained insufficient, meloxicam (0.2 mg kg−1 IM, single dose) was administered. Data were analyzed using t-tests, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Friedman test (P < 0.05). The pain scores did not differ between groups. However, postoperative supplemental analgesia was required by significantly more cats in the Control (5/10) compared with the Laser group (1/10) (P = 0.038). Laser acupuncture reduced postoperative analgesic requirements in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PMID:26170879

  9. Characterization of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis in 3 cats.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, M D; Armien, A G; Gilliam, D H; Johnson, G S; Zeng, R; Wünschmann, A; Kovi, R C; Katz, M L

    2014-07-01

    Three young domestic shorthair cats were presented for necropsy with similar histories of slowly progressive visual dysfunction and neurologic deficits. Macroscopic examination of each cat revealed cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, dilated lateral ventricles, and slight brown discoloration of the gray matter. Histologically, there was bilateral loss of neurons within the limbic, motor, somatosensory, visual, and, to a lesser extent, vestibular systems with extensive astrogliosis in the affected regions of all 3 cases. Many remaining neurons and glial cells throughout the entire central nervous system were distended by pale yellow to eosinophilic, autofluorescent cytoplasmic inclusions with ultrastructural appearances typical of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs). Differences in clinical presentation and neurological lesions suggest that the 3 cats may have had different variants of NCL. Molecular genetic characterization in the 1 cat from which DNA was available did not reveal any plausible disease-causing mutations of the CLN1 (PPT1), CLN3, CLN5, CLN8, and CLN10 (CTSD) genes. Further investigations will be required to identify the mutations responsible for NCLs in cats. PMID:24026940

  10. Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

  11. MicroRNA expression profiling of cat and dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yabuki, Akira; Horino, Taro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. Here, we present the first analysis of miRNA expression in the kidneys of healthy cats and dogs. Kidneys were divided into renal cortex (CO) and medulla (MD), and RNA sequence analysis was performed using the mouse genome as a reference. A total of 277, 276, 295, and 297 miRNAs were detected in cat CO, cat MD, dog CO, and dog MD, respectively. By comparing the expression ratio of CO to MD, we identified highly expressed miRNAs in each tissue as follows: 41 miRNAs including miR-192-5p in cat CO; 45 miRNAs including miR-323-3p in dog CO; 78 miRNAs including miR-20a-5p in cat MD; and 11 miRNAs including miR-132-5p in dog MD. Further, the target mRNAs of these miRNAs were identified. These data provide veterinary medicine critical information regarding renal miRNA expression.

  12. Evolution of Skull and Mandible Shape in Cats (Carnivora: Felidae)

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-01-01

    The felid family consists of two major subgroups, the sabretoothed and the feline cats, to which all extant species belong, and are the most anatomically derived of all carnivores for predation on large prey with a precision killing bite. There has been much controversy and uncertainty about why the skulls and mandibles of sabretoothed and feline cats evolved to become so anatomically divergent, but previous models have focused on single characters and no unifying hypothesis of evolutionary shape changes has been formulated. Here I show that the shape of the skull and mandible in derived sabrecats occupy entirely different positions within overall morphospace from feline cats, and that the evolution of skull and mandible shape has followed very different paths in the two subgroups. When normalised for body-size differences, evolution of bite forces differ markedly in the two groups, and are much lower in derived sabrecats, and they show a significant relationship with size and cranial shape, whereas no such relationship is present in feline cats. Evolution of skull and mandible shape in modern cats has been governed by the need for uniform powerful biting irrespective of body size, whereas in sabrecats, shape evolution was governed by selective pressures for efficient predation with hypertrophied upper canines at high gape angles, and bite forces were secondary and became progressively weaker during sabrecat evolution. The current study emphasises combinations of new techniques for morphological shape analysis and biomechanical studies to formulate evolutionary hypotheses for difficult groups. PMID:18665225

  13. Naloxone suppresses food/water consumption in the deprived cat.

    PubMed

    Foster, J A; Morrison, M; Dean, S J; Hill, M; Frenk, H

    1981-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of the opiate antagonist, naloxone hydrochloride, resulted in decreased food and water consumption in drug-naive cats. In a cross-over Latin Square design, food consumed by six cats in a one hour period following 23 hours of deprivation, was decreased significantly below control (p less than 0.05) in linear relation to increasing dose (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) of naloxone. Non-linear and time/order effects were not significant. Water consumption was decreased below control in a linear relation to increasing dose (1 and 10 mg/kg) for 5 of 6 cats at the 0.05 significance level. Non-linear and time/order effects on water consumption were not statistically significant for the same 5 cats. These results, and behavioral signs (i.e., vomiting, persistant vocalization, heavy salivation, mydriasis, moderate catatonia, and hissing) occasionally exhibited by four of the six cats in a 1-hr period following injection of the high dose, suggest a malaise-effect of naloxone. PMID:7232467

  14. The biological significance of PGO spikes in the sleeping cat.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A R; Bowker, R M

    1975-01-01

    Large-amplitude waves recorded in the pontine tegmentum, lateral geniculate body and visual cortex herald the onset and continue throughout paradoxical sleep. The role of these ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, or spikes, has puzzled researchers since their discovery. This paper reports experiments in cats which have demonstrated that PGO spikes are essentially an epiphenomenon, an electrical sign of the activation of a "startle network" by the neural turmoil of paradoxical sleep. Internal stimulation provided by the bursts of neural activity which characterize paradoxical sleep produces PGO spikes in the lateral geniculate body which are identical in appearance to those elicited during synchronized and paradoxical sleep by 1.55 Hz tone bursts or taps on the cage in normal cats. Cerebellar lesions result in behavioral responses to the intrinsic startles during synchronized sleep in the form of extensor or flexor jerks of the forelimbs. The jerks occur in conjunction with each PGO spike. Identical movements can be induced in the same cats in wakefulness by such startling stimuli as dropping the cat or hissing with an aerosol can. Lesions involving the auditory-visual area permit cats to be stimulated by sound in synchronized sleep without arousal, but anterior lobe lesions produce an easily aroused animal. We postulate that the phenomena observed following cerebellar lesions are the result of alteration in the control of serotonergic neurons of the pontine raphe nuclei. PMID:174395

  15. FASconCAT: Convenient handling of data matrices.

    PubMed

    Kück, Patrick; Meusemann, Karen

    2010-09-01

    FASconCAT is a user-friendly software that concatenates rapidly different kinds of sequence data into one supermatrix file. Output files are either in FASTA, PHYLIP or NEXUS format and are directly loadable in phylogenetic programs like PAUP *, RAxML or MrBayes. FASconCAT can handle FASTA, PHYLIP and CLUSTAL formatted input files in one single run. It provides useful information about each input file and the concatenated supermatrix. For example, the program provides the range information of each concatenated gene (partition) and delivers a check list of all concatenated sequences (taxa). Information about the base composition of single input files and the resulting supermatrix is supplied for nucleotide data. For given structure strings (e.g. secondary structures) it displays single unpaired (loop) and paired (stem) positions after the concatenation process. Optionally, FASconCAT generates NEXUS files of concatenated sequences, either with MrBayes commands directly executable in PAUP * and MrBayes, or without any specific commands. If favoured, FASconCAT dispenses output files in PHYLIP format with relaxed (unlimited signs) or restricted taxon names (up to ten signs) while sequences are printed in non-interleaved format. FASconCAT is implemented in Perl and freely available from http://software.zfmk.de. It runs on UNIX and MS Windows operating systems. PMID:20416383

  16. FASconCAT: Convenient handling of data matrices.

    PubMed

    Kück, Patrick; Meusemann, Karen

    2010-09-01

    FASconCAT is a user-friendly software that concatenates rapidly different kinds of sequence data into one supermatrix file. Output files are either in FASTA, PHYLIP or NEXUS format and are directly loadable in phylogenetic programs like PAUP *, RAxML or MrBayes. FASconCAT can handle FASTA, PHYLIP and CLUSTAL formatted input files in one single run. It provides useful information about each input file and the concatenated supermatrix. For example, the program provides the range information of each concatenated gene (partition) and delivers a check list of all concatenated sequences (taxa). Information about the base composition of single input files and the resulting supermatrix is supplied for nucleotide data. For given structure strings (e.g. secondary structures) it displays single unpaired (loop) and paired (stem) positions after the concatenation process. Optionally, FASconCAT generates NEXUS files of concatenated sequences, either with MrBayes commands directly executable in PAUP * and MrBayes, or without any specific commands. If favoured, FASconCAT dispenses output files in PHYLIP format with relaxed (unlimited signs) or restricted taxon names (up to ten signs) while sequences are printed in non-interleaved format. FASconCAT is implemented in Perl and freely available from http://software.zfmk.de. It runs on UNIX and MS Windows operating systems.

  17. Efficacy of Broadline against Capillaria aerophila lungworm infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    Capillaria aerophila is a globally distributed parasite of the respiratory system of carnivores and can be considered the second most common lungworm after Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in domestic cats in the northern hemisphere. To evaluate the efficacy of Broadline (Merial), a combination of fipronil 8.3% w/v, (S)-methoprene 10% w/v, eprinomectin 0.4% w/v and praziquantel 8.3% w/v against C. aerophila, a controlled study with 20 naturally infected cats was conducted. Following blocking by body weight, cats were allocated randomly to two groups of ten animals each: control (untreated) or treated once with Broadline according to the label instructions. For evaluation of efficacy, faeces were examined for capillarid egg shedding prior to and weekly for 3 weeks after treatment, when the cats were necropsied for C. aerophila recovery. Following single topical administration of Broadline, faecal capillarid egg counts were significantly reduced by 93.5 to 99.1% (p < 0.01) compared to the controls. Cats treated harboured significantly fewer C. aerophila lungworms compared to the untreated controls (efficacy 82.4%, p = 0.016). Results of this study demonstrate that Capillaria lungworm burdens can be markedly reduced and that faecal egg shedding can be substantially lowered or eliminated following a single treatment with Broadline. PMID:25681144

  18. A functional microcircuit for cat visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, R J; Martin, K A

    1991-01-01

    1. We have studied in vivo the intracellular responses of neurones in cat visual cortex to electrical pulse stimulation of the cortical afferents and have developed a microcircuit that simulates much of the experimental data. 2. Inhibition and excitation are not separable events, because individual neurones are embedded in microcircuits that contribute strong population effects. Synchronous electrical activation of the cortex inevitably set in motion a sequence of excitation and inhibition in every neurone we recorded. The temporal form of this response depends on the cortical layer in which the neurone is located. Superficial layer (layers 2+3) pyramidal neurones show a more marked polysynaptic excitatory phase than the pyramids of the deep layers (layers 5+6). 3. Excitatory effects on pyramidal neurones, particularly the superficial layer pyramids, are in general not due to monosynaptic input from thalamus, but polysynaptic input from cortical pyramids. Since the thalamic input is transient it does not provide the major, sustained excitation arriving at any cortical neurone. Instead the intracortical excitatory connections provide the major component of the excitation. 4. The polysynaptic excitatory response would be sustained well after the stimulus, were it not for the suppressive effect of intracortical inhibition induced by the pulse stimulation. 5. Intracellular recording combined with ionophoresis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists and antagonists showed that intracortical inhibition is mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. The GABAA component occurs in the early phase of the impulse response. It is reflected in the strong hyperpolarization that follows the excitatory response and lasts about 50 ms. The GABAB component occurs in the late phase of the response, and is reflected in a sustained hyperpolarization that lasts some 200-300 ms. Both components are seen in all cortical pyramidal neurones. However, the GABAA component appears more powerful

  19. Fenvalerate/N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet) toxicosis in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dorman, D C; Buck, W B; Trammel, H L; Jones, R D; Beasley, V R

    1990-01-01

    Toxicosis attributable to fenvalerate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet) exposure was suspected in 2 cats. Clinical signs of toxicosis developed within 4 to 6 hours of dermal application of the pesticide. Clinical signs of toxicosis seen in both cats included hypersalivation, ataxia, and depression. In addition, seizures were seen in 1 cat. Both cats died. Analysis of skin, kidney/urine, liver, and brain tissues confirmed the presence of fenvalerate and Deet. The pyrethroid fenvalerate and the insect repellent Deet are used for the control of fleas and ticks on cats. Suspected fenvalerate/Deet toxicosis in cats is associated with tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, vomiting, depression, and seizures. PMID:2295539

  20. The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Lewis, J W

    2012-06-01

    Stray cats collected from Georgetown, Penang from 2008 to 2010 were screened for ectoparasites via fine-tooth combing. Two cats from a total 102 examined were infested with the dog louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Both cats, a juvenile male and female were found in close contact with each other prior to capture. The number of lice ranged from 5 and 14 in the male and female cat respectively. Other ectoparasites recovered included the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, one louse species Felicola subrostratus, one tick species Haemaphysalis bispinosa and one mite species of Listrophoridae. The present study reports for the first time the finding of H. spiniger on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  1. The legal status of cats in New Zealand: a perspective on the welfare of companion, stray, and feral domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Dye, Nicholson G; Keown, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Pinpointing and safeguarding the welfare status of domestic cats is problematic, especially in New Zealand where cats are introduced predators with significant impact on indigenous fauna. Usually the identification of welfare status depends on conservational, legal, and public attitudes that are often contrasting. Cats may rapidly transgress definitions placed on them, confounding attempts to categorize them. In 1 generation, cats can move from a human-dependent state ("stray" or "companion") to wild ("feral"). Often this categorization uses arbitrary behavioral and or situational parameters; consequent treatment and welfare protection for these cats are similarly affected. Terminology used to describe cats is not equitable across research. However, the New Zealand Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007 seeks to create a new definition of the terms companion, stray, and feral. It distinguishes between cats who live within and without human social constructs. This legislation mandates that cats in human environments or indirectly dependent on humans cannot be classified as feral. Such definitions may prove vital when safeguarding the welfare of free-living domestic cats and cat colonies.

  2. Big cat, small cat: reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae.

    PubMed

    Cuff, A R; Randau, M; Head, J; Hutchinson, J R; Pierce, S E; Goswami, A

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of body mass is a fundamental topic in evolutionary biology, because it is closely linked to manifold life history and ecological traits and is readily estimable for many extinct taxa. In this study, we examine patterns of body mass evolution in Felidae (Placentalia, Carnivora) to assess the effects of phylogeny, mode of evolution, and the relationship between body mass and prey choice in this charismatic mammalian clade. Our data set includes 39 extant and 26 extinct taxa, with published body mass data supplemented by estimates based on condylobasal length. These data were run through 'SURFACE' and 'bayou' to test for patterns of body mass evolution and convergence between taxa. Body masses of felids are significantly different among prey choice groupings (small, mixed and large). We find that body mass evolution in cats is strongly influenced by phylogeny, but different patterns emerged depending on inclusion of extinct taxa and assumptions about branch lengths. A single Ornstein-Uhlenbeck optimum best explains the distribution of body masses when first-occurrence data were used for the fossil taxa. However, when mean occurrence dates or last known occurrence dates were used, two selective optima for felid body mass were recovered in most analyses: a small optimum around 5 kg and a large one around 100 kg. Across living and extinct cats, we infer repeated evolutionary convergences towards both of these optima, but, likely due to biased extinction of large taxa, our results shift to supporting a Brownian motion model when only extant taxa are included in analyses.

  3. Vaccination of cats against emerging and reemerging zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Olsen, C W

    1999-01-01

    Many of the emerging infectious agents that threaten the human population are either directly zoonotic or involve animals, rather than humans, as their primary reservoir in nature. Vaccination of animals may be an important consideration for control of some of these diseases, and this review has specifically focused on the concept of vaccinating cats in the prevention of infection with T. gondii, B. henselae, and H. pylori. If we return to the considerations that were presented in Table III, T. gondii is really the only one of these three agents for which each of these "criteria" for vaccination is fulfilled at the present time. However, cats clearly play an important role in the epidemiology of infection with B. henselae and this is an organism for which we probably will and should see a vaccine for widespread and routine use in cats. PMID:9890026

  4. Bone marrow hypoplasia in a cat treated with griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Rottman, J B; English, R V; Breitschwerdt, E B; Duncan, D E

    1991-02-01

    Three weeks after initiation of griseofulvin treatment for dermatophytosis (40 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h), an 8-yr-old domestic shorthair cat developed depression, vomiting, and pyrexia. Abnormalities found during physical examination included bilateral mydriasis, visual impairment, grade-II/V systolic murmur and multiple areas of alopecia. The cat was pancytopenic; serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia, and urinalysis revealed proteinuria, glycosuria, and bilirubinuria. Examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed profound hypoplasia of all precursors. Griseofulvin toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of the temporal relationship of drug administration with onset of clinical, hematologic, and biochemical abnormalities and failure to identify an infective or neoplastic cause for the bone marrow hypoplasia. The condition was refractory to treatment and the cat was euthanatized. Pathologic changes in the bone marrow were consistent with severe hypoplasia of all bone marrow precursors.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of six plasma proteins in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Juneja, R K; Niini, T; Larsson, H E; Sandberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Phenotypes of cat plasma apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4), antithrombin 3 (AT3), alpha 1B-glycoprotein (A1BG), transferrin (TF), vitamin D-binding protein (GC), and an unidentified pretransferrin (PTF) were determined by using simple methods of horizontal, nondenaturing gel electrophoresis followed by protein staining. The cat proteins were identified by immunoblotting using antisera for human plasma proteins. Three alleles were reported for each of TF and PTF, and two alleles were reported for each of GC, APOA4, AT3, and A1BG. The mongrels and Persians showed a high degree of polymorphism at most of the loci whereas the Birmans exhibited much less variation. Genetic evidence indicating the occurrence of a monomeric and a dimeric form of APOA4 in cat plasma was reported. PMID:2013693

  6. The falling cat as a port-controlled Hamiltonian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Toshihiro; Matsunaka, Hiroki

    2012-02-01

    In this article, the falling cat is modeled as two jointed axial symmetric cylinders with arbitrary twist under the constraint of the vanishing total angular momentum. As a control system with the constraint taken into account, this model is formulated as a port-controlled Hamiltonian system defined on the cotangent bundle of the shape space for the jointed cylinders. A control is then designed as a function on the cotangent bundle, according to a standard procedure. Thus, the equations of motion are determined on the cotangent bundle together with the control. The whole motion as a vibrational motion of the falling cat is obtained after integrating the constraint equation of the vanishing total angular momentum. An example of the falling cat is given in which the model turns a somersault to approach a target state in equilibrium with an expected rotation after finishing a vibrational motion.

  7. [An update on viral diseases of the dog and cat].

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; Egberink, H F

    2009-04-15

    In this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. In the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. A new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. Infection with West Nile virus is associated with progressive neurological disease and subclinical infections in dogs. Infection with equine influenza A (H3N8) or a highly related influenza virus can cause severe respiratory disease and mortality in greyhounds and other dogs. Infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) can cause disease and mortality in cats and is mostly subclinical in dogs. A number of outbreaks of highly virulent strains of the calicivirus in cats have been described.

  8. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  9. An immunocytochemical mapping of somatostatin in the cat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Martín, F; Coveñas, R; Narváez, J A; Tramu, G

    2003-10-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the localization of somatostatin-28 (1-12)-like immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies in the auditory cortex of the cat (anterior, primary, secondary, temporal, ventral, ventroposterior, posterior and dorsoposterior auditory fields) was studied. In general, the distribution of SOM-ir structures is widespread in the auditory cortex of the feline. A high density of immunoreactive fibers as well as a low density of cell bodies containing somatostatin were observed in all the layers of the eight above-mentioned auditory fields. These data indicate that somatostatin-28 (1-12) could act as a neurotransmitter and/or a neuromodulator in the auditory cortex of the cat. The origin of the SOM-ir fibers in the auditory cortex of the cat, as well as the issue of whether the cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) are local or projecting neurons is discussed.

  10. "Photonic" Cat States from Strongly Interacting Matter Waves.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe R; Kang, Myung-Kyun

    2015-12-31

    We consider ultracold quantum gases of scalar bosons residing in a coupling strength-density regime in which they constitute a twofold fragmented condensate trapped in a single well. It is shown that the corresponding quantum states are, in the appropriate Fock space basis, identical to the photon cat states familiar in quantum optics, which correspond to superpositions of coherent states of the light field with a phase difference of π. In marked distinction to photon cat states, however, the very existence of matter-wave cat states crucially depends on the many-body correlations of the constituent bosons. We consequently establish that the quadratures of the effective "photons," expressing the highly nonclassical nature of the macroscopic matter-wave superposition state, can be experimentally accessed by measuring the density-density correlations of the interacting quantum gas. PMID:26764977

  11. The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the behaviour of cats

    PubMed Central

    Hoyland, Valerie J.; Shillito, Elizabeth E.; Vogt, Marthe

    1970-01-01

    1. Male and female kittens and adult cats were given p-chlorophenylalanine orally. 2. After treatment, some of the male cats showed mounting behaviour and the kittens and non-oestrous females showed an increase in treading and rubbing which was similar to one aspect of pro-oestrus behaviour. 3. The treated animals also appeared to suffer from skin irritation and showed increased restlessness which accompanied sleep deprivation. 4. Injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan stopped abnormal sexual activity and restored normal sleep for about 5 hours. 5. It is concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing neurones inhibit sexual behaviour in cats and that this role can be seen in male and, to some extent, also in female animals. PMID:5312896

  12. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery.

  13. Surgical removal of heartworms from a cat with caval syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glaus, T M; Jacobs, G J; Rawlings, C A; Watson, E D; Calvert, C A

    1995-03-01

    Caval syndrome was diagnosed in a 4-year-old male domestic shorthair cat with severe dyspnea attributable to chylothorax. The diagnosis of heartworm infection was made on the basis of the ultrasonographic detection of a large number of adult heartworms in the right side of the heart and positive results for modified Knott's and heartworm antigen tests. Heartworms were surgically removed through an incision in the jugular vein, using a string-type horsehair brush and an alligator forceps. All clinical signs resolved after the surgery. Although treatment with agents that would kill the adult heartworms was considered, surgical treatment was used on the cat reported here. Surgical treatment may be the method of choice for use in cats with severe or persistent clinical signs attributable to infections with large numbers of heartworms.

  14. Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, K; Acke, E; Jones, B R

    2011-05-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare and underdiagnosed congenital endocrine disorder in dogs and cats and the true incidence is unknown. The disorder may cause a range of clinical signs depending on the primary defect, which affect production of thyroid hormones; some cases present when adult. Hallmark clinical signs of congenital hypothyroidism are mental impairment and skeletal developmental abnormalities, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism; goitre may or may not be present. Documented causes of congenital hypothyroidism in dogs include deficiency of, or unresponsiveness to, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency. In cats, TSH unresponsiveness, thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency have been confirmed. Adequate replacement therapy results in a successful outcome in the majority of cases, especially when started early in life, as permanent developmental abnormalities can be prevented. This review describes reported cases in dogs and cats, diagnostic investigation, and recommendations for treatment. PMID:21541884

  15. "Photonic" Cat States from Strongly Interacting Matter Waves.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe R; Kang, Myung-Kyun

    2015-12-31

    We consider ultracold quantum gases of scalar bosons residing in a coupling strength-density regime in which they constitute a twofold fragmented condensate trapped in a single well. It is shown that the corresponding quantum states are, in the appropriate Fock space basis, identical to the photon cat states familiar in quantum optics, which correspond to superpositions of coherent states of the light field with a phase difference of π. In marked distinction to photon cat states, however, the very existence of matter-wave cat states crucially depends on the many-body correlations of the constituent bosons. We consequently establish that the quadratures of the effective "photons," expressing the highly nonclassical nature of the macroscopic matter-wave superposition state, can be experimentally accessed by measuring the density-density correlations of the interacting quantum gas.

  16. RadCat 3.0 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinojosa, Daniel; Penisten, Janelle J.; Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2009-05-01

    RADTRAN is an internationally accepted program and code for calculating the risks of transporting radioactive materials. The first versions of the program, RADTRAN I and II, were developed for NUREG-0170 (USNRC, 1977), the first environmental statement on transportation of radioactive materials. RADTRAN and its associated software have undergone a number of improvements and advances consistent with improvements in both available data and computer technology. The version of RADTRAN currently bundled with RadCat is RADTRAN 6.0. This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 3.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code. RadCat 3.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0 which includes an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.0.

  17. Suppression of phase synchronisation in network based on cat's brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameu, Ewandson L.; Borges, Fernando S.; Borges, Rafael R.; Iarosz, Kelly C.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the effects of perturbations on the cat's cerebral cortex. According to the literature, this cortex structure can be described by a clustered network. This way, we construct a clustered network with the same number of areas as in the cat matrix, where each area is described as a sub-network with a small-world property. We focus on the suppression of neuronal phase synchronisation considering different kinds of perturbations. Among the various controlling interventions, we choose three methods: delayed feedback control, external time-periodic driving, and activation of selected neurons. We simulate these interventions to provide a procedure to suppress undesired and pathological abnormal rhythms that can be associated with many forms of synchronisation. In our simulations, we have verified that the efficiency of synchronisation suppression by delayed feedback control is higher than external time-periodic driving and activation of selected neurons of the cat's cerebral cortex with the same coupling strengths.

  18. Lymphocytic mural folliculitis and pancreatic carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lobetti, Remo

    2015-06-01

    A 9-year-old castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented with a 6 week history of progressive non-pruritic alopecia, polyphagia and weight loss. A diagnosis of lymphocytic mural folliculitis was made and the cat was treated with a combination of prednisolone and ciclosporin; this produced an improvement in the alopecia but no resolution. Sixteen months after the initial assessment and diagnosis, the cat was re-evaluated for intermittent vomiting and weight loss with normal appetite. On examination the dermatopathy was still evident and a mass involving the duodenum and pancreas was present, which was diagnosed as a pancreatic carcinoma. From this case it would appear that lymphocytic mural folliculitis might be an early dermatological manifestation of pancreatic neoplasia.

  19. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  20. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species. PMID:18487501

  1. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  2. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  3. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  4. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  5. A multivariate model of stakeholder preference for lethal cat management.

    PubMed

    Wald, Dara M; Jacobson, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n=1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management.

  6. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species.

  7. A Multivariate Model of Stakeholder Preference for Lethal Cat Management

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Dara M.; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n = 1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

  8. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in Norway.

    PubMed

    Ueland, K; Lutz, H

    1992-02-01

    Serum samples from 224 Norwegian cats were analyzed for the presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27 common core antigen, and for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Ninety specimens originated from the serum bank at the central referral clinic at the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, which had been collected during the years 1983-1989; 67 sera were submitted from veterinarian practitioners; while 67 sera originated from cats presented for euthanasia. The cats were classified into one "healthy" and one "sick" group. Only 2.2% of sick cats and 1.2% of healthy cats showed FeLV antigenemia, a finding which is lower than which has been reported from many other countries. The prevalence of FIV antibodies was 10.1% in sick cats and 5.9% in healthy cats. Antibodies to FIV was most prevalent in male cats (14.7%) than in female cats (2.1%), and more prevalent among domestic cats (12.0%) compared to pedigree cats (2.4%). Antibodies to FIV in the cats demonstrated increasing prevalence with increasing age. It may be concluded that FeLV causes minor problems in Norwegian cats, while FIV is present in a similar prevalence to what is reported from other countries. PMID:1316024

  9. Chronic Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Two Cats with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Leite-Filho, R V; Fredo, G; Lupion, C G; Spanamberg, A; Carvalho, G; Ferreiro, L; Driemeier, D; Pavarini, S P; Sonne, L

    2016-01-01

    Human patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of fungal infections. Diabetes mellitus has also been implicated as a predisposing factor in the establishment of fungal lung infections in cats. Two diabetic cats of different origins presented with severe acute respiratory conditions that resulted in their death. At necropsy examination there was friable, black material in the main bronchi that obstructed the bronchial lumina. Microscopical examination of the lungs revealed the presence of pneumonia, calcium oxalate crystals and a large quantity of fungal hyphae and conidial heads. Fungal infection was confirmed with Grocott's methenamine silver stain. The results of the mycology analysis were compatible with Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:27466162

  10. [Pericardial effusion in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yvonne; Wess, G; Hartmann, K

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the disease progression of a male cat with pericardial effusion. Clinical signs (dyspnea, lethargy, and weakness) started very acutely. The initial laboratory profile showed only an increase in alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity. Diagnostic imaging revealed pericardial effusion. Effusion analysis showed a Rivalta-positive, modified transudate. Detection of feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages was negative. General condition and laboratory parameters dramatically worsened within seven days. Therefore, the owners decided to euthanize the cat. Even if effusion variables are macroscopically and microscopically suspicious for FIP, a definitive diagnosis of FIP could only be made by histology (including immunhistochemical staining).

  11. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller, S; Francey, T; Hartmann, K; Hugonnard, M; Kohn, B; Nally, J E; Sykes, J

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but appears to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats, however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control of leptospirosis, therefore, is important not only from an animal but also from a public health perspective. The aim of this consensus statement is to raise awareness of leptospirosis and to outline the current knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment measures relevant to canine and feline leptospirosis in Europe. PMID:25754092

  12. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a mixed breed cat family.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Naoyuki; Machida, Noboru; Kawamura, Masamichi; Amasaki, Hajime; Hirose, Hisashi

    2002-07-01

    A spayed female mixed cat (case 1) and its female offspring, the result of a pairing between case 1 and its male sibling, were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A pedigree survey revealed that the prevalence of HCM was at least 12.5% in the family, which was considered to be significantly higher than that in a hospital-based population (approximately 1.6%). Thus, this finding seems to support the suspected occurrence of familial HCM in this group of related cats.

  13. Nutritional Considerations for Dogs and Cats with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Rebecca D; Lenox, Catherine E; Manino, Paul; Vulgamott, James C

    2016-01-01

    The goals of nutritional management of liver disease in the dog and cat are directed at treating the clinical manifestations as opposed to treating the underlying cause. Specifically, the clinician strives to avoid overwhelming the remaining metabolic capacities of the damaged liver while providing sufficient nutrients for regeneration. A brief overview of liver diseases and associated clinical signs encountered in the dog and cat and a review of specific nutrients are discussed as well as amounts and sources of nutrients recommended to meet nutritional goals in the diseased liver.

  14. Nutritional Considerations for Dogs and Cats with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Rebecca D; Lenox, Catherine E; Manino, Paul; Vulgamott, James C

    2016-01-01

    The goals of nutritional management of liver disease in the dog and cat are directed at treating the clinical manifestations as opposed to treating the underlying cause. Specifically, the clinician strives to avoid overwhelming the remaining metabolic capacities of the damaged liver while providing sufficient nutrients for regeneration. A brief overview of liver diseases and associated clinical signs encountered in the dog and cat and a review of specific nutrients are discussed as well as amounts and sources of nutrients recommended to meet nutritional goals in the diseased liver. PMID:26606205

  15. Acyanotic tetralogy of Fallot in a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Jin; Suh, Sang-Il; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-06-01

    An 8-year-old, intact male Persian cat was presented with a prominent heart murmur, exercise intolerance, anorexia, and periodontitis. There was no cyanosis and no laboratory evidence for systemic hypoxemia. Echocardiography showed a dextropositioned aorta, moderate pulmonic stenosis (maximal velocity 4.06 m/s), ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The shunt direction was predominantly left-to-right in systole and minimally right-to-left in diastole. The cat was diagnosed with acyanotic (pink) tetralogy of Fallot and was managed medically with atenolol. PMID:27247457

  16. Kinematic analysis of locomotion in unilateral vestibular neurectomized cats.

    PubMed

    Lacour, M; Sun, J; Harlay, F

    1997-01-01

    The vestibular syndrome following unilateral lesion of the vestibular system and the subsequent behavioral compensation over time have been well documented in many species. However, the locomotor pattern changes and the behavioral strategies used to preserve balance have still not been described. This study was aimed at quantitatively describing posturolocomotor behavior in cats tested before and after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) by the rotating beam test, which provides locomotor tasks of various difficulty. The position of head, neck, and trunk and the trajectory of the forelimbs and hindlimbs were recorded in 5 cats by 3D motion analysis. Step length and frequency walking velocity, and body height were computed. Results showed that normal cats adapted their locomotor patterns to the speed of beam rotation by increasing step length and/or frequency, that is, by increasing walking velocity, but without drastically changing their body posture. By contrast, UVN cats typically lowered their body centers of gravity and modified their locomotor patterns according to the locomotor task. Mean walking velocity was decreased in the low range of beam rotation as a result of smaller step length and lower frequency, and it was increased in the high range by opposite effects on these step cycle parameters. Modifications of the locomotor parameters were a function of the direction of beam rotation, showing significant reduction of step length, frequency, and velocity in the low range of counterclockwise compared to clockwise beam rotation, that is, during rotations toward the lesioned side. Phase plane plots of foot linear velocity with respect to foot linear displacement along the horizontal longitudinal axis displayed two different limit cycles, adapted to easy (low range of beam rotation) and more difficult (high range of rotation) walking conditions, in the normal cat. These dynamic profiles of the trajectories of the limbs during the step cycle were not greatly

  17. Imaging diagnosis: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in a cat.

    PubMed

    Klang, Andrea; Kneissl, Sibylle; Glänzel, Romana; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old female cat was presented for progressive alopecia, gait abnormalities, and stiffness. Radiography demonstrated multiple calcified lesions within the soft tissues of the cervical and thoracic spine, shoulder, and limbs. Postmortem computed tomography provided more detailed information on the distribution, pattern, and extension of lesions. In addition, computed tomography helped guide sample selection for histopathology. The final diagnosis was fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. This is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by fibrosis and heterotopic bone formation in connective tissues. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing this disease in a European cat.

  18. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in cats.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jacquie S

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are 2 potentially life-threatening presentations of feline diabetes mellitus. Presentations range from mildly anorexic cats with diabetic ketoacidosis to comatose cats with diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Such cases are the result of severe insulin deficiency and/or concurrent disease, resulting in nausea and vomiting, electrolyte and water losses, acidosis, and circulatory collapse. The condition requires careful attention to supportive care to correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, treatment of concurrent diseases, and reversal of the effects of insulin deficiency. However, early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and institution of appropriate insulin therapy prevents these complications.

  19. Duranta erecta poisoning in nine dogs and a cat.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, S N A; Eagles, D A; Vacher, N E; Irvine, M A; Ryan, C J; McKenzie, R A

    2006-10-01

    Four incidents of Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop, Sheena's Gold, Geisha Girl) poisoning affecting nine dogs and a cat produced drowsiness, hyperaesthesia and tetanic seizures in all affected animals with evidence of alimentary tract irritation (vomiting, gastric and intestinal haemorrhage, diarrhoea, melaena) in five dogs and the cat. Fruits and leaves were seen to be eaten by affected animals. Therapy was successful in three of the dogs. Repeated diazepam doses and, in some cases, additional pentobarbitone or propofol anaesthesia, were successful in controlling seizures. PMID:17359477

  20. 78 FR 48216 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings... ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings and Provocations,'' imported from abroad for temporary...