Cemeroglu, A P; Böber, E; Dündar, B; Büyükgebiz, A
We report a 14 year-old peripubertal girl who presented at our clinic with the primary complaint of delayed puberty. She was asymptomatic except for vague complaints of fatigue. Physical examination was significant for mucosal hyperpigmentation and lack of secondary sexual characteristics. Laboratory evaluation revealed a morning cortisol concentration of <0.1 microg/dl (normal range [n.r.]: 4.3-22.4 microg/dl) and a simultaneous ACTH concentration of 2 pg/ml (n.r. 25-62 pg/ml); FSH 66.8 IU/l (n.r. for age: 1-12.8 IU/l); LH 41.1 IU/l (n.r. for age: 1-12 IU/l); E2 38 pg/ml (n.r. for age: 7-60 pg/ml). She had a flat cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test. MRI of the pituitary gland failed to reveal a lesion. Plasma renin activity, thyroid function tests, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 concentrations and serum electrolytes were normal. However, her urinary sodium concentration was high. She was diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy including ovarian failure, adrenal failure and autoimmune anterior hypophysitis presenting as isolated ACTH deficiency. We emphasize that autoimmune etiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of delayed puberty and ovarian failure and that the presence of other endocrinopathies should be searched for even in asymptomatic patients.
Babady, N Esther; Awender, Erich; Geller, Robert; Miller, Terry; Scheetz, Gayle; Arguello, Heather; Weisenberg, Scott A; Pritt, Bobbi
We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the nares and ocular orbit of a 14-year-old girl in Illinois. Only one other similar case has been reported in the English-language literature.
Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi
The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.
Dayton, Kristin; Ryan, Matthew F.
A plunging ranula is a soft-tissue mass stemming from a mucous extravasation cyst of the sublingual gland which can herniate through the mylohyoid muscle. We describe a case in which a 14-year-old girl presented with a rapidly expanding mass on the floor of her mouth affecting her ability to swallow and speak and causing tracheal compression. The patient was initially managed conservatively with antibiotics and steroids; however, the mass continued to expand necessitating emergent bedside incision and drainage and subsequent surgical intervention. The pathophysiology and management options for ranulas are also discussed herein. PMID:25548707
Arora, Prerna; Khurana, Nita; Tempe, Anjali
Ovarian mucinous tumors in <15 years old are rare with <50 cases reported till date in the literature. Majority of them are benign or borderline epithelial ovarian tumors with only 12 cases of cystadenocarcinomas reported at a young age. We report a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 14-year-old girl with metastasis to omentum at the time of presentation. Management of such cases is tricky as conservative approach sparing fertility of the patient is adopted. This case is presented for its rarity and unique presentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth case of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma being reported at a very young age and the first case being reported from Indian subcontinent. Extensive review of the previously published cases in the literature has been done in this study. PMID:28344967
Deshpande, Anshula; Kiran, Shital; Dhillon, Steffi; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa
A 14-year-old Indian girl presented with difficulty in mouth opening and burning sensation while eating. On examination, blanching of the oral mucosa with diffuse white pigmented lesion of size 3.5 to 2 cm along with melanotic pigmentation was seen on the left buccal mucosa posteriorly. The patient was diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis. A comprehensive treatment plan was made based on conservative management that included motivation and intense counselling of the patient and her parents so that she quits the habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco, along with systemic treatment of vitamin B complex supplements, antioxidants, multivitamins and oral physiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the difficulties faced by the clinical practitioners in providing treatment because of the taboos and myths associated with surgical treatment modality in rural population as well as to emphasise the menace of increasing consumption and availability of tobacco and areca nut to children. PMID:24334472
Podestá, Claudio; Ferreras, Mónica; Mozzi, Marcela; Bassetti, Claudio; Dauvilliers, Yves; Billiard, Michel
CSF hypocretin-1 measurements were performed during a period of hypersomnia and during an asymptomatic interval in a 14-year-old girl affected with severe Kleine-Levin syndrome. A twofold decrease in hypocretin-1 was evidenced during the period of hypersomnia in comparison with the asymptomatic interval. Together with previous data, this result is in favour of recurrent dysfunction at the hypothalamic level in Kleine-Levin syndrome.
Mei, Yan-hui; Yu, Jian-peng; Li, Gang
Abstract Rationale: Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) a rare plasma cell disorder and is frequently associated with plasma cell bone marrow infiltration. Most EMPs involve mucosal lymphoid tissue, especially in the nasopharyngeal area, respiratory tract, and head and neck region. Primary involvement of the kidney is exceedingly rare. Patient Concerns: A 14-year-old girl was admitted in our hospital with intermittent right upper quadrant pain for 1 month and recent (1 day) progressive deterioration. There was a mass found by ultrasonography in the right kidney and subsequent abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 3 cm mass within the right kidney. Diagnoses: Pathology revealed typical histology of plasmacytoma and immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of CD138, CD45, vimentin, and Kappa light chain. Interventions: The patient successfully underwent radical nephrectomy with an uneventful recovery. She received no chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery. Outcomes: There was no recurrence or metastasis during a 22-month follow-up. Lessons: Our case study demonstrated that renal EMP with a relatively indolent clinical course, if detected at an early stage, can be treated by radical nephrectomy without adjuvant therapy. Generally, the clinical outcome and prognosis of EMP are favorable PMID:28178171
Tseng, Lo-Lin; Lue, Hung-Chi; Huang, Cheng-Hung; Niu, Dau-Ming
SIADH-like hyponatremia as the presenting manifestation of ACTH deficiency is rare in childhood. Here we report a 14 year-old girl who, after 8 years of GH replacement and subsequent treatment for subclinical secondary hypothyroidism, presented with confusion and disorientation due to severe hyponatremia. When her pituitary axis was re-assessed, she was diagnosed as having ACTH deficiency associated with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) (including GH, FSH, LH, and subclinical TSH deficiencies). She responded poorly to treatment with only hypertonic fluid, but improved after addition of hydrocortisone replacement. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of suspecting ACTH insufficiency in children with GH deficiency if hyponatremia develops.
Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Auerbach, Randy P; Klein, Daniel N; Hajcak, Greg
Cognitive vulnerabilities, such as a negative self-referential processing bias, have been theorized to play a causal role in the development of depression. Indeed, depression is associated with the endorsement and recall of more negative and fewer positive emotional words (i.e., recall biases) in the self-referential encoding task (SRET). In addition, currently depressed adults and adolescents, compared to healthy controls, show an enhanced late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential (ERP) component that reflects sustained attentional engagement, during the processing of negative relative to positive words in the SRET. However, it is unclear whether these behavioral and neural measures in the SRET are indicators of risk for depression, or are concomitants of the disorder. The present study included 121 8 to 14 year-old girls with no lifetime history of depression, and examined the association between maternal history of depression (i.e., risk) and both behavioral and ERP measures while viewing positive and negative adjectives during the SRET. Lifetime history of major depressive disorder and/or dysthymia in the biological mother was assessed via a semistructured diagnostic interview. Results indicated that participants with maternal history of depression, compared with those with no maternal history of depression, demonstrated an enhanced LPP to negative words. There were no group differences in the LPP to positive words. Maternal history of depression was also related to faster response time when rejecting negative words. Participant's current depression symptoms were associated with increased negative recall bias and decreased positive recall bias. The present study provides novel evidence that abnormal electrocortical reactivity to negative self-referential words indexes vulnerability for depression in 8 to 14 year-old girls. (PsycINFO Database Record
Krishnan, Karthik R; Ownby, Dennis R
Urticaria with angioedema is a common clinical presentation that often poses a challenge for allergists. The differential diagnosis for urticaria is broad, making the evaluation and pinpointing the underlying cause difficult and frustrating for both families and physicians. Certain causes of urticaria such as infections or medications are more common and easier to identify whereas less frequently seen conditions are often overlooked because of their rarity. One such condition is mastocytosis. Mastocytosis is a rare disease that very seldom presents with urticaria but may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized in a timely manner. We are presenting a case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with urticaria and angioedema possibly caused by a solitary mastocytoma. The learning points from this case are that mastocytosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urticaria and solitary mastocytomas may remain active into adolescence, raising concern for systemic progression.
Pérez-Núñez, Josefina; Baeza-Montañez, Lourdes
Factor V (FV) is a pivotal coagulation factor present in plasma and platelets. It plays an essential role in secondary haemostasis acting as a cofactor in the prothrombinase complex, catalysing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. There is little evidence on the management of mayor orthopaedic surgery in paediatric or adolescents subjects with this coagulopathy and almost no information about thromboprophylaxis in these situations. We report a case of a hip replacement in a 14-year-old girl with moderate FV deficiency (0.07 IU mL−1). As haemostatic replacement, inactivated fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was transfused at doses of 600 mL (15 mL kg−1, 45 kg weight) 2 hours before surgery and then sequential FFP infusions of 250 mL (7 mL kg−1) every 12 hours for 7 days. Plasma factor VIII, von Willebrand factor antigen, and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor were monitored to avoid supranormal levels. Since the patient was sexually mature (Marshall and Tanner stage 5) with the hormone replacement therapy, she was immobilized and the surgery was considered as a high thrombotic risk. Thus, low molecular weight heparin was administered at doses of intermediate risk (Enoxaparin 20 mg daily, by weight) after finishing the daily infusion of plasma: 24 hours and during the 7 days after intervention. No tranexamic acid was used. No haemorrhagic or thrombotic adverse event was described. PMID:27872768
Häßler, Frank; Reis, Olaf; Weirich, Steffen; Höppner, Jacqueline; Pohl, Birgit; Buchmann, Johannes
This article presents a case of a 14-year-old female twin with schizophrenia who developed severe catatonia following treatment with olanzapine. Under a combined treatment with amantadine, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and (currently) ziprasidone alone she improved markedly. Severity and course of catatonia including treatment response were evaluated with the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). This case report emphasizes the benefit of ECT in the treatment of catatonic symptoms in an adolescent patient with schizophrenic illness.
Rittinger, Olaf; Kronberger, Gabriela; Pfeifenberger, Andrea; Kotzot, Dieter; Fauth, Christine
Diploid/triploid mosaicism is a rare chromosome aberration characterized by growth and mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, clinodactyly, syndactyly of fingers and toes, asymmetry of the body and the face, truncal obesity, and pigmentary anomalies of the skin. Many patients initially present with severe growth retardation and develop truncal obesity later in life. Variable phenotype expression during development and restriction of triploid cells to certain tissues explain why the diagnosis of diploid/triploid mosaicism is often delayed. Here, we report on a moderately retarded 14-year-old girl with diploid/triploid mosaicism due to inclusion of the second polar body, whose changing phenotype overlaps considerably with different genetic disorders associated with aberrant genomic imprinting. The observation that triploid cells, which in our patient show remarkably variable distribution in different tissues, may also be present in easily accessible tissues such as urinary sediment or buccal smear may contribute to an earlier diagnosis of this rare syndrome.
Hanke, Samuel; Tweddell, James S.; Madsen, Nicolas
There are multiple cardiac etiologies for wheezing and respiratory distress which require a high degree of suspicion for the pediatrician to diagnose. We present a case of a patient with a history of long-standing mild persistent asthma with minimal improvement on controller and bronchodilator therapies who presented to the emergency room with acute respiratory distress. When he demonstrated a lack of improvement with traditional respiratory therapies, additional etiologies of respiratory distress were considered. Ultimately an echocardiogram was performed, which revealed the diagnosis of cor triatriatum. He underwent surgical resection of his accessory membrane and has had no additional symptoms of asthma since repair. PMID:28044119
Monsudi, Kehinde F.; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A.
A 14-year-old girl presented with bilateral visual impairment following hot water injury to the eyes. The patient was admitted for a week and managed with guttae tropicamide 0.5% 8 h, diclofenac sodium 0.1% 4 h, and fluoroquinolone 0.3% 6 h and ointment chloramphenicol 8 h. Also, the patient was managed with capsule doxycycline 100 mg 12 h for 10 days, tablet cataflam 50 mg 12 h for 7 days and intramuscular tetanus toxoid 0.5 mg stat and dermacine cream for facial scald. The visual acuities improved from 3/60 (right eye) and 6/24 (left eye) to 6/6 in both eyes. There were resolutions of facial/eye pain, tearing, photophobia, lid edema, blepharospasm, and conjunctival hyperemia. There was complete healing of facial wounds and corneal ulcers. She was discharged from hospital on the 7th day of admission. Prompt presentation, degree of scald sustained, and appropriate medical intervention enhanced visual recovery and wound healing in the patient. PMID:23960925
Krishna, Varanasi Venkata Rama; James, Teo Eu Leong Harvey; Chang, Kenneth Tou En; Yen, Soh Shui
We report a case of a 14 year-old girl with Diabetes Mellitus who was in remission with pre-B cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and subsequently diagnosed with Erdheim-Chester disease. Erdheim-Chester disease is a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and is very rare in children. In addition, the radiological features of the lesions are atypical and have not been reported in children. There is no known association between the three conditions and this is the first reported case in the literature. A literature review of Erdheim-Chester disease will be performed. PMID:25426240
Rellum, Rashidi; Risseeuw, Gerard; Blaauw, Ivo de; Lequin, Maarten
Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a risk of splenic torsion and infarction. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a palpable spleen in normal position on the initial physical examination. Laboratory findings were normal. A normal blood flow was seen on the initial (color Doppler) sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged spleen in the pelvic region with torsion of hilar pedicle and splenorenal collaterals. Semielective, a laparoscopic splenopexy was performed without complications. A twisted wandering spleen should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain despite possible normal positioning of the spleen. The presence of splenorenal collaterals on imaging techniques can be used as a diagnostic hallmark. PMID:25755964
Rellum, Rashidi; Risseeuw, Gerard; Blaauw, Ivo de; Lequin, Maarten
Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a risk of splenic torsion and infarction. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a palpable spleen in normal position on the initial physical examination. Laboratory findings were normal. A normal blood flow was seen on the initial (color Doppler) sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged spleen in the pelvic region with torsion of hilar pedicle and splenorenal collaterals. Semielective, a laparoscopic splenopexy was performed without complications. A twisted wandering spleen should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain despite possible normal positioning of the spleen. The presence of splenorenal collaterals on imaging techniques can be used as a diagnostic hallmark.
Arghir, Oana C; Ionescu, Florin C; Apostol, Adriana
Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder based on an autosomal abnormality of von Willebrand factor. Transfusion is a lifesaving medical intervention among patients with bleeding disorders. Patients with vWD are exposed to Transfuse Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) when they become recipients of multiple blood products and repeated transfusions. TRALI is a non-hemolytic transfusion reaction induced by infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin, platelets (suspended in plasma), whole blood, cryoprecipitates, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). We report a 14 years old white girl, with a history of type 1 von Willebrand disease (vWd), recipient of 2 units' fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and 1 unit whole blood transfusion who developed an acute respiratory distress with severe hypoxemia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrate on chest X-ray within 3 hours of the whole blood transfusion, completely reversible after mechanical ventilation. Concluding, patients with vWd who received recurrent transfusions have an increased risk of TRALI. Physicians must be familiar with it as a cause of white lung X-ray pattern.
Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil Llario, María Dolores
The aim of this study was to analyze sexual behaviors and attitudes of children 9-14 years old in Spain. In this article we present data from 470 children of which 52% are boys and 48% girls. In order to evaluate the sample, Information, Attitudes and Behaviors related to Health Questionnaire (CIACS-II) was used. Results evidence that boys 9 years old already show behaviors that evidence their interest towards sexuality. 8% have sometimes masturbated and 9% have used pornography for becoming excited. 14% of children 11-12 years old have already had sexual relations and 38% state to have sexual fantasies. Girls start to masturbate and to have sexual relations later than boys and show a prevalence of sexual fantasies and use of pornography very lower. It is necessary sexual education programs to be implanted since early ages in schools.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The purpose of this illustrated booklet is to teach 11-14 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The guide is designed to promote changes in eating patterns, to show children how to switch to good eating…
Gaddam, Divya; Thakur, Mukesh Singh; Krothapalli, Niranjani; Kaniti, Saujanya
Cockayne's syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by cachectic dwarfism, cutaneous photosensitivity, loss of adipose tissue, mental retardation, skeletal and neurological abnormalities, and pigmentary degeneration of the retina. Dental caries is a common finding. Dental rehabilitation of a 14-year-old male with Cockayne's syndrome is presented. PMID:25574402
Godlewski, Krzysztof; Werner, Bozena; Sterliński, Maciej; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Szwed, Hanna; Domagała, Marek; Koc, Lucyna
Myocardial infarction is a rare disease in children. Among many reasons the toxic damage of myocardium should be taken into consideration. The authors present the case of a 14-year-old boy with sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and myocardial infarction as a result of butane gas inhalation. Coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. Cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted as a secondary prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death.
Gonçalves, Helen; Machado, Eduardo Coelho; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Seering, Lenise Menezes; Mesenburg, Marília Arndt; Guttier, Marília Cruz; Barcelos, Raquel Siqueira; Buffarini, Romina; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista
Objective To assess the prevalence of sexual initiation until the age of 14 years old, as well as sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods In 2008, 4,325 from the 5,249 adolescents of the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, were interviewed. Sexual initiation was defined as the first intercourse up to the age of 14 years old. The information was obtained by interviewing adolescents in their houses, during the 2008 follow-up. The analyzed variables were: skin color, asset index, maternal and adolescents’ schooling, experimental use of tobacco and alcohol, drunkenness episode, use of any illicit drug, illegal drug use by friends and involvement in fights during the past year. Use of condoms and contraceptive methods, number of partners and the age of sexual initiation were also analyzed. Results The prevalence of sexual initiation by the age of 14 was of 18.6%. Lower schooling, asset index and maternal education were related to higher prevalence of sexual initiation until the age of 14, as well as being male or being born to adolescent mothers. Sexual intercourse was also related to the behavioral variables analyzed. Among adolescent girls who had intercourse up to the age of 14, 30% did not use contraception and 18% did not use condoms in the last sexual intercourse. Boys reported a higher number of sexual partners than girls. Conclusion The results suggest a relationship between sexual intercourse (≤ 14 years) and some health-risk behaviors. The non-use of condoms and contraceptives may make them vulnerable to experiencing unwanted situations. Education and sociocultural strategies for health should be implemented from the beginning of adolescence. PMID:25651009
Westerman, Trina L.; Poulsen, Keith P.; Schlipf, John W.; Valentine, Beth A.
A 14-year-old Morgan gelding was presented for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. The horse was initially diagnosed with equine protozoal myelitis based on history, physical examination, and laboratory diagnostics. Despite therapy, the horse declined clinically and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed a rare form of neurotropic lymphoma, described in this report. PMID:24688140
Yu, Elizabeth L; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Ellis, Linda; Huang, Jeannie S
We present a case of a 14-year-old previously healthy boy with acute hepatotoxicity after noni berry juice consumption. As the popularity of noni berry consumption continues to increase, heightened awareness of the relation between noni berry consumption and acute hepatotoxicity is important.
Perales-Blum, Laurencia; Juárez-Treviño, Myrthala; Escobedo-Belloc, Daniela
We present the clinical case of a 14-year-old boy with gerascophobia or an excessive fear of aging, who felt his body development as a threat, to the point where he took extreme measures to stop or otherwise hide growth. He had a history of separation anxiety, sexual abuse, and suffering bullying. He presented with anxious and depressive symptoms and food restriction, criticized his body image, had negative feelings towards the maturation process, suffered at the thought of being rejected, and was preoccupied with certain physical characteristics. We conducted an analysis of biological, psychological, and environmental factors and their possible interactions and established treatment with psychotherapy and fluoxetine. Because of the favorable results, this approach could be considered a good option in such cases.
We present the clinical case of a 14-year-old boy with gerascophobia or an excessive fear of aging, who felt his body development as a threat, to the point where he took extreme measures to stop or otherwise hide growth. He had a history of separation anxiety, sexual abuse, and suffering bullying. He presented with anxious and depressive symptoms and food restriction, criticized his body image, had negative feelings towards the maturation process, suffered at the thought of being rejected, and was preoccupied with certain physical characteristics. We conducted an analysis of biological, psychological, and environmental factors and their possible interactions and established treatment with psychotherapy and fluoxetine. Because of the favorable results, this approach could be considered a good option in such cases. PMID:25610691
Maziak, W; Tabbah, K
Despite active epidemiological research related to smoking in Syria in the past few years, there is currently no population-based prevalence data for adult smoking in this country. This study presents the first such figures based on information about the smoking habits of 3066 couples in Aleppo, Syria collected during a survey on respiratory morbidity among 13-14-year-old youths. Reports from the young people indicated levels of parental smoking to be 54% for men and 18% for women. This figure for women is twice that reported previously. The mean number of smokers within the studied households was one smoker per household. Smoking among women was found to be strongly associated with their educational status and their spouse's smoking status. This information is of major importance for public health efforts to deal with the smoking epidemic in Syria, as it indicates a hidden epidemic of smoking among women, most likely due to under-reporting.
Cayirli, Hasan; Ozguven, Ali Aykan; Gunsar, Cuneyt; Ersoy, Betul; Kandiloglu, Ali Riza
Schwannomas usually occur in adults being between the second and fifth decades, and such neoplasms are extremely rare in a pediatric population. In addition, they are not normally found in the retroperitoneal region. Here, we present a pediatric case of a retroperitoneal schwannoma in an adrenal location where the tumor was not able to be preoperatively differentiated from other benign or malign adrenal gland tumors. In our opinion, this tumor can be included in the differential diagnosis of a nonfunctioning retroperitoneal adrenal mass in children. PMID:28078159
Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren
To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…
Hanly, J.; de Buitleir, M.; Shaw, K.; Maurer, B.; FitzGerald, M. X.
A 14-year-old girl whose sole presenting features were symptoms of pulmonary embolism, was found to have bi-atrial myxomas. The diagnosis was made preoperatively, and the patient had a successful outcome following elective surgery. The absence of other features such as systemic embolism, atrioventricular valvular obstruction, fever and constitutional symptoms makes this a most unusual case. Right atrial myxoma should be considered in any patient presenting with pulmonary embolism for which there is no obvious source. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6709549
Blankenburg, M; Meyer, D; Hirschfeld, G; Kraemer, N; Hechler, T; Aksu, F; Krumova, E K; Magerl, W; Maier, C; Zernikow, B
There are controversial discussions regarding developmental- and sex-related differences in somatosensory perception, which were found, eg, when comparing younger children (6-8 years), older children (9-12 years), and adolescents (13-16 years) using quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aim of our current study was to systematically assess the impact of age and sex using the QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS). QST, including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, was assessed in 86 healthy 7-year-old children (42 girls and 44 boys) and 87 healthy 14-year-old adolescents (43 girls and 44 boys). The sample size was calculated a priori to detect medium-sized effects as found in the previous studies with adequate power. Developmental and sex differences were tested using univariate analysis of variance. Children were more sensitive to most pain stimuli, except cold pain stimuli, compared with adolescents, but did not differ in mechanical and thermal detection thresholds except in regard to cold stimuli. Sex had an impact only on warm detection, with girls being more sensitive. There were no interactions between age and sex. In conclusion, developmental changes during the puberty appear to influence pain perception, whereas sex effects in childhood are negligible. At present, it is not clear what brings about the differences between adult men and women that are apparent in epidemiological studies. Our results contradict the hypothesis that differences in peripheral nerve-fiber functioning underlie sex effects.
Coon, Troy; Miller, Michael; Shirazi, Farshad; Sullivan, John
In the past 3 decades, lead levels in North American children have been declining. Despite the decline in lead exposure, lead toxicity remains a significant childhood environmental health hazard. The usual route of lead exposure is through ingestion, but lead toxicity secondary to retained bullet fragments has been well documented in the adult literature. The diagnosis of lead toxicity is often difficult and delayed secondary to vague and transient symptoms. Recognizing high-risk characteristics of bullet fragments can improve clinician awareness to the possibility of lead toxicity. The primary management of patients with continued lead exposure is to remove the source of exposure. However, in the case of retained bullet fragments, initiation of chelation therapy before surgical removal may be essential in preventing systemic toxicity. We present the case of a 14-year-old female with lead toxicity who presented with an 18-month course of chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia 2 years after sustaining a gunshot wound to the right leg. The patient was treated with oral succimer and operative removal of bullet fragments.
A 14-year-old spayed female poodle-pekinese dog with a history of hematuria was tentatively diagnosed with non-radiopaque uroliths or urinary bladder neoplasia following temporary resolution of clinical signs after several rounds of antibiotic treatments, normal abdominal radiographs and no growth on urine culture. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the trigone area of the urinary bladder which was confirmed to be an invasive transitional cell carcinoma by histopathology following euthanasia.
A 14-year-old spayed female poodle-pekinese dog with a history of hematuria was tentatively diagnosed with non-radiopaque uroliths or urinary bladder neoplasia following temporary resolution of clinical signs after several rounds of antibiotic treatments, normal abdominal radiographs and no growth on urine culture. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the trigone area of the urinary bladder which was confirmed to be an invasive transitional cell carcinoma by histopathology following euthanasia. PMID:22131588
Abaspour, Nafiseh; Nowrozi, Reza Ali; Latifi, Zohreh
The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of educating philosophy curriculum in the children on the spiritual development of female students with 12-14 years old in the city of Isfahan. The present study is a semi-experiment research. The research design is pretest-posttest research with experiment and control group. In order to select…
Laurent, P; Hennecker, J-L; Schillaci, A; Scordidis, V
Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst is a rare complication of ventricular-peritoneal shunt (VPS) but needs to be considered in every patient with abdominal complaints or signs of intracranial hypertension (IH). The pathogenesis of pseudocysts remains unclear. Diverse predisposing factors have been proposed such as previous abdominal surgeries, multiple VPS revisions, infections, history of necrotizing enterocolitis, and nonspecific inflammatory processes. We report the case of a 14-year-old patient, known to have a VPS as intraventricular hemorrhage treatment, presenting cephalalgia, vomiting, apathy, and an indurate abdominal mass without fever. The first abdominal CSF pseudocyst diagnosis had been established 3 months earlier. Abdominal ultrasounds confirmed a large homogeneous cyst with the shunt tip within the pseudocyst. Cerebral CT revealed an increased ventricular size. An exploratory laparotomy with cyst aspiration, lysis of adhesions, excision of cystic walls, and repositioning of the peritoneal catheter was performed. No antibiotics were initiated given that the cultures were negative. Ultrasonography proved to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of VPS abdominal complications, especially CSF pseudocyst. CT can also reliably confirm the pseudocyst. In case of IH signs, a cerebral CT scan can be performed to evaluate the ventricular distension and to check the shunt position. Various methods to process the cyst have been described in the medical literature, but the recurrence rate remains elevated (25-100%). Then the probability of an infection without any clinical sign has to be considered. In case of suspected infection, the VPS is removed and replaced by an external ventricular drain. Antibiotics are started and adjusted to the results of the CSF culture. If there is no direct sign of infection, only the distal catheter is externalized and antibiotics are introduced until infection is treated. Depending on the peritoneal absorption state
Hacker, H W; Schwöbel, M G; Allgayer, B
Today, haemodynamically stable children with blunt liver trauma are treated conservatively and can be discharged from hospital within one week. We report on a 14-year-old boy with a blunt hepatic trauma grade III, who showed a pseudoaneurysm with active bleeding into the abdominal cavity after mobilisation on day 9. Supraselective angiography of the right hepatic artery was performed and 2 titanium coils and gelatine sponge particles were placed for embolisation. In view of this complication, we suggest carrying out colour Doppler sonographic imaging to rule out pseudoaneurysm in children with blunt hepatic trauma before they are discharged from hospital.
Bae, Mi-Hye; Lee, Yun-Jin; Nam, Sang Ook; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Chang Won
Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a rare, fatal complication of tracheostomy, and prompt diagnosis and management are imperative. We report the case of tracheoinnominate artery fistula after tracheostomy in a 14-year-old boy with a history of severe periventricular leukomalacia, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy. The tracheoinnominate artery fistula was successfully treated with a stent graft insertion via the right common femoral artery. Endovascular repair of the tracheoinnominate artery fistula via stent grafting is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment for patients in poor clinical conditions and is an alternative to traditional open surgical treatment. PMID:28018452
Nguyen, Kim-Long R.; Kim, Hyunyoung; Nagy, Laszlo
Isolated spontaneous midbrain hemorrhages are rare because they are usually secondary to hemorrhages from inferior structures such as the pons and cerebellum, or superior structures such as the thalamus and putamen. While the etiologies are largely unidentified, the most common ones are vascular malformations and bleeding diathesis with hypertension being relatively uncommon. We report midbrain hemorrhage in a 14-year-old boy with a long-standing history of frequent migraine headaches and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurologic examinations, noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested that the lesion likely affected the dorsal part of the midbrain. The neurologic symptoms improved following endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with the placement of external ventricular drains (EVDs). In this report, anatomical correlations to the case are discussed and previous reports of midbrain hemorrhages are reviewed. PMID:28180053
Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Doğru, Deniz; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Akça, Onur; Özkayar, Özgür
A clinical or radiological worsening of already existing lesions or an emergence of new lesions after beginning treatment in patients with tuberculosis (TB) is referred to as the paradoxical response. This has aroused suspicion regarding the accuracy of diagnosis, the possibilities of treatment failure, or the presence of another underlying disease, and thus it is an important topic for clinicians to understand. In this article, the development of a paradox reaction in a 14-year-old male patient diagnosed with and treated for tuberculosis meningitis is reported. This pediatric patient with a healthy immune system is treated with steroids successfully and reported to elucidate the importance of managing the paradox of TB progression in spite of the appropriate anti-TB medications. PMID:27807490
Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Willford, Jennifer A; Severtson, Stevan G; Day, Nancy L
The relation between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and school achievement was evaluated in a sample of 524 14-year-olds. Women were recruited during pregnancy and assessed, along with their offspring, at multiple phases from infancy to early adulthood. The sample represents a low-income population. Half of the adolescents are male and 55% are African American. School achievement was assessed with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Screener (Psychological Corporation, 1992). A significant negative relation was found between PME and 14-year WIAT composite and reading scores. The deficit in school achievement was mediated by the effects of PME on intelligence test performance at age 6, attention problems and depression symptoms at age 10, and early initiation of marijuana use. These findings suggest that the effects of PME on adolescent achievement are mediated by the earlier negative effects of PME on child characteristics. The negative impact of these characteristics on adolescent achievement may presage later problems in early adulthood.
Yang, Yaling; Joshi, Anand A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Baker, Laura A.; Narr, Katherine L.; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.; Damasio, Hanna
The overall volume of the brain has been found to be under relatively strong genetic control, but the relative strength of genetic and environmental factors on between-person variations in regional cortical thickness in adolescence is still not well understood. Here, we analyzed structural MRI data from 108 14-year-old healthy twins (54 females/54 males) to determine the relative contributions of genes and the environment toward regional variations in gray matter thickness across the cortex. After extracting cortical thickness values at a high spatial resolution, an A/C/E structural equation model that divides the variations into additive genetic (A), shared (C), and unique (E) environmental components was fitted. There was considerable regional variability in the magnitude of genetic influences on cortical thickness after controlling for sex. Regions with genetic contributions of greater than 80% were observed in the prefrontal cortex, predominantly in the bilateral dorsolateral and mesial superior frontal regions. No region showed prominent shared environmental influences, but unique environmental influences of over 80% were found in parietal association regions. The genetic variance for cortical thickness in adolescents in prefrontal regions overlapped with previous findings in adults. However, the unique environmental effects observed in multimodal parietal association cortices with converging inputs from visual, auditory, somatosensory regions, and neighboring secondary association cortices suggest that these regional variations are more shaped by experience and could form targets for early interventions in youth with behavioral disorders. PMID:22713927
Imataka, G; Hagisawa, S; Nitta, A; Hirabayashi, H; Suzumura, H; Arisaka, O
Long term survival for the cases of trisomy 13 into over a first decade is very rare. We reported here the case of a 14-year-old male karyotype with full type of trisomy 13. In this clinical phenomenon, the case had typical facial, finger and limb anomalies for trisomy 13. Arterial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus were recognized using ultrasonography after birth. Major cerebral malformation such as holoprosencephaly or cerebellar hypoplasia were also not revealed. After 5 months of his age, artificial ventilation therapy for dyspnea associated with laryngomalacia was required. A tracheotomy was performed at 6 months of his age. After 12 years old, intractable partial epilepsy was recognized. For his partial seizures, a treatment with a combination of two anti-epileptic drugs, valproic acid and levetiracetam, were advised. Now he is alive for 14-years-old and he is the 4th longest surviving patient with full karyotype of trisomy 13.
Brown, Stephen L; Lipka, Sigrid; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Taylor, Paul
Social scripts are commonly shared representations of behavior in social contexts, which are seen to be partly transmitted through social and cultural media. Research suggests that people hold scripts associated with alcohol-related aggression, but, unlike general aggression scripts, there is little evidence of social transmission. To demonstrate social transmission of alcohol-related aggression scripts, learning mechanisms based on personal experience should be minimized. We used a lexical decision task to examine implicit links between alcohol and aggression in alcohol-naïve adolescents who have limited personal or vicarious experience of alcohol-related aggression. One hundred and four 11-14 year old adolescents made lexical decisions on aggressive or nonaggressive words preceded by 40-ms alcohol or nonalcohol word primes. Repeated measures analyses of group data showed that alcohol word primes did not lead to faster responses to aggressive words than to nonaggressive words, nor were responses to aggressive words faster when they were preceded by alcohol word primes than by nonalcohol word primes. However, at an individual level, faster recognition times to the alcohol prime/aggression target word combination predicted aggression on a competitive laboratory task in 14 year olds only. This occurred only when the competitive aggression task was preceded by a visual presentation of alcoholic, but not nonalcoholic beverage, images. We concluded that alcohol-related aggression scripts are not strongly developed in this age group, but individual differences in script strength are linked to alcohol-related laboratory aggression.
Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de
To assess the association of parents' nutritional status, and dietary and sociodemographic factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren in Florianópolis Island, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, this cross-sectional epidemiological study examined 2,826 schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old, classified according to body mass index curves for age and sex recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression. The final model showed overweight/obesity in boys associated directly with father's educational level, mother's age, and parents' nutritional status, and inversely with mother's educational level, and number of daily meals. Among girls, it associated directly with parents' nutritional status and the schoolchildren's age, and inversely with consumption of risk foods. The variables that associated with overweight/obesity differed between the sexes, except parents' nutritional status. Boys and girls with both parents overweight or obese were, respectively, 80% and 150% more likely to exhibit the same diagnosis, indicating the need for interventions that include the family environment.
Krupińska-Nanys, Magdalena; Zarzecka, Joanna
Backround: The study is focused on increased risk of dental plaque accumulation among the children undergoing orthodontic treatment in consideration of individual hygiene and dietary habits. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 91 children aged 7-14 including 47 girls and 44 boys. The main objectives of the study were: API index, plaque pH, DMF index, proper hygiene and dietary habits. Statistical analysis was provided in Microsoft Office Exel spreadsheet and STATISTICA statistical software. Results: The average API index among the children wearing removable appliance was 9 (SD = 13), and among children without appliances was 16 (SD = 21). DMF index for patients using appliances was 5 (SD = 3) and for those without appliances was 4 (SD = 2). The average plaque pH was 6 for children with appliances (SD = 0.9) and 6.2 without ones (SD = 0.3). Conclusion: In patients in whom there is a higher risk of dental plaque accumulating, correct oral hygiene supported with regular visits to the dentist is one of the best ways to control dental caries. In the fight against caries the most effective and only approach is to promote awareness of the problem, foster proper hygiene and nutritional habits, as well as educate children from a very young age in how to maintain proper oral hygiene. PMID:25709359
Iwańczak, Barbara; Reich, Adam; Kofla-Dłubacz, Anna; Kazanowska, Bernarda; Ruczka, Małgorzata
Behçet disease is a multiorgan inflammatory vessel disorder of unknown etiology which only occasionally occurs in children. Here, we demonstrate a 14-year-old boy with Behçet disease diagnosed based on recurrent aphthous stomatitis, acneiform facial lesions, subpreputial erosions and extensive thrombosis involving sigmoid sinus, transverse sinus and right internal cervical vein. Treatment with low molecular weight heparins, systemic corticosteroids, and azathioprine only resulted in partial remission of clinical symptoms. Addition of adalimumab led to complete resolution of clinical and biochemical abnormalities and disappearance of thrombosis in central nervous system.
Bailey, Daniel P; Charman, Sarah J; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A; Kerr, Catherine J
This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10-14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.
del Real, Sara Irene; Fajardo, Zuleida; Solano, Liseti; Concepción Páez, María; Sánchez, Armando
Results from a nutritional assessment are presented to establish the usual food consumption pattern of 438 children between 4-14 years of age, from a low income urban community in Valencia, Venezuela. Food intake data were collected through multiple 24 hours recalls and converted to individual food item weight in grams. Amounts of energy, macronutrients, iron, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C were estimated to compare them to national references. The food pattern was established according to intake frequency per food item and per food groups. Arepa was the most commonly consumed food item, and a main source of kilocalories, protein, carbohydrates, iron, and vitamin A. Unlike coffee, fruits were not among the most commonly consumed foods. Black beans were the main source of protein. Cookies and sodas were among the major sources of energy. Energy and nutrient intake were adequate, except for calcium (67% in preschoolers y 43% in school-aged children). Preschoolers' diet showed a better adequacy for all nutrients (p < 0.005), except for iron which was significantly higher in school-aged children. Since children below 15 years old are still forming food behaviors and habits, they are an ideal group to develop nutritional education strategies to modify harmful patterns such as high intake of sodas, and low intakes of calcium rich foods.
Kuleta-Bosak, Elżbieta; Bożek, Paweł; Kluczewska, Ewa; Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Machnik-Broncel, Joanna
Summary Background: Distal femoral physis fractures with displacement are rare injuries seen in adolescents related with high incidence of complication. They may lead to premature physeal closure consequently, to growth arrest and bone deformity. Case Report: The case of a 14-year-old boy with Salter-Harris type II displaced fracture underwent surgery with open reduction has been described. CT examination with multiplanar reconstruction was used in pre-operative assessment of distal femur growth plate fracture. Conclusions: Knowledge of classification, prognosis and methods of treatment is necessary in accurate pre- and postoperative assessment of physial fractures in adolescents. CT and multiplanar reconstruction improve the understanding of patterns of injury, relative prevalence and accuracy of pre-operative planning. PMID:22802768
Toledo, M C; Guerchon, M S; Ragazzi, S
The Potential Weekly Intake (PWI) of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children living in the District of Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated on the basis of average consumption data of artificially coloured food and analytically determined colour concentration in foodstuffs ingested. Coloured food consumption data were obtained through dietary recall interviews and collection of the packages and/or labels of the coloured foods consumed during a two-week period. Colours found in the individual types of foods detected through the consumption survey were identified and determined by methods that included wool dyeing and polyamide column extractions, ascending paper chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all artificial colours used in the composition of 83 commercial food products, including jellies, juices, soft drinks, syrups and 57 different candies, were permitted for use in food in Brazil the year the survey was conducted (1986), in amounts below those prescribed by law. Statistical analysis performed to compare the PWI for different population groups demonstrated that young male children, especially from lower social classes, were most exposed to artificial colours. Comparison of the estimated potential intakes with the toxicologically Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) showed that consumption of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Indigotine and Tartrazine by all children in the study represented approximately 24%, 3%, 0.05% and 0.4%, of the actual ADI values, respectively.
Pina, Christian; Khattab, Ahmed; Katzman, Philip; Bruckner, Lauren; Andolina, Jeffrey; New, Maria; Yau, Mabel
A 14-year-old female with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia because of 21-hydroxylase deficiency underwent bilateral adrenalectomy at 6 years of age as a result of poor hormonal control. Because the patient was adrenalectomized, extra adrenal androgen production was suspected. Imaging studies including pelvic ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained to evaluate for adrenal rest tumors of the ovaries. Abdominal MRI was obtained to evaluate for residual adrenal tissue. A cystic lesion arising from her right ovary suspicious for ovarian neoplasm was noted on pelvic MRI. Right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, low-grade, and well-differentiated. Tumor marker CA-125 was elevated and additional ovarian cancer staging workup confirmed stage IIIC due to one lymph node positive for carcinoma. The patient then developed a large left ovarian cyst, which led to a complete total abdominal hysterectomy and removal of the left ovary and fallopian tube. Pathology confirmed ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with microscopic focus of carcinoma in the left ovary. After numerous complications, the patient responded well to chemotherapy, CA-125 levels fell and no evidence of carcinoma was observed on subsequent imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ovarian serous adenocarcinoma in a patient with CAH. Although rare, we propose that the ovaries were the origin of androgen production and not residual adrenal tissue. The relationship between CAH and ovarian carcinomas has yet to be established, but further evaluation is needed given the poor survival rate of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Langner, Cornelia; Benkert, Birgit; Havener, Magdalena; Küsters, Uta; Hühn-Lindenbein, Stephan Georg; Mack, Dietrich
Introduction: Wound infections with Vibrio alginolyticus, a Gram-negative bacterium found in all temperate oceans, are rarely reported. However, a rising incidence of wound infections caused by V. alginolyticus requires better knowledge about this infectious agent. Case presentation: We report the case of a 14-year-old boy suffering from a wound infection caused by V. alginolyticus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis after stepping on a sea urchin. Despite wound debridement and antibiotic therapy with cefaclor, the lesion did not heal over several weeks. After identification of the pathogens and antibiotic-susceptibility testing, antibiotic therapy was switched to ciprofloxacin, followed by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Two months after the accident the wound was re-epithelialized. Follow up after 6 months revealed a painful scar. Conclusion: Non-cholera vibrios like V. alginolyticus should be considered as possible causative agents in seawater-contaminated wounds. S. lugdunensis is a relevant pathogen in mixed wound infections. Early microbiological diagnosis and antibiotic-susceptibility testing is crucial to prevent therapeutic failure. PMID:28348795
Taber, Keith S.; Billingsley, Berry; Riga, Fran; Newdick, Helen
Scientists hold a wide range of beliefs on matters of religion, although popular media coverage in the UK commonly suggests that atheism is a core commitment for scientists. Considering the relationship between religion and science is a recommended topic in the English National Curriculum for lower secondary pupils (11-14 year-olds), and it is…
Pramling, Niklas; Norlander, Torsten; Archer, Trevor
Examined 6-, 9-, and 14-year-olds' imagination of the unknown within a storytelling context. Performed phenomenological analysis of the two youngest groups' drawings and the oldest group's story on the "heffalump" theme. Derived eight categories providing an image-analysis of the concept of the "unknown" structured as "something-otherwise," that…
Mtaya, Matilda; Brudvik, Pongsri; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in 12- to 14-year-old schoolchildren residing in two socio-economically different districts of Tanzania. A total of 1601 children (mean age 13 years, 60.5 per cent girls) attending 16 primary schools in Kinondoni and Temeke districts participated in a clinical examination and were interviewed in school settings. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression models were used to test for statistically significant differences between different groups. The results showed that 63.8 per cent (62.6 per cent in Kinondoni and 66.0 per cent in Temeke) of the subjects had at least one type of anomaly, with a midline shift (22.5 per cent), spacing of at least 2 mm (21.9 per cent), and an open bite (16.1 per cent) being the most frequently recorded. The majority (93.6 per cent) of the children showed a Class I molar relationship. Class II and Class III malocclusions were registered in 4.4 and 2.0 per cent, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic factors, showed that the odds ratio for having an open bite was 1.8 if residing in a less socio-economically privileged district. Subjects with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DNFT) (>0) were 1.7, 2.1, 2.4, and 1.7, respectively, more likely to be diagnosed with a malocclusion, a midline shift, Angle Class II and III, and an open bite. Schoolchildren with fair/poor oral hygiene were less likely than their counterparts with good oral hygiene to be diagnosed with a midline shift. Malocclusions were prevalent in the Tanzanian children investigated and were associated with environmental factors in terms of caries experience and residing in a less affluent district. Preventive programmes to combat the prevalence of malocclusion are recommended.
Ye, Xiuxia; Jiang, Fan; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Huang, Hong; Shen, Xiaoming
Several approaches have proven be valuable in estimating dental age in children. The Demirjian method, based on crown and root calcification, is the most frequently used tool. The Willems method is a modification of the Demirjian method. There are few studies regarding to compare the application of the two methods in China. This study aims to apply the two methods in a Han population as well as identify if there are some differences between two methods in estimating dental age versus chronological age. Nine hundred forty-one orthopantomograms of 410 boys and 531 girls between seven and 14 years of age were selected from our patient records database with defined standard, and the Demirjian and Willems methods of dental age estimation were applied. The seven left mandibular teeth were scored and calculated in order to obtain the Demirjian and Willems estimated dental ages. It is suggested that the Demirjian method overestimated chronological age by 1.68 years for boys and 1.28 years for girls. The discrepancy between the Demirjian estimate and the chronological age was most frequently observed between 1 and 3.5 years for boys and between 1 and 2 years for girls. While it is indicted that the Willems method overestimated chronological age by 0.35 years for boys and underestimated the age by 0.02 years for girls. The discrepancy between chronological age and Willems estimated age was most frequently observed between -0.5 and 0.5 years for boys and between -1 and 0.5 years for girls. It is demonstrated that the Willems method was more accurate in estimating dental age than the Demirjian method, with a mean absolute error of 0.98 years for boys and 0.93 years for girls. As a result, it is highly recommended that the Willems method should be applied when estimating dental age in Chinese Han population, further modifications to the method are suggested.
Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi
Background The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013. Methods Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS) was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA. Results A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%), intestinal infectious diseases(13.8%) and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2%) to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3%) attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths. Conclusion and Recommendation In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death
Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko
In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p(2) between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.
Stolley, H; Kersting, M; Droese, W
For 2-14 year old children the intake of the trace elements zinc, manganese, copper, fluoride, iodine, selen, and of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium and mercury is calculated from their food intake. The results give a representative statement of the average supply of trace elements and of the average intake of heavy metals with the diet of children in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that the choice of foodstuffs for the diet has an important influence on the supply of trace elements.
Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Borzabadi-Farahani, Anahid; Eslamipour, Faezeh
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions, occlusal traits, and their gender distribution in urban Iranian school children. Five hundred and two subjects (253 females and 249 males, aged 11-14 years) were examined. Molar relationship, overjet (OJ), overbite, midline deviation, crossbite, and crowding/spacing were recorded. Gender dimorphism was evaluated by the chi-square test. According to the classification of Angle, the prevalence of Class I, Class II division 1, Class II division 2, and Class III malocclusions was 41.8, 24.1, 3.4, and 7.8 per cent, respectively. Symmetric molar relationship was present in 69.5 per cent. An OJ of at least 3.5 mm or more was present in 28.1 per cent; an OJ of more than 6 mm in 3.6 per cent, and 4.2 per cent had a reverse OJ. A normal overbite was observed in 60.4 per cent, while 34.5 per cent had an increased and 2.2 per cent a very deep overbite. An anterior open bite (AOB) was present in 1.6 per cent and a scissor bite or anterior crossbite in 2 and 8.4 per cent, respectively. A posterior crossbite was observed in 12.4 per cent (8.4 per cent unilateral, 2 per cent bilateral, and 2 per cent in association with an anterior crossbite). Midline deviation was present in 23.7 per cent. Severe crowding (>or=5.1 mm) was observed in 16.7 and 10.8 per cent and spacing in 18.9 and 20.7 per cent of the maxillary and mandibular arches, respectively. Significant gender differences were found for overbite (P < 0.001), midline deviation (P < 0.05), and maxillary and mandibular arch crowding/spacing (P < 0.05). The prevalence of Class II malocclusions was comparable with Caucasians; however, the most severe forms of Class II malocclusions were rare in this Iranian population. The relative prevalence of Class III malocclusions in the present study was greater than in Caucasians. Crowding was the most common dental anomaly in both arches.
Schmittmann, Verena D; van der Maas, Han L J; Raijmakers, Maartje E J
Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In this study, strategies in performing a discrimination learning task were distinguished in a cross-sectional sample of 302 children from 4 to 14 years of age. The trial-by-trial accuracy data were analyzed with mathematical learning models. The best-fitting model revealed three learning strategies: hypothesis testing, slow abrupt learning, and nonlearning. The proportion of hypothesis-testing children increased with age. Nonlearners were present only in the youngest age group. Feature preferences for the irrelevant dimension had a detrimental effect on performance in the youngest age group. The executive functions spatial working memory and attentional control significantly predicted posterior learning strategy probabilities after controlling for age.
Harb, Ziad; Malhi, Arfan
Fractures involving the proximal tibial epiphysis are rare and form 0.5% of all epiphyseal injuries. The specific anatomical and developmental features of the proximal tibial epiphysis make it vulnerable to unique patterns of fractures. Vitamin-D plays a vital role in bone homeostasis and its deficiency has an impact on fracture risk and healing. We present the first ever reported case of simultaneous bilateral proximal tibial physeal fractures in an athlete with vitamin-D deficiency. Treatment consisted of plaster immobilisation, and the patient made a full recovery and returned to preinjury level of activities. We report this case for its uniqueness and as an educational review of the importance of the developmental anatomy of the proximal tibia. We review the literature and discuss how the stages of the growing physis determine the type of fracture sustained. PMID:26425381
Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Tutui, Iulia
The healthy nutrition guidelines proposed by international research institutes and the World Health Organization recommend a daily intake of fruit and vegetables of at least 400 g, representing five servings a day (each serving contains around 80 g). Moreover, the recommendations stress the importance of consuming both fruit and vegetables daily, preferably at least two portions of fruit and three portions of vegetables per day. To efficiently develop interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among children, it is essential to identify and understand the factors that influence these behaviours. The present study aims at identifying the individual and familial factors which influence fruit and vegetable consumption among Romanian children. A cross-sectional survey by means of anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 361 school children, aged 11-14, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (April-May 2011). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake. The results show that 44.6% of the children met the recommendations regarding fruit intake, while 9.1% of the children declared eating the daily recommended portions of vegetables. Knowledge regarding the recommended number of daily servings and higher self-efficacy concerning the intake of fruit and vegetables every day were positively associated with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. Fruit preference also influenced positively the consumption of fruit. The familial factor associated with vegetable intake was the perceived behaviour of the mother, while fruit intake was higher among children who declared higher fruit availability at home. Hence, it is necessary to develop in Romania nutrition interventions addressing the determinants of fruit and vegetable intake as identified by this study; these interventions should target both children and parents.
Kaur, B.; Anderson, H. R.; Austin, J.; Burr, M.; Harkins, L. S.; Strachan, D. P.; Warner, J. O.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate variations in the prevalence of self reported symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma in 12-14 year old children. DESIGN: Self completion questionnaire. SETTING: Great Britain. SUBJECTS: All pupils aged 12-14 years in a stratified cluster sample of 93 large mixed secondary schools in 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported prevalence of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma at four geographical levels. RESULTS: 27,507 questionnaires were completed (85.9% response rate). The national 12 month prevalence of any wheezing, speech limiting wheeze, four or more attacks of wheeze, and frequent night waking with wheeze was 33.3% (n = 9155), 8.8% (2427), 9.6% (2634), and 3.7% (1023) respectively. The prevalence of ever having had a diagnosis of asthma was 20.9% (5736). In total, 19.8% (5438/27,507) of pupils reported treatment with anti-asthma drugs in the past year, but, of pupils reporting frequent nocturnal wheeze in the past year, 33.8% (342/1012) had no diagnosis of asthma and 38.6% (395/1023) denied receiving inhaler therapy. The 12 month prevalence of wheeze was highest in Scotland (36.7%, 1633/4444), but in England and Wales there was no discernible north-south or east-west gradient. Wheeze prevalence was slightly higher in non-metropolitan areas (35.0%, 6155/17,605) than in metropolitan areas (30.3%, 3000/9902). The prevalence of self reported asthma diagnosis and inhaler use showed no discernible national, regional, north-south, or east-west geographical pattern but was higher in non-metropolitan areas. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of self reported symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of asthma was high among 12-14 year olds throughout Great Britain with little geographical or urban-rural variation. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment were substantial. PMID:9462318
Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of major birth defects in Sichuan, the most populous province in China. The detailed etiology of CHD is unknown but some environmental factors are suspected as the cause of this disease. However, the geographical variations in CHD prevalence would be highly valuable in providing a clue on the role of the environment in CHD etiology. Here, we investigate the spatial patterns and geographic differences in CHD prevalence among 0- to 14-year-old children, discuss the possible environmental risk factors that might be associated with CHD prevalence in Sichuan Basin from 2004 to 2009. Methods The hierarchical Bayesian model was used to estimate CHD prevalence at the township level. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were performed, and a hot-spot analysis with different distance thresholds was used to identify the spatial pattern of CHD prevalence. Distribution and clustering maps were drawn using geographic information system tools. Results CHD prevalence was significantly clustered in Sichuan Basin in different spatial scale. Typical hot/cold clusters were identified, and possible CHD causes were discussed. The association between selected hypothetical environmental factors of maternal exposure and CHD prevalence was evaluated. Conclusions The largest hot-spot clustering phenomena and the CHD prevalence clustering trend among 0- to 14-year-old children in the study area showed a plausibly close similarity with those observed in the Tuojiang River Basin. The high ecological risk of heavy metal(Cd, As, and Pb)sediments in the middle and lower streams of the Tuojiang River watershed and ammonia–nitrogen pollution may have contribution to the high prevalence of CHD in this area. PMID:24924350
Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-α inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS.
Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia; Wang, Yue
This study investigated, for American adolescents, whether the learning of non-native speech contrasts in one prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese tones) would influence the processing of non-native contrasts in another prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese intonation). Two groups of 14-year-old American teenagers were tested using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, including eight who had received a two-week Mandarin tone training program and eight with no exposure to Mandarin. Subjects were scanned during identification tasks. Despite their similar behavioral performance on identification of Mandarin intonation, preliminary results showed different cortical activation patterns for the two groups. Teenagers exposed to Mandarin showed similar activation patterns for the Mandarin intonation and Mandarin tone task, with more right-hemisphere activation for intonation, which differed from activation for English intonation. Teenagers without exposure activated similar areas for Mandarin and English intonation. Familiarity with Mandarin tonal contrasts affects brain activation, not only for Mandarin tones but also for Mandarin intonation, suggesting that training effects may transcend levels. [Work supported by NIH (HD 37954) and the Talaris Research Institute.
Karall, Daniela; Haberlandt, Edda; Albrecht, Ursula; Rostasy, Kevin; Häberle, Johannes; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine
Citrullinemia is a urea cycle disorder caused by deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase. Late onset forms can remain undiscovered until a decompensation that can resemble encephalitis. Herein, we report a 14-year old patient with suspected encephalitis with fluctuating episodes of confusion. EEG mainly showed bilateral slowing with some spikes plus spike waves; and was interpreted as suspicious for encephalitis. Brain MRI was normal. Leukocytes in CSF were slightly elevated. Treatment for a CNS infectious disease was begun. Symptoms did not resolve and there were several episodes of confusion, so a repeat lumbar puncture was performed according to a standardized protocol including an amino acid profile. An elevation of citrulline in CSF was found, which ultimately led to the diagnosis of a late onset citrullinemia. The establishment of this diagnosis will protect the patient from the sequelae of unrecognized and thus untreated episodes of hyperammonemia. Thus, following a standardized lumbar puncture protocol can be essential to detect patients with otherwise unrecognized underlying metabolic disorders that are not suspected because of clinical symptoms. In addition, it is important to stress that an ammonia concentration should be determined in any patient with neurological signs like confusion.
Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Saieedi Gargari, Hamdollah; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Parvin; Eslami Sharbabaki, Nasrin
Background: In general, parental substance abuse is associated with children's emotional and behavioral problems. This study only investigated the internalizing problems (depression, anxiety and physical complains) in children of opioid or heroin-dependent parents in comparison with non-opioid dependent parents in order to determine the effects of drug dependency after excluding the confounding factors. Methods: This case-control study compared the internalizing problems of one hundred twenty eight 8 to 14-year-old students in two offspring groups of opioid or heroin-dependent parents (n=64) and non opioid dependent parents (n=64). Then we used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Parents in both groups had no major psychiatric disorders (e.g., personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorders or psychosis), no history of major medical diseases, and no history of divorce. Analysis was performed using chi square or Fisher's exact test. Findings: The anxiety/depression subscales in children of non opioid dependent parents were significantly higher in comparison with children of opioid or heroin-dependent parents. Conclusion: Substance dependence in addition to reducing parental supervision on children may cause lack of knowledge and unawareness of their children's anxiety and mood problems. Considering study limitations, study repetition in larger statistical population is necessary for generalizing the study findings. In order to assess internalizing problems in further studies, usage of behavioral checklists for self-report of children and youth is recommended. PMID:24494100
Rahmati, M; Moayedi, A; Zakery Shahvari, S; Golmirzaei, J; Zahirinea, M; Abbasi, B
Introduction. Bruxism is to press or grind teeth against each other in non-physiologic cases, when an individual does not swallow or chew. If not treated, teeth problems, stress, mental disorders, frequent night waking, and headache is expected. This research aimed to study the effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital. Methodology. In this clinical trial, 143 children with the ages between 4-12 years were admitted to the Children Hospital and were divided randomly into test and control groups. The test group consisted of 88 hydroxyzine-treated children and the control group consisted of 55 children who used hot towels. Both groups were examined in some stages including the pre-test stages or the stage before starting treatments at two, four, and six weeks and four months after stopping the treatment. The effects of each treatment on reducing bruxism symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using SPSS in descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA. Results. As far as bruxism severity was concerned, the results showed a significant difference between the test group members who received hydroxyzine and the control group members who received no medication. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the test and the control groups in the second post-test (four weeks later) (p. value ≤ 0.05). Mean of the scores of bruxism severity in the test group has changed significantly in the post-test (at two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks later) as compared to the pre-test. Whereas, as far as the response to the treatment, no significant difference was recorded between the control group and the test group 4 weeks after the treatment. Discussion. The results showed that prescribing hydroxyzine for 4 weeks had a considerable effect in diminishing bruxism severity between the test groups.
Rahmati, M; Moayedi, A; Zakery Shahvari, S; Golmirzaei, J; Zahirinea, M; Abbasi, B
Introduction. Bruxism is to press or grind teeth against each other in non-physiologic cases, when an individual does not swallow or chew. If not treated, teeth problems, stress, mental disorders, frequent night waking, and headache is expected. This research aimed to study the effect of hydroxyzine on treating bruxism of 2- to 14-year-old children admitted to the clinic of Bandar Abbas Children Hospital. Methodology. In this clinical trial, 143 children with the ages between 4-12 years were admitted to the Children Hospital and were divided randomly into test and control groups. The test group consisted of 88 hydroxyzine-treated children and the control group consisted of 55 children who used hot towels. Both groups were examined in some stages including the pre-test stages or the stage before starting treatments at two, four, and six weeks and four months after stopping the treatment. The effects of each treatment on reducing bruxism symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using SPSS in descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA. Results. As far as bruxism severity was concerned, the results showed a significant difference between the test group members who received hydroxyzine and the control group members who received no medication. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the test and the control groups in the second post-test (four weeks later) (p. value ≤ 0.05). Mean of the scores of bruxism severity in the test group has changed significantly in the post-test (at two weeks, four weeks, and six weeks later) as compared to the pre-test. Whereas, as far as the response to the treatment, no significant difference was recorded between the control group and the test group 4 weeks after the treatment. Discussion. The results showed that prescribing hydroxyzine for 4 weeks had a considerable effect in diminishing bruxism severity between the test groups.
Ostojic, Sergej M; Castagna, Carlo; Calleja-González, Julio; Jukic, Igor; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko
Talent identification and development in soccer is often biased by maturation-related differences of young athletes. However, there is no information available about success rates for youth maturing at different tempos to achieve success in elite adult soccer. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of different maturational groups among boys playing soccer, and to track them for competence in adult performance. A prospective cohort study design was used to follow 55, 14-year-old boys playing in Serbian youth soccer Division I over eight years. At the age of 14, biological age using skeletal age rates was determined, and participants were categorized as early maturers (EaM), normal maturers (NoM), and late maturers (LaM). Game competence for adult soccer at age 22 was described as elite if an individual played for clubs competing in top-five international soccer leagues (La Liga, Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1), and/or has become a member of an adult National team. Among boys in our study group, 43.8% were categorized as EaM, 35.4% as NoM, and 20.8% as LaM (P = 0.11). A significant difference in biological age was found among maturational groups at age 14, with EaM > NoM > LaM (P > 0.0001). When assessed for adult soccer competence, 33.3% of participants (16 out of 48 players) succeed in achieving elite level. Elite soccer competence acquired 60.1% players from the group of LaM, 38.1% from NoM, and 11.8% from EaM (P > 0.0001). Our comparative analysis suggests that soccer excludes early maturing boys and favors late maturing boys as level of performance increases.
Background Dental caries in children remains a significant public health problem. It is a disease with multifactorial causes. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among children between 7 to 14 years old. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from June 2011 to September 2011. A total of 842 children were involved in the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the children. Pretested and structured questionnaires were used to collect data from mothers. Clinical examination of children was done using dental caries criteria set by world health organization. Data were entered, cleaned and edited using EPI Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Binary multiple logistic regression analyses was applied to test the association. Results Four hundred sixty three (55%) children were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 306(36.3%).The educational status of children’s father (AOR=0.3, 95%CI, 0.17, 0.80), monthly household income (AOR=0.59, 95%CI, 0.01, 0.45), regular teeth brushing (AOR=0.08, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.20) and using mouth rinsing (AOR=0.40, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.80) were found statistically significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusions Dental caries were high among children in Gondar town. Low socioeconomic status and poor oral hygiene practices were the influencing factors for dental caries. Oral hygiene, dietary habits and access to dental care services are supreme important for the prevention of the problem. PMID:23331467
Tilak, Ragini; Kumari, Varsha; Bansal, Manish; Sharma, Taniya; Pandey, Shyam Sunder
A 13-year-old girl presented with multiple painless purulent ulcers with raised borders on the medial aspect of the sole of her right foot associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy for the past 4 years. There was history of local trauma at the site prior to the formation of ulcers. There were no other significant associated signs or symptoms. The patient was initially treated with multiple antibiotics with minimal improvement. Fungal cultures of biopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of colonies of Sporothrix schenckii thus confirming the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Oral itraconazole at the dose of 100 mg twice daily was initiated with marked response at 4 weeks. This case demonstrated a rare morphological presentation of the lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis as mycetoma. The possible diagnosis of sporotrichosis should be kept in mind in such a clinical presentation not responding to antibiotics. Cutaneous sporotrichosis should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible because untreated cases may disseminate to cause visceral involvement with fatal outcome in immunocompromised patients.
Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease have been shown to track from childhood through to adulthood. Previous school-based physical activity interventions have demonstrated modest improvements to cardiovascular disease risk factors by implementing extra-curricular activities or improving current physical education curriculum. Few have attempted to increase physical activity in class-room taught curriculum subjects. This study will outline a school-based cross-curricular physical activity intervention to combat cardiovascular disease risk factors in 11-14 year old children. Method/Design A South Wales Valley school of low socio-economic status has been selected to take part. Participants from year eight (12-13 years) are to be assigned to an intervention group, with maturation-matched participants from years seven (11-12 years) and nine (13-14 years) assigned to a control group. A cross-curricular physical activity intervention will be implemented to increase activity by two hours a week for 18 weeks. Participants will briskly walk 3200 m twice weekly during curriculum lessons (60 minutes duration). With the exception of physical education, all curriculum subjects will participate, with each subject delivering four intervention lessons. The intervention will be performed outdoors and on school premises. An indoor course of equal distance will be used during adverse weather conditions. Cardiovascular disease risk factors will be measured pre- and post-intervention for intervention and control groups. These will take place during physical education lessons and will include measures of stature, mass, waist, hip, and neck circumferences, together with skinfold measure's taken at four sites. Blood pressure will be measured, and fitness status assessed via the 20 m multi-stage fitness test. Questionnaires will be used to determine activity behaviour (physical activity questionnaire
Lakshmi, Chintamaneni Raja; Radhika, Doppalapudi; Prabhat, Mpv; Bhavana, Sujana mulk; Sai Madhavi, Nallamilli
Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Student’s t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D), non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.000). Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48) than non-tasters (0.29), which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index. PMID:27651879
Lakshmi, Chintamaneni Raja; Radhika, Doppalapudi; Prabhat, Mpv; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sai Madhavi, Nallamilli
Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D), non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.000). Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48) than non-tasters (0.29), which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index.
Bhatia, Rupinder; Winnier, J. Jasmin; Mehta, Nirali
Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to establish the relationship of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as assessed by the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ 11–14) with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the child's apprehension with his/her dental appearance and how upset the child would feel if he/she is unable to obtain orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 604 children between the age group of 10–14 years to analyze the effect of malocclusion on the quality of life of children on the basis of impact on oral symptoms, functional limitation, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Malocclusion was evaluated using the IOTN, and the CPQ 11–14 was used to study the OHRQoL in children. The collected data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data statistically. Results: Out of the 604 children examined, boys showed effect on emotional well-being, whereas girls showed a significant correlation on both emotional and social well-being. There was a statistically significant correlation between IOTN and all the four domains of CPQ scores with respect to the two questions that were added to the CPQ questionnaire. Conclusion: A questionnaire when developed specifically for determining the effect of malocclusion on OHRQoL focusing more on emotional and psychological impact and less on oral symptoms and functional limitation will provide advantages of having limited questions, being less time-consuming, and providing better understanding of the patients’ concern. PMID:27994409
Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather
This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.
Motivation to learn foreign languages is a significant determinant of successful language acquisition. The subject has been widely researched in the past, and since the early 1990s a great deal of empirical research related to the classroom environment has been proposed to expand theory into everyday classroom practice. I present an empirical,…
A case study is presented describing the work of three pupils in the upper level of compulsory school. The pupils were learning about the intensified greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone layer. In their work, the need for certain domain-specific knowledge becomes apparent; for example, understanding such concepts as photosynthesis,…
Abdellahi, Moussa; Ndir, Oumar; Niang, Saidou
Introduction: The advent of Diama and Manantali dams in the eighties has altered the schistosomiasis profile in the Senegal River Basin, with the appearance of an intestinal form in the Delta and a high prevalence of the urinary form in all ecological areas of the basin. Methods: The present study was mainly designed to re-evaluate the prevalence of schistosomiasis after many years of mass drug administration with praziquantel 600 mg allowing analysis of the pertinence of World Health Organisation guidelines in terms of dosing frequency, particularly in the Senegal River Basin. Stools and urine from 1,215 public school children from 24 villagesidentified in three ecological areas of the Senegal River Basin (Delta, valley, upper basin), were examined. Results: The results of thisstudy show the endemic prevalences of urinary schistosomiasisin all ecological areas ofthe Senegal River Basin: 57.4% in the Delta, 32.5% in the Valley and 25.1% in the upper basin. The prevalence of the intestinalschistosomiasisform was 21.8 % in the Delta, and this form has also entered the valley. Conclusion: The results ofthisstudy confirm that schistosomiasis is still a public health problem in the Senegal River Basin despite several series of mass praziquantel 600 mg administration. This situation requires detailed reflection concerning dosing frequencies of this drug in the Senegal River basin and the need to take social behaviours and sociological realities into account in order to eradicate schistosomiasis.
Houck, H E; Cooley, J E; Lowitt, M H; Kao, G F
Tinea capitis has a wide variety of clinical presentations in adolescents and adults. However, the occurrence of fingerlike projections in the scalp has not been previously described. A 14-year-old girl presented with a one-year history of a painful scalp mass. Debridement of this mass revealed slender papillomatous growths resembling those seen in elephantiasis nostras verrucosa. A fungal culture grew Trichophyton mentagrophytes. We describe the first case of this unusual clinical variant of tinea capitis and hypothesize on its pathophysiological basis.
Holman, Margery J.; Johnson, Jay; Lucier, Mary-Kaye
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of girls and boys about the effects that body-based harassment would have on girls' eating habits and engagement in physical activity. Five scenarios were read to focus groups comprised of 12- to 14-year-old students in grades 7 and 8. Each scenario represented behaviours that fall…
Patra, Soumya; Sastry, Usha Mandikal Kodanda Rama; Mahimaiha, Jayranganath; Subramanian, Anand P; Shankarappa, Ravindranath K; Nanjappa, Manjunath C
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an uncommon complication of Takayasu arteritis (TA) with a prevalence of about 6%. We report a case of 14-year-old girl who presented with dyspnea, bipedal edema, loss of weight, and easy fatigability for three months. She was being treated for DCM for the same duration. Clinical examination revealed absence of both upper limb pulses. Echocardiography revealed features of DCM with severe biventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 30%). Computed tomography angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of TA and revealed the presence of bilateral renal artery stenosis. Bilateral renal angioplasty was done, and immunosuppressant therapy with oral prednisolone and weekly oral methotrexate was started.
Geoghegan, S; Fitzpatrick, J M; McGuire, B; O'Malley, K J; Shaw, C; Fabre, A
We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with polycythemia. CT abdomen revealed an enhancing mass in the upper pole of her left kidney with features suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Histology demonstrated a well circumscribed, focally encapsulated, round blue cell tumour showing areas of microcalcifications and numerous psammoma bodies. Imunostaining showed diffuse positive staining for CD 57. This was consistent with a diagnosis of metanephric adenoma a rare benign epithelial renal tumour.
Anakwue, Raphael Chinedu; Chijioke, Chioli; Mbah, Anthony; Onuh, Augustine; Okwara, Christian
We report on a 21-year-old Nigerian girl with toe gangrene, which is one of the most unlikely forms of presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome among Africans. The essence of this case report is to raise awareness that, although antiphospholipid syndrome typically presents in Africans in association with a pregnancy-related event or a neuropathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all African patients with unexplained vasculitis. A high index of suspicion and early treatment will prevent toe amputations and reduce mortality rates.
Rapp, John T.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.
We evaluated and treated swimming pool avoidance that was exhibited by a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. In part, treatment involved blocking for flopping (dropping to the ground) and elopement (running away from the pool) and access to food for movements toward a swimming pool. Treatment also involved reinforcement for exposure to various…
Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy
Internationally, there is widespread concern about the need to increase participation in the sciences (particularly the physical sciences), especially among girls/women. This paper draws on data from a five-year, longitudinal study of 10-14-year-old children's science aspirations and career choice to explore the reasons why, even from a young age,…
Theran, Sally A.
The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with…
Discusses the development of middle class, public secondary Scottish schools for girls over 14 years old in the latter 1800s. States these institutions opened the door for the Scottish women's movement, allowing women to pursue public positions. Clarifies that the movement was still in its early stages by the late 1800s. (KDR)
Varalakshmi, B; Doshi, V Vimal; Sivalingam, D; Nambi, Shanthi
Ms. V, a 10-year-old girl was referred to Child Psychiatry Department with complaints of bleeding from eyes for last 3 months. Bleeding was spontaneous, recurrent, painless, and self-limited. History revealed significant Psychological stressors, Temperamental Difficulties and Conflicts with Mother. Mental status examination revealed Depression in Ms. V. During hospital stay, Ms. V developed repeated bleeding episodes. The presence of hemoglobin is confirmed in the bleeding sample. Hematologic investigations and computed tomography brain were normal. Ms. V was started on Sertraline, Propranolol, and Clonazepam. Both Ms. V and her Mother were psycho-educated about the nature of the illness. Ms. V was discharged and under follow-up. This case is reported for the rarity of presentation (bleeding from Eyes) of a childhood Depression.
Frković, Sanda Huljev; Durisević, Ivana Tonković; Trcić, Ruzica Lasan; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Gornik, Kristina Crkvenac; Muzinić, Dubravka; Letica, Ljiljana; Barić, Ivo; Begović, Davor
Pallister Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12, revealed usually in mosaic distribution of an extra i (12) (p10) chromosome in fibroblasts. The syndrome presents with a recognizable pattern of findings including pigmentary skin changes, coarse face, high forehead, sparse anterior scalp hair, hypertelorism, seizures and progressive psychomotor developmental delay. It was first described independently by Pallister in 1977 and by Killian and Teschler-Nikola in 1981. We report a case of 21 month old girl with PKS and significant overgrowth. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using the GTG banding technique. The karyotype of cultured lymphocytes was normal. The karyotype from skin fibroblasts was established as mosaic tetrasomy of 12p 47,XX,+i (12) (p10)/46,XX. The origin of the extra marker chromosome was determinated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 12 specific DNA probes confirming that supernumerary marker is chromosome i (12p) in 68% of cells. Despite the excessive postnatal growth we found low serum growth hormone levels and reduced response to pharmacological stimulation test. This is also the first report of a postnatal patient in our country.
Latuśkiewicz-Potemska, Joanna; Zygmunt, Agnieszka; Biernacka-Zielińska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Smolewska, Elżbieta
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue with the underlying autoimmunological mechanism. The core of MCTD is an appearance of symptoms of several other inflammatory diseases of connective tissue - systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, poly- or dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis at the same time, accompanied by a high level of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-U1RNP). The disease was described more than 40 years ago by Sharp et al. During recent years, many efforts to better understand clinical and serological features of MCTD have been made. Diagnosis of MCTD can be difficult. Obligatory international diagnostic criteria are required to be fulfilled. Several versions of such criteria have been proposed, but the most widely used one was described by Kasukawa. There is no consensus about treatment - a choice of drugs depends on symptoms. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with sclerodactyly and trophic damages of fingers accompanied by symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. After an almost 2-year course of the disease, a diagnosis of MCTD has been established.
Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil
Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…
Nallamothu, Ranganadh; Kallam, Shanmukha Reddy; Gunturu, Srikanth; Singh, Sukumar; Rachalapally, Vijay Kumar
A 9-year-old girl was referred to a trauma centre with severe head injury. 3D CT scan revealed depressed fracture involving the frontal bone on the right side, right parietal bone, and right superior orbital margin, right lamina papyracea. The frontal table was managed conservatively and open reduction and internal fixation was done for the supraorbital blow in to correct the ocular dystopia. The clinical course, possible mechanism, and management of the patient are discussed.
Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures.
Balu, Pratebha; Ramalingam, Sudhakar; Raja, Manoj; Thomas, Mathew
The phenomenon of buttressing bone formation is relatively uncommon in the alveolar bone, more so in the anterior maxilla. In our case, peripheral buttressing bone formation presented as an isolated hard gingival swelling with relation to 21 in a 14-year-old girl. Radiographic presentation was normal with no evidence of bone loss or altered bone density. Therefore explorative surgery was planned. Buttressing bone formation could be appreciated, which also was the cause for swelling clinically. Osteoplasty was done and bone graft placed in the defect. On a subsequent recall visit gingivoplasty was done to reduce gingival thickness to improve esthetics. We report the case for its unusual presentation, its management with follow-up. PMID:23293489
Davalos, Eric A; Gandhi, Nishant M; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K
Gorham-Stout (GS) disease is a rare bone disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by local proliferation of small vascular or lymphatic channels, resulting in progressive osteolysis and bone resorption. The diagnosis of GS disease is one of exclusion, with radiography and histopathology playing key roles. We describe a 9-year-old girl who presented to us with dyspnea and bone pain. She was found to have a cystic mass of the upper extremity, multiple cystic bone lesions, multiple fractures of different ages, and pleural effusions. We review the radiologic images that helped establish the diagnosis of GS disease.
Insights into the future generation of veterinarians: perspectives gained from the 13- and 14-year-olds who attended Michigan State University's veterinary camp, and conclusions about our obligations.
Sprecher, David J
Veterinary medicine is at a crossroads: the future of the profession will be determined by those who join it and by those who select who will join it. Veterinary schools are the gatekeepers of the profession, and the entire veterinary profession is responsible for ensuring that the image it presents to those who will join it matches the social needs that it must serve. The application process for a Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine (MSUCVM) academic summer camp provided an opportunity to discern attributes of the 314 eighth-grade students who attended in 2000-2002. A re-reading of their application essays allowed clustering of similar descriptions and comments about motivations to attend the camp, interests in science, interactions with animals, and exposure to veterinarians and veterinary medicine. Many veterinary camp attendees will be undergraduate students by 2005/2006 and will be applying to colleges of veterinary medicine between 2008 and 2010. There-fore, an understanding of their attributes is germane to discussions about desirable characteristics of veterinary college applicants. Although the camp was designed to attract eighth graders interested in science and curious about veterinary medicine, attendees frequently described veterinary medicine as their career goal. These students (89.5% female, 95.6% residents of Michigan) enjoyed science, but their interest in veterinary medicine related to emotions such as a love of animals and sympathy for sick or injured animals (96.1%). They discussed having pets in their homes (75.5%), involvement with horseback riding (20.7%), experiences with animal-related projects and activities in 4-H (17.2%), and husbandry experience at farms or stables (16.2%). Although 22.6% had already shadowed a veterinarian and 12.8% described receiving other forms of veterinary mentoring, 22.9% commented on their inability to gain shadowing exposures prior to age 16. Based on the results of this survey and years
Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Pereira, Beatriz; Mendonça, Denisa; Nunes, Berta; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio
This exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of bullying in a group of students and analyze the data regarding the gender of those involved in the violence. A questionnaire adapted from Olweus was applied in seven elementary education schools in Portugal. The sample consisted of 387 students between 7 and 14 years old. Data are presented in terms of descriptive statistics and differences between proportions were analyzed using chi-square tests. The gender analysis of victimization and aggression shows that boys and girls are both victims and aggressors, and there are significant differences in involvement in bullying between genders and the roles played. Boys are victims more often when considering different types of bullying, although significant differences were only found for physical aggression. Strategies that include gender roles are a priority for prevention and careful attention to this phenomenon in the school context. The questions addressed contribute to a broader understanding of the phenomenon, emphasizing the differential participation of boys and girls in bullying. PMID:24317387
Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Pereira, Beatriz; Mendonça, Denisa; Nunes, Berta; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio
This exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of bullying in a group of students and analyze the data regarding the gender of those involved in the violence. A questionnaire adapted from Olweus was applied in seven elementary education schools in Portugal. The sample consisted of 387 students between 7 and 14 years old. Data are presented in terms of descriptive statistics and differences between proportions were analyzed using chi-square tests. The gender analysis of victimization and aggression shows that boys and girls are both victims and aggressors, and there are significant differences in involvement in bullying between genders and the roles played. Boys are victims more often when considering different types of bullying, although significant differences were only found for physical aggression. Strategies that include gender roles are a priority for prevention and careful attention to this phenomenon in the school context. The questions addressed contribute to a broader understanding of the phenomenon, emphasizing the differential participation of boys and girls in bullying.
Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo
A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.
Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...
This article presents a demographic profile of female children in India: sex ratios, age structure, death rate, infant mortality, child mortality, and early marriage. The analysis is based on data from the 1981 and 1991 Censuses of India and the 1992 Sample Registration System. The sex ratio in 1991 was 927 females per 1000 males, which represents a declining sex ratio since 1901. Sex ratios by state during 1971-91 indicate a declining sex ratio in Bihar, followed by Manipur and 10 other states. Kerala was the only state with a favorable sex ratio of 1036 females per 1000 males in 1991. 4 states showed some improvement in the sex ratio. The percentage distribution of male and female population in various age groups under 14 years did not differ significantly in 1991. The highest proportion of children 0-4 years old was in Bihar, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana, in 1991. The lowest proportion of female children 0-4 years old was in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The highest proportion of female children 5-9 years old was in Assam. The highest proportion of female children 10-14 years old was in Bihar. The highest proportion of male children 10-14 years old was in Haryana. Except for male children 0-4 years old, Kerala had the lowest proportion of children in all 3 age groups. Crude death rates in 1991 were 10.6 in rural areas to 7.1 in urban areas. Kerala had the lowest death rate, and Madhya Pradesh had the highest death rate. Female infants had higher mortality in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan had the highest female death rates and Madhya Pradesh had the highest male death rates in the ages 0-4 years. 9 states had a mean age at marriage lower than the national average. India's National Plan of Action for the 1990s for girl children stresses survival and protection, development, and special protection of vulnerable girls.
Momen, Tooba; Madihi, Yahya
Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is an autoimmune blistering disease occurring in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is a rare disease, especially in children. A 14-year-old girl initially presented with fatigue, generalized vesiculobullous skin lesions, and ulcers over the hard palate and oral mucosa. Clinical investigations revealed hematuria and proteinuria, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and titer of antinuclear antibody, and anti-double-stranded DNA. Skin biopsy findings were suggestive of BSLE. A renal biopsy confirmed the features of class V lupus nephritis. Based on the clinical features and investigations, a diagnosis of BSLE with nephritis was made. She received methylprednisolone pulse therapy and hydroxychloroquine; however, it did not alleviate the vesiculobullous eruption, so treatment with dapsone started and resulted in the dramatic disappearance of the lesions. Interruption of dapsone due to hemolysis did not aggravate the bullous disease. During follow-up, she had multiple flare-ups of disease and nephritis without rebound of bullous lesions. BSLE is a rare presentation of SLE in children. Differentiating it from other skin bullous diseases and SLE with blister is important for the correct management. The unusual presentation of this disease may delay the diagnosis and therefore requires a high index of clinical suspicion. PMID:27974963
Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E
Although children of depressed mothers are at an increased risk for suicidal thinking, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which this occurs. The present study is the first to our knowledge to utilize a prospective design with the goal of examining whether the impact of maternal depression on children's risk for suicidal ideation is mediated by children's levels of overt and relational peer victimization. Participants were 203 mother-child pairs recruited from the community. The age range of the children was 8 to 14 years old (50.2 % girls). Mothers either met criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD) during their child's lifetime (n = 96) or had no lifetime diagnosis of any DSM-IV mood disorder and no current Axis I diagnosis (n = 107). At the baseline assessment, diagnostic interviews were used to assess mothers' and children's histories of MDD and children completed a self-report measure of peer victimization. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the initial assessment during which time interviewers assessed for the occurrence of suicidal ideation in the children. Utilizing a mediated moderation model, we found significant indirect pathways from maternal depression to children's suicidal ideation through both relational and overt forms of peer victimization among girls, but not among boys. The current study suggests that peer victimization may constitute one of the potential mechanisms by which daughters of depressed mothers are at increased risk for suicidal thinking.
Kasiri, Karam-Ali; Khoshdel, Abolfazl
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common identifiable cause of serious or life threatening sporadic, endemic encephalitis. Typical HSV encephalitis in patients outside neonatal age is caused by HSV-1. A 23-month-old girl was referred to our hospital with a three-day history of fever, listlessness, slurred speech, and suspicious oesophageal foreign body impaction. Laboratory evaluations showed white blood cell count of 10900 /mm3 with 65% neutrophils. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse severe ulceration in middle to distal third of oesophagus and no foreign body was found in oesophagus or stomach. Parenteral acyclovir was prescribed for herpes encephalitis in addition to antibiotics for central nervous system infection. Chest X-ray and brain MRI was unremarkable. Lumbar puncture revealed normal protein and glucose with 10 white cell count. She developed a raising liver enzyme tests. Total and direct bilirubin was 1.2 mg/dc and 0.2 mg/dc respectively. Because of neurological symptoms, acyclovir was adopted for our patient from the beginning. The girl did not respond to medication and died after 28 days. Progression of her disease prior to referral appears to contribute to the administered treatment inefficacy. Severe rapid progression of disease prior to referral and potential resistance to acyclovir could cause treatment failure. PMID:26155527
In many countries, girls are discriminated against in nutrition, education, health care, and other areas, to the detriment of their personal development. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with promoting women's rights have come to regard the problem of girls' rights as very serious. Attention to girls in the past was focused on adolescent pregnancy or on social problems such as violence or child prostitution. But in the view of the NGOs, gender equity will be impossible to achieve as long as discrimination against girls continues. In addition, limiting the opportunities of girls will inevitably limit their potential contributions to society. The UN General Assembly in September 1989 approved the Convention on the Rights of Children, the principal goals of which were to eliminate malnutrition, preventable diseases, and illiteracy. The World Conference on Children in 1990 was attended by representatives of over 150 countries, who specified concrete goals. Measurable progress has occurred. UNICEF estimates, for example, that 2.5 million fewer children died on 1996 than in 1990, but it is probable that over half of the children in Latin America and the Caribbean live in poverty. In 1990, nearly 1 million children under age 5 in the region died of preventable diseases, and some 7 million were estimated to be malnourished, 1 million seriously. Infant mortality rates indicate that most countries of the region have improved their health status, but the rate has apparently increased in Haiti, Bolivia, and Peru. The Pan American Health Organization and the Demographic and Health Surveys have accumulated data indicating that excess mortality has occurred among girls 1-4 years old in at least 9 countries of the region. Some evidence suggests that health care is less likely to be sought for girls than boys. Domestic violence and sexual abuse are a serious problem for girls and women, but many countries continue to avoid the issue. The 1993 UN Declaration of Human
Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek
Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.
Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.
If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…
Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos
We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.
Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.
Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda
Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…
Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are balanced or unbalanced structural rearrangements involving three or more cytogenetic breakpoints on two or more chromosomal pairs. The phenotypic anomalies in such cases are attributed to gene disruption, superimposed cryptic imbalances in the genome, and/or position effects. We report a 14-year-old girl who presented with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay. Chromosome and FISH analysis indicated a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving three chromosomes (3, 7 and 12), seven breakpoints as a result of one inversion, two insertions, and two translocations forming three derivative chromosomes. Additionally, chromosomal microarray study (CMA) revealed two submicroscopic deletions at 3p12.3 (467 kb) and 12q13.12 (442 kb). We postulate that microdeletion within the ROBO1 gene at 3p12.3 may have played a role in the patient’s developmental delay, since it has potential activity-dependent role in neurons. Additionally, factors other than genomic deletions such as loss of function or position effects may also contribute to the abnormal phenotype in our patient. PMID:25478007
Hemmat, Morteza; Yang, Xiaojing; Chan, Patricia; McGough, Robert A; Ross, Leslie; Mahon, Loretta W; Anguiano, Arturo L; Boris, Wang T; Elnaggar, Mohamed M; Wang, Jia-Chi J; Strom, Charles M; Boyar, Fatih Z
Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are balanced or unbalanced structural rearrangements involving three or more cytogenetic breakpoints on two or more chromosomal pairs. The phenotypic anomalies in such cases are attributed to gene disruption, superimposed cryptic imbalances in the genome, and/or position effects. We report a 14-year-old girl who presented with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay. Chromosome and FISH analysis indicated a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving three chromosomes (3, 7 and 12), seven breakpoints as a result of one inversion, two insertions, and two translocations forming three derivative chromosomes. Additionally, chromosomal microarray study (CMA) revealed two submicroscopic deletions at 3p12.3 (467 kb) and 12q13.12 (442 kb). We postulate that microdeletion within the ROBO1 gene at 3p12.3 may have played a role in the patient's developmental delay, since it has potential activity-dependent role in neurons. Additionally, factors other than genomic deletions such as loss of function or position effects may also contribute to the abnormal phenotype in our patient.
Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Evankovich, Karen; Lotze, Tim
We present the case of a 14-year-old Hispanic boy with a 6-month history of a psychotic disorder necessitating several hospitalizations who was incidentally found to have multiple sclerosis with no physical findings. Neuropsychological assessment has revealed impairments in word-finding, bilateral fine motor skills, and attention. Imaging and…
Krauthamer Ewing, E. Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A.; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy
This paper describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The paper begins with an overview of ABFT, including 1) how attachment theory guides treatment; 2) the structure of the clinical model; and 3) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth. PMID:25329356
Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy
This article describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year-old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The article begins with an overview of ABFT, including (a) how attachment theory guides treatment; (b) the structure of the clinical model; and (c) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The article concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth.
Introduction Few in vivo studies have investigated the effect of maxillary expansion on strabismus; however, some in vitro studies hypothesized that changes in the palatal width obtained with rapid maxillary expansion appliances could involve other bone structures that contain blood vessels and nerves conveying to the orbital cavity. The present case report seems to support that hypothesis, even if no analysis of pathogenetic mechanisms could be drawn. Case presentation We present the case of a 14-year-old Caucasian girl affected by strabismus and referred for the treatment of a class III malocclusion with transverse maxillary deficiency, which was corrected by the application of a rapid maxillary expansion appliance (Haas type). At 2 months follow-up, the patient, who had not undergone any ophthalmologic treatment, was submitted to an ophthalmologic examination that revealed a marked change in the vision defect, which slightly relapsed at 6 months. Conclusions The results of our clinical evaluation showed a remarkable modification of the oculomotor system of our patient as an outcome of the rapid maxillary expansion. Further studies are needed to clarify these findings and to investigate the clinical implications of these observations. PMID:23971857
Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne
In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.
Ross, Amy; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Rachel F
To date, effective body image interventions for preadolescent school girls are lacking. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Y's Girl, a published body image curriculum specifically tailored for preadolescent school girls. A sample of 60 Grade 6 girls with a mean age of 11.25 (range of 11-12) years were allocated either to an intervention or control group and completed baseline and posttest measures of body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparison, self-esteem, peer factors, and disordered eating. Findings revealed that, compared to the control group, girls receiving the intervention reported improved body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparisons, and self-esteem at posttest 1 week after the intervention ended. Furthermore, changes in body satisfaction were moderated by initial levels of risk-factors. These findings provide initial support for Y's Girl as an effective, affordable body image intervention for preadolescent girls which can be implemented by teachers.
A 14-year-old girl with no known illness presented with a several week history of headaches and vomiting. The patient also reported having joint pain and swelling to the wrists and knees. She had no prior history of headaches, use of hormonal contraception or other medications, recent weight changes or family history of autoimmune disease. Blood pressure temperature, height and weight were normal. She was alert, there was alopecia, cervical lympadenopathy, symmetrical synovitis to the wrists, bilateral papilloedema and cranial nerve VI palsy. Laboratory investigations revealed a normochromic normocytic anaemia, leucopenia and lymphopenia. Serum chemistries were normal. CT of the brain was normal. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of greater than 300 mm H2O; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was normal. HIV antibodies were non-reactive. Despite treatment with acetazolamide she developed somnolence. Hence MR venography was performed which showed no evidence of cerebral vein thrombosis. Further investigations revealed a positive direct coombs test, positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) positive antidouble-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and false positive VDRL. Complement levels were reduced. Anti-Smith, anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were negative. PMID:23943808
Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E.
Although children of depressed mothers are at an increased risk for suicidal thinking, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which this occurs. The present study is the first to our knowledge to utilize a prospective design with the goal of examining whether the impact of maternal depression on children’s risk for suicidal ideation is mediated by children’s levels of overt and relational peer victimization. Participants were 203 mother-child pairs recruited from the community. The age range of the children was 8 to 14 years old (50.2% girls). Mothers either met criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD) during their child’s lifetime (n = 96) or had no lifetime diagnosis of any DSM-IV mood disorder and no current Axis I diagnosis (n = 107). At the baseline assessment, diagnostic interviews were used to assess mothers’ and children’s histories of MDD and children completed a self-report measure of peer victimization. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the initial assessment during which time interviewers assessed for the occurrence of suicidal ideation in the children. Utilizing a mediated moderation model, we found significant indirect pathways from maternal depression to children’s suicidal ideation through both relational and overt forms of peer victimization among girls, but not among boys. The current study suggests that peer victimization may constitute one of the potential mechanisms by which daughters of depressed mothers are at increased risk for suicidal thinking. PMID:25911195
Mosca, A L; Callier, P; Leheup, B; Marle, N; Jalloul, M; Coffinet, L; Feillet, F; Valduga, M; Jonveaux, P; Mugneret, F
Constitutional interstitial deletions of 5q are relatively rare and most are poorly characterized cytogenetically. Consequently a definite karyotype-phenotype correlation is difficult to establish. We report on a new case of a girl presenting with an abnormal cry, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, anteverted nostrils, microretrognathia, growth retardation, and an adenoid cyst at the base of the tongue. The first suspected diagnosis was cri-du-chat syndrome because of the mewing cry. Standard cytogenetic analyses were interpreted as normal, but FISH studies using the probe of cri-du-chat syndrome with the control probe EGR1 (5q31.2)/D5S23 (Abbott) revealed a 5q31.2 microdeletion which was then confirmed by CGH-array (Abbott). FISH studies using PACs and BACs clones (Rocchi, Italia) enabled us to characterize the breakpoints of the deleted region. Cytogenetic analysis with FISH studies revealed a normal karyotype with normal 5q31 region in both parents. This case is compared with the other cases reported in the literature.
Aldave Becerra, Juan Carlos; Cachay Rojas, Enrique
We report a 3-year-old Peruvian girl, born to non-consanguineous parents. At the age of 8 months, she had a severe pneumonia complicated with empyema that required thoracic drainage and mechanical ventilation. Although no microorganisms were isolated, the patient recovered with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Since that date, she has presented multiple episodes of pneumonia and recurrent episodes of bronchospasm. At 1 year 5 months of age, the patient began with recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal, vaginal, and skin candidiasis, which improved transiently after using oral azole drugs. At 2.5 years of age, she was admitted with lupus-like syndrome, including serositis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antinuclear (1:80) and dsDNA (1:10) autoantibodies. Available immunologic testing was not contributory. Imaging studies revealed bilateral ethmoidal sinusitis and mild hepatomegaly. Bone marrow analysis did not showed evidence of leukemia or myelodysplasia, while renal biopsy concluded mild mesangial proliferation. Genetic studies revealed a pathogenic heterozygous signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function mutation (WT/P293L). The clinical status and lung function of the patient has worsened progressively. She has not achieved an optimal response to therapy, including high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, GM-CSF, prophylactic antibiotics and antifungal drugs, so we plan to perform hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28367431
Lim, C. Anthoney; Cunningham, Sandra J.
Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to life-threatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair. PMID:23251718
Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer
The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…
Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie
This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…
Aycan, Zehra; Önder, Aşan; Çetinkaya, Semra
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by the triad of fibrous dysplasia (FD), cafe-au-lait spots and precocious puberty (PP). We report a 14-year-old girl with MAS who has been followed-up for 8 years. She was referred for multiple fractures and vaginal bleeding at age 5.9 years. She had peripheral PP, FD, and osteoporosis and was diagnosed as MAS. The patient was treated with aromatase inhibitors and bisphosphonates. She had no menses during aromatase inhibitor treatment. Her growth rate and bone maturation were in normal ranges while on treatment. She had one new fracture on the seventh year of follow- up in spite of bisphosphonate treatment.
Wolfgram, Peter M.; Connor, Ellen L.; Rehm, Jennifer L.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Zha, Wei; Reeder, Scott B.; Allen, David B.
Objective To investigate the degree to which waist circumference (WC), BMI, and MRI measured abdominal fat deposition predict insulin resistance (IR) in non-obese girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Methods Fifty-seven non-obese girls (12 African-American, 16 Hispanic White and 29 non-Hispanic White girls), aged 11–14 years old were assessed for WC, MRI hepatic proton density fat fraction, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, BMI Z-score, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, sex hormone binding globulin, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses adjusted for race and ethnicity indicated that only WC and visceral adipose tissue volume were independent predictors of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, while dependent predictors were hepatic proton density fat fraction, BMI Z-score, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume. Hispanic White girls showed significantly higher mean fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower sex hormone binding globulin than non-Hispanic White girls (p-value <0.01). Conclusions In non-obese girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, WC, particularly when adjusted for race or ethnicity, is an independent predictor of IR comparable to MRI-derived measurements of fat and superior to BMI Z-score. PMID:26352642
Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling
Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.
Eyermann, Sarah E.; Hornschemeier, A.; Shkolyar, S.
Big Explosions and Strong Gravity (BESG) is an activity designed to allow girls to interact with actual astronomers. In this Girl Scout patch-earning event, girls spend a day exploring supernovae, black holes, the abundance of elements in the universe, and spectroscopy. The girls who participate in this event range from about 11 to 14 years old. Although all the activities are gender-neutral, we have chosen girls due to their underrepresentation in science. There is a general decline in interest in math and science that occurs at or after children reach this critical age. By targeting this age range, we hope to reach them early enough to have a positive effect. BESG is a collaboration between Girl Scouts and scientists, and was originally set into motion using money from the Chandra X-ray Observatory E/PO program. It was originally run with the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland and scientists in the Baltimore and Washington DC areas. Thanks to a NASA ROSES grant, we are now working to expand this program nationally. Already the program has been piloted in one other council, and others have been trained, either in person or through NASA Goddard's Distance Learning Network (DLN). During the pilot phase, we would like for it to be run in at least 5 new locations around the country. We are still seeking partners to make this happen. We can supply manuals, remote support through our experienced team, and through our NASA ROSES grant, may be able to help provide supplies for the first five Girl Scout/astronomer teams available to conduct BESG in 2009/early 2010.
Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.
Williams, Trevor; And Others
A study examined the educational and occupational plans of Australian fourteen-year-olds as part of program of research on the transition to adulthood. A twenty-item questionnaire was administered to 969 students in 243 schools across Australia. The questionnaire contained items pertaining to respondents' State of residence, school system…
King, Diane; Dockrell, Julie E.; Stuart, Morag
Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to have difficulties in narrative language and especially with use of evaluative enrichment devices. However, little is known about their production of event narratives. Aims: To establish if children with ASD differ from typically developing peers in their production of general…
Ordinary students (n=40) are participating in a Soviet experiment wherein they are taught by well-known scientists and specialists in a math-intensive course comparable to that taught at the Kiev University. (JC)
Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.
From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.
This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…
This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…
Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian
Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Introduction We analyzed the etiopathogenetic, clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, particularly in association with dental anomalies of number, with the aim of providing useful information for their correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. Case presentation A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented for observation of bilateral agenesis of the upper incisors, which was diagnosed by orthopantomography. Approximately one year after starting orthodontic treatment, the patient went to the emergency department because of a phlegmonous tumefaction of the lateroposterior upper left maxillary region. Diagnostic orthopantomography and axial computed tomography scan results of the facial skeleton revealed a large lesion occupying the left maxillary sinus, rhizolysis of dental elements 26 and 27, and dislocation of dental element 28. The lesion and infected sinus mucosa were removed through surgical antral-cystectomy with the Caldwell-Luc approach. Histological examination of the lesion confirmed the suspected diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The 12-month follow-up orthopantomography and computed tomography scan results showed good trabecular bone formation in the lesion area. The 24-month follow-up results showed optimal healing in the area of the lesion, positive pulp vitality tests for teeth 26 and 27, and good periodontal tissue healing, as verified through periodontal probing. Conclusions Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. More likely, they are caused by related environmental factors. Management of this case required the multidisciplinary collaboration of different specializations and careful planning to devise a correct therapeutic protocol and reach a favorable prognosis. PMID:24716509
Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven
Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring
The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.
... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ... many parents and teachers that ADHD is a “boys’ disorder” that rarely occurs in girls. In fact, ...
Kruger, Anne; Harper, Erin; Harris, Patricia; Sanders, DeShelle; Levin, Kerry; Meyers, Joel
Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe. The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12–14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls' own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development. Results: The girls' language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity. Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the perspectives of these girls
Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; Gilmour, Kimberly; Ozdemir, M Akif; Bibi, Shahnaz; Henriquez, Frances; Burns, Siobhan O; Unal, Ekrem
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects involving the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. We report a female with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation at cDNA position 2290 (c.2290C > T) in exon 2 of the RAG1 gene. The patient presented with bronchopneumonia, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), pancytopenia and splenomegaly. She presented to us with pancytopenia and splenomegaly at the age of 11. Her condition was complicated by PG on left lower ankle at the age of 12. She experienced bronchopneumonia at the age of 15. She was diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency at the age of 16. Her immunological presentation included leucopenia and diminished number of B cells.
It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.
Ginorio, Angela B.; Fournier, Janice; Frevert, Katie
The rural girls in science program presented a comprehensive model of the entire scientific process. National Science Foundation funded a program, which targeted girls in rural schools serving American Indian or Latina, who are less fortunate than American students of Washington State.
Choi, Hae-Won; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Oh, Seak Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook
Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency in fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (Aldolase B). Children can present with hypoglycemia, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly after intake of dietary fructose. Long-term intake of fructose in undiagnosed patients can result in hepatic failure or renal failure. We experienced a case of hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as recurrent hepatitis-like episodes. Detailed evaluation of her dietary habits revealed her avoidance of sweetened foods and fruits. Genetic analysis of ALDOB revealed that she is a homozygote for a novel frameshifting mutation c[758_759insT]+[758_759insT] (p.[val25 3fsX24]+[val253fsX24]). This report is the first of a Korean patient diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance using only molecular testing without undergoing intravenous fructose tolerance test or enzyme assay.
Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.
Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419
This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…
This pamphlet provides guidelines for parents in encouraging their daughters to participate in and enjoy athletic activities. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the value of sport; (2) girls' needs at different age levels; (3) guidelines for supportive behavior; (4) special needs of the female athlete; (5) parent/child/coach relationship; (6)…
Coleman, Kathleen A.
The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…
Lamb, Sharon; Farmer, Kaelin M.; Kosterina, Elena; Lambe Sariñana, Susan; Plocha, Aleksandra; Randazzo, Renee
Building on qualitative research about sexualisation by media and culture and the impact on girls' development, in this article we present a discourse analysis of three focus groups of teen girls of colour and of diverse ethnicities asked to talk about sexiness. We focus on the ways the girls both support and resist hegemonic discourses about…
Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.
The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…
... hips and breasts than when you were a little girl. Expect Lots of Body Changes Your body makes ... wonder when you will get your period. Usually girls get their period about 2 years after their ... (this is what could happen with unprotected sex), the egg may plant itself into this uterus ...
Underwood, Marion K.
Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…
Morris, Monique W.
Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…
Erermis, Serpil; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Gockay, Ahmet; Karasoy, Hatice; Ercan, Eyup Sabri
We present the case of a 14-year-old female who had many characteristics of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) without pyrexia following a single depot injection of 200 mg of zuclopenthixol. The patient presented with a change in mental status that had progressed over the preceding 48 hours. Subsequently, she became increasingly agitated and confused, and developed diffuse muscular rigidity, mutism, tremor, tachycardia, diaphoresis, sialorrhea, and incontinence. Results of laboratory tests showed elevated CPK levels, leukocytosis, and a low serum iron level. Bromocriptine and diazepam were used as initial treatment of a probable NMS and provided significant improvement. During the next seven days, she clinically improved but continued to exhibit emotional lability, logorrhea, elevated mood, and increased psychomotor activity. Therefore, bromocriptine and diazepam were discontinued and lorazepam and lithium were administered as treatment of a bipolar disorder. Four weeks later, she was discharged in stable condition. The presentation of this case report suggests that the primary psychiatric diagnosis is important in antipsychotic usage in the pediatric population, and that young patients receiving neuroleptic treatment should be monitored for the early signs of NMS. Using the diagnostic criteria of a neuroleptic toxicity spectrum may result in greater clinical awareness and earlier recognition of NMS.
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey
This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…
Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…
Mukhopadhyay, K K
This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.
Franken, Linda G; Andrews, Louise M; Slooff, Valerie D; de Wildt, Saskia N; Koch, Birgit C P
The authors discuss the case of a 14-year-old girl who was transferred to the ICU of our hospital with ethanol intoxication (3.3 g/L), loss of consciousness (E5M3V1), and severe amnesia on recovery that was suspected of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication. STAT toxicology screening may be necessary, when sexual assault under GHB intoxication is suspected. Therefore, the initial analysis of a urine sample was performed with a new enzymatic assay analysis for GHB. The enzymatic assay reported a GHB concentration of 26 mg/L, which is above the cut-off value of 10 mg/L. This cut-off value is to differentiate endogenous and exogenous levels because low levels of GHB occur naturally in the body. However, confirmation of these results by gas chromatography, which is common practice to confirm a positive GHB, gave a negative result. This discrepancy is probably contributed to interference of ethanol with the assay. This is a substantial downside of the GHB rapid screening, since the combination of GHB and ethanol is common. It is therefore advised to confirm that the positive GHB results are lower than 50 mg/L by gas chromatography, when using the rapid screening. This way the false-positive results and consequent inappropriate social and legal actions may be avoided.
Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.
For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.
This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)
Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan
Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…
Kennedy, Carolyn L.
This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…
Studies on the effect of only-child status on girls' education indicate that the only-child policy has had an unintended consequence of engendering a child-centered culture with a strong belief and shared interest among the urban community in educating the only-child regardless of the child's sex. As the distribution of education by sex is…
Valero Valenzuela, Alfonso; Ruiz Juan, Francisco; García Montes, Ma Elena; Granero Gallegos, Antonio; Martínez Rodríguez, Ana María
The aim of the current research is to ascertain any possible relationship that could exist between the alcohol consumption of the population and several sociodemographic variables, in addition to the influence of physical exercise/sports on the creation of healthy lifestyle habits. The sample comprised 1102 subjects from Almeria Spain, over 14 years of age, to whom we administered the "physical exercise/sporting habits and life styles" questionnaire, selecting the sections on physical exercise/sporting habits in leisure, fitness and state of health perception and alcohol consumption habits, related to attitudes, behavioural and sociodemographic variables. We used an innovative tool for data analysis in the sphere of physical exercise, known as the Bayesian networks, emphasizing a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical exercise/sporting activities, it being the active people, with an interest in physical exercise/sports, who have a good perception of their health and physical fitness who are the ones who make habitual and occasional use of this substance. The profile of the individual who does not drink alcohol is female, over 44 years of age, with no studies, housewives who have a poor perception of their health, and who do not do any physical exercise or plays sports, whereas the populations with health risks, are men between 15 and 44 years of age who have secondary school studies or a degree and who work in the public or private sector.
Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...
Reid, Susan M.; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Johnson, Hilary
Aim: To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. Method: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered…
This paper describes the expressed models that children aged 7, 11, and 14 years have about micro-organisms and microbial activity. These were elicited using a variety of data collection techniques that complemented each other, resulting in a rich dataset, and provided information about the level of knowledge and progression of ideas across the…
Schmittmann, Verena D.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.
Behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuropsychological studies have revealed large developmental differences in various learning paradigms where learning from positive and negative feedback is essential. The differences are possibly due to the use of distinct strategies that may be related to spatial working memory and attentional control. In…
Waldron, Linda M.
This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…
Gajendra, Smeeta; Lipi, Lipika; Goel, Shalini; Misra, Ruchira
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents approximately 2% of all Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that commonly involves nodal as well as a wide variety of extra nodal sites, as skin, soft tissue, bones and lungs, although primary or secondary involvement of bone is rare. Herein, we report a case of 14-year-old female child presented as extensive bony involvement with a clinical diagnosis of bone tumour/ small round cell tumour, which was proved to be ALK positive ALCL on histopathological examination. PMID:25738071
Graves, Kelly N; Sentner, Annette; Workman, Jean; Mackey, Wanda
In response to the public health epidemic of teenage pregnancy, the present study investigated a new, gender-specific, school-based approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention for middle school girls called Smart Girls Life Skills Training(©) (Smart Girls). Participants included 854 students (633, experimental group; 221, control group) across three time points to assess change in social sexuality expectations, personal/self sexuality expectations, perceived susceptibility, and parent-adolescent communication. Girls who received the Smart Girls curriculum increased their personal/self sexuality expectations and improved some aspects of their parent-adolescent communication compared to control group participants. The evaluation provides initial evidence that Smart Girls is at least partially effective at changing personal/self sexuality expectations and parent-adolescent communication for middle school girls. Implications, recommendations, and next steps for school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs are offered.
Chen, Peiyao; Weiss, Faedra Lazar; Nicholson, Heather Johnston
Between 2004 and 2007, Girls Incorporated conducted research about the experience of five affiliates from different parts of the United States as they engaged with girls in Girls Study Girls Inc., a participatory evaluation project that explored the meaning and impact of Girls Inc. environments and uncovered ways such environments can be improved. We describe the context and motivation for using participatory action research [PAR] in Girls Inc. environments and discuss the relevance and importance of PAR for organizations that empower girls and young women. We explain the process of training and engaging Girls Inc. members in research, discuss the effectiveness of Girls Study Girls Inc. as an evaluation strategy, and conclude this article with lessons learned and recommendations for using PAR in evaluating youth development programs.
Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob
This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…
In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…
School violence is not gender-exclusive to boys; girls are also capable of violence. Research shows that girl-to-girl violence stems from competition for male attention and tends to be relational in nature, which typically takes the form of social alienation, spreading of rumors, and otherwise manipulating the victim's peer group. By proactively…
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Ormerod, M. B.; And Others
Secondary school students' attitudes toward science or the sciences were determined with specially constructed scales and from records relating to student enrollment in science courses. Emphasis is placed on factors which influence girls to enroll in physical science courses vs biological science courses. (SA)
Harris, Janice H.
Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)
Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…
Prior to a teaching assignment at Miyazaki Women's Junior College in 1993, the author accepted a 6-month contract to teach in the women's high school of the Miyazaki Educational Institute. In this article, she shares her first-day experience with a class of fifteen Miyazaki Girls' High School freshmen on their first lesson, a question-and-answer…
The GO-GIRL Program is a unique project, characterized by its ability to bring together pivotal elements within a youth-intervention program and foster collaboration between university and local communities in large and moderate-size urban areas through service learning. Designed to bolster the social-skill development, educational outcomes, and…
A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)
This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…
Warburton, Edward C.
In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…
The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…
Curriculum Review, 2008
A new website is helping girls who doubt their athletic abilities: www.ihategymclass.com. The website encourages girls through articles and an advice column, where girls can bring issues related to sports that they might be embarrassed to take to peers or a physical education teacher. Website founder Heather E. Schwartz says she wanted to reach…
Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.
The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)
Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.
Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…
Bartsch, Ingrid; Snow, Eleanour; Bell, Susan
Presents the planning, implementation, and assessment of a four-week summer program entitled Florida Education in Geology and Ecology: FLEDGE-ling Camp for Girls. Exit surveys and follow-up interviews proved that girls learned most from field and hands-on activities. Outcomes included a change in view of science and scientists and an increase in…
Brown, Lyn Mikel
Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…
Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur
By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences were…
This book presents recent research-based information about educationally relevant gender-related differences between girls and boys and how they are taught and perceived in society. The book offers practical suggestions on how to avoid trammeling either girls or boys, how to overcome negative aspects of gender-stereotyping, and how to maximize…
Fidler, Merrie A.
This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…
National Vocational Guidance Association, Washington, DC.
Selections from papers given at a 1973 workshop held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, are presented. Seventy-nine participants gathered to search out new insights into the changing world of girls and women. A forword by Carl McDaniels and an introduction by Thelma Lennon precede the 12 papers, which include: (1) Historical…
Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.
Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)
Curriculum Review, 2009
The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…
Harris, Mary G.
Interviews with 21 present and former female gang members illustrate the lives of Mexican American girls in the gang milieu of the San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles, California). Gang structure, activities, and reasons for joining are discussed, along with the gang as a source of support. (SLD)
Choate, Laura Hensley
Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…
Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan
Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…
Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.
Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…
Carpenter, Angelica Shirley
This article presents an interview with Jacqueline Wilson, a popular British author of children's books. Wilson has published 86 books for children and young adults with more than 20 million copies sold in the U.K. alone. Wilson's fans--mostly seven- to 14-year-old girls--love her gripping plots about dysfunctional families, homelessness, and…
Jagielska, Gabriela; Tomaszewicz-Libudzic, Elzbieta Celina; Brzozowska, Agata
Pellagra is a potentially fatal, nutritional disease with cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Because of the diversity of pellagra's signs and symptoms, diagnosis is difficult without an appropriate index of suspicion. A case of pellagra in a 14-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa is presented. Signs and symptoms of pellagra were resolved after niacin therapy and dietary treatment.
Hartog, Hermien; Dikkers, Freek G; Veldhuizen, Albert G; Coppes, Maarten H; Sleeboom, Christien; de Langen, Zacharias Jan
A 14-year-old girl presented with a cervical cystic swelling in association with deformity of cervical vertebrae. As a child, she had been treated for gastric duplication. Pathologic examination of the resected cervical swelling revealed a mature teratoma. We discuss possible embryologic associations, which could explain the unusual combination of a mature teratoma with vertebral anomalies and gastric duplication.
Ozel, A; Tufaner, O; Kaya, E; Maldur, V
Posterior nutcracker syndrome is caused by compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the vertebral column. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with vague left loin pain, mild haematuria and proteinuria. Diagnosis of this rare syndrome was achieved using color Doppler US and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography.
Matteoda, María Alejandra; Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Bocián, Marcela; Katsicas, María Marta; Sala, Josefina; Cervini, Andrea Bettina
Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare vasculitis in children characterized by necrotizing inflammation in small and medium size arteries. It is classified into systemic and cutaneous PAN according to the presence of systemic symptoms or visceral involvement. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with cutaneous Polyarteritis nodosa with an atypical clinical presentation. PMID:26312712
Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan
Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…
Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…
Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie
This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…
This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…
Villalon-Reina, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M; Simon, Tony J
Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), or Turner syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders.
Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.
Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925
Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F
This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758
Discusses gendered-discourse in the foreign language classroom. Presents research suggesting that boys do not necessarily always dominate and that girls create learning opportunities for themselves and are able to utilize those provided by the teacher. (Author/VWL)
Soraganvi, Prasad Channappa; Ramakanth, R
Introduction: Pyomyositis of obturator muscles is rare condition. Late presentation with deformities of hip misleads the clinician. Late presentation (6 weeks) of this condition has not been reported earlier. This report highlights this unusual presentation of Pyomyositis of the obturator muscles. Case Report: We are reporting a 14year old female patient presented with limp and pain in hip since 6 weeks. Her hip radiographs were unremarkable. Patient was admitted and MRI done. MRI findings were consistent with obturator pyomyositis. Diagnosis of pyomyositis confirmed by MRI and we performed percutaneous aspiration and drained about 25ml of purulent material mixed with blood. The culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Patient received intravenous antibiotic for 1week and oral antibiotic for 2weeks. Patient was immobilized in fixed skin traction in Thomas splint for 5days, later gentle mobilization was started. Her condition improved dramatically after aspiration. A follow up MRI done at 3 weeks following aspiration revealed a significant reduction in intramuscular collection of obturator internus and obturator externus. Three weeks following aspiration patient was relieved of the pain and was able to walk normally. At 6 months follow up visit patient was asymptomatic. Conclusion: Late presentation of obturator pyomyositis is rare. We emphasise on careful examination and need for early imaging for diagnosis. Percutaneous drainage results in successful treatment. PMID:27298909
Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley
The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behaviors. The present study uses a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent comparison group design to examine short-term effects of participation in Cool Girls, Inc. on multiple indicators of each of these domains. Participants were predominately African American and included 86 program participants and 89 comparisons in grades 4-8. Self-report questionnaires were administered at pretest (September-October) and posttest (April-May) of the 2005-2006 academic school year. We hypothesized that program participants would show improvements across domains of self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behavior. Relative to comparisons, program participants experienced gains in scholastic competence, hope for the future, and physical activity. Cool Girls participants with a mentor experienced significant gains in social acceptance and body image relative to other Cool Girls and were more than four times as likely to have expectations of avoiding drug use in the future. The role of mentoring as well as the study's practical significance, strengths, and limitations are discussed.
Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T
Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.
Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee
The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.
Hilton, Sheena; Fleming, Bonnie
Girls' Science Investigations (GSI) New Haven is a program which aims at encouraging middle school girls to pursue careers in science. To accomplish this goal, each day at GSI features a different area of science; ``the material world,'' ``the chemical world,'' and ``the electromagnetic world'' are examples of the sessions held during the past two years. Every session features a short explanation of the science topic given by a volunteer and a variety of hands-on activities, which allow the girls to experiment with and absorb the concepts presented in the short presentations. Activities are selected based on their ability to visualize the concepts under study. The education philosophy of GSI is that if the students have the opportunity to perform science experiments themselves, rather than just watching others do it, and enjoy performing these experiments, then the students will be more confident in their ability to succeed in a scientific field. Thus, in addition to encouraging girls to learn as much science as they can, the volunteers work to ensure that the girls enjoy the program as well. By giving the girls the opportunity to explore science in a fun and exciting way, the girls begin to see themselves as capable of becoming scientists and are more inclined to pursue science in the future.
A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.
Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)
Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri
In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.
A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…
Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads
Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.
Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z
Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.
The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.
Shumon, Syed; Bennett, John; Lawson, Geoffrey; Small, Peter
Patients presenting with testicular pain and swelling mandate an urgent urology review and scrotal exploration to prevent testicle loss due to torsion. Other pathology masquerading as torsion is extremely rare but can occur. We present one such case. A 14-year-old male presented with a 1-day history of right testicular swelling and tenderness. He was apyrexial and denied any other symptoms. Blood tests demonstrated raised inflammatory markers. He had lower left-sided abdominal tenderness with a swollen, erythematous right hemiscrotum. During an urgent scrotal exploration for testicular torsion, a purulent hydrocele with a patent process vaginalis was noted, but no torsion. Post-operative abdominal pain mandated a general surgical review and subsequent appendicectomy. The patient made a full recovery. Acute suppurative appendicitis presenting as a urological emergency is extremely rare. To make a correct diagnosis and prevent multiple surgeries, a joint urological and general surgical assessment with a high index of suspicion is required. PMID:26966225
Prasad, Manish; Hussain, Shanawaz
Late-onset glutaric aciduria type II has been described recently as a rare but treatable cause of proximal myopathy in teenagers and adults. It is an autosomal recessive disease affecting fatty acid, amino acid, and choline metabolism. This is usually a result of 2 defective flavoproteins: either electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO). We present a 14-year-old boy with a background of autistic spectrum disorder who presented with severe muscle weakness and significant rhabdomyolysis. Before the onset of muscle weakness, he was very active but was completely bedridden at presentation. Diagnosis was established quickly by urine organic acid and plasma acylcarnitine analysis. He has shown significant improvement after starting oral riboflavin supplementation and is now fully mobile. This case highlights that late-onset glutaric aciduria type II is an important differential diagnosis to consider in teenagers presenting with proximal myopathy and rhabdomyolysis and it may not be associated with hypoglycemia.
Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna
The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving…
Sitler, Helen Collins
In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.
... a girl to be surprised by her first menstrual cycle, not knowing what is happening or why. Remember, ... physical exercises or medication. Discuss hygiene related to menstrual cycles. Be certain your daughter has the supplies she ...
Krishna, K P
This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.
Kang, Min Jae; Yang, Seung
Purpose As metabolic complication and polycystic ovarian syndrome due to childhood obesity is rising, the role of hyperandrogenemia (HA) and hyperinsulinism is receiving attention. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of obvious HA according to pubertal status and to find potential etiologic determinants of HA in Korean obese (OB) girls. Methods We analyzed 91 girls aged 6–17 years (prepuberty, n=54; puberty, n=37). Each girl was classified as being either normal weight (NW) or OB. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and blood test was performed early in the morning after at least 8 hours of fasting to measure glucose, insulin, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone. Results The plasma levels of free testosterone (FT) and DHEAS were markedly higher in OB girls compared to NW girls in puberty (FT, P=0.009; DHEAS, P=0.046) but not in prepuberty (FT, P=0.183; DHEAS, P=0.052). Hyperinsulinemia and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were found regardless of pubertal status in OB girls. The significant related factor to HA in puberty was the body mass index Z-score (P=0.003). But HOMA-IR, LH, and progesterone levels were not relevant to HA in pubertal girls. Conclusion OB prepubertal girls did not show HA in the present study but they should be regularly monitored because they already had hyperinsulinemia. OB pubertal girls had significant HA and hyperinsulinemia, and obesity per se was the most important factor for HA. PMID:28164075
Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol
This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.
Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph; Martin, Rosemarie; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective While work has been conducted on gender differences to inform gender-specific programming, relatively little work has been done regarding racial and ethnic differences among incarcerated and detained girls in particular. This is an important gap, considering gender, race and ethnicity may be important factors in responding to the needs of incarcerated and detained girls within the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. We hypothesize girls will show relatively more pathology than boys, and that White girls will show relatively more pathology as compared to girls of other groups. Implications of findings for services delivery and policy are presented. Methods Data were collected on N=657 youth using structured interview and record review. Analyses included χ2 and t-tests. Results As compared to boys, girls were older at first arrest yet younger during most lock-up, received poorer grades, experienced more family difficulty, and more were lesbian/bisexual. As compared to minority girls, White girls began hard drugs at a younger age, had more conduct disorder symptoms, and more frequently experienced parental difficulty and abuse. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Age-appropriate programming that addresses family difficulty and sexuality is needed for girls. As compared to White girls, re-entry planning may more readily rely on family support for minority girls. Systems should consider use of actuarial methods in order to reduce bias in making placement decisions. PMID:25180525
Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne
The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.
Between the ages of 10 and 15, increases in depression among girls result in a rate that is twice as high as the rate of depression in boys. This sex difference remains throughout early and middle adulthood. Prior to early adolescence, there is essentially no sex difference in the rate of depression. The aim of the present review is to examine whether the preadolescent period is a time during which precursors to depression in girls can be identified. First, existing areas of research on explaining sex differences in depression, including cognitive and affiliative style and the socialization of emotion, are reviewed. Second, the hypothesis that for some girls, preadolescent precursors to depression take the form of excessive empathy, compliance and regulation of negative emotions is articulated. Third, ways of building on existing models by including the proposed preadolescent precursors are proposed. Finally, approaches to testing the hypotheses that individual differences in these domains during preadolescence may explain later individual differences in adolescent onset depression are explored. PMID:15984082
In this paper, the notion of "doing boy" through performance is explored. The point is made that singing is a potential gender performance but the treble voice of the 8-year-old to 14-year-old boy is a biologically determined as well as socially constructed feature of young masculinity. A complication is the degree to which the boy's treble voice…
Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem
Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa.
Barton, Susan O'brien
During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.
Kon, K; Sakuragawa, N; Kurokawa, T
We report a case of juvenile Parkinson's disease which initially presented as bulbar incoordination at the age 12. The condition was characterized by dystonia of the upper extremities. The patient was a 14-year-old female. The patient's main symptoms were bulbar dysfunction. Resting and action tremor, akinesia, stooped posture, distortion of the trunk, dystonia of the upper extremities, oculogyric crisis, and impairment of the postural reflex were seen. The bulbar symptoms were considered to be attributable to circumoral uncoordination. Although L-dopa decarboxylase inhibitors were markedly effective in alleviating these symptoms, an adverse reaction due to the agent was observed as the form of oral dyskinesia. Since the changes in blood concentration of L-dopa after administration of the agent was clearly reflected in the surface electromyogram, we concluded that this diagnostic procedure is useful in evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of L-dopa.
BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....
Borgonovo, A E; Grossi, G B; Maridati, P C; Maiorana, C
The aim of this article was to describe a rare case of paradental cyst of the permanent mandibular second molar. A 14-year-old girl was referred to Oral Surgery Department, Dental Clinic, IRCSS Fondazione Ca' Granda, University of Milan, Italy, for the evaluation of the deep probing located on the buccal aspect of her erupted mandibular left second molar. Clinical signs of inflammation were absent and the mucosa around the second molar appeared clinically normal. Pulp tests for the second molar were positive. The evaluation of the panoramic radiograph did not revealed radiolucency. The Cone-beam tomography showed a well-defined semilunar-shaped radiolucency demarcated by a fine radiopaque line. The cyst was enucleated. The histopathologic analisys revealed the presence of hyperplastic, non-keratinized squamous epithelium with heavy, dense inflammatory cell infiltrate in the epitelium and connective tissue wall. This analysis associated with macroscopic, clinical and radiografic examination confirmed the diagnosis of paradental cyst. A clinic-pathologic correlation, incorporating the surgical, radiographic and histologic findings, is required to obtain the final diagnosis of paradental cyst. Today, the treatment of choice is simple enucleation and thorough curettage of the cyst without extraction of the involved tooth, but if CT demonstrates erosions in the buccal or lingual cortices, marsupialization should be the treatment of choice.
It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…
National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.
In 1998, a series of focus groups was held to explore the factors that promote resilience among Hispanic girls. At least 4 focus groups, composed of no less than 6 and no more than 15 participants, were conducted at each of the 6 urban sites. In spite of the variations in Hispanic subgroup membership of the focus group participants, the findings…
Walters, Randall; Bowen, Denise J
Girls presenting with lower abdominal pain have a broad differential diagnosis. Transabdominal ultrasound should be performed in all girls presenting in the ED with lower abdominal pain. If ovarian torsion is suspected, surgical intervention should be initiated quickly to preserve the viability of the ovary.
Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M
A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.
Sasidharan, P K; Prasanth Varghese, C; Sandeep, P; Sreejith, R; Shaan, Mohammed; Shiji, P V; Satish, H; Feroz, M
Haemophagocytic syndrome is a life-threatening systemic illness characterized by an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Patients present with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice and liver dysfunction, neurological manifestations and often pancytopenla. Bone marrow, lymph node, hepatic or splenic biopsy shows macrophages with Ingested blood cells or their precursors. Laboratory markers include elevated triglycerides and ferritin, low fibrinogen with normal or low erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an autosomal recessive disorder. Secondary haemophagocytic syndrome results from infections, malignancy and collagen vascular disorders. We describe a young girl with primary haemophagocytic syndrome.
McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.
Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…
Academy for Educational Development, 2009
Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide"…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
While girls and women in Laos are not the target of strong discriminatory practices, they are at a higher risk of dropping out of school and never attending school. Specific components have been developed within educational policies and strategies to address needs of and concerns for girls and women. Reasons that girls and women lack access to…
In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.
This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…
Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim
Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf
Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…
Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…
Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara
Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.
Hirsch, Barton J.; Roffman, Jennifer G.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Flynn, Cathy A.; Loder, Tondra L.; Pagano, Maria E.
The challenges of early adolescence are intensified for girls of color who live in disadvantaged urban communities. One response to the needs of these girls comes from the Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), a youth development organization that has a long-standing presence in inner-city neighborhoods. A gender equity initiative designed to strengthen programming for minority girls at a BGCA affiliate in a major urban center was examined. Drawing on initial qualitative findings, a conceptual framework is presented for understanding the ways in which the clubs can affect urban early adolescent girls’ self-esteem. Several strategic choices confronting this initiative then are considered. The authors emphasize the creation of a “home place” that enables the development of self via organizational responsiveness to girls’ voices, strong bonds between girls and staff, adaptive peer friendship cliques, and the development of programs that fuse the interests of girls and adult staff. PMID:23565020
Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan
Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.
Nussbaum, A.R.; Lebowitz, R.L.
When an interlabial mass is seen on physical examination in a little girl, there is often confusion about its etiology, its implications, and what should be done next. Five common interlabial masses, which superficially are strikingly similar, include a prolapsed ectopic ureterocele, a prolapsed urethra, a paraurethral cyst, hydro(metro)colpos, and rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina (botryoid sarcoma). A prolapsed ectopic ureterocele occurs in white girls as a smooth mass which protrudes from the urethral meatus so that urine exits circumferentially. A prolapsed urethra occurs in black girls and resembles a donut with the urethral meatus in the center. A paraurethral cyst is smaller and displaces the meatus, so that the urinary stream is eccentric. Hydro(metro)colpos from hymenal imperforation presents as a smooth mass that fills the vaginal introitus, as opposed to the introital grapelike cluster of masses of botryoid sarcoma. Recommendations for efficient imaging are presented.
Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.
Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela
The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and
Noting that swift growth with the accompanying desire for independence during early adolescence creates tension in the family that is often difficult for parents to understand, accept, and handle, this book is designed to help parents adapt their roles to nurture the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development of their early teen.…
Clemmensen, Lars; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jespersen, Rókur av F.; van Os, Jim; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; Ankerstrøm, Lise; Væver, Mette; Daniel, Peter F.; Drukker, Marjan; Jeppesen, Pia; Jepsen, Jens R. M.
Background: Theory-of-Mind (ToM) keeps on developing in late childhood and early adolescence, and the study of ToM development later in childhood had to await the development of sufficiently sensitive tests challenging more mature children. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Theory-of-Mind Storybook Frederik (ToM-Frederik). Methods: We assessed whether ToM-Frederik scores differed between a group of 41 typically developing (TD) children and a group of 33 children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). A lower mean ToM-Frederik score was expected in the HFASD group. To determine the convergent validity of ToM-Frederik, potential associations with Strange Stories and Animated Triangles (AT) were analyzed. Furthermore, potential associations between ToM-Frederik and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and between ToM-Frederik and the Social Emotional Evaluation (SEE) Total score were analyzed. Results: A significantly higher ToM-Frederik score was observed in the TD group compared to the HFASD group. Furthermore, the convergent validity of ToM-Frederik as a measure of ToM was supported by significant and positive associations with the Strange Stories and the AT scores in the HFASD group, whereas ToM-Frederik was significantly correlated with Strange Stories, but not with AT in the TD group. ToM-Frederik was not significantly associated with SRS in neither the HFASD nor the TD group. Conclusion: The findings are supportive of ToM-Frederik as a valid indicator of deficits at the group level in children with HFASD between 7 and 14 years of age. Furthermore, the convergent validity is supported. PMID:27014139
Shayer, Michael; Ginsburg, Denise
Background: Shayer, Ginsburg, and Coe (2007) showed that children leaving primary school in Y6 entered secondary school with much lower levels of understanding of the physical conservations than in 1976. It seemed desirable to investigate cognitive development in the first three years of secondary education. Aims: By using two Piagetian tests of…
The scores of Turkish students on the international tests such as TIMMS and PISA, which assess basic science concepts, reading and problem-solving abilities, are among the lowest. Although understanding the concept of democracy has been studied across the countries, it has not been clearly researched in Turkey. For this reason, the focus of this…
Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia
In this prospective study, we examined the long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) on behavioral dysregulation (BD) in the offspring of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers (mean age = 16; range = 12-18; 70% African American) were interviewed about their tobacco use during pregnancy. Offspring were followed to age 14 years (n = 318). Indices of BD outcomes included aggression, rule breaking, externalizing, social problems, attention, distractibility and activity. Multiple measures and multiple informants were used for each construct. Regression analyses were conducted to test if PCSE predicted the BD outcomes, adjusting for demographic and maternal psychological characteristics, and for prenatal exposure to other substances. Independent effects of PCSE were found. Exposed offspring had more aggressive, social, and externalizing problems on both the maternal report and the adolescent self-report measures. They were more active, had more attention problems and greater difficulty with distraction and task orientation. Most PCSE effects were found from first trimester exposure and from exposure to as few as 10 cigarettes per day. These results are consistent with previous findings in this cohort when offspring were 6 and 10 years old, demonstrating that the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure can be identified early and persist into adolescence.
Rozowski Narkunska, Jaime; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Figari Jullian, Nicole; García-Díaz, Diego F; Cruchet Muñoz, Sylvia; Weisstaub Nuta, Gerardo; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Gotteland Russel, Martín
La prevalencia de obesidad en niños chilenos ha aumentado consistentemente en las últimas dos décadas. El primer estudio que determinó el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos efectuado en una muestra representativa de la población fue llevado a cabo en 1960. Recientemente el Ministerio de Salud publicó la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario (ENCA), efectuada en el año 2012. Sin embargo, este estudio no incluyó mediciones bioquímicas de nutrientes que permitan un diagnóstico integral y representativo de la condición nutricional del niño en Chile. Objetivos: revisar la literatura disponible entre los años 2004 y 2014 sobre ingesta de alimentos y estado nutricional en niños chilenos de 4 a 14 años de edad. Método: un total de 362 referencias publicadas en ese período se obtuvieron de las bases de datos PubMed, Lilacs, Embase y Scielo. De estos, 40 artículos fueron seleccionados para una revisión completa. Resultados: la ingesta de alimentos se caracteriza por una ingesta calórica alta; un bajo consumo de frutas, verduras y productos lácteos y un alto consumo de pan. La ENCA concluyó que un 95% de los chilenos presenta una dieta deficiente. Se observa una alta prevalencia de obesidad desde edades tempranas. Desde 1960 no ha habido un estudio representativo de la población que incluya niveles plasmáticos de micronutrientes, que proveerían información más confiable sobre el estado nutricional de los niños, además de encuestas de consumo de alimentos. Conclusión: los niños chilenos presentan un estado nutricional y una alimentación deficientes; sin embargo, no hay evidencia representativa de los niveles plasmáticos de nutrientes, por lo que es imperativo desarrollar un estudio representativo que incluya indicadores bioquímicos de micronutrientes con objeto de desarrollar estrategias para mejorar el estado nutricional de los niños.
Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Saieedi, Hamdollah; Nakhaiee, Nouzar
Background: Drug abuse is usually associated with behavioral disorders in children especially conduct disorder. This study investigated the behavioral disorders of children whose parents were opium or heroin dependent in compare with children whose parents were non-addicts to find the effects of drug abuse on offspring's behavior disorders by adjusting intervening factors. Methods: This case-control study, compared the behavioral disorders of 128 students (aged 8 to 14 years) in two groups of opium or heroin dependent parents and non–dependent parents (n = 64 in both groups) using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) questionnaire. Parents of both groups were checked not to have any significant psychiatric disorder (such as personality disorder or mood disorder), major health problem, and history of divorce. To compare percentages of the two groups, chi square and if required exact test were used. Findings: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in subscales of oppositional behavior problems and problems disorders. Conclusion: According to the results, in case there is no psychiatric co-morbidity associated with opium and heroin abuse, drug dependency does not seem to have any effect on disruptive bahavior disorder of children. Due to study limitations, the results cannot be generalized without conducting the study on a bigger population. PMID:24494088
Schreiber, Deborah A.
This paper: (1) briefly reviews the existing literature which supports that female adolescents possess significantly more negative attitudes toward middle school science than do males; (2) examines the process of gender socialization in the United States to establish the socio-cultural and social psychological framework within which an attitudinal…
Goulet, Claude; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Nadeau, Luc; Hamel, Denis; Fortier, Kristine; Emery, Carolyn A.
Background: Ice hockey has one of the highest sport participation and injury rates in youth in Canada. Body checking (BC) is the predominant mechanism of injury in leagues in which it is permitted. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the incidence and types of physical contact differ for Bantam players (aged 13–14 years) who were exposed to BC at Pee Wee level (aged 11–12 years) in Calgary, Alberta versus Bantam players who were not exposed to BC at Pee Wee level in Québec City, Québec. All teams were exposed to BC at bantam level; Methods: A cohort study was conducted in Québec City and Calgary. Sixteen games for Calgary and 15 for Québec City were randomly selected and analysed with a validated observation system to quantify five intensities of physical contact and to observe different types of physical contact such as slashing and holding; Results: A total of 5610 incidences of physical contact with the trunk and 3429 other types of physical contact were observed. Very light intensity trunk contact was more frequent in Calgary (adjusted incidence RR (ARR): 1.71; 95% CI: 1.28–2.29). Holding (ARR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02–1.07) and slashing (ARR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.07–1.77) were more frequent in Calgary; Conclusion: Results suggest that players’ physical contacts differ between Bantam leagues in which BC was permitted at Pee Wee level and leagues in which it was not permitted until Bantam level. PMID:27399750
Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Petkar, Mahir; Dziewulski, Peter
Multiple glomuvenous malformations (GVMs) are a rare condition which usually present in children with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. It is usually congenital and has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. They may be distributed throughout the body in either a localised, segmental or disseminated pattern. Pain, which is a characteristic feature of glomus tumours, is less often associated with GVMs. In addition, unlike glomus tumours which most commonly occur over acral skin surfaces, GVMs may occur throughout the body. A number of treatment options are available including surgical excision, laser treatments and sclerotherapy. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with multiple GVMs which were treated with surgical excision and followed him up over a period of 8 years. PMID:23853196
Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial
This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.
Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto
In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.
Keenan, K; Shaw, D
A developing body of research suggests that there are few sex differences in the rate and severity of problem behavior in early childhood, but clear sex differences emerge at about 4 years of age. The authors explore 2 hypotheses to further the understanding of emerging sex differences in problem behavior across the first 5 years of life. The first posits that the change in girls' problem behavior from infancy to school entry represents a channeling of early problem behavior into predominantly internalizing problems as a result of socialization. The second hypothesis is that the change in girls' early problem behavior during the preschool period results from the more rapid biological, cognitive, and social-emotional development of girls relative to boys. The authors review research on the influence of parents, teachers, and peers on girls' behavior from infancy to preschool regarding the first hypothesis, whereas they review studies of sex differences in developmental processes to test the second. They find moderate support for both hypotheses and present a comprehensive theory of girls' developmental psychopathology that integrates social and developmental influences.
This article reports findings from a study in which 26 girls aged 12- to 13-years-old took part in workshops at a specialist ICT center connected to a school in inner-city London. The girls explored and discussed fashion as presented online, and they produced their own interactive fashion design webpages, making decisions about body shapes, types…
Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.
The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…
This dissertation presents the construction and development of a thesis that investigates links between discourses of gender and the production of writing by girls at primary school. The research took place over three years in a one-teacher rural school in country Victoria (Australia). The girls were aged from four to twelve. The research…
Canales, Antonio Fco.
The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put…
Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia
Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa
Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…
Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher
Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…
Selimbegovic, Leila; Chatard, Armand; Mugny, Gabriel
A study was conducted to explore expert influence as a possible way to encourage girls' mobility towards math- and science-related careers. High school students were exposed to an expert source presenting "scientific evidence" that contrary to stereotype, girls are better than boys in all subject domains. Beliefs related to stereotype…
Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine; St. Rose, Andresse
This report presents a comprehensive look at girls' educational achievement during the past 35 years, paying special attention to the relationship between girls' and boys' progress. Analyses of results from national standardized tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the SAT and ACT college entrance examinations,…
Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee
This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…
This research investigated the presentation and content of magazines targeted at preschool-aged girls in Japan to analyse what gender patterns or gendered behaviours were encouraged and how the readers reacted to the media discourse. There were 13 magazines published in 2013 in Japan. Seven of them catered to girls, three to boys and three to both…
This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…
Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.
The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…
Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara
Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…
Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia
This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…
In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting
Schwartz, Shepard; Edden, Yair; Orkin, Boris; Erlichman, Matityahu
A perforated peptic ulcer in a child is a rare entity. Severe abdominal pain in an ill-appearing child with a rigid abdomen and possibly with signs of shock is the typical presenting feature of this life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease. We present a case of a 14.5-year-old adolescent girl who developed abdominal and shoulder pain that resolved after 1 day. She was then completely well for 2 days until the abdominal and shoulder pain recurred. On examination, she appeared well, but in pain. A chest radiograph revealed a large pneumoperitoneum. She underwent emergent laparoscopic omental patch repair of a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall of her stomach. Result of a urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori was negative. The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in children is discussed, as are childhood perforated peptic ulcer in general, and the unique clinical features present in this case in particular.
Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.
Pope, Carl E.; And Others
This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was…
Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias
Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…
This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…
The paper presents findings from a survey of 720 respondents: 240 Roma parents, 240 Roma boys and 240 Roma girls between 12 and 25 years of age. The subjects were from various regions of Bulgaria and were members of different ethnic groups. The main goal of the survey was to study the current attitudes that Roma communities hold regarding an…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…
Fernandez, deKoven Pelton; Astuto, Terry A.
What would a school that is responsive to the needs of girls look like? This paper presents findings of a study that sought to synthesize research and commentaries that develop, articulate, or use a feminist critique. It also attempted to identify a set of feminist thought and action to serve as building blocks of an alternative structure for…
Turner, Mary Ann
This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…
de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
The present study explored the heterogeneous nature of popularity by investigating subgroups of popular girls (N = 365) in their first year of secondary school (mean age = 13.05). Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups based upon sociometric popularity (i.e., those considered "likeable" by peers) and consensual popularity (i.e.,…
A study examined the issues and experiences of 89 women teachers, head teachers, and girls in and out of school in two contrasting Ghanaian cultural contexts. Data were collected via life history interviews, analyzed, and presented around three domains: culture of the home; relationship between culture and the economy, and culture of the school.…
Budden, S S
This is a presentation and discussion of clinical and laboratory data obtained on 13 girls with Rett syndrome, a progressive neurological disorder. The condition is thought to be far more prevalent than earlier reported. Family history in one patient showed presence of abnormal hand movements, increasing spasticity and psychomotor retardation in a paternal great grandaunt who died at 7 years. In the absence of chromosomal or biochemical markers, the characteristic disorder of hand movements can be used to distinguish this entity from other mental retardation, cerebral palsy and autism conditions. This report addresses the uniformity of clinical expression and highlights the differences between autism and Rett syndrome. Precocious puberty and respiratory alkalosis were not found in our patients. Feeding disorders were commonly present, and are often difficult to manage. The importance of diagnosis is emphasized as it influences long term management.
Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping
This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…
Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.
In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these
Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet
Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and
Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R
We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.
Ramos, Mary M; Green, Dan; Booker, John; Nelson, Anna
Little data exist on dating violence experienced by immigrant Hispanic adolescents. The present study examined the relationships between immigration status, language spoken at home, and dating violence experienced by Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico. Data from the 2007 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Surveys were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample of Hispanic females (N = 3,412) and among strata based on immigration status. Immigrant Hispanic girls were as likely as non-immigrant Hispanic girls to have experienced dating violence in the prior year (P = 0.93). Among immigrant Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were one-fourth as likely to have experienced dating violence as those immigrant girls who were English-dominant (aOR 0.27 [95% CI 0.08-0.87]). Among US-born Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were less likely to have experienced dating violence; however, this value did not reach statistical significance (aOR 0.65 [95% CI 0.33-1.27]). Past sexual experience was a significant risk factor for dating violence for US-born Hispanic girls (aOR 4.99 [95% CI 3.18-7.83]) but not for immigrant Hispanic girls (aOR 1.66 [95% CI 0.63-4.43]). Immigrant status was not found to be protective against dating violence for New Mexico Hispanic girls. However, those immigrant girls who were less acculturated in terms of language used at home were found to have only a quarter of the risk of dating violence as those more acculturated. The use of heritage language by immigrant Hispanic girls may be a protective factor against dating violence. Further studies are indicated to confirm this finding.
Chaudhry, Mridu; Grover, Samit; Baisakhiya, Shikha; Sharma, Neha; Bajaj, Aakarsh
The purpose of this article is to report an unusual bilateral inferior subluxation of the lens in a patient with Marfan's syndrome. A 14-year-old boy presented with gradual painless diminution of vision in both eyes. His family history showed that his maternal uncle also had similar complaints. Systemic examination of the patient revealed no neurological deficits. Cardiovascular system examination was unremarkable. Hands and fingers were long and slender with hyperflexible joints. The ratio of arm spam to height was 1.06. He was myopic with a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/24 with -11 D spherical/- 2 D cylindrical in both eyes. Anterior chambers were deep with the presence of mild iridodonesis in both eyes. Pupillary reactions were sluggish. On pupillary dilatation, the lens was found to be subluxated inferiorly which is unlike the typical superotemporal subluxation of the lens in Marfan's syndrome. The diagnosis of Marfan's syndrome is usually made on clinical examination only, as there is no specific investigation for this condition; however, it may have atypical presentations. Therefore, it is important to recognize and report such atypical cases.
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Girl Scouts of the USA; Girl Scouts of Northern California; University of Arizona; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; Aires Scientific
Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance STEM experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA’s Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today’s tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of NASA's online materials for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at Univ. of Arizona’s Astronomy Camp, and “Destination” events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univ. of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts.There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Univ. of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl Scout Stars enhances public science literacy. Girl Scout Stars supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education Objectives and NASA’s STEM Engagement and
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.
Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Oliver
Objective Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD. Methods PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into ‘friendship’, ‘peer status’, ‘social skills/competence’, and ‘peer victimisation and bullying’. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review. Results All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls’ conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes
Lebofsky, Larry A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.
In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam E/PO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope) and the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council began a long-term collaboration to bring astronomy activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers and, in turn, to their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach leaders in all councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 200 adults from 39 councils nationwide (plus Guam and Korea), bringing together leaders, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies. Locally, our goal is to provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education to girls of all ages throughout southern Arizona. To accomplish this in astronomy, we have additional ongoing collaborations with the Planetary Science Institute, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and, most recently with the Amphitheater School District. One of the programs that we have been recently emphasizing is Family Science and Astronomy Nights. These programs can be run at our local Girl Scout facility or can be incorporated into programs that we are running in local schools. Our near-term goal is to provide a series of interconnected activities that can be done in classrooms, in afterschool programs, as part of the Family Science and Astronomy Nights, or in summer astronomy camps. Our long-term goal is to empower girls ultimately to become leaders who are excited about the night sky and can take lead roles presenting activities and facilitating astronomy nights. Our poster will display a variety of the activities we have refined and developed through this progam: scale models of the Solar System and beyond, classifying Solar System objects, a portable human orrery, observing the night sky with and without telescopes, constellation transformations, and constellation sorting cards.NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA
Are teenage girls being left behind in the technology race? According to author and professor Lesley Farmer, teenage girls are not embracing technology and all of its potential impact on their futures. In "Teen Girls and Technology", Farmer explores the developmental issues of teen girls, including the reality of girls and tech as it now stands.…
Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip
Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…
Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.
According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…
Girls' bullying is more subtle and less physical than that perpetrated by boys; however, it can be just as powerful, and the emotional repercussions of bullying among girls can be more destructive and longer lasting than the effects of more obvious forms of bullying. Teachers report that quarrels between girls are far more time-consuming and…
Examines data on same-sex relations in girls' reform schools, noting the invisibility of gay and lesbian lives in most educational research. Discusses difficulties with terminology, institutional efforts to curb girls' relationships and sexual behavior, the girls' creation of an alternative family structure, love letters, and interracial…
This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…
This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…
Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin
What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…
Vaca, M; Guadalupe, I; Erazo, S; Tinizaray, K; Chico, M E; Cooper, P J; Hay, P
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome, but data are scarce on the BV prevalence in tropical regions among sexually active and virgin adolescents. To estimate the prevalence of BV among adolescent girls in an Ecuadorian coastal town, girls were asked to complete a questionnaire on risk factors for BV and vaginal samples were examined. Bacterial vaginosis was present in 31.5% of 213 girls, and the prevalence was similar in self-reported virgin and sexually active girls (OR 1.06, 95% CI, 0.51-2.21, P = 0.88), although the power of this analysis was limited. The prevalence of BV was high among Ecuadorian adolescent girls, and did not appear to be associated with sexual activity.
Nowak, Ashley E. P.
This thesis presents a qualitative case study of enrollment and retention considerations at Louise's Farm School (LFS) in Palmer, Alaska, with a focus on how gender is performed in this domain. Interviews with 25 students, 12 parents, and 14 instructors revealed the enrollment decision-making process, identifying constraints to and enablers of girls' participation. Findings included three primary factors as greatly influencing girls' enrollment: (1) mothers' backgrounds; (2) mothers' knowledge of and the misperceptions regarding outcomes of LFS programing; and (3) girls' interest in LFS curriculum. Findings also exposed differences in mothers' and instructors' expectations for the educative development of girls and boys, suggesting that there is greater pressure on girls to perform academically while boys are expected to need greater space for physical expression.
Young, G D; Wilson, J F
The purpose of our study was to examine whether girls and boys show patterns of problem-solving ability similar to those attributed by Kimura in 1992 to women and men, respectively. Subjects were 28 girls and 24 boys, aged 5-11 years, who were tested individually on matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency, tasks on which women reportedly outperform men. No significant gender differences in these problem-solving abilities were found. On ideational fluency, the youngest girls were seven times more likely than young boys to give whimsical responses, but older girls were then times less likely than older boys to give whimsical responses. These results suggest that the patterns of visuospatial problem-solving abilities that Kimura ascribed to women and men are not present in preadolescent girls and boys.
Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…
Marván, María Luisa; Vacio, Angeles; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela
Most women experience changes surrounding the start of menstruation. These changes are influenced by sociocultural context. Consequently, certain changes are more pronounced in some cultures than in others. Girls enter menarche with a clear set of paramenstrual expectations that may alter their menstrual cycle-related experiences when they become postmenarcheal. This study explored expectations concerning the paramenstrual changes of 1,173 premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico. In accordance with the findings of studies conducted in other countries, Mexican premenarcheal girls associate menstruation with a set of mostly negative expectations. A comparison of the results from urban and rural girls revealed that urban girls expected negative paramenstrual changes more, while rural ones expected positive changes more. These differences suggest that the cultures in which girls are brought up have an impact on their expectations. Urban girls are more exposed to media which present a picture of menses as a debilitating event, while rural girls link menses with health because it is associated with the ability to have children.
Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K
With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.
Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Pujahari, Susant; Maharana, Prafulla Kumar
A 14-year-old male child presented with redness and decreased vision in the right eye for 7 days. He was being treated for viral conjunctivitis for right eye at a local hospital. His visual acuity was 6/24 OD and 6/9 OS. Slit-lamp examination revealed diffuse conjunctival congestion in the right eye. Dilated fundus examination revealed mild disc hyperaemia and retinal striae in both the eyes. A peripapillary serous detachment of macula in the right eye was seen on optical coherence tomography. B scan ultrasonography revealed increased scleral thickening and characteristic 'T' sign in both the eyes. Investigations revealed no other relevant systemic association. A diagnosis of bilateral posterior scleritis was made. The patient was started on topical steroids and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Within 2 weeks of therapy the visual acuity improved to 6/6, the serous detachment resolved and retinal striae reduced in both the eyes.
Williams, Amy E.; Heitkemper, Margaret; Self, Mariella M.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Shulman, Robert J.
Endogenous pain-inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain-inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain-inhibition, somatic pain threshold, and psychosocial distress in young girls with IBS versus controls. Girls with IBS did not show significant endogenous pain-inhibition of heat pain-threshold during a cold-pressor task in contrast to controls who had significant pain-inhibition. Girls with IBS did not differ from peers on measures of somatic pain but had more symptoms of depression, somatization, and anxiety than controls. When psychological variables were included as covariates the difference in pain-inhibition was no longer significant, although poor achieved power limits interpretation of these results. Higher-order cognitive processes including psychological variables may be contributing to observed pain-inhibition. In girls with IBS, pain-inhibition was positively related to the number of days without a bowel movement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate deficiencies of endogenous pain-inhibition in young children with IBS. Findings have implications for better understanding of onset and maintenance of IBS and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:23685184
Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears
This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…
Kahle, Jane Butler
This report describes a 9-month project, conducted in seven states, during which teaching strategies and teacher attitudes which successfully encouraged girls in science were observed, described, and analyzed. Biology, taken by over 80 percent of high school students, was the course selected for observation; if girls are turned off to science in…
Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa
Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…
Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.
By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…
Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet
Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…
Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter
This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…
This publication discusses the development of girls and women within a hierarchical power structure and the effects on their self-esteem and performance. It describes the differences between girls' and boys' learning styles and educational experiences, which have differential effects on self-esteem and performance, particularly in mathematics and…
This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…
John, Vaughn M.
Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…
Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…
As a result of intensive advocacy, girls' and women's education is a developmental priority in India. Availability of international development assistance for basic education and women's education has gone up significantly. Government and donor perceptions of gender issues in education and the importance of reaching out to girls to achieve the…
This digest reviews current research on girls' delinquent and violent behavior, the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it. Girls are more involved in violent crime than they were a decade ago. Their murder rate is up 64%, although status offenses (offenses only because the perpetrator is a minor) continue…
The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and…
This book examines the worlds and practices of school girls who participate in violent activities, but who are not involved with the juvenile justice system, members of gangs, or a visible minority group. It provides an understanding of where the violent school girl stands in relation to her nonviolent female peers, and her violent and nonviolent…
Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea
"Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…
Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.
Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…
Davis, Danné E.
"The Jessie Books" are a seven-book series complete with a dedicated website. Each book features a 5-year-old girl named Jessie who happens to live in a city with her two moms. Each book features Jessie as an ordinary young girl engaging in familiar, life-enriching activities. Across "The Jessie Books," the community of…
Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…
US Agency for International Development, 2016
USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…
D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice
Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs…
The author examines (1) sport as a medium for attitude learning, (2) achievement as an attitude to be modified in girls, and (3) educational sport as a teaching model through which achievement attitudes in elementary school girls can be affected. Sport is seen as an ideal mechanism for attitude change since it has all the characteristics of a…
Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…
Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.
In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…
Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue
This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)
Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth
This column of Childhood Education focuses on middle school girls. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new, insidious, and harmful way of getting back at an individual girl who may be "different" or disliked for a physical or social trait. Cyberbullying has been described as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text"…
Savage, Shari L.
At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…
It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…
Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith
A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.
Desrosiers, Alethea; Miller, Lisa
This study examines the possibility that relational spirituality may be inversely associated with the relatively higher rates of adolescent depression found in girls as compared with boys. Subjects were 615 adolescents, representing a diverse range of religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Overall spirituality and depression were measured using The Brief-Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall, both level of depression and level of relational spirituality were higher in girls as compared with boys. Regression analyses conducted independently for boys and girls revealed that daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and religious coping were associated with less-depressive symptomatology exclusively in girls. This pattern in the findings suggests that uniquely in girls, depression may be associated with disruptions in a relational form of spirituality.
Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur
Introduction Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. Aim 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. Results A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. Conclusion The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche. PMID:28050402
This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.
Sarangi, G; Dash, D; Chayani, N; Patjoshi, S K; Jena, S
A 14 year old girl from a coastal district of Odisha presented with a six month history of asymptomatic brownish patches on the palm of the both hands. Epidermal scrape from these patches showed brown septate hyphae with occasional yeast like cells. Hortaea wernekii was isolated from the fungal culture. A diagnosis of Tinea nigra was made. The patches resolved completely after treatment with topical 1% clotrimazole cream.
Arauzo Álvarez, E; Gómez Román, J; Fernández Martínez De Septien, C; Calvo Castillo, I
Hibernomas are very uncommon benign tumors of brown fat; they are rarely located within the thorax and are even rarer in the mediastinum. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with a hibernoma seen on CT as a homogeneous fat density mass located in the anterior mediastinum. Histological study revealed the typical microscopic characteristics of these tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these CT imaging characteristics in association with a hibernoma.
Chadha, Priyanka; Bast, Florian
Malformations of the pinna occur in around 2-5% of all newborns. Prominent ears in childhood can be a source of psychological distress and lead to bullying and social exclusion. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who inflicted chronic, non-healing wounds in the post auricular area bilaterally after attempting to glue back her ears with industrial strength glue. To our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be published.
Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Galvan-Linares, Aldo; Palafox-Vigil, Gloria; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo
A 14-year-old girl presented with a new, rapidly growing, pigmented tumor on a previously existing yellowish, verrucous plaque on the scalp. The patient received complete surgical excision. Routine histology ruled out basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and the histological diagnosis was pigmented trichoblastoma arising in nevus sebaceous (NS). It is important to define management for new lesions developing in pediatric patients with existing nevus sebaceus.
Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester
Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.
Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team
This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with
Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.
Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953
Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen
More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided insights regarding the characteristics of boys and girls (as perceived by parents) as well as some demographic information. There were very few differences reported regarding communication and social strengths and difficulties of boys and girls with autism. No differences were reported in the number of boys and girls on the autism spectrum with special interests or repetitive behaviours; however, significant differences were found in the types of special interests with boys and girls showing generally interests along traditional gender lines. Qualitative analysis of open comments indicated that some parents of girls on the autism spectrum described their daughter as trying to hide or mask her difficulties more but no parents of boys on the spectrum described this phenomenon.
Johnson, Paula Denise
This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.
Adam, B S; Livingston, R
All means of exploring the psychological and environmental antecedents of murder by a child should be used toward preventing lethal outcomes in future. The authors present the case of a ten year old girl who killed her sister with details of the sisters' relationship, the perpetrator's psychological characteristics and the family situation. Sibling-rivalry, family stressors, and the perpetrator's compulsive and narcissistic traits and preoccupation with a violent television fantasy are discussed. A literature review and suggestions for future research are provided.
Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia
Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.
Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna
Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.
Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears
This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.
Galliani, Carlos A; Sanchez, Irene C; D'Errico, Maria M; Bisceglia, Michele
We report a case of a 14-year-old female with primary adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. She was hospitalized after presenting with abdominal pain and signs of intestinal obstruction. There was no health antecedent or family history of neoplasia. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen. Tenderness was elicited to palpation of the right lower quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed obstructive signs, with a constricting lesion in the mid-transverse colon of probable neoplastic nature. Laparoscopic segmental resection of the colon was followed by standard right hemicolectomy. A circumferential mid-transverse tumor was diagnosed as primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of signet-ring cell type, AJCC stage IIIC, Dukes' C stage. On the basis of immunohistochemistry and clinical data, hereditary nonpolyposis and hamartomatous colorectal cancer syndromes were excluded. Involvement of either the p53, BRAF, or K-RAS genes was ruled out by immunohistochemistry profiling and genetic testing. The neoplasm was categorized as sporadic. The possibility of activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was suspected, because of a defective turnover of the β-catenin protein. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with both systemic and intra-abdominal adjuvant chemotherapy, including oxaliplatin. Between 18 and 24 months after diagnosis, intra-abdominal tumor recurrences were detected. The patient underwent bilateral oophorectomies for Krukenberg tumors and received salvage chemotherapy. Recently, additional recurrent metastatic retroperitoneal disease caused hydronephrosis. The retroperitoneal mass was debulked and a ureteric stent was placed. At the time of this writing, 43 months after diagnosis, the patient is receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy combined with panitumumab. CRC of childhood is exceedingly rare, generally develops in the setting of unrecognized genetic predisposing factors to cancer, presents with advanced disease, is high grade, and tends
Dearing, Eric; Casey, Beth M.; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tillinger, Miriam; Laski, Elida; Montecillo, Christine
The present study addressed girls' (N=127) early numerical and spatial reasoning skills, within the context of a critical environment in which these cognitive skills develop, namely their homes. Specifically, proximal links between distal family socioeconomic conditions and first-grade girls' arithmetic and spatial skills were examined (mean…
The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…
In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…
This document presents a summary of a national telephone survey that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender…
Willer, Erin K.
Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…
Ewart, Craig K.; And Others
Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)
Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.
This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…
Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J
Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.
Mosatche, Harriet S.; And Others
This document is designed to help Girl Scout leaders understand the maturation of girls and how to assist the girls in their development. The information and activities described in this booklet are designed to help girls see themselves in a positive way, understand some of the forces that influence them as they develop, and cope with the stresses…
This report assesses the current situation of girls' participation in elementary education, suggesting approaches that may help increase girls' retention. It reviews research findings and conventional wisdom on constraints affecting girls' schooling and examines initiatives that have attempted to increase girls' retention. Chapter 1,…
Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol
A study explored girls' development and its implication for the psychology of women. From 1986-1990, nearly 100 girls between the ages of 7 and 18 at the Laurel School for Girls in Cleveland, Ohio, were interviewed. Most of the girls were from middle- or upper-middle-class families (80%), although some were scholarship students from working-class…
Bryant, Louise Stevens
The Girl Scouts, a national organization, is open to any girl who expresses her desire to join and voluntarily accepts the promise and the laws. The object of the Girl Scouts is to bring to all girls the opportunity for group experience outdoor life, and to learn through work, but more by play, to serve their community. Patterned after the Girl…
Kusimo, Patricia S.
This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…
Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter
This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.
Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary
The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;
Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna
The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving social support, body image, locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Sixty-three girls from 9 support groups (comprising 5 to 15 girls each) across the United States completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey, Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale both before and after the 10-week Girls' Circle program. Results revealed a significant increase in social support, body image, and self-efficacy after completion of the program.
Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi
Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.
Gender identity disorder in girls is reported far less frequently than in boys. The analysis of a six-year-old adopted girl with gender identity disorder is presented to show the importance of the mother-infant relationship and of parental, especially maternal, attitudes toward gender in the normal development of gender identity and gender role definition. This child's unusual history included a late adoption, with clear evidence of separation trauma, and the ongoing influence of maternal infertility. Her symptoms of gender identity disorder appeared before her second birthday and were well established by three years of age. The analysis, from age six to thirteen, achieved a better adaptation to her gender. Her masculine strivings gradually became incorporated into an essentially feminine orientation.
This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women
Educated women are more productive, more confident, marry later, use family planning, and have healthier children. There are an estimated 600 million illiterate women in the world, which is double the number of male illiterates. Improvements have been made in the past 10 years in educating girls. Current figures indicate that 65% of girls and 78% of boys enter primary school in developing countries vs. 20% and 11%, respectively, 10 years earlier. 37% of girls and 48% of boys are in secondary schools. An additional 56 million girls need to be enrolled in order to achieve parity with boys. The education of girls in Africa has suffered setbacks in the past decade due to economic recession. Primary school enrollment fell from 80% of eligible children in 1980 to 76% in 1986. Many countries are having difficulty keeping pace with population growth and educating more girls. There are many factors which interfere with girls' schooling: shortages of schools, lack of educational materials, cost of schools or educational materials, girl's status in society, competition with other household chores, child labor, time schedules of classes, flexibility of schools in allowing dropping in and out of school, lack of the appropriate kind of resources, distance to schools, lack of sanitation, and values emphasizing "respectability" rather than autonomy. Many countries are using innovative solutions to these difficulties. For example, in Bangladesh, Liberia, Morocco, and Tanzania, schools are "double shift" where classes are conducted in the morning, in the afternoon, and sometimes again in the evening for adult education. Communities and shanty towns are constructing their own crude buildings as schools close to home. However, in Egypt school construction is not the only answer; 400 new primary schools were opened and male enrollment increased from 90% to 100% and female enrollment rose to 74%. In Nigeria, cost of books and uniforms prevents many from attending. Poor families must be
Nottelmann, Editha D.; And Others
Hormone levels and changes in hormone levels were evaluated three times across a 1-year period as concurrent and predictive correlates of the socio-emotional functioning of 56 boys 10- to 14-years-old and 52 girls 9- to 14-years-old who represented the five stages of Tanner's criteria of pubertal development. The hormone measures were serum levels…
Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Forman, Michele R.
Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters’ weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs. PMID:19690203
Harris, Danielle Arlanda; Malone, Stephanie
Returning to the community upon release from custody is a difficult process to navigate, and there are scant resources available to juvenile female offenders, in particular. Comprehensive wraparound aftercare and mentor services are a central component of successful community reentry, and the well-established unique characteristics of juvenile girls make it necessary to create programs catered specifically to them. The present study employed a case study design to describe and evaluate the Art of Yoga Project's Mentor Program. Eight girls and their mentors were followed for a period of 12 months after the girls' release from custody. Preliminary results from qualitative content analysis suggest that the program was valuable for the girls who participated.
Ginorio, Angela B.; Huston, Michelle; Frevert, Katie; Seibel, Jane Bierman
The Rural Girls in Science (RGS) program was developed to foster the interest in science, engineering, and mathematics among rural high school girls in the state of Washington. Girls served include American Indians, Latinas, and Whites. This article provides an overview of the program and its outcomes not only for the participants (girls, teachers, counselors, and schools) but the researchers. Lessons learned from and about the participants are presented, and lessons learned from the process are discussed to illustrate how RGS moved from a focus on individuals to a focus on the school. The initial guiding concepts (self-esteem and scientific pipeline) were replaced by “possible selves” and our proposed complementary concepts: science-affirming and affirming science education.
Changes in participation and achievement patterns mark a turning point for girls in schooling and place female empowerment squarely in the public domain. Using data from a longitudinal study of girls, this paper looks at female empowerment by exploring the relationship between the production of female subjectivity and the processes operating in…
Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.
Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…
In this article, the author describes a Seattle-based nonprofit organization, Powerful Voices, designed to help girls realize their dreams, engage their communities, and shape a better world. One among many efforts to address the equity gap for girls of color, Powerful Voices intertwines gender- and race-specific practices with evidence-based…
Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen
Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…
Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath
In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…
Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley
The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…
McGuire, Elaine M.
Argues that teachers and librarians can have a positive influence on the lives of young girls by complimenting their reading choices and search strategies rather than just their shoes and hairdos. Discusses books dealing with beauty, clothes, media stereotypes, women in sports, sexuality, and recommended reading for girls. (PEN)
Sensoy, Ozlem; Marshall, Elizabeth
Deborah Ellis's "The Breadwinner" is a popular young adult novel about Muslim girls. In this paper, we offer an analysis of the representation of Muslim girls and women in the book as well as responses from undergraduate students enrolled in a children's literature course to these constructions. Building on the work of postcolonial feminism…
Koonce, Jacqueline B.
Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…
Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…
In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.
Tissot, A.; Dorn, L.D.; Rotenstein, D.; Rose, S.R.; Sontag-Padilla, L.M.; Jillard, C.L.; Witchel, S.F.; Berga, S.L.; Loucks, T.L.; Beers, S.R.
Contemporary research indicates that brain development occurs during childhood and into early adulthood, particularly in certain regions. A critical question is whether premature or atypical hormone exposures impact brain development (e.g., structure) or function (e.g., neuropsychological functioning). The current study enrolled 40 girls (aged 6–8 years) diagnosed with premature adrenarche (PA) and a comparison group of 36 girls with on-time maturation. It was hypothesized that girls with PA would demonstrate lower IQ and performance on several neuropsychological tasks. The potential for a sexually dimorphic neuropsychological profile in PA was also explored. No significant univariate or multivariate group differences emerged for any neuropsychological instrument. However, effect size confidence intervals contained medium-sized group differences at the subscale level. On-time girls performed better on verbal, working memory, and visuospatial tasks. Girls with PA showed improved attention, but not a sexually dimorphic profile. These results, though preliminary, suggest that premature maturation may influence neuropsychological functioning. PMID:22114879
Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.
This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053
Butler, Amy C
To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.
Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut
The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.
Folkesson, Lisa; Riva, Roberto; Östberg, Viveca; Lindfors, Petra
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including its regulation of cortisol, is central to bodily functioning and salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker that reflects the functioning of the HPA axis. However, knowledge of diurnal cortisol rhythms in healthy adolescents is limited and few studies have examined patterns in midadolescent girls and boys across single and aggregate cortisol measures. To fill this gap, the present study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures reflecting diurnal rhythms in 14 to 16-year-old girls and boys. Self-administered salivary samples from 79 girls and 42 boys were collected during two schooldays at four timepoints: (a) immediately at awakening, (b) 30 min after waking up, (c) 60 min after waking up, and (d) at 8:00 p.m. Additionally, diary data including time of awakening, sampling times, and other potential confounders were analyzed. As for single measures, both girls and boys exhibited a typical diurnal cortisol profile with high levels in the morning that decreased throughout the day. However, girls had higher morning cortisol than did boys with significant differences at time of awakening, and at 30 and 60 min postawakening. For the aggregate measures, girls had a larger total level of cortisol in terms of cortisol awakening response (CARG ), area under the curve (AUCG ), and rise over run (slopeawake to last ), while no differences emerged for reactivity measures. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in single and aggregate cortisol measures between midadolescent girls and boys. Such differences in diurnal cortisol between pubertal girls and boys may play a role for the differential health trajectories typically found among adult women and men.
Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development.
Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952
Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.
Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B
Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue.
This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation.
Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.
The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.
In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1
Aronson, Paul L; Mistry, Rakesh D
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that commonly presents as hyperammonemia in neonates. We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who was referred to a pediatric emergency department for evaluation of hepatitis, an uncommon presentation of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Recognition of late presentations of this disease is important for survival and neurological outcome.
Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.
Objective: To describe the clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women and girls and factors influencing proper diagnosis and treatment. Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted in April 9, 2012 for English-language publications from the previous 10 years. Search terms included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and AD/HD combined with gender, girls, females, women, continuity, discontinuity, gap, treatment, untreated, and lack of treatment. Study Selection/Data Extraction: A total of 41 articles were reviewed for relevance. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional publications; sources known to the authors were also included. Results: Attitudes about ADHD among individuals with ADHD and knowledgeable informants (families, teachers, colleagues) vary on the basis of the diagnosed individual’s gender. The ADHD prevalence rates are higher among boys than girls. A low index of clinical suspicion exists for girls; their presentation is considered “subthreshold” because inattentiveness is more prominent than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Females with ADHD may develop better coping strategies than males to mask their symptoms. Lastly, anxiety and depression, common comorbidities in female patients with ADHD, can lead to missed or misdiagnosis. If not properly diagnosed and treated, girls with ADHD experience the same negative consequences as boys, including poor academic performance and behavioral problems. Unique issues related to hormonal effects on ADHD expression and treatment response are also experienced by women and girls. Conclusions: Accurate ADHD diagnosis in women and girls requires establishing a symptom history and an understanding of its gender-specific presentation. Coexisting anxiety and depression are prominent in female patients with ADHD; satisfactory academic achievement should not rule out an ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25317366
Burger, Carol J.
Describes several strategies principals can use to improve girls' confidence in using computer and information technology, such as making technology instruction "girl friendly," stressing active and cooperative learning, and demonstrating the positive impact of technology on society. (PKP)
Hoskins, Marie L.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.
A lifespace has to do with how selves are mediated by combining multiple cultural symbols to construct an identity in the world. The authors cite examples from media texts, as well as from a narrative study conducted with 10 adolescent girls in a treatment program for eating disorders, that illustrate the importance of practitioners considering…
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010
High school girls are bored, disengaged, and stressed in science classes, according to preliminary results of a study led by Northern Illinois University researchers Jennifer Schmidt and M. Cecil Smith. The two professors in the College of Education's Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and Foundations studied 244 high school…
Ride, Sally K.
Encouraging students' interest in science has never been more important. Science plays a greater role in everyones lives than ever before, and students who have a solid foundation in science are prepared to pursue a wide range of opportunities in high school, college, and the workplace. Yet many students--particularly girls and students from…
Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej
Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…
Ackerman, Xanthe Scharff; Scott, Kaitlyn
After more than 25 years of research on girls' education, it is widely accepted among economists that investing in this area is one of, if not the most, effective development interventions. This research, as well as global advocacy and recent world events--including Malala Yousafzai winning the Nobel Peace Prize and the #Bringbackourgirls campaign…
Putnam, Frank W.; And Others
This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…
Examines the texts of 12 historians with access to educational directives produced by the Victorian Department of Education since the 1850s to determine the effects of curricular requirements on female enrollment in mathematics courses. Argues that girls were prohibited from taking arithmetic and mathematics because of other curricular…
Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean
Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…
This publication focuses on strategies for meeting international targets and national goals for universalizing girls' access to, retention in and completion of quality education. This will be done through "scaling up" successful interventions, or components of interventions that can be replicated. UNESCO published this book within the…
A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.
This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…
Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia
The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…
Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...
Brookes, Fiona; Kelly, Peter
The apparent sexualization and exploitation of young girls by the consumer media is a much debated topic in the advanced liberal democracies. This paper will develop the argument that the "consumer-media culture" has established itself as one of the most powerful influences in processes of self-formation for young people, and that a…
Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
Peace Corps volunteers are perceived as role models, technical specialists, teachers, counselors, heroes, and friends. This idea book shares specific ideas and frameworks for transferring the potential for positive guidance into classrooms and communities around the world. It concentrates on activities and strategies that increase girls' access…
This book examines Mexican American and white girls coming of age in California's Central Valley, offering tools for understanding the ways in which class identity is constructed, and at times fails to be constructed, in relationship to color, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Chapter 1, "Portraying Waretown High," introduces the issue.…
Statistically, Thailand has eliminated gender disparity in access to education. Reasons that four women's conferences made very little impression on education reform could be no significant or overt discrimination against girls' enrollment and employment; education opportunity as more an issue of class (affordability) than gender (culture); and…
The author considers the impact of social trends, particularly the women's movement, on young gifted females, and cites such adjustment problems as the absence of gifted women models and the development of sublimated seduction patterns in the girls' relationships with their fathers. (CL)
Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…
Russell, Lisa; Thomson, Pat
UK Government policy states that all young people aged 14-19 are entitled to a broad and balanced curriculum, with access to "personalised" education and training pathways. With boys currently leading the statistics on exclusion, girls' educational and social needs are often sidelined in alternative education provision, as the majority…
Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David
A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…
Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy
New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…
Neyman, Michelle R.; Block, Gladys; Morris, Jennifer L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among 184 Hispanic teenage girls were assessed before and after a nutrition education intervention involving five weekly lessons. Intervention participants increased their nutrition knowledge by 50 percent and showed modest improvement in dietary behavior. Contains 16 references and data on subjects' dietary…
Gibbons, Judith L.
Adolescent girls living in Guatemala today experience a variety of influences on their lives. These include transmitted cultural values blended from Mayan and Spanish traditions, current social and economic conditions such as inflation, political violence, and urban migration, and also more immediate and personal influences: their families,…
Perlman, Syliva B.
Alienated adolescent girls tend to be sexually active, tend not to use contraception effectively, and tend not to terminate pregnancy. Although they welcome a baby as a solution to lifelong problems, their poverty and drug abuse, inadequate nutrition, and lack of prenatal care put offspring at high risk. (Author/NRB)
This book describes how libraries can define their service goals to better serve and empower young women, including how to establish partnerships with organizations, offer developmentally appropriate programming, and provide timely reader's advisory services. Chapter 1, "Girls in the Spotlight: A Short History," addresses the search for…
Bartolotta, Theresa E.; Zipp, Genevieve P.; Simpkins, Susan D.; Glazewski, Barbara
Rett Syndrome (RS) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs primarily in females and causes significant impairment in cognition, motor control, and communication. Teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) encounter girls with RS with increasing frequency as awareness of the disorder increases, yet the literature on clinical…
Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)
Bae, Yupin; Choy, Susan; Geddes, Claire; Sable, Jennifer; Snyder, Thomas
This statistical report responds to a request by Congress for a report on educational equity for girls and women. The report assembles a series of indicators that examine the extent to which males and females have access to the same educational opportunities, avail themselves of these opportunities, perform at the same level, succeed at the same…
Meinke, B.; Smith, D.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.; NASA SMD EPO Community
The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. The initiative has expanded from the successful 2012 Astro4Girls pilot to engage girls in all four NASA science discipline areas, which broadens the impact of the pilot by enabling audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.
This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care.
Gangrade, K D
This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general.
Foster, D.E.; Stone, C.A.
The authors have developed a 2-week summer school on nuclear science for high school girls. This summer school is an outgrowth of a recent American Nuclear Society high school teachers workshop held at San Jose State University. Young scientists are introduced to concepts in nuclear science through a combination of lectures, laboratory experiments, literature research, and visits to local national laboratories and nuclear facilities. Lectures cover a range of topics, including radioactivity and radioactive decay, statistics, fission and fusion, nuclear medicine, and food irradiation. A variety of applications of nuclear science concepts are also presented.
Korkmaz, Hüseyin A; Demir, Korcan; Hazan, Filiz; Yıldız, Melek; Elmas, Özlem N; Özkan, Behzat
Wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD: diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations of the WFS1 (wolframin) on chromosome 4 are responsible for the clinical manifestations in majority of patients with Wolfram syndrome. Wolfram syndrome is also accompanied by neurologic and psychiatric disorders, urodynamic abnormalities, restricted joint motility, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in males and diabetic microvascular disorders. There are very limited data in the literature regarding cardiac malformations associated in children with Wolfram syndrome. A 5-year-old girl with Wolfram syndrome and tetralogy of Fallot is presented herein.
Yamada, Kayo; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Mari; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Akira
We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with bizarre purpura. Both congenital and autoimmune hemorrhagic disorders were excluded based on her past medical history and physical and laboratory findings. Child abuse was also ruled out as purpura continued to develop after child-family separation. Histologic examination of the skin lesions revealed disruption of collagen fiber bundles. This finding indicated application of external force, leading to a definitive diagnosis of factitious purpura. Although it is very rare in school-age children, the diagnosis of factitious purpura should be included in the differential diagnosis of purpura in children. Histologic analysis of skin biopsies may aid in establishing the diagnosis.
This study investigated the evolution of the relationship between NASA and the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA). The stories of three groups of key players; NASA, Girl Scout National Staff, and Girl Scout volunteers explained the scope and depth of this unique partnership. Common goals between GSUSA and NASA of encouraging girls to seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) were studied to determine if the goals were met as a result of this collaboration. Outcomes such as the Memorandum of Understanding, numbers of attendees at workshops, and artifact reviews aided in the collection of data. The partnership between the Girl Scouts and NASA has not been without strife, and barriers such as funding and communication has delayed the goals of both organizations. Nevertheless, a partnership was forged and has grown since its inception in early 2001. Each of these national organizations has its own way of work and its own culture. How then can two such large organizations find the common ground to partner together and create a new culture shared between them with a common mindset? The timeline of how and when the two organizations began their collaborations and the outcome of their partnership was evaluated. Examination of the Girl Scout culture and goals as they are related to science was compared to the NASA goals of introducing more girls to STEM careers. The impact effect of how many different workshops, events, camps with space themes was analyzed. Girl Scout adult volunteers' attitudes and beliefs about science were explored to determine if changes in beliefs occurred as a result of the experiences with NASA. Ultimately, data were scrutinized to determine if the relationship is sustainable and what efforts each organization must take to maintain a high-leveled partnership.
Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian
Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…
Mungai, Anne M.
This book examines the education of rural girls in Kenya and reports on a study of factors influencing girls' educational success or failure. Three chapters provide background on traditional values and practices affecting girls' education; describe Kenya's education system, including preprimary, primary (grades 1-8), secondary, university,…
Allen, Charlene Duch; Eicher, Joanne B.
Authors gathered evidence that visual assessment of another individual precedes decisions to associate with that individual. Girls in this study made appraisals of the dress of fictional girls and then made subsequent judgments about whether or not they would be willing to have these girls as friends and whether their group would accept the girl…
Fisette, Jennifer L.
Background: Educating adolescent girls about their bodies provides girls with the opportunity to make meaning of their embodied identities for themselves. Knowledge of, and understanding of, embodiment has the potential for adolescent girls to be empowered within the physical education context. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how…
Fuller, Mary; Dooley, Pauline; Ayles, Rosemary
Focuses on prospectuses of former boys' schools that have only a small minority of girls, to examine the nature of "coeducation," particularly as it affects girls' educational and social opportunities. Paints a picture of boys' schools that happen to have girls in them rather than of genuinely coeducational institutions. (DSK)
Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat
Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…
Records show that school enrollment for girls is still lagging behind in some areas in the Asia and Pacific region, which poses challenge for the region to achieve Education for All (EFA) by 2015. And girls' labor in the Asia and Pacific region continues to constitute a major obstacle towards gender parity in education, another EFA target. Girls'…
Vicario, Terra; Chambliss, Catherine
Dance education provides an opportunity for aerobic exercise and conditioning that is especially appealing to many girls. Dance may act as an outlet for girls and give them confidence, but, at the same time, it may create risks associated with perceived body-image. The benefits of taking dance classes were examined for girls, ages 13-20, enrolled…
Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr
Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…
Kendrick, Maureen; Jones, Shelley
This Ugandan-based study examined how visual modes of communication provide insights into girls' perceptions of literacy, and open broader dialogues on literacy, women, and development. Twenty-nine primary school girls used drawing and 15 secondary school girls used photography to depict local literacy practices in relation to their own lives and…
Academy for Educational Development, 2009
The issue of HIV and AIDS is a serious global issue that affects girls and boys, women and men, from all communities. Girls and women are particularly vulnerable to contracting HIV which can develop into AIDS. This guide for mentoring contains important information about HIV and AIDS related to young women and girls. The guide also provides ideas…
Research on girls' development has found that girls see the world that coheres through human relationships rather than through systems of rules, and that 12 or 13 is a watershed age for girls, a time of "central relational crisis." As their bodies enter the physiological transformations that culminate in womanhood, they face an onslaught…
Prevention Researcher, 2004
Dr. Harriet Mosatche is an advice columnist on a web site for teen girls, as well as the Senior Director of Research and Programs at the Girl Scouts of the USA. Because of these dual roles, she has a unique perspective on the bullying issue. In this interview she answers a number of questions about bullying among teenage girls, including how boys…
... created equal, and we advance the vision of a world where girls and boys look to the future with the same... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9039 of October 10, 2013 International Day of the Girl, 2013 By the President... prosperous. When countries empower girls to pursue their dreams, they not only fulfill a basic...
This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are…
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen
The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the…
Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.
The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…