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Sample records for 14b green glasses

  1. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  2. Prepeak and first sharp diffraction peak in the structure factor of (Cs(2)O)(0.14)(B(2)O(3))(0.86) glass: influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Giovanna; Crupi, Cristina; González, Miguel Angel; Basile, Emilia; Conti Nibali, Valeria; Mondelli, Claudia

    2010-10-07

    Neutron diffraction measurements on (Cs(2)O)(0.14)(B(2)O(3))(0.86) glass were performed at varying temperature over an extended range from room temperature to 800 K. It was found that, in the same Q range where the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the static structure factor of almost all glass-forming systems, cesium borate glass shows two peaks. The intensities of these peaks increase with temperature, and their positions shift to lower Q values, in agreement with the peculiarities of the FSDP of network glasses. A description of this anomalous temperature dependence in terms of thermal relaxations of strained bonding arrangements of boron oxide units lying on the boundaries of cages present in the boron skeleton matrix is suggested. By comparing the diffraction patterns of a (Cs(2)O)(0.14)(B(2)O(3))(0.86) sample before and after a high-temperature thermal treatment with the spectra of cesium crystals, a correspondence between the medium-range structure in the glass and the related crystalline phases has been inferred.

  3. Spectral chemistry of green glass-bearing 15426 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.; Dyar, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The detection of appreciable concentrations of ferric iron in a synthetic green glass equilibrated at an oxygen fugacity of 10 to the -11th atm prompted a Moessbauer spectral study of pristine emerald-green glass spherules carefully handpicked from regolith sample 15426. No Fe(3+) ions were detected in this lunar sample or in a synthetic green glass simulant equilibrated at fO2 = 10 to the -14th atm, suggesting that the green glass clods in rock 15426 formed under conditions of correspondingly low oxygen fugacities. The Moessbauer spectra indicated the presence of olivine crystallites in the lunar emerald green glass spherules. Measurements of homogeneous and partially devitrified synthetic silicate glasses revealed that significant changes of coordination environment about Fe(2+) ions in the glass structure occur during crystallization of olivine crystals from the melt.

  4. Apollo 15 green glass - Relationships between texture and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Alison M.

    1992-01-01

    A suite of 365 Apollo 15 green-glass particles was analyzed by INAA and then described petrographically so that comparisons between composition and physical characteristics could be made. Nonuniform compositional distributions of crystalline and elongate particles were evident, although differences in the distribution of volatile-element coatings and extent of particle breakage were not as striking. A binomial evaluation of these textures on an intergroup basis supports the previously proposed hypothesis that the green-glass groups formed during discrete eruptive events because the groups that were defined compositionally also show significant differences in the average texture and structure of particles. Furthermore, in at least one case (Group D), intragroup differences in the distribution of vitrophyric and vitric particles were apparent. An extension of previous models for pyroclastic volcanism suggests that this feature may indicate that a systematic change in the composition of ejecta occurred as eruption progressed.

  5. Origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary presentation is given of a model which explains the picritic lunar mare green glass compositions as composites or magmas derived by polybaric fractional melting. The model accommodates changes in source composition and solidus temperature. As in the Klein and Langmuir model, the final compositions of the melts signify only average depths of melting. The onset of melting is deeper, final segregation is shallower.

  6. Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the Apollo 15 green and yellow volcanic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. R.; Warasila, R.; Delano, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The laser microprobe was used to extend the Ar-39-Ar-40 method to small, low potassium glassy objects in order to determine the ages of Apollo 15 yellow volcanic, green volcanic group A, and green volcanic group D glasses. The apparent solidification ages for these glasses are 3.62 + or -0.07, 3.41 + or -0.12, and 3.35 + or -.18 aeons, respectively. The ages for group A and d green glasses agree well with previously reported ages for aliquots of 'bulk' green glass. No significant difference in the solidification age was found between the A and D groups. The average exposure ages for the yellow and green glasses from 15426 and 15427 were indistinguishable, with ages between 300 and 275 m.y.

  7. Green and red high-silica luminous glass suitable for near-ultraviolet excitation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luyun; Yamashita, Masaru; Akai, Tomoko

    2009-04-13

    We report on the preparation of transparent and colorless green-and red-emitting luminous glasses by sintering high-silica porous glass impregnated with rare-earth ions. These kinds of glasses can be efficiently excited by near-UV sources. The fluorescence of the glasses under near-UV excitation is dependent on energy transfer processes. In order to obtain strong visible emission, it is necessary to co-dope some optically inert rare-earth ions into the glasses. The roles of the optically inert rare-earth ions are discussed.

  8. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA

    SciTech Connect

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new eco-efficient recycling route for post-consumer waste glass was implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated waste management and industrial production are crucial to green products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the waste glass rejects are sent back to the glass industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered co-products give more environmental gains than does avoided landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy intensive recycling must be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. - Abstract: As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  9. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  10. Origin of lead from green glass of Apollo 15426 - A search for primitive lunar lead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumoto, Mitsunobu; Premo, Wayne R.; Unruh, Daniel M.

    1987-01-01

    Green glass from Apollo 15 lunar clod 15426 (collected from the north rim of Spur Crater), known to be the most primitive among sampled lunar volcanic rocks, was analyzed for Pb isotopic compositions and concentrations of U, Th, and Pb. Hand-picked green glass and yellow impact glass particles were washed with water and a mixture of HBr and HF, and the washes and residues, spiked with a mixure of U-233-U-236-Th-230-Pb-205, were subjected to U-Th-Pb analyses. In contrast to the case of the Apollo 17 orange glass, the isotopic composition of lead from the surfaces of the green glass spherules is totally different from that of the spherules' interiors but is similar to the composition of lunar surface lead. Data for the interior lead yield a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 3.41 Ga. The data indicate that lunar Pb evolved in an environment with U-238/Pb-204 ratios of 19 to 55, which is considerably lower than those for mare basalts (about 300) but higher than the earth values (6-8).

  11. Vesicles in Apollo 15 Green Glasses: The Nature of Ancient Lunar Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Berger, E. L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed studies of Apollo 15 green glass and related beads have shown they were formed in gas-rich fire fountains.. As the magmatic fluid became super-saturated in volatile gas, bubbles or vesicles formed within the magma. These exsolved gases became trapped within vesicles as the glasses were ejected from the fire-fountain and subsequently quenched. One of the keys to understanding formation processes on the ancient moon includes determining the composition of volatile species and elements, including metals, dissolved in magmatic gases. Here we report the nature of mineral phases spatially associated with vesicles in a green glass bead from Apollo sample 15411,42. The phases reflect the composition of the cooling/degassing magmatic vapors and fluids present at the time of bead formation approx, 3 Ga ago

  12. Structural and optical characterization of Er3+ doped zinc telluroborate glasses for green laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annapoorani, K.; Ravindran, T. R.; Murthy, N. Suriya; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    A new series of Erbium doped Zinc telluroborate glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique. The stretching and bending vibrations of the B-O and Te-O bonds in the prepared glass network were explored through Raman spectra. The nature of the metal-ligand bond was determined using optical absorption spectra through Nephelauxetic ratio (β) and Bonding parameter (δ) studies. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) and the oscillator strengths were calculated following JO theory. The relatively higher Ω2 values reveal the higher asymmetry nature. The green emission corresponding to the 2H11/2+4S3/2→4I15/2 transition was observed at around 550 nm and the luminescence quenching occurs beyond 1.0 wt% of Erbium ion concentration. Radiative properties for the 1.0EZTB glass are found to be higher and its suitability towards green laser applications were discussed and reported.

  13. Virtual Tunnels and Green Glass: The Colors of Common Mirrors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Transmittance through the glass Tglass is modeled by the Lambert –Bouguer– Beer exponential absorption law: Tglass5exp~24pdkglass /l!, ~3! where d is...10 or 5 nm steps!. We measured these spectra at normal inci- dence using either of two portable spectrophotometers : a Mi- nolta CM-2022 or a HunterLab...may be attributed to spectrophotometer errors, more variability likely comes from differences in the mirrors’ original fabrication. Nevertheless, Fig. 4

  14. Relaxation map of a 100% green thermoplastic film. Glass transition and fragility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiter, J. M.; Dobircau, L.; Saiah, R.; Sreekumar, P. A.; Galandon, A.; Gattin, R.; Leblanc, N.; Adhikari, R.

    2010-02-01

    A 100% green thermoplastic obtained by extrusion of a mixture of wheat flour and plasticizers has been realized. The existence of two vitreous phases in this 100% green thermoplastic film has been pointed out by means of calorimetric measurements ( T g=-56 °C and T g=10 °C) and confirmed by electron microscopy. The molecular dynamics have been investigated by means of DMA measurements for temperature domains in the vicinity of the glass transition of each phase. We show that each phase exhibits a molecular dynamic characteristic of a fragile glass liquid former. The size of the cooperative domain engaged in the relaxation processes have also been estimated and we show that this new green thermoplastic exhibits relaxation mechanisms as expected for a conventional thermoplastic, as for instance a PMMA.

  15. Luminescence properties of Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses for green laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Batalla, J.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Muñoz H., G.; Camarillo, I.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses of composition in mol%: (100.0 - x)Zn(PO3)2 - xTb2O3, x = 0.6, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0, were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and characterized by photoluminescence and decay time spectroscopy. The integrated intensities of the 5D4 → 7F5 (green at 541 nm) and 5D3 → 7F4 (blue at 435 nm) emissions and their intensity ratios IG/IB upon 350 nm excitation have been evaluated as function of Tb3+ concentration. The CIE1931 color of the glasses excited at 350 nm varies from turquoise to green by increasing the Tb3+ content. The increased IG/IB ratio up to a factor of 364 for the phosphor with the highest Tb3+ content (ZP5Tb) is consistent with the observed shift toward the green region in the CIE coordinates, so that the ZP5Tb glass exhibits a green color purity of 66.9% with chromaticity coordinates (0.290, 0.581), being very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. This interesting feature of the ZP5Tb phosphor, together with an experimental branching ratio larger than 60% of the 5D4 → 7F5 green emission, highlights its capability as solid state green laser pumped by AlGaN (350 nm) LEDs. The decay time profiles of the 5D3 level resulted to be non-exponential for all the studied concentrations due to energy transfer between Tb3+ ions through cross-relaxation. Such decay profiles were well fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model for S = 6, which indicates that an electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the cross-relaxation energy transfer occurring in Tb3+ ion clusters.

  16. Stimulated emission in the red, green, and blue in a nanostructured glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoz, F.; Haro-Gonzalez, P.; Martin, I. R.; Perez-Rodriguez, C.; Capuj, N.; Caceres, J. M.

    2011-02-15

    Red, green, and blue stimulated emissions have been achieved in Ho{sup 3+} doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic at room temperature. The material shows three emission bands at the red (650 nm), green (545 nm), and blue (488 nm) regions under infrared excitation at 750 nm. These emission bands are caused by a photon avalanche upconversion process previously reported. A pump and probe experimental setup has been designed to show stimulated emissions at the three bands. The pump power threshold for positive gain in the 490 nm band has been estimated around 2.7 kW/cm{sup 2}. Higher thresholds are expected for the other bands.

  17. Green-white-yellow tunable luminescence from doped transparent glass ceramics containing nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. F.; Yan, X. H.; Xuan, Y.; Zheng, J.; He, W. Y.

    2013-10-01

    , , and doped transparent ceramics containing nanocrystals were fabricated by a melt-quenching method and subsequent heating. Tetragonal phase spheres with 20 nm size are homogeneously precipitated among a borosilicate glass matrix. The photoluminescence spectrum of single doped transparent ceramics shows white light emission under 382 nm UV excitation. The emission color of co-doped transparent glass ceramics is tuned from green to white through energy transfer from to , and the emission color of co-doped transparent ceramics is tuned from white to yellow through energy transfer from to . CIE chromaticity and color temperature measurements show that the resulting transparent glass ceramics may be a candidate as a warm-white LED material pumped by a UV InGaN chip.

  18. Blue and green up-conversion in ZBLAN Tm3+,Yb3+-codoped glasses pumped with LD 970-nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanghe; Kan, Shidong; Zang, Chuanyi

    1998-08-01

    The quality of synthesized ZBLAN:Tm3+,Yb3+ glasses is analyzed and an efficient up-concentration in the blue and green light of Tm3+ containing different concentration ratio of Tm3+:Yb3+ demonstrated under LD 970 nm pumping. The up-conversion process of Tm3+ in ZBLAN:Tm3+,Yb3+ glasses are presented. The up-conversion in green can be limited restrained by the concentration of Yb3+.

  19. Experimental and Petrological Constraints on Lunar Differentiation from the Apollo 15 Green Picritic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Grove, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Phase equilibrium experiments on the most magnesian Apollo 15C green picritic glass composition indicate a multiple saturation point with olivine and orthopyroxene at 1520 C and 1.3 GPa (about 260 km depth in the moon). This composition has the highest Mg# of any lunar picritic glass and the shallowest multiple saturation point. Experiments on an Apollo 15A composition indicate a multiple saturation point with olivine and orthopyroxene at 1520 C and 2.2 GPa (about 440 km depth in the moon). The importance of the distinctive compositional trends of the Apollo 15 groups A, B, and C picritic glasses merits the reanalysis of NASA slide 15426,72 with modern electron microprobe techniques. We confirm the compositional trends reported by Delano (1979, 1986) in the major element oxides SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Cr2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, and CaO, and we also obtained data for the trace elements P2O5, K2O, Na2O, NiO, S, Cu, Cl, Zn, and F. Petrogenetic modeling demonstrates that the Apollo 15 A-B-C glass trends could not have been formed by fractional crystallization or any continuous assimilation/fractional crystallization (AFC) process. The B and C glass compositional trends could not have been formed by batch or incremental melting of an olivine + orthopyroxene source or any other homogeneous source, though the A glasses may have been formed by congruent melting over a small pressure range at depth. The B compositional trend is well modeled by starting with an intermediate A composition and assimilating a shallower, melted cumulate, and the C compositional trend is well modeled by a second assimilation event. The assimilation process envisioned is one in which heat and mass transfer were separated in space and time. In an initial intrusive event, a picritic magma crystallized and provided heat to melt magma ocean cumulates. In a later replenishment event, the picritic magma incrementally mixed with the melted cumulate (creating the compositional trends in the green glass data set

  20. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Lunar Green and Orange Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Lunar volcanic glassy beads have been considered as quenched basaltic magmas derived directly from deep lunar mantle during fire-fountaining eruptions [1]. Since these sub-mm size glassy melt droplets were cooled in a hot gaseous medium during free flight [2], they have not been subject to mineral fractionations. Thus, they represent primary magmas and are the best samples for the investigation of the lunar mantle. Previously, we presented preliminary Rb- Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for green and orange glassy samples from green glass clod 15426,63 and orange soil 74220,44, respectively [3]. Using these isotopic data, initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd ratios for these pristine mare glass sources can be calculated from their respective crystallization ages previously determined by other age-dating techniques. These isotopic data were used to evaluate the mineralogy of the mantle sources. In this report, we analyzed additional glassy samples in order to further characterize isotopic signatures of their source regions. Also, we'll postulate a relationship between these two major mare basalt source mineralogies in the context of lunar magma ocean dynamics.

  1. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  2. Ho3+-doped strontium-aluminium-bismuth-borate glasses for green light emission.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, D; Dhamodhara Naidu, M; Ratnakaram, Y C; Balakrishna, A

    2014-11-01

    Strontium-aluminium-bismuth-borate glasses (SAlBiB) doped with different concentrations of Ho(3+) were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique and their structural and optical properties investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to study the structural properties. Optical properties were studied by measuring the optical absorption and visible luminescence spectra. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied to evaluate J-O intensity parameters, Ω(λ) (λ = 2, 4 and 6). Using J-O intensity parameters, radiative properties such as spontaneous transition probabilities (A(R)), branching ratios (β(R)) and radiative lifetimes (τ(R)) were determined. From the emission spectra, a strong green emission nearly at 549 nm corresponding to the transition, (5)S2 ((5)F4)→(5)I(8) was observed. Emission peak positions (λ(P)), effective bandwidths (Δλ(eff)) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ(p)) were calculated for the observed emission transitions, (5)F3 →(5)I(8), (5)S2((5)F4)→(5)I(8) and (5)F5 →(5)I(8) of Ho(3+) in all the glass matrices. Chromaticity color coordinates were calculated using the emission spectra. The experimental results suggest that SAlBiB glass matrix with 1.5 mol% of Ho(3+) has better emission properties.

  3. Osmium Isotope and Highly Siderophile Element Compositions of Lunar Orange and Green Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The absolute and relative abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) present in planetary mantles are primarily controlled by: 1) silicate-metal partitioning during core-mantle differentiation, 2) the subsequent addition of HSE to mantles via continued planetary accretion. Consequently, constraints on the absolute and relative abundances of the HSE in the lunar mantle will provide unique insights to the formation and late accretionary history of not only the Moon, but also Earth. Determining the HSE content of the lunar mantle, however, has proven difficult, because no bona fide mantle rocks have been collected from the moon. The only materials presently available for constraining mantle abundances are lunar volcanic rocks. Lunar basalts typically have very low concentrations of HSE and highly fractionated HSE patterns. Because of our extremely limited understanding of mantle melt partitioning of the HSE, even for terrestrial systems, extrapolations to mantle compositions from basaltic compositions are difficult, except possibly for the less compatible HSE Pt and Pd. Primitive, presumably less fractionated materials, such as picritic glasses are potentially more diagnostic of the lunar interior. Here we report Os isotopic composition data and Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd concentration data for green glass (15426,164) and orange glass (74001,1217). As with previous studies utilizing neutron activation analysis, we are examining different size fractions of the spherules to assess the role of surface condensation in the generation of the HSE abundances.

  4. Green to white tunable light emitting phosphors: Dy3+/Tb3+ in zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Batalla, J.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Muñoz H., G.; Caldiño, Ulises

    2017-02-01

    Dy3+/Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses of composition in mol.%: 98.0Zn(PO3)2-2.0Dy2O3, (100.0-x)Zn(PO3)2-xTb2O3 and (98.0-x)Zn(PO3)2-2.0Dy2O3-xTb2O3, x = 0.6, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0, were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique, and characterized by photoluminescence and decay time spectroscopy. The emission color can be adjusted from neutral white of 4279 K (98.0 Zn(PO3)2-2.0 Dy2O3 glass) toward the green region by codoping with Tb3+ from 0.6 to 5.0 mol% of Tb2O3 upon Dy3+ excitation at 392 nm. The Tb3+ emissions (5D4 → 7F6,5,4,3) being sensitized by Dy3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. Dysprosium 4F9/2 level emissions can also be sensitized through excitation of Tb3+ at 284 nm with an efficiency up to of 80%. Additionally, upon 284 nm excitation dominant 5D4 → 7F5 green emission in detriment of the 5D3 → 7FJ blue one is promoted by a cross relaxation process between Tb3+ and Dy3+ in addition to that among Tb3+ ions. In consequence, the most intense green emission observed in the ZP2Dy5Tb phosphor gives rise to a color purity of 67.8% and chromaticity coordinates (0.29, 0.59) very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. Such cross relaxation processes enhancing the green emission of Tb3+ with ultraviolet excitation might contribute to increment the spectral response of solar photovoltaic cells by down-shifting of the incident solar spectrum.

  5. Origin of lead from green glass of Apollo 15426: a search for primitive lunar lead.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Premo, W.R.; Unruh, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major obstacle in lunar U-Pb chronology is the elusiveness of the primary Pb isotopic composition and U/Pb ratio and therefore the Pb evolution for the early history of the moon. In an attempt to seek the primitive lunar Pb isotopoc composition, green glass from lunar clod 15426,49 was studied for U-Th-Pb systematics because it is extremely Mg-rich and known to be the most primitive among sampled lunar volcanic rocks. Because of the low Pb concentration and high U/Pb ratio observed for the interior, the initial Pb was poorly defined. Nevertheless, the data indicate that lunar Pb evolved in an environment with 238U/204Pb = 19-55, which is considerably lower than those for mare basalts (around 300) but higher than values for the Earth (6-8).-from Authors

  6. Submicron R2Fe14B particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu-Alkan, O.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Salazar, D.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanochemical synthesis of submicron R2Fe14B particles with R = Dy, Nd, Pr has been performed successfully via high energy ball milling of rare-earth oxides, iron oxide and boron oxide in the presence of a reducing agent (Ca) and a dispersant material (CaO), followed by annealing at 800 - 900 °C. In the R = Nd system, we were able to fabricate particles embedded in a CaO matrix with coercivity (Hc) of 10.3 kOe after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. After washing off the dispersant, the Hc was decreased to below 1 kOe because of hydrogen absorption that leads to the formation of the hydrated R2Fe14BHx phase that has a lower anisotropy. Upon removal of the hydrogen the coercivity was increased to 3.3 kOe. The average size of the Nd2Fe14B particles increases from 100 nm in a sample synthesized at 800 °C to 158 nm at 900 °C. The isotropic Dy2Fe14B particles showed a higher coercivity of 21 kOe in washed samples after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. An average size of 71 nm is measured in samples synthesized at 800 °C and 107 nm at 900 °C. Fitting the high field M(H) measurements in Nd2Fe14B to the law of approach to saturation gave values for the magnetocrystalline anisotropy for the washed sample 2.23 × 107 erg/cm3 and for the vacuum annealed sample 4.15 × 107 erg/cm3, both of which are lower than the bulk values. This would explain the lower values of Hc observed in the particles.

  7. Mapping Activity Variations for Ru2O3 in Lunar Volcanic Green Glass Analogs Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malum, K. M.; Colson, R. O.; Sawarynski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Using differential pulse voltammetry, we are mapping variations in activities for NiO and Ru2O3 as a function of compositional variation for compositions centered around an Apollo 15 green glass analog. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Quantum annealing of an Ising spin-glass by Green's function Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Stella, Lorenzo; Santoro, Giuseppe E

    2007-03-01

    We present an implementation of quantum annealing (QA) via lattice Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), focusing on its application to the Ising spin glass in transverse field. In particular, we study whether or not such a method is more effective than the path-integral Monte Carlo- (PIMC) based QA, as well as classical simulated annealing (CA), previously tested on the same optimization problem. We identify the issue of importance sampling, i.e., the necessity of possessing reasonably good (variational) trial wave functions, as the key point of the algorithm. We performed GFMC-QA runs using such a Boltzmann-type trial wave function, finding results for the residual energies that are qualitatively similar to those of CA (but at a much larger computational cost), and definitely worse than PIMC-QA. We conclude that, at present, without a serious effort in constructing reliable importance sampling variational wave functions for a quantum glass, GFMC-QA is not a true competitor of PIMC-QA.

  9. Autochthonous self-assembly of nature's nanomaterials: green, parsimonious and antibacterial carbon nanofilms on glass.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-07-28

    The development of thin film coatings has been a very important development in materials science for the modification of native material surface properties. Thin film coatings are enabled through the use of sophisticated instruments and technologies that demand expertise and huge initial and running costs. Nano-thin films are yet a furtherance of thin films which require more expertise and much more sophistication. In this work for the first time we present a one-pot straightforward carbon thin film coating methodology for glass substrates. There is novelty in every single aspect of the method, with the carbon used in the nanofilm being obtained from turmeric soot, the coating technique consisting of a basic immersion technique, a dip-dry method, in combination with the phytosoot-derived carbon's inherent ability to self-assemble to form a uniform and continuous stable coating. The carbon nanofilm has been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis, a goniometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This study for the first time opens a new school of thought of using such naturally available free nanomaterials as eco-friendly green coatings. The amorphous porous carbon film can be coated on any hydrophilic substrate and is not substrate specific. Its added advantages of being transparent and antibacterial in spite of being green and parsimonious are meant to realize its utility as ideal choices for solar panels, medical implants and other construction applications.

  10. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  11. Structural and optical characterization of Er{sup 3+} doped zinc telluroborate glasses for green laser applications

    SciTech Connect

    Annapoorani, K.; Marimuthu, K.; Ravindran, T. R.; Murthy, N. Suriya

    2015-06-24

    A new series of Erbium doped Zinc telluroborate glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique. The stretching and bending vibrations of the B–O and Te–O bonds in the prepared glass network were explored through Raman spectra. The nature of the metal-ligand bond was determined using optical absorption spectra through Nephelauxetic ratio (β) and Bonding parameter (δ) studies. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters (Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4}, Ω{sub 6}) and the oscillator strengths were calculated following JO theory. The relatively higher Ω{sub 2} values reveal the higher asymmetry nature. The green emission corresponding to the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}+{sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition was observed at around 550 nm and the luminescence quenching occurs beyond 1.0 wt% of Erbium ion concentration. Radiative properties for the 1.0EZTB glass are found to be higher and its suitability towards green laser applications were discussed and reported.

  12. β-cyclodextrin functionalized on glass micro-particles: A green catalyst for selective oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M. Nazir; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T.; Larsen, Kim L.

    2016-12-01

    Oxidation of toluene is considered an important process which often requires high temperatures and specific conditions along with heavy-metals based catalysts. In this study, we have developed a green catalyst by functionalizing beta-cyclodextrin onto glass micro-particle surfaces. All surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and applied to catalyze the selective oxidation of toluene into benzaldehyde (82% yield) at room temperature. The catalyst was stable and could be used repeatedly for several cycles without losing efficiency.

  13. Fiberglass goes green: Developing phosphate glass for use in biodegradable composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Christina Lee

    Composite materials, such as the glass fiber reinforced polyester thermosets known as "fiberglass," are used in many applications. However, recycling processes for these materials are inefficient and not widely available. Specially engineered degradable polymers offer an opportunity to redesign these composites. Additionally, the composite could be tailored to be multi-use, such that upon degradation, the resulting products could be used as part of a zeoponic substrate (artificial soil) for growing plants. Such a material would be beneficial for long-duration space missions, terraforming, or in other agricultural applications. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on developing phosphate glass for use as the fiber reinforcement for such a composite. Due to the under-utilization of phosphate systems, there is a lack of thermodynamic data on these systems. The modified associate species method of phase diagram calculation was used in an attempt to gain more information about the desired system, as it is a good predictor of the phase relations in oxide melts, slags, and glasses and requires less data than other methods. Further research into the thermodynamic properties of phosphates is still needed to develop accurate phase diagrams and melting temperatures for this system. Seventeen glass formulations were developed and melted. Six of these formulations were chosen for dissolution testing. Of these six, Glass 17 was chosen for intensive testing and characterization. This glass was tested in water, hydrochloric acid solutions, and citric acid solutions. The weight loss was measured and ICP-OES was performed on the leachate solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction were performed on the tested specimens. Shrinking-core models were fit to the dissolution data. Fibers were drawn from the glass and characterized using SEM. The data shows that this glass is not dissolving congruently, as is expected of phosphate glasses. Instead

  14. Study of viscosity of aluminum melt during glass transition by molecular dynamics and Green-Kubo formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirova, E. M.; Pisarev, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Molecular dynamics study of shear viscosity behavior of liquid aluminum is performed. The embedded atom method potential is used at the simulation of isobaric cooling. The viscosity is calculated using the Green-Kubo formula. The stress autocorrelation functions are obtained in the range 300-1200 K. The calculated kinematic viscosity is in agreement with the experimental data for the temperatures above melting temperature. The steep change of the shear viscosity is found below 650 K which we associate with the glass transition and is in a good agreement with the temperature which is obtained using the calorimetric criterion Kolotova et al (2015 J. Non-Cryst. Solids 429 98). The viscosity coefficient can not be calculated using the direct atomistic simulations below that temperature.

  15. APPLICATION OF LASERS AND LASER-OPTICAL METHODS IN LIFE SCIENCES Spectroscopy of nanoparticles based on Gd14B6Ge2O34 polycrystals and La2O3 — B2O3 glasses, activated by Nd3+ ions, for cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. V.; Ryabova, A. V.; Komova, M. G.; Krut'ko, V. A.; Petrova, O. B.; Loshchenov, V. B.; Voronko, Yu K.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles of gadolinium borate polycrystals and borate glasses, activated by Nd3+ ions, are obtained from macroscopic samples of the corresponding compositions by mechanical grinding and ultrasonic dispersion in water. A spectroscopic study of these nanoparticles in the near-IR region is performed to determine their potential as luminescence biosensors and radiopharmaceutical preparations for cancer diagnostics by radiosensitive methods. A twofold increase in the lifetime of the metastable 4F3/2 state of Nd3+ ions at the transition from submicron polycrystalline particles to nanoparticles is experimentally found. A study of the nanoparticle distribution over organs and tissues of laboratory animals, performed with a 810-nm laser for exciting luminescence and a multichannel fibre spectrometer for measuring fluorescence in the range of 0.8 — 1.2 mm, showed this technique to be sufficiently sensitive to reliably determine the nanoparticle concentration in biological tissues and the dynamics of its change.

  16. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass - Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Delano, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Electron microprobe and INAA were used to analyze forty spherules of Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass for major and trace elements. The glass is one of twenty-five high-Mg primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. The abundances show that the magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas are presented.

  17. Spectroscopy of nanoparticles based on Gd{sub 14}B{sub 6}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 34} polycrystals and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} - B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses, activated by Nd{sup 3+} ions, for cancer diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A V; Ryabova, A V; Loshchenov, V B; Voronko, Yu K; Komova, M G; Krut'ko, V A; Petrova, O B

    2011-01-24

    Nanoparticles of gadolinium borate polycrystals and borate glasses, activated by Nd3+ ions, are obtained from macroscopic samples of the corresponding compositions by mechanical grinding and ultrasonic dispersion in water. A spectroscopic study of these nanoparticles in the near-IR region is performed to determine their potential as luminescence biosensors and radiopharmaceutical preparations for cancer diagnostics by radiosensitive methods. A twofold increase in the lifetime of the metastable {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} state of Nd{sup 3+} ions at the transition from submicron polycrystalline particles to nanoparticles is experimentally found. A study of the nanoparticle distribution over organs and tissues of laboratory animals, performed with a 810-nm laser for exciting luminescence and a multichannel fibre spectrometer for measuring fluorescence in the range of 0.8 - 1.2 mm, showed this technique to be sufficiently sensitive to reliably determine the nanoparticle concentration in biological tissues and the dynamics of its change. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  18. Enhanced green and orange photoluminescence of nanostructured CdS in glass nanocomposites by energy transfer From Ho3+ and Eu3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2017-01-01

    We report enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of both band edge and trap state emissions in Ho3+ or Eu3+ ion doped CdS (II-VI semiconductor) nanoparticles (NPs) containing glass nanocomposites. These glass nanocomposites were synthesized by the conventional melt-quench technique. The sizes of CdS NPs are found to increase from 5-15 nm to 40-80 nm with the increase in thermal treatment. Band edge emission (green emission, peak around 495 nm) of CdS NPs is controlled by their size and enhanced about three to nine-fold by Ho3+ ions on excitation at 446 nm by a diode laser. Under the same excitation, twelve to fifty-fold enhanced trap state emission (orange and red emissions about 550-900 nm) of CdS NPs is obtained by Eu3+-doping compared to undoped CdS NPs containing glass nanocomposites. The predominant mechanism of PL enhancement is the energy transfer from rare earth ions to CdS NPs. Enhanced PL of these nanocomposites enables their applications in efficient solar concentrators, green and red light emitting component for white light emission devices.

  19. Improving green emission of Tb(3)(+) ions in BaO-B2 O3 -P2 O5 glasses by means of Al(3)(+) ions.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, T; Gandhi, Y; Sudarsan, V; Piasecki, M; Ravi Kumar, V; Veeraiah, N

    2016-11-01

    BaO-B2 O3 -P2 O5 glasses doped with a fixed concentration of Tb(3)(+) ions and varying concentrations of Al2 O3 were synthesized, and the influence of the Al(3)(+) ion concentration on the luminescence efficiency of the green emission of Tb(3)(+) ions was investigated. The optical absorption, excitation, luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves of these glasses were recorded at ambient temperature. The emission spectra of terbium ions when excited at 393 nm exhibited two main groups of bands, corresponding to (5) D3  → (7) Fj (blue region) and (5) D4  → 7Fj (green region). From these spectra, the radiative parameters, viz., spontaneous emission probability A, total emission probability AT , radiative lifetime τ and fluorescent branching ratio β, of different transitions originating from the (5) D4 level of Tb(3)(+) ions were evaluated based on the Judd-Ofelt theory. A clear increase in the quantum efficiency and luminescence of the green emission of Tb(3)(+) ions corresponding to (5) D4  → (7) F5 transition is observed with increases in the concentration of Al2 O3 up to 3.0 mol%. The improvement in emission is attributed to the de-clustering of terbium ions by Al(3)(+) ions and also to the possible admixing of wave functions of opposite parities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. WASP-14 b: transit timing analysis of 19 light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Fernández, M.; Güver, T.; Göğüş, E.; Nowak, G.; Vaňko, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Mugrauer, M.; Trepl, L.; Gelszinnis, J.

    2015-08-01

    Although WASP-14 b is one of the most massive and densest exoplanets on a tight and eccentric orbit, it has never been a target of photometric follow-up monitoring or dedicated observing campaigns. We report on new photometric transit observations of WASP-14 b obtained within the framework of Transit Timing Variations @ Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (TTV@YETI). We collected 19 light curves of 13 individual transit events using six telescopes located in five observatories distributed in Europe and Asia. From light-curve modelling, we determined the planetary, stellar, and geometrical properties of the system and found them in agreement with the values from the discovery paper. A test of the robustness of the transit times revealed that in case of a non-reproducible transit shape the uncertainties may be underestimated even with a wavelet-based error estimation methods. For the timing analysis, we included two publicly available transit times from 2007 and 2009. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed us to refine the transit ephemeris. We derived an orbital period 1.2 s longer and 10 times more precise than the one given in the discovery paper. We found no significant periodic signal in the timing-residuals and, hence, no evidence for TTV in the system.

  1. Study of dynamics of X-14B VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loscutoff, W. V.; Mitchiner, J. L.; Roesener, R. A.; Seevers, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to investigate certain facets of modern control theory and their integration with a digital computer to provide a tractable flight control system for a VTOL aircraft. Since the hover mode is the most demanding phase in the operation of a VTOL aircraft, the research efforts were concentrated in this mode of aircraft operation. Research work on three different aspects of the operation of the X-14B VTOL aircraft is discussed. A general theory for optimal, prespecified, closed-loop control is developed. The ultimate goal was optimal decoupling of the modes of the VTOL aircraft to simplify the pilot's task of handling the aircraft. Modern control theory is used to design deterministic state estimators which provide state variables not measured directly, but which are needed for state variable feedback control. The effect of atmospheric turbulence on the X-14B is investigated. A maximum magnitude gust envelope within which the aircraft could operate stably with the available control power is determined.

  2. Thermal stability of amorphous structure and magnetic properties Fe80-x Cox P14B6 (x = 20-40) ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, S. A.; Idzikowski, B.; Tkatch, V. I.; Popov, V. V.; Rassolov, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous structure and its thermal stability as well as magnetic properties of Fe80-x Cox P14B6 (20 x 40) glasses have been studied by X-ray diffraction, non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomagnetic (TMG) measurements. The Curie temperature increases with Co content, while the glass transition and crystallization onset temperatures decrease. As a result, for alloys x = 30, 32 and 35 at%, the transition into paramagnetic state take place close to glass transition temperature. However, for x = 40 at% the TMG curve, in the vicinity of magnetic transition temperature, is overlapped by ferromagnetic crystallization products.

  3. The dual specificity phosphatase Cdc14B bundles and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Plumley, Hyekyung; Liu, Yie; Gomez, Marla V; Wang, Yisong

    2005-01-01

    The Cdc14 dual-specificity phosphatases regulate key events in the eukaryotic cell cycle. However, little is known about the function of mammalian CDC14B family members. Here, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDC14B protein is cell cycle regulated. CDC14B can bind, bundle, and stabilize microtubules in vitro independently of its catalytic activity. Basic amino acid residues within the nucleolar targeting domain are important for both retaining CDC14B in the nucleolus and preventing microtubule bundling. Overexpression of CDC14B resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic CDC14B and microtubule bundles in interphase cells. These microtubule bundles were resistant to microtubule depolymerization reagents and enriched in acetylated -tubulin. Expression of cytoplasmic forms of CDC14B impaired microtubule nucleation from the microtubule organization center. CDC14B is thus a novel microtubule-bundling and -stabilizing protein, whose regulated subcellular localization may help modulate spindle and microtubule dynamics in mitosis.

  4. Imaging the magnetic nanodomains in Nd2Fe14B

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lunan; Taufour, Valentin; Lamichhane, T. N.; ...

    2016-03-08

    Here, we study magnetic domains in Nd2Fe14B single crystals using high resolution magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Previous MFM studies and small angle neutron scattering experiments suggested the presence of nanoscale domains in addition to optically detected micrometer-scale ones. We find, in addition to the elongated, wavy nanodomains reported by a previous MFM study, that the micrometer-sized, star-shaped fractal pattern is constructed of an elongated network of nanodomains ~20 nm in width, with resolution-limited domain walls thinner than 2 nm. While the microscopic domains exhibit significant resilience to an external magnetic field, some of the nanodomains are sensitive to the magneticmore » field of the MFM tip.« less

  5. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; ); Delano, J.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  6. RAPIDLY-SOLIDIFIED PERMANENT MAGNET MATERIALS: FACTORS AFFECTING QUENCHABILITY AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIS,L.H.; KRAMER,M.J.; MCCALLUM,R.W.; BRANAGAN,D.J.

    1999-11-02

    Insight into the solidification behavior of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based materials processed by rapid solidification techniques has been obtained by a systematic experimental study of the Curie temperatures of selected phases found in these materials. Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based materials fabricated by two disparate rapid solidification techniques, inert gas atomization (IGA) and melt-spinning, has been studied. The compositions of the starting materials have been altered with additions of the refractory elements Ti and C which are known to alter the solidification behavior of these materials. Special emphasis has been placed on trying to understand the effect of alloying additions upon the nature of the quenched glass, the distribution of the elemental additions within the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B lattice and the evolution of the elemental partitioning with quench rate and annealing condition. The experimental Curie temperature data obtained using thermal analysis methods from the particles produced by gas-atomization is consistent with both an ejection of quenched-in refractory species from the crystalline Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B lattice and with increased crystallographic order as particle size, and hence grain size, increases. Magnetic ac susceptibility measurements performed on nominally-amorphous Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B ribbons produced by melt-spinning indicate a decrease of the Curie temperature with increasing quench rate, a result that may be attributed either to the degree of Ti/C retention in the glass or to the degree of disorder in the glass, independent of Ti/C retention.

  7. Cdc14B depletion leads to centriole amplification and its overexpression prevents unscheduled centriole duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jun; Plumley, Hyekyung; Rhee, David; Johnson, Dabney K; Dunlap, John; Liu, Yie; Wang, Yisong

    2008-01-01

    Centrosome duplication is tightly controlled in coordination with DNA replication. The molecular mechanism of centrosome duplication remains unclear. Previous studies found that a fraction of human proline-directed phosphatase Cdc14B associates with centrosomes. However, Cdc14B's involvement in centrosome cycle control has never been explored. Here, we show that depletion of Cdc14B by RNA interference leads to centriole amplification in both HeLa and normal human fibroblast BJ and MRC-5 cells. Induction of Cdc14B expression through a regulatable promoter significantly attenuates centriole amplification in prolonged S-phase arrested cells and proteasome inhibitor Z-L3VS-treated cells. This inhibitory function requires centriole-associated Cdc14B catalytic activity. Together, these results suggest a potential function for Cdc14B phosphatase in maintaining the fidelity of centrosome duplication cycle.

  8. Fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence from glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}:NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals under excitation of two near infrared femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Wenjing; Zhou, Kan; Ma, Jing; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Jia, Tianqing; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-08-14

    In this paper, we report fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence of glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}: NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals excited simultaneously by two near infrared femtosecond lasers. When the glass ceramic was irradiated by 800 nm femtosecond laser, weak red emission centered at 670 nm was detected. Bright red light was observed when the fs laser wavelength was tuned to 1490 nm. However, when excited by the two fs lasers simultaneously, the sample emitted bright green light centered at 550 nm, while the red light kept the same intensity. The dependences of the red and the green light intensities on the two pump lasers are much different, which enables us to manipulate the color emission by adjusting the two pump laser intensities, respectively. We present a theoretical model of Er{sup 3+} ions interacting with two fs laser fields, and explain well the experimental results.

  9. A portable luminescent thermometer based on green up-conversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass

    PubMed Central

    Manzani, Danilo; Petruci, João Flávio da Silveira; Nigoghossian, Karina; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of temperature is essential in many applications in the biomedical, technological, and industrial fields. Optical thermometry appears to be an excellent alternative for conventional electric temperature sensors because it is a non-contact method that offers a fast response, electromagnetic passivity, and high temperature sensitivity. In this paper, we propose an optical thermometer probe comprising an Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass attached to the tip of an optical fibre and optically coupled to a laser source and a portable USB spectrometer. The ratio of the up-conversion green emission integrated peak areas when excited at 980 nm was temperature dependent, and it was used to calibrate the thermometer. The thermometer was operated in the range of 5–50 °C and 50–200 °C, and it revealed excellent linearity (r2 > 0.99), suitable accuracy, and precisions of ±0.5 and ±1.1 °C, respectively. By optimizing Er3+ concentration, we could obtain the high green emission intensity, and in turn, high thermal sensitivity for the probe. The probe fabricated in the study exhibited suitable properties for its application as a temperature sensor and superior performance compared to other Er3+ -based optical thermometers in terms of thermal sensitivity. PMID:28139762

  10. A portable luminescent thermometer based on green up-conversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzani, Danilo; Petruci, João Flávio Da Silveira; Nigoghossian, Karina; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of temperature is essential in many applications in the biomedical, technological, and industrial fields. Optical thermometry appears to be an excellent alternative for conventional electric temperature sensors because it is a non-contact method that offers a fast response, electromagnetic passivity, and high temperature sensitivity. In this paper, we propose an optical thermometer probe comprising an Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass attached to the tip of an optical fibre and optically coupled to a laser source and a portable USB spectrometer. The ratio of the up-conversion green emission integrated peak areas when excited at 980 nm was temperature dependent, and it was used to calibrate the thermometer. The thermometer was operated in the range of 5–50 °C and 50–200 °C, and it revealed excellent linearity (r2 > 0.99), suitable accuracy, and precisions of ±0.5 and ±1.1 °C, respectively. By optimizing Er3+ concentration, we could obtain the high green emission intensity, and in turn, high thermal sensitivity for the probe. The probe fabricated in the study exhibited suitable properties for its application as a temperature sensor and superior performance compared to other Er3+ -based optical thermometers in terms of thermal sensitivity.

  11. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  12. Faraday Effect sensor redressed by Nd2Fe14B biasing magnetic film.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xinbing; Nguyen, Truong Giang; Qian, Bo; Jiang, Chunping; Ma, Lixin

    2012-01-16

    A Faraday Effect sensor with Nd(2)Fe(14)B biasing magnetic film was described. Ta/Nd(2)Fe(14)B/Ta films were grown by magnetron sputtering method. The magnetic domain in the sensor with the Nd(2)Fe(14)B biasing magnetic film can persist its distribution. The average linearity error of Faraday Effect sensor with biasing magnetic film decreased from 1.42% to 0.125% compared with non-biasing magnetic film, and the measurement range increased from 820 Oe to 900 Oe.

  13. Cdc14A and Cdc14B Redundantly Regulate DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han; Ha, Kyungsoo; Lu, Guojun; Fang, Xiao; Cheng, Ranran; Zuo, Qiuhong

    2015-01-01

    Cdc14 is a phosphatase that controls mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast. In mammals, the two Cdc14 homologues, Cdc14A and Cdc14B, have been proposed to regulate DNA damage repair, whereas the mitotic exit and cytokinesis rely on another phosphatase, PP2A-B55α. It is unclear if the two Cdc14s work redundantly in DNA repair and which repair pathways they participate in. More importantly, their target(s) in DNA repair remains elusive. Here we report that Cdc14B knockout (Cdc14B−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed defects in repairing ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which occurred only at late passages when Cdc14A levels were low. This repair defect could occur at early passages if Cdc14A levels were also compromised. These results indicate redundancy between Cdc14B and Cdc14A in DSB repair. Further, we found that Cdc14B deficiency impaired both homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), the two major DSB repair pathways. We also provide evidence that Cdh1 is a downstream target of Cdc14B in DSB repair. PMID:26283732

  14. Origin and diagenesis of blue-green clays and volcanic glass in the Pleistocene of the Côte d'Ivoire Ghana Marginal Ridge (ODP Leg 159, Site 959)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giresse, Pierre; Wiewióra, Andrzej

    1999-09-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 was drilled in the northern border of the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Ridge at a water depth of 2100 m. Pleistocene total thickness does not exceed 20 m. Winnowing processes resulted in a low accumulation rate and notable stratigraphic hiatuses. During the Late Pleistocene, bottom circulation was very active and controlled laminae deposition (contourites) which increased the concentration of glauconitic infillings of foraminifera, and of volcanic glass and blue-green grains more rarely, with one or several subordinate ferromagnesian silicates. Volcanic glass generally was X-ray amorphous and schematically classified as basic to intermediate (44-60% SiO 2). Opal-A or opal-CT suggested the beginning of the palagonitisation process, and previous smectitic deposits may have been eroded mechanically. The blue-green grains presented two main types of mineralogic composition: (1) neoformed K, Fe-smectite associated with zeolite (like phillipsite) and unequal amounts of quartz and anorthite; (2) feldspathic grains dominated by albite but including quartz, volcanic glass and smectites as accessory components. They were more or less associated with the volcanic glass. On the basis of their chemical composition, the genetic relationship between the blue-green grains and the volcanic glass seemed to be obvious although some heterogeneous grains seemed to be primary ignimbrite and not the result of glass weathering. The most reasonable origin of these pyroclastic ejecta would be explosive events from the Cameroon Volcanic Ridge, especially from the Sao Thome and Principe Islands and Mount Cameroon area. This is supported both by grain geochemistry and the time of volcanic activity, i.e. Pleistocene. After westward wind transport (some 1200 km) and ash fall-out, the subsequent winnowing by bottom currents controlled the concentration of the volcanic grains previously disseminated inside the hemipelagic sediment. Palagonitisation, and especially

  15. Controllable optical modulation of blue/green up-conversion fluorescence from Tm3+ (Er3+) single-doped glass ceramics upon two-step excitation of two-wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Kang, Shiliang; Zhang, Hang; Wang, Ting; Lv, Shichao; Chen, Qiuqun; Dong, Guoping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Optical modulation is a crucial operation in photonics for network data processing with the aim to overcome information bottleneck in terms of speed, energy consumption, dispersion and cross-talking from conventional electronic interconnection approach. However, due to the weak interactions between photons, a facile physical approach is required to efficiently manipulate photon-photon interactions. Herein, we demonstrate that transparent glass ceramics containing LaF3: Tm3+ (Er3+) nanocrystals can enable fast-slow optical modulation of blue/green up-conversion fluorescence upon two-step excitation of two-wavelengths at telecom windows (0.8–1.8 μm). We show an optical modulation of more than 1500% (800%) of the green (blue) up-conversion fluorescence intensity, and fast response of 280 μs (367 μs) as well as slow response of 5.82 ms (618 μs) in the green (blue) up-conversion fluorescence signal, respectively. The success of manipulating laser at telecom windows for fast-slow optical modulation from rear-earth single-doped glass ceramics may find application in all-optical fiber telecommunication areas. PMID:28368041

  16. Controllable optical modulation of blue/green up-conversion fluorescence from Tm(3+) (Er(3+)) single-doped glass ceramics upon two-step excitation of two-wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Kang, Shiliang; Zhang, Hang; Wang, Ting; Lv, Shichao; Chen, Qiuqun; Dong, Guoping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-04-03

    Optical modulation is a crucial operation in photonics for network data processing with the aim to overcome information bottleneck in terms of speed, energy consumption, dispersion and cross-talking from conventional electronic interconnection approach. However, due to the weak interactions between photons, a facile physical approach is required to efficiently manipulate photon-photon interactions. Herein, we demonstrate that transparent glass ceramics containing LaF3: Tm(3+) (Er(3+)) nanocrystals can enable fast-slow optical modulation of blue/green up-conversion fluorescence upon two-step excitation of two-wavelengths at telecom windows (0.8-1.8 μm). We show an optical modulation of more than 1500% (800%) of the green (blue) up-conversion fluorescence intensity, and fast response of 280 μs (367 μs) as well as slow response of 5.82 ms (618 μs) in the green (blue) up-conversion fluorescence signal, respectively. The success of manipulating laser at telecom windows for fast-slow optical modulation from rear-earth single-doped glass ceramics may find application in all-optical fiber telecommunication areas.

  17. Characterization on the microstructure of gamma-ray irradiated Nd2Fe14B magnet.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Chul; Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Ji, Eun Sun; Heo, Jin Kook; Kwon, Hae Woong; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-02-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma-ray irradiation on the microstructure of Nd2Fe14B magnets was investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA). When the 60Co gamma-ray with dose from 0 Mrad to 100 Mrad was exposed to Nd2Fel,4B magnet having different sizes at room temperature, the increased demagnetization properties of the Nd2Fe14B magnets were studied by Hall probe. For all samples, changed Curie temperature and micro-crystal structure of Nd2Fe14B magnet by gamma-ray irradiation has been also studied. Moreover the strong and broad single line shaped ESR signal in the resonance magnetic field is attributed to unpaired electron of iron ions in the sample by the effect of gamma-ray irradiation.

  18. Probing fractal magnetic domains on multiple length scales in Nd2Fe14B.

    PubMed

    Kreyssig, A; Prozorov, R; Dewhurst, C D; Canfield, P C; McCallum, R W; Goldman, A I

    2009-01-30

    Using small-angle neutron scattering, we demonstrate that the complex magnetic domain patterns at the surface of Nd2Fe14B, revealed by quantitative Kerr and Faraday microscopy, propagate into the bulk and exhibit structural features with dimensions down to 6 nm, the domain wall thickness. The observed fractal nature of the domain structures provides an explanation for the anomalous increase in the bulk magnetization of Nd2Fe14B below the spin-reorientation transition. These measurements open up a rich playground for studies of fractal structures in highly anisotropic magnetic systems.

  19. 2Flux growth and characterization of Ce-substituted Nd2Fe14 B single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susner, Michael A.; Conner, Benjamin S.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I.; McGuire, Michael A.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Cao, Huibo; Shanavas, Kavungal V.; Parker, David S.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Sales, Brian C.

    2017-07-01

    Single crystals of (Nd1-xCex) 2Fe14 B , some reaching ∼ 6 × 8 × 8mm3 in volume, are grown out of Fe-(Nd, Ce) flux. This crystal growth method allows for large (Nd1-xCex) 2Fe14 B single crystals to be synthesized using a simple flux growth procedure. Chemical and structural analyses of the crystals indicate that (Nd1-xCex) 2Fe14 B forms a solid solution until at least x=0.38 with a Vegard-like variation of the lattice constants with x. Refinements of single crystal neutron diffraction data indicate that Ce has a slight site preference (7:3) for the 4g rare earth site over the 4f site. Magnetization measurements at 300 K show only small decreases with increasing Ce content in saturation magnetization (Ms) and anisotropy field (HA), and Curie temperature (TC). First principles calculations are carried out to understand the effect of Ce substitution on the electronic and magnetic properties. For a multitude of applications, it is expected that the advantage of incorporating lower-cost and more abundant Ce will outweigh the small adverse effects on magnetic properties. Ce-substituted Nd2Fe14 B is therefore a potential high-performance permanent magnet material with substantially reduced Nd content.

  20. Microstructure and magnetic properties of microalloyed α-Fe/Nd 2Fe 14B nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, D. H.; Wu, Y. Q.; Hono, K.

    2002-02-01

    The effect of minor elements (Cu, Nb, Zr and/or Ga) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of α-Fe/Nd 2Fe 14B nanocomposites obtained by melt-spinning Nd 8Fe 87B 5 based alloys has been studied by using three-dimensional atom probe and transmission electron microscopy. Cu atoms form clusters prior to the crystallization of amorphous precursors. However, Cu clusters do not act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the α-Fe crystals; thus, Cu addition is not beneficial for reducing the grain size of α-Fe/Nd 2Fe 14B nanocomposites. On the other hand, Nb is effective in suppressing grain growth while annealing an partially crystallized melt-spun Nb-containing alloy. However, it was not possible to optimize the microstructures and magnetic properties by crystallizing Nb-containing amorphous precursors. The hard magnetic properties with Hc=496 kA/m and ( BH) max=134 kJ/m 3 were obtained by adding a small amount of Zr. The coercivity was enhanced by combined addition of Zr and Ga. Zr and Ga atoms are partitioned into the Nd 2Fe 14B phase, and evidence for a slight enrichment of Zr atoms at the α-Fe/Nd 2Fe 14B interfaces has been found.

  1. Effect of magnetic fields on melt-spun Nd2Fe14B-based ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nguyen, Vuong; Rong, Chuanbing; Ding, Yong; Liu, J. Ping

    2012-04-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B-based melt-spun ribbons is investigated. The magnetic field was applied in perpendicular or parallel direction to the ribbon plane during quench with a field strength up to several kilo Oersteds. The XRD patterns and TEM graphs show a strong grain size reduction upon the magnetic field application. The magnetic field also enhances the (00l) texture of ribbons when the field is perpendicular to the ribbon plane. The refined microstructure with significantly reduced grain size leads to enhanced magnetic exchange interactions between the hard and soft phases in the Nd2Fe14B/Fe nanocomposite ribbons. This magnetic field-assisted melt-spinning technique is promising for producing nanocomposite magnets with enhanced energy density.

  2. Violet-green excitation for NIR luminescence of Yb3+ ions in Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2-Ga2O3 glasses.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Cheng, Jimeng; Zhao, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Hu, Lili; Guzik, Malgorzata; Boulon, Georges

    2014-04-21

    60Bi(2)O(3)-20B(2)O(3)-10SiO(2)-10Ga(2)O(3) glasses doped with 1-9 mol% Yb(2)O(3) were prepared and investigated mainly on their violet-green excitation for the typical NIR emission of Yb(3+), generally excited in the NIR. Two violet excitation bands at 365 nm and 405 nm are related to Yb(2+) and Bi(3+). 465 nm excitation band and 480 nm absorption band in the blue-green are assigned to Bi(0) metal nanoparticles/grains. Yb-content-dependence of the excitation and absorption means that Bi(0) is the reduced product of Bi(3+), but greatly competed by the redox reaction of Yb(2+) ↔ Yb(3+). It is proved that the violet-green excitations result in the NIR emission of Yb(3+). On the energy transfer, the virtual level of Yb(3+)-Yb(3+) as well as Bi(0) dimers probably plays an important role. An effective and controllable way is suggested to achieve nano-optical applications by Bi(0) metal nanoparticles/grains and Yb(3+).

  3. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet Wasp-14B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, J. E.; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.; Ciardi, D.; Plavchan, P.; Wong, I.; Lowrance, P.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling the phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of approximately two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring-mode phase curve. Both data sets, as well as snapshot-style observations of a calibration star, are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot data set, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as the amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot Jupiter. We place a limit on the potential phase to phase variation of these parameters since our data are taken over many phases over the course of a year. We see no evidence for eclipse depth variations compared to other published WASP-14b eclipse depths over a 3.5 year baseline.

  4. 2Flux growth and characterization of Ce-substituted Nd2Fe14B single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Susner, Michael A.; Conner, Benjamin S.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I.; ...

    2016-10-27

    Single crystals of (Nd1-xCex)2Fe14B are grown out of Fe-(Nd,Ce) flux. Chemical and structural analysis of the crystals indicate that (Nd1-xCex)2Fe14B forms a solid solution until at least x = 0.38 with a Vegard-like variation of the lattice constants with x. Refinements of single crystal neutron diffraction data indicate that Ce has a slight site preference (7:3) for the 4g rare earth site over the 4f site. Magnetization measurements at 300 K show only small decreases with increasing Ce content in saturation magnetization (Ms) and anisotropy field (HA), and Curie temperature (TC). First principles calculations are carried out to understand themore » effect of Ce substitution on the electronic and magnetic properties. For a multitude of applications, it is expected that the advantage of incorporating lower-cost and more abundant Ce will outweigh the small adverse effects on magnetic properties. In conclusion, Ce-substituted Nd2Fe14B is therefore a potential high-performance permanent magnet material with substantially reduced Nd content.« less

  5. OsGF14b Positively Regulates Panicle Blast Resistance but Negatively Regulates Leaf Blast Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianyuan; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhao, Junliang; Feng, Aiqing; Yang, Tifeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Mao, Xinxue; Dong, Jingfang; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in responses to biotic stresses in plants, their functions in rice blast, the most destructive disease in rice, are largely unknown. Only GF14e has been confirmed to negatively regulate leaf blast. We report that GF14b is highly expressed in seedlings and panicles during blast infection. Rice plants overexpressing GF14b show enhanced resistance to panicle blast but are susceptible to leaf blast. In contrast, GF14b-silenced plants show increased susceptibility to panicle blast but enhanced resistance to leaf blast. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that WRKY71 binds to the promoter of GF14b and modulates its expression. Overexpression of GF14b induces expression of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis-related genes but suppresses expression of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related genes. In contrast, suppressed GF14b expression causes decreased expression of JA synthesis-related genes but activation of SA synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that GF14b positively regulates panicle blast resistance but negatively regulates leaf blast resistance, and that GF14b-mediated disease resistance is associated with the JA- and SA-dependent pathway. The different functions for 14-3-3 proteins in leaf and panicle blast provide new evidence that leaf and panicle blast resistance are controlled by different mechanisms.

  6. Profiles in garbage glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-09-01

    Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to color brown, green, or blue bottles. Sixty percent of the glass used in the US is clear (flint) and one-fourth is brown (amber). Almost half of the green bottles are imported wind and beer bottles. Other glass products include flat glass such as windows; fiberglass insulation; and glassware. These products use different manufacturing processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only container glass. Glass bottles are commonly collected in curb-side programs. Losses due to breakage and the abrasiveness of glass during collection and processing offset their low collection and processing costs. Breakage solutions include installation of interior baffles or nets in the collection trucks, special glass-only truck compartments, and limiting the number of times glass is transferred after collection before final processing. Ten states require deposits on glass bottles for beer and soft drinks and related items.

  7. Chemical synthesis of Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yu, L Q; Zhang, Y P; Yang, Z; He, J D; Dong, K T; Hou, Y

    2016-07-14

    High exchange-coupled Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposites were synthesized by an integrative procedure of thermal decomposition and reductive annealing processes. The molar ratio of the resulting products of Nd/Fe/B can be tuned by adjusting the raw material proportion. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited an exchanged coupled effect with a large coercivity of 11 100 Gs, enhanced remanence Mr of 42.0 emu g(-1), and Mr/M3T of 0.59.

  8. Orbital magnetic moment instability at the spin reorientation transition of Nd2Fe14B

    PubMed

    Garcia; Chaboy; Bartolome; Goedkoop

    2000-07-10

    Highly accurate soft-XMCD data recorded on a Nd2Fe14B single crystal, through the spin reorientation transition show that the average Fe orbital moment (a) is proportional to the macroscopic Fe anisotropy constant, and (b) diverges 15 K below the reorientation transition temperature. This divergence is indicative of a critical behavior and it is related to a tetragonal distortion. These results give experimental evidence of the mutual dependence between orbital moment, macroscopic magnetic anisotropy, and tetragonal distortion. Furthermore, it is argued that the critical behavior of the orbital moment is at the origin of similar divergences previously observed in Mossbauer and Hall-effect data.

  9. Magnetic field control of microstructural development in melt-spun Pr2Co14B

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando; Conner, Ben S.; ...

    2017-01-27

    In the processing of commercial rare earth permanent magnets, use of external magnetic fields is limited mainly to the alignment of anisotropic particles and the polarization of the finished magnets. Here we explore the effects of high magnetic fields on earlier stages of magnet synthesis, including the crystallization and chemical phase transformations that produce the 2:14:1 phase in the Pr-Co-B system. Pr2Co14B alloys produced by melt-spinning were annealed in the presence of strong applied magnetic fields (H=90 kOe). The resulting materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. We find that magnetic fields suppress the nucleation andmore » growth of crystalline phases, resulting in significantly smaller particle sizes. In addition, magnetic fields applied during processing strongly affects chemical phase selection, suppressing the formation of Pr2Co14B and α-Co in favor of Pr2Co17. Here, the results demonstrate that increased control over key microstructural properties is achievable by including a strong magnetic field as a processing parameter for rare-earth magnet materials.« less

  10. Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of the ND2FE14B Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Abeer E.

    2013-03-01

    The calculations on electronic structures of Nd2Fe14B are calculated using first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method. We study the magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B using the LDA+U and spin-orbit coupling methods. Results are presented for total density of states (DOS) as well as the site-projected partial density of states (PDOS) and the spin magnetic moment of Fe at each of the six in-equivalent transition-metal sites. The total spin-magnetic moments and the average Fe moment are in a good agreement with the values deduced from the neutron scattering experiment. The spin-polarized calculations, excluding the Hubbard and SO interaction, resulted in the total spin magnetic moment is 46.6 μB compared to the experimental values 34.63 μB to the value of 39.6 μB we obtained using LDA+U scheme without Spin-Orbit coupling(SO). But using LDA+U +SO the total spin magnetic moment is 37.6 μB.

  11. Electromagnetic performance and microwave absorbing property of nanocrystalline Sm2Fe14B compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Rui; Yi, Hai-bo; Wei, Jian-qiang; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Li, Fa-shen

    2012-09-01

    A new planar anisotropy Sm2Fe14B nanocrystal as an electromagnetic absorption material was prepared by melt-spinning method. The electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of Sm2Fe14B nanocrystal/nonmagnetic matrix composite in the frequency range of 0.1-10 GHz were measured and calculated. At the perfect matching point (2.9 GHz), the minimum reflection loss reaches -42.0 dB at the matching thickness of 3.1 mm. Furthermore, the calculation shows that the normalized input impedance Z in/ Z 0 equals 1, but the modulus of the ratio between the complex permittivity and permeability | ɛ/ μ| is far away from unity at the perfect matching point. The effective permeability of the composite was simulated using the combination of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and Bruggeman's effective medium theory; the agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical one demonstrates that the magnetic loss in the composite is mainly caused by natural resonance.

  12. Monte Carlo analysis for finite-temperature magnetism of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toga, Yuta; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Miyashita, Seiji; Akai, Hisazumi; Doi, Shotaro; Miyake, Takashi; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effects of magnetic inhomogeneities and thermal fluctuations on the magnetic properties of a rare-earth intermetallic compound, Nd2Fe14B . The constrained Monte Carlo method is applied to a Nd2Fe14B bulk system to realize the experimentally observed spin reorientation and magnetic anisotropy constants KmA(m =1 ,2 ,4 ) at finite temperatures. Subsequently, it is found that the temperature dependence of K1A deviates from the Callen-Callen law, K1A(T ) ∝M (T) 3 , even above room temperature, TR˜300 K , when the Fe (Nd) anisotropy terms are removed to leave only the Nd (Fe) anisotropy terms. This is because the exchange couplings between Nd moments and Fe spins are much smaller than those between Fe spins. It is also found that the exponent n in the external magnetic field Hext response of barrier height FB=FB0(1-Hext/H0) n is less than 2 in the low-temperature region below TR, whereas n approaches 2 when T >TR , indicating the presence of Stoner-Wohlfarth-type magnetization rotation. This reflects the fact that the magnetic anisotropy is mainly governed by the K1A term in the T >TR region.

  13. INDEPENDENT DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITING EXOPLANET HAT-P-14b

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, E. K.; Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D.; Faedi, F.; McCormac, J.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Enoch, B.; Skillen, I.; Stempels, H. C.; Boisse, I.; Hebrard, G.; Bouchy, F.; Sorensen, P.; Street, R. A.; Anderson, D.; Bento, J.; Butters, O. W.; Haswell, C. A.; Hebb, L.

    2011-05-15

    We present SuperWASP observations of HAT-P-14b, a hot Jupiter discovered by Torres et al. The planet was found independently by the SuperWASP team and named WASP-27b after follow-up observations had secured the discovery, but prior to the publication by Torres et al. Our analysis of HAT-P-14/WASP-27 is in good agreement with the values found by Torres et al. and we provide additional evidence against astronomical false positives. Due to the brightness of the host star, V{sub mag} = 10, HAT-P-14b is an attractive candidate for further characterization observations. The planet has a high impact parameter and the primary transit is close to grazing. This could readily reveal small deviations in the orbital parameters indicating the presence of a third body in the system, which may be causing the small but significant orbital eccentricity. Our results suggest that the planet may undergo a grazing secondary eclipse. However, even a non-detection would tightly constrain the system parameters.

  14. Submicron sized R2 Fe14 B particles fabricated by mechanochemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu-Alkan, Ozlem; Barandiaran, Jose Manuel; Salazar, Daniel; Hadjipanayis, George C.; Univ. of Delaware Team; Univ. Basque Country Team

    In this work, we have synthesized submicron R2Fe14B particles by the mechanochemical process. Mechanical activation of oxides of rare earth, iron and boron was done by high energy ball milling in a CaO with a reduction agent (Ca). After a heat treatment at 900 °C the powder was washed with water and glycerol solution to remove the dispersant and other non-magnetic phases. Magnetic measurements showed that the as-synthesized unwashed powders had coercivity values of 10.3 kOe, 12.8 kOe, and 24.6 kOe for R =Nd, Pr, and Dy, respectively. During washing, H2 is released and absorbed by the 2:14:1 structure. After removing the H2, the submicron particles have coercivities of 3.3 kOe (Nd), 4.4 kOe (Pr) and 21.0 kOe (Dy) with average sizes 160 nm, 242 nm, and 107 nm, respectively. Fitting of high field M(H) measurements to the law of approach to saturation showed that the anisotropy constant of the Nd2Fe14B particles are 3.73x107 erg/cm3 which is comparable to bulk. Work supported by DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612 and Bizkaia Talent AYD-000-195. DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612.

  15. Increase in the Tb{sup 3+} green emission in SiO{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3} nano-glass-ceramics by codoping with Dy{sup 3+} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, J. J.; Rodriguez, V. D.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Yanes, A. C.; Castillo, J. del

    2010-12-01

    95SiO{sub 2}-5LaF{sub 3} sol-gel derived nano-glass-ceramics single doped with 0.1Dy{sup 3+} or 0.1Tb{sup 3+} mol % and codoped with 0.1Dy{sup 3+} and xTb{sup 3+} (x=0.1,0.3) mol % were successfully obtained. XRD and HRTEM measurements confirm the precipitation of LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals during the ceramming process, with mean size ranging from 10 to 20 nm and increasing with the thermal treatment temperature. About 75% of lanthanide ions are partitioned into LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals, as calculated from luminescence decays. The effect of increasing the Tb{sup 3+} concentration and also of codoping with Dy{sup 3+} in the Tb{sup 3+} green emission from the {sup 5}D{sub 4} level have been studied. The energy transfer mechanisms between Tb{sup 3+} ions and also between Tb{sup 3+}-Dy{sup 3+} ions, which favor the green emission, have been analyzed.

  16. Single-crystal and textured polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B flakes with a submicron or nanosize thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, BZ; Zheng, LY; Li, WF; Liu, JF; Hadjipanayis, GC

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication, structure and magnetic property optimization of Nd2Fe14B single-crystal and [0 0 1] textured poly-nanocrystalline flakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling (HEBM). Single-crystal Nd2Fe14B flakes first with micron and then with submicron thicknesses were formed via continuous basal cleavage along the (1 1 0) planes of the irregularly shaped single-crystal microparticles during the early stage of HEBM. With further milling, [0 0 1] textured polycrystalline submicron Nd2Fe14B flakes were formed. Finally, crystallographically anisotropic polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B nanoflakes were formed after milling for 5-6 h. Anisotropic magnetic behavior was found in all of the flake samples. Nd2Fe14B flakes prepared with either oleic acid (OA) or oleylamine (OY) as the surfactant exhibited similar morphology, structure and magnetic properties. Both the addition of some low-melting-point eutectic Nd70Cu30 alloy and an appropriate post-annealing can increase the coercivity of the Nd2Fe14B flakes. The coercivity of Nd2Fe14B nanoflakes with an addition of 16.7 wt.% Nd70Cu30 by milling for 5 h in heptane with 20 wt.% OY increased from 3.7 to 6.8 kOe after annealing at 450 degrees C for 0.5 h. The mechanism for formation and coercivity enhancement of Nd2Fe14B single-crystal and textured poly-nanocrystalline flakes with a submicron or nanosize thickness was discussed. (C) 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Fe-sublattice in Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Yoshio; Tsuchiura, Hiroki; Yoshioka, Takuya

    2014-05-07

    To reveal the role of Fe sublattice in the coercivity of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, we investigated the origin of perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B using first-principles density-functional calculations. We found that the perpendicular MCA of Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B arises predominantly from Fe sites with higher symmetry (16k{sub 1,2} and 8j{sub 1,2}). On the other hand, the Fe(4c) sites show a significant contribution to the in-plane MCA. This can be attributed to the localized character of Fe(4c)-d orbitals in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. Furthermore, the MCA energy of Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B increases as the number of valence electrons increases within the rigid band model, indicating that the partial substitution of Fe by Co can enhance the MCA energy of Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B.

  18. Solid-solution stability and preferential site-occupancy in (R-R')2Fe14B compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, C. V.; Ito, M.; Yano, M.; Dempsey, N. M.; Suard, E.; Givord, D.

    2016-06-01

    The rare-earth (R) uniaxial anisotropy of R2Fe14B compounds with magnetic R atoms (e.g., Nd or Pr) is at the origin of the exceptional hard magnetic properties achieved in magnets based on these compounds. The uniaxial anisotropy found in Ce2Fe14B is attributed mainly to the magnetism of Fe. Ce is the most abundant R element and there has been much recent effort to fabricate magnets in which Ce is partially substituted for Nd. In the present neutron study of (R1-xCex)2Fe14B (R = La or Nd), Ce is found to enter the R2Fe14B phase over the entire composition range. The crystallographic parameters decrease with increasing Ce content and the Ce atoms preferentially occupy the smaller 4f sites. It is concluded that Ce in these (RR')2Fe14B compounds essentially maintains the intermediate valence character found in Ce2Fe14B. It is proposed that, in this intermediate valence state, Ce weakly contributes to uniaxial anisotropy, thus making a link with the fact that significant coercivity is preserved in Ce-substituted NdFeB magnets.

  19. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  20. The corrosion behavior of Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5 magnets.

    PubMed

    Kitsugi, A; Okuno, O; Nakano, T; Hamanaka, H; Kuroda, T

    1992-12-01

    Rare earth magnets have corrosive problems associated with their use in prostheses in various fields including orthodontics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the corrosion behavior of an Nd2Fe14B magnet and a SmCo5 magnet in an oral environment. The relations among the attractive force changes, the released elements, the weight changes and the anodic polarization measurements of the magnets were examined under immersions in 1% NaCl, 1% lactic acid, 0.05% HCl, 0.1% Na2S and Greenwood's artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for forty-two days. The results showed that the rare earth magnets underwent high corrosive assaults and large attractive force reductions by the immersions in 1% lactic acid and 0.05% HCl. The problem of corrosion of the magnets could be overcome by sealing them within laser-welded stainless steel capsules.

  1. Thermally Induced Structural Transformations of Fe40Ni40P14B6 Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, Milica M.; Roupcová, Pavla; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Stevanović, Sanja; Blagojević, Vladimir A.; Žák, Tomáš; Minić, Dragica M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal stability and thermally induced structural transformations of Fe40Ni40P14B6 amorphous alloy were examined under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. Formation of metastable α-(Fe,Ni), and stable γ-(Fe,Ni) and (Fe,Ni)3(P,B) crystalline phases as the main crystallization products was observed, while the presence of small amounts of other crystalline phases like Fe23B6 and Fe2NiB was indicated by electron diffraction in HRTEM. Thermomagnetic curve indicated that Fe content in different crystalline phases is very different, resulting in markedly different Curie temperatures after crystallization. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy study suggested multiple-layered platelet-shaped morphology, both on the surface and in the bulk of the crystallized alloy sample. The thermal treatment heating rate and maximum temperature affected surface roughness and grain size inhomogeneity.

  2. Barkhausen noise in the random field Ising magnet Nd2Fe14B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Silevitch, D. M.; Dahmen, K. A.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    With sintered needles aligned and a magnetic field applied transverse to its easy axis, the rare-earth ferromagnet Nd2Fe14B becomes a room-temperature realization of the random field Ising model. The transverse field tunes the pinning potential of the magnetic domains in a continuous fashion. We study the magnetic domain reversal and avalanche dynamics between liquid helium and room temperatures at a series of transverse fields using a Barkhausen noise technique. The avalanche size and energy distributions follow power-law behavior with a cutoff dependent on the pinning strength dialed in by the transverse field, consistent with theoretical predictions for Barkhausen avalanches in disordered materials. A scaling analysis reveals two regimes of behavior: one at low temperature and high transverse field, where the dynamics are governed by the randomness, and the second at high temperature and low transverse field, where thermal fluctuations dominate the dynamics.

  3. Thermal Emission of WASP-14b Revealed with Three Spitzer Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Campo, Christopher J.; Bowman, William C.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Loredo, Thomas J.; Anderson, David R.; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2013-12-01

    Exoplanet WASP-14b is a highly irradiated, transiting hot Jupiter. Joshi et al. calculate an equilibrium temperature (T eq) of 1866 K for zero albedo and reemission from the entire planet, a mass of 7.3 ± 0.5 Jupiter masses (M J), and a radius of 1.28 ± 0.08 Jupiter radii (R J). Its mean density of 4.6 g cm-3 is one of the highest known for planets with periods less than three days. We obtained three secondary eclipse light curves with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The eclipse depths from the best jointly fit model are 0.224% ± 0.018% at 4.5 μm and 0.181% ± 0.022% at 8.0 μm. The corresponding brightness temperatures are 2212 ± 94 K and 1590 ± 116 K. A slight ambiguity between systematic models suggests a conservative 3.6 μm eclipse depth of 0.19% ± 0.01% and brightness temperature of 2242 ± 55 K. Although extremely irradiated, WASP-14b does not show any distinct evidence of a thermal inversion. In addition, the present data nominally favor models with day-night energy redistribution less than ~30%. The current data are generally consistent with oxygen-rich as well as carbon-rich compositions, although an oxygen-rich composition provides a marginally better fit. We confirm a significant eccentricity of e = 0.087 ± 0.002 and refine other orbital parameters.

  4. Thermal emission of WASP-14b revealed with three Spitzer eclipses

    SciTech Connect

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Campo, Christopher J.; Bowman, William C.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Loredo, Thomas J.; Anderson, David R.; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2013-12-10

    Exoplanet WASP-14b is a highly irradiated, transiting hot Jupiter. Joshi et al. calculate an equilibrium temperature (T {sub eq}) of 1866 K for zero albedo and reemission from the entire planet, a mass of 7.3 ± 0.5 Jupiter masses (M {sub J}), and a radius of 1.28 ± 0.08 Jupiter radii (R {sub J}). Its mean density of 4.6 g cm{sup -3} is one of the highest known for planets with periods less than three days. We obtained three secondary eclipse light curves with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The eclipse depths from the best jointly fit model are 0.224% ± 0.018% at 4.5 μm and 0.181% ± 0.022% at 8.0 μm. The corresponding brightness temperatures are 2212 ± 94 K and 1590 ± 116 K. A slight ambiguity between systematic models suggests a conservative 3.6 μm eclipse depth of 0.19% ± 0.01% and brightness temperature of 2242 ± 55 K. Although extremely irradiated, WASP-14b does not show any distinct evidence of a thermal inversion. In addition, the present data nominally favor models with day-night energy redistribution less than ∼30%. The current data are generally consistent with oxygen-rich as well as carbon-rich compositions, although an oxygen-rich composition provides a marginally better fit. We confirm a significant eccentricity of e = 0.087 ± 0.002 and refine other orbital parameters.

  5. Waste product profile: Glass containers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, Waste Age initiated the Waste Product Profile series -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the solid waste stream. This popular series of profiles high-lighted a product, explained how it fit into integrated waste management systems, and provided current data on recycling and markets for the product. Glass containers are made from sand, limestone, soda ash, cullet (crushed bottles), and various additives, including those used to produce green, brown, and blue glass. Other glass products include flat glass, such as windows, and fiberglass products, such as insulation and glassware. These products are manufactured using different processes and different additives than container glass. This profile covers only glass containers.

  6. KT boundary impact glasses from the Gulf of Mexico region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub impact crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.

  7. HATS-13b and HATS-14b: two transiting hot Jupiters from the HATSouth survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Hartman, J. D.; Penev, K.; Bakos, G. Á.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.; Csubry, Z.; Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Rabus, M.; de Val-Borro, M.; Espinoza, N.; Jordán, A.; Suc, V.; Bhatti, W.; Schmidt, B.; Sato, B.; Tan, T. G.; Wright, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Addison, B. C.; Noyes, R. W.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-13b and HATS-14b, which are two hot-Jupiter transiting planets discovered by the HATSouth survey. The host stars are quite similar to each other (HATS-13: V = 13.9 mag, M⋆ = 0.96 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.89 R⊙, Teff ≈ 5500 K, [Fe/H] = 0.05; HATS-14: V = 13.8 mag, M⋆ = 0.97 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.93 R⊙, Teff ≈ 5350 K, [Fe/H] = 0.33) and both the planets orbit around them with a period of ~3 days and a separation of ~0.04 au. However, even though they are irradiated in a similar way, the physical characteristics of the two planets are very different. HATS-13b, with a mass of Mp = 0.543 ± 0.072 MJ and a radius of Rp = 1.212 ± 0.035 RJ, appears as an inflated planet, while HATS-14b, having a mass of Mp = 1.071 ± 0.070 MJ and a radius of Rp = 1.039 ± 0.032 RJ, is only slightly larger in radius than Jupiter. The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (HESS) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on observations made with (i) the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; (ii) the MPG 2.2 m and the (iii) Euler 1.2 m Telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla; (iv) the CTIO 0.9 m Telescope at the Observatory of Cerro Tololo.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table A.1 and RV Tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A63

  8. Utp14b: a unique retrogene within a gene that has acquired multiple promoters and a specific function in spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Rohozinski, Jan; Sharma, Manju; Ju, Jun; Braun, Robert E; Bishop, Colin E; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2007-04-15

    The mouse retrogene Utp14b is essential for male fertility, and a mutation in its sequence results in the sterile juvenile spermatogonial depletion (jsd) phenotype. It is a retrotransposed copy of the Utp14a gene, which is located on the X chromosome, and is inserted within an intron of the autosomal acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (Acsl3) gene. To elucidate the roles of the Utp14 genes in normal spermatogenic cell development as a basis for understanding the defects that result in the jsd phenotype, we analyzed the various mRNAs produced from the Utp14b retrogene and their expression in different cell types. Two classes of transcripts were identified: variant 1, a transcript driven by the host gene promoter, that is predominantly found in germ cells but is ubiquitously expressed at low levels; and variants 2-5, a group of alternatively spliced transcripts containing some unique untranslated exons that are transcribed from a novel promoter that is germ-cell-specific. Utp14b (predominantly variant 1) is expressed at moderately high levels in pachytene spermatocytes, the developmental stage at which the expression of the X-linked Utp14a is suppressed. The levels of both classes of Utp14b transcripts were highest in round spermatids despite the transcription of Utp14a in these cells. We propose that when Utp14b initially inserted into Acsl3, it utilized the Acsl3 promoter to drive expression in pachytene spermatocytes to compensate for inactivation of Utp14a expression. The novel cell-type-specific promoter for Utp14b likely evolved later, as the protein may have acquired a germ cell-specific function in spermatid development.

  9. High pressure effects on isotropic Nd2Fe14B magnet accompanying change in coercive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, M.; Goto, H.; Nagai, K.; Tsuruta, K.; Deguchi, H.; Tajiri, T.; Konishi, K.

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on an isotropic Nd2Fe14B magnet (the exact chemical formula is Nd2.0Fe14.1B) consisting of nanocrystals, with the size of approximately 30 nm, by magnetization measurements at pressures (P's) up to 9.3 GPa and structural analyses up to 4.3 GPa. Magnetization curves were measured by using a miniature diamond anvil cell made of Ti alloy with spatially uniform magnetization. The initial value of coercive field Hc at 300 K is 840 kA/m (=10.6 kOe), and Hc initially increases to approximately 1180 kA/m (=15.0 kOe) almost linearly against the pressure. The increase in Hc, however, saturates at around P = 3 GPa. The change in Hc is understood by the decrease in the saturation magnetization Ms within the framework of the constant anisotropy of the single domain phase. The crystalline strain increases for P < 1 GPa. Afterward, the crystalline size (D) starts to decrease with increasing pressure, and the reduction tends to saturate at above approximately 3 GPa. Furthermore, the change in Ms is actually related with both the change in strain and that in D. The data on the temperature dependence of Hc at P = 0, 6.6, and 9.3 GPa exhibit pressure-induced suppression of the Curie temperature. The maximum energy product decreases with increasing pressure over the whole temperature range.

  10. KEPLER-14b: A MASSIVE HOT JUPITER TRANSITING AN F STAR IN A CLOSE VISUAL BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Carter, Joshua A.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Torres, Guillermo; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David B.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Fressin, Francois; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2011-11-01

    We present the discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting an F star in a close visual (0.''3 sky projected angular separation) binary system. The dilution of the host star's light by the nearly equal magnitude stellar companion ({approx}0.5 mag fainter) significantly affects the derived planetary parameters, and if left uncorrected, leads to an underestimate of the radius and mass of the planet by 10% and 60%, respectively. Other published exoplanets, which have not been observed with high-resolution imaging, could similarly have unresolved stellar companions and thus have incorrectly derived planetary parameters. Kepler-14b (KOI-98) has a period of P = 6.790 days and, correcting for the dilution, has a mass of M{sub p} = 8.40{sup +0.35}{sub -0.34} M{sub J} and a radius of R{sub p} = 1.136{sup +0.073}{sub -0.054} R{sub J}, yielding a mean density of {rho}{sub p} = 7.1 {+-} 1.1 g cm{sup -3}.

  11. Hall Effect in R_2Fe_14B Rare-Earth Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Bartolomé, Juan

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the variation of the a.c. resistivity and of the low-field Hall effect in a single Gd_2Fe_14B crystal over a wide temperature range(4-750 K). The magnetic field dependence of the resistivity up to 5 T was also measured at several temperatures. Using results we have obtained previously for single crystals with R = Y, Nd, and Tm, we find that, away from magnetic transition regions, the anomalous Hall resistivity is proportional to the square of total resistivity, as predicted for side-jump scattering. Below the Curie temperature, the Hall effect arising from skew scattering is alike for all compounds except for Gd, where it is much larger. Coulomb interactions between conductions electrons and localized 4f electrons fail to account for such behavior since they do not give rise to asymmetric scattering for S-state ions. Other mechanisms, mainly covalent mixing interactions and the formation of virtual 5d states, including their spin-orbit interaction, are also considered.

  12. Density and compressibility of the molten lunar picritic glasses: Implications for the roles of Ti and Fe in the structures of silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; Agee, Carl B.; McCubbin, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    The density and compressibility of four synthetic molten lunar picritic glasses was investigated from 0 to 10 GPa and 1748 to 2473 K. The picritic glasses were collected from the lunar surface during the Apollo missions, and they are hypothesized to have rapidly quenched as glass beads during pyroclastic fire fountain eruptions. The specific melt compositions investigated in the present study are the Apollo 15 green glass Type C (A15C, TiO2 = 0.26 wt%), the Apollo 14 yellow glass (A14Y, TiO2 = 4.58 wt%), the Apollo 17 orange glass 74220-type (A17O TiO2 = 9.12 wt%), and the Apollo 14 black glass (A14B, TiO2 = 16.40 wt%). These glasses are reported to represent primary unfractionated melts, making them a prime candidate for experimental studies into lunar basalt density and compressibility during partial melting of the lunar mantle. Sink-float experiments were conducted on the synthetic molten lunar glass compositions using a piston-cylinder apparatus (P < 2 GPa) and a Walker-style multi-anvil device (P > 2.5 GPa) in order to bracket the density of the melts. New sink-float data are reported for A15C, A14Y, and A17O, which are combined with previously published density and compressibility data on A15C, A17O, and A14B. Although the Ti-rich liquids are highly compressible at lower pressures, they become nearly incompressible at much higher pressures when compared to the molten low-Ti glasses. Consequently, the melts with the most TiO2 (A14B) are the least dense at higher pressures, a reversal of what is seen at lower pressures. This change in density and compressibility is attributed to changes in coordination of Ti and Fe in the silicate melt structure. As Ti4+ abundances in the silicate melt increase, predominantly [IV]Ti4+ and [IV]Fe2+ change to [VI]Ti4+ and [VI]Fe2+ in the melt structure. All of the data from the present study were used to calculate a Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state (BM-EOS) for each melt composition. The BM-EOS model for each composition was

  13. Glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    Glass recycling in the Netherlands has grown from 10,000 to 300,000 tonnes per annum. The various advantages and problems of the glass cycle with reference to the state of the art in the Netherlands is given. Special attention is given to new technologies for the automated sorting of cullet with detection systems. In Western Europe the recycling of glass has become a success story. Because of this, the percentage of glass cullet used in glass furnaces has increased. To meet the quality demands of the glass industry, automated sorting for the removal of stones, non-ferrous metals and other impurities had to be developed and incorporated in glass recycling plants. In Holland, Germany and other countries, the amount of glass collected has reached a level that color-sorting becomes necessary to avoid market saturation with mixed cullet. Recently, two systems for color-sorting have been developed and tested for the separation of bottles and cullet in the size range of 20--50 mm. With the increased capacity of the new glass recycling plants, 120,000--200,000 tpy, the quality systems have also to be improved and automated. These quality control systems are based on the automated sorting technology developed earlier for the glass recycling plants. The data obtained are automatically processed and printed. The sampling system and its relation to the theory of Gy will be described. Results of both developments in glass recycling plants will be described.

  14. Glass Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Several NASA technologies have played part in growth and cost containment of studio glass art, among them a foam type insulation developed to meet a need for lightweight material that would reduce flame spread in aircraft fire. Foam comes in several forms and is widely used by glass artists, chiefly as an insulator for the various types of ovens used in glass working. Another Spinoff is alumina crucibles to contain molten glass. Before alumina crucibles were used, glass tanks were made of firebrick which tended to erode under high temperatures and cause impurities; this not only improved quality but made the process more cost effective. One more NASA technology that found its way into glass art working is a material known as graphite board, a special form of graphite originally developed for rocket motor applications. This graphite is used to exact compound angles and creates molds for poured glass artworks of dramatic design.

  15. 17 CFR 240.14b-2 - Obligation of banks, associations and other entities that exercise fiduciary powers in connection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., associations and other entities that exercise fiduciary powers in connection with the prompt forwarding of...: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14b-2 Obligation of banks, associations and other entities that exercise... that exercises fiduciary powers. (2) The term beneficial owner includes any person who has or...

  16. Glass Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Research efforts span three general areas of glass science: glass refining, gel-derived glasses, and nucleation and crystallization of glasses. Gas bubbles which are present in a glass product are defects which may render the glass totally useless for the end application. For example, optical glasses, laser host glasses, and a variety of other specialty glasses must be prepared virtually defect free to be employable. Since a major mechanism of bubble removal, buoyant rise, is virtually inoperative in microgravity, glass fining will be especially difficult in space. On the other hand, the suppression of buoyant rise and the ability to perform containerless melting experiments in space allows the opportunity to carry out several unique bubble experiments in space. Gas bubble dissolution studies may be performed at elevated temperatures for large bubbles with negligible bubble motion. Also, bubble nucleation studies may be performed without the disturbing feature of heterogeneous bubble nucleation at the platinum walls. Ground based research efforts are being performed in support of these potential flight experiments.

  17. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. Effect of Selective Co Addition on Magnetic Properties of Nd2(FeCo)14B/alpha-Fe Nanocomposite Magnets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-13

    uta.edu Received 17 July 2012, in final form 11 October 2012 Published 13 December 2012 Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysD/46/045001 Abstract Nd2Fe14B /α-Fe...obtained in the isotropic Nd2(FeCo)14B/α-(FeCo) nanocomposite magnets compared with 15 MG Oe of Nd2Fe14B /α-Fe nanocomposite magnets prepared under the...The effect of Co addition on magnetic properties of the Nd2Fe14B single phase has been extensively studied since the initial discovery of the Nd–Fe

  19. Surface Coatings on Lunar Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas,-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    We are undertaking a detailed study of surface deposits on lunar volcanic glass beads. These tiny deposits formed by vapor condensation during cooling of the gases that drove the fire fountain eruptions responsible for the formation of the beads. Volcanic glass beads are present in most lunar soil samples in the returned lunar collection. The mare-composition beads formed as a result of fire-fountaining approx.3.4-3.7 Ga ago, within the age range of large-scale mare volcanism. Some samples from the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 landing sites are enriched in volcanic spherules. Three major types of volcanic glass bead have been identified: Apollo 15 green glass, Apollo 17 orange glass, and Apollo 17 "black" glass. The Apollo 15 green glass has a primitive composition with low Ti. The high-Ti compositions of the orange and black glasses are essentially identical to each other but the black glasses are opaque because of quench crystallization. A poorly understood feature common to the Apollo 15 and 17 volcanic glasses is the presence of small deposits of unusual materials on their exterior surfaces. For example, early studies indicated that the Apollo 17 orange glasses had surface enrichments of In, Cd, Zn, Ga, Ge, Au, and Na, and possible Pb- and Zn-sulfides, but it was not possible to characterize the surface features in detail. Technological advances now permit us to examine such features in detail. Preliminary FE-TEM/X-ray studies of ultramicrotome sections of Apollo 15 green glass indicate that the surface deposits are heterogeneous and layered, with an inner layer consisting of Fe with minor S and an outer layer of Fe and no S, and scattered Zn enrichments. Layering in surface deposits has not been identified previously; it will be key to defining the history of lunar fire fountaining.

  20. Preferential site occupation and magnetic structure of Nd2(Co/x/Fe/1-x/)14B systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, J. F.; Yelon, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Rietveld analyses of room-temperature neutron diffraction data for seven Nd2(Co/x/Fe/1-x/)14B alloys (x = 0,0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1) are reported. Throughout the entire composition range the Nd2Fe14B-type tetragonal crystal structure is maintained, with the lattice constants decreasing significantly as the Co concentration x increases. It is found that the J2-type transition-metal sites are preferentially occupied by Fe ions in the pseudoternary systems, a result which is analogous to the preferential Fe occupation of c sites previously observed in hexagonal Nd2(Co/x/Fe/1-x/)17 alloys.

  1. Synergetic crystallization in a Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite under electron beam exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haidong; Zhang, Yinfeng; Han, Jingzhi; Xu, Zhuang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shunquan; Wang, Changsheng; Yang, Yingchang; Han, Li; Yang, Jinbo

    2016-10-27

    Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets are prepared through electron beam exposure with a greatly reduced annealing time of 0.1 s. This is by far the most effective approach due to the effect of an extremely high heating rate featuring a rapid thermal process. The impact that the rapid thermal process has on crystallization is expounded by the introduction of the Landau model and Langevin dynamical simulations. The change of crystallization sequence from the α-Fe phase preceding the Nd2Fe14B phase under conventional annealing conditions, to synergetic crystallization under electron beam conditions is investigated. Synergetic crystallization results in more intense interaction between the α-Fe phase and the Nd2Fe14B phase in order to refine the microstructure as the fraction of Fe increases within our addition range. Improved uniformity, and shifts in the microstructure and distribution of the α-Fe phase contribute to the improvement of the magnetic properties. Compared with conventional furnace annealing ones, the magnetic properties of samples under electron beam exposure conditions are improved. For the Nd10Fe83.3B6.2Nb0.2Ga0.3 alloy, coercivity is enhanced from 4.56 kOe to 6.73 kOe, remanence ratio increases from 0.75 to 0.79, and a superior squareness of the hysteresis loop is achieved.

  2. Putative Membrane-Bound Transporters MFSD14A and MFSD14B Are Neuronal and Affected by Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Lekholm, Emilia; Perland, Emelie; Eriksson, Mikaela M.; Hellsten, Sofie V.; Lindberg, Frida A.; Rostami, Jinar; Fredriksson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of orphan transporters is of importance due to their involvement in cellular homeostasis but also in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The tissue and cellular localization, as well as function, is still unknown for many of the solute carriers belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) Pfam clan. Here, we have characterized two putative novel transporters MFSD14A (HIAT1) and MFSD14B (HIATL1) in the mouse central nervous system and found protein staining throughout the adult mouse brain. Both transporters localized to neurons and MFSD14A co-localized with the Golgi marker Giantin in primary embryonic cortex cultures, while MFSD14B staining co-localized with an endoplasmic retention marker, KDEL. Based on phylogenetic clustering analyses, we predict both to have organic substrate profiles, and possible involvement in energy homeostasis. Therefore, we monitored gene regulation changes in mouse embryonic primary cultures after amino acid starvations and found both transporters to be upregulated after 3 h of starvation. Interestingly, in mice subjected to 24 h of food starvation, both transporters were downregulated in the hypothalamus, while Mfsd14a was also downregulated in the brainstem. In addition, in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), upregulation of both transporters was seen in the striatum. Both MFSD14A and MFSD14B were intracellular neuronal membrane-bound proteins, expressed in the Golgi and Endoplasmic reticulum, affected by both starvation and HFD to varying degree in the mouse brain. PMID:28179877

  3. Uniform magnetization reversal in dual main-phase (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B sintered magnets with inhomogeneous microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le-le; Li, Zhu-bai; Zhang, Xue-feng; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Yan-li; Li, Yong-feng; Zhao, Qian

    2017-02-01

    The element distribution and the magnetic properties were investigated in (Ce,Nd)-Fe-B sintered magnets prepared by mixing Nd13.5Fe80B6.5 and Ce9Nd4.5Fe80B6.5 powders with different mass ratios. Two main phases exist, but element diffusion is evident, and the chemical composition of the main phase is widely different from that of the master alloy. The Ce element tends to be expelled from the Ce-rich Re2Fe14B phase. Compared with the Ce-rich main phase, the Nd-rich Re2Fe14B phase is more stable in structure. Although the microstructure is inhomogeneous and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy is variable, the magnetization reversal is uniform in these dual main-phase magnets, which should ascribe to the existence of the exchange coupling, and magnetization reversal undergoes the nucleation of the reversed domain in irreversible magnetization. It is expected to further improve the coercivity by optimizing the distribution of the Nd-rich main phase in preparing the resource-saving (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B sintered magnets.

  4. 17 CFR 240.14b-1 - Obligation of registered brokers and dealers in connection with the prompt forwarding of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or Notice of Internet Availability of Proxy Materials to security holders. (2) Establish a Web site... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligation of registered... owners. 240.14b-1 Section 240.14b-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  5. Micromagnetic finite element study for magnetic properties of nanocomposite exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryo, Hyok-Su; Hu, Lian-Xi; Kim, Jin-Guk; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, magnetic properties of exchange coupled nanocomposite multilayer thin films constructed alternately with magnetic hard Nd2Fe14B layers and soft α-Fe layers have been studied by micromagnetic finite element method (FEM). According to the results, effects of the thicknesses of layers and the magneto-crystalline anisotropy on the magnetic properties of the Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe multilayer systems have been estimated. On the other hand, the results have been analyzed by means of efficiency of interphase exchange coupling, which can be estimated by volume ratios of exchange coupled areas between magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B and soft α-Fe phase layers. The results show that the magnetic properties of exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe multilayer systems can be enhanced by efficient interphase exchange coupling between magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B layers and soft α-Fe layers.

  6. GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Fibrous glass fillers Binders used in the glass plastic industry Method of manufacturing glass plastics and glass plastic articles Properties of fiberglass Primary areas for use of glass fibre reinforced plastics

  7. Tempered glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    This document describes a demonstration for making tempered glass using minimal equipment. The demonstration is intended for a typical student of materials science, at the high school level or above. (JL)

  8. Magnetic characteristics of R 2Fe 14B systems prepared with high purity rare earths (R =Y, Nd, Sm or Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. Q.; Oswald, E.; Boltich, E.; Hirosawa, S.; Wallace, W. E.; Schwab, E.

    1985-05-01

    Commercially procured rare earth metals frequently contain 2-5 atomic per cent oxygen. Rare earth intermetallic compounds prepared from these materials with compositions estimated by synthesis can significantly deviate from the intended composition. Several R 2Fe 14B systems have been synthesized using rare earth metals obtained from the Ames Laboratory which typically contain <25 ppm oxygen (by weight) and their fun damental magnetic properties determined. Curie temperatures range from 565 (for Y 2Fe 14B) to 669 K (for Gd 2Fe 14B). Anisotropy fields (20 C) range from 27 to 71 kOe. Results for Y 2Fe 14B and Gd 2Fe 14B suggest that about 40% of the anisotropy in Nd 2Fe 14B originates with the Fe sublattice. The Fe moment in these systems exceeds by a small margin that of elemental Fe, suggesting that B is acting as an electron donor. The Nd moment in Nd 2Fe 14B is estimated as 3.0 μ B, which is 92% of the free ion moment. The NdFe and GdFe couplings are ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic, respectively. Coupling for these systems conforms to the systematics observed earlier for simpler rare earth intermetallics.

  9. Resonant ultrasound measurements of elastic constants in melt-spun R[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B compounds (R=Ce, Pr, Nd, Er)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, C.D.; Herbst, J.F. ); Sarrao, J.L.; Migliori, A. )

    1994-05-15

    Measurements are reported of the longitudinal and transverse elastic moduli of the R[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B compounds having rare-earth component R=Ce, Pr, Nd, and Er. A resonant ultrasound technique was used to determine the elastic constants on hot-pressed, melt-spun samples which are essentially isotropic, polycrystalline specimens of the four compounds. The results for Nd[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B, which agree well with previous studies, and Er[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B exhibit clear signatures of the spin reorientations which occur in those compounds. No such signature appears in the data for Pr[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B, consistent with the fact that no spin reorientation occurs in that material. The ultrasonic attenuation of each sample has also been measured and it has been found that it shows features in the vicinity of spin reorientations (Nd[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B, Er[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B) and the Curie point (Ce[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B).

  10. KELT-14b and KELT-15b: An Independent Discovery of WASP-122b and a New Hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Colón, Knicole D.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wright, Duncan; Cargile, Phillip A.; Bayliss, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Collins, Karen A.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Zhou, George; Gaudi, B. Scott; Tinney, C. G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Tan, T. G.; Stockdale, Chris; Curtis, Ivan A.; James, David; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Myers, Gordon; Bartz, Jonathan; Bento, Joao; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-14b and KELT-15b, two hot Jupiters from the KELT-South survey. KELT-14b, an independent discovery of the recently announced WASP-122b, is an inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a ˜ {5.0}-0.7+0.3 Gyr, V = 11.0, G2 star that is near the main sequence turnoff. The host star, KELT-14 (TYC 7638-981-1), has an inferred mass {M}* = {1.18}-0.07+0.05 M⊙ and radius {R}* = 1.37+/- -0.08 R⊙, and has {T}{{eff}} = {5802}-92+95 K, {log}{g}* = {4.23}-0.04+0.05 and [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = 0.33 ± -0.09. The planet orbits with a period of 1.7100588 ± 0.0000025 days (T0 = 2457091.02863 ± 0.00047) and has a radius Rp = {1.52}-0.11+0.12 RJ and mass Mp = 1.196 ± 0.072 MJ, and the eccentricity is consistent with zero. KELT-15b is another inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a ˜{4.6}-0.4+0.5 Gyr, V = 11.2, G0 star (TYC 8146-86-1) that is near the “blue hook” stage of evolution prior to the Hertzsprung gap, and has an inferred mass {M}* = {1.181}-0.050+0.051 M⊙ and radius {R}* = {1.48}-0.04+0.09 R⊙, and {T}{{eff}} = {6003}-52+56 K, {log}{g}* = {4.17}-0.04+0.02 and [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = 0.05 ± 0.03. The planet orbits on a period of 3.329441 ± 0.000016 days (T0 = 2457029.1663 ± 0.0073) and has a radius Rp = {1.443}-0.057+0.11 RJ and mass Mp = {0.91}-0.22+0.21 MJ and an eccentricity consistent with zero. KELT-14b has the second largest expected emission signal in the K-band for known transiting planets brighter than K < 10.5. Both KELT-14b and KELT-15b are predicted to have large enough emission signals that their secondary eclipses should be detectable using ground-based observatories.

  11. Influence of Ca amount on the synthesis of Nd2Fe14B particles in reduction-diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Qiang; Kim, Dongsoo; Choi, Chuljin

    2014-04-01

    Nd2Fe14B alloy particles with high coercivity of more than 10 kOe were successfully synthesized by adjusting the amount of Calcium (Ca) in reduction-diffusion (R-D) process. Calcium oxide (CaO) and unreacted Ca remained after R-D process in particles prepared by heat treatment in Hydrogen (H2) atmosphere at previous step. In the ratio of 0.4 of Ca to powders (Ca/powders, wt%), residual Ca was not detected from X-ray diffraction pattern. On the other hand, Ca appeared above the ratio of 1.0 and below the ratio of 0.2, amount of Ca was not enough to reduce Nd oxide. Moreover, excess Ca affected magnetic property of final products obtained after washing, because residual Ca gave rise to evolution of H2 gas during disintegration with water and it led to the formation of Nd2Fe14BHx (x=1-5). Finally, Nd2Fe14B magnetic particles were synthesized after washing in de-ionized water with a mean size of 2 μm and their maximum energy product showed 15.5 MGOe.

  12. Cryogenic Field Measurement of Pr2Fe14B Undulator and Performance Enhancement Options at the NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, T.; Chubar, O.; Harder, David A.; Lehecka, Michael; Rank, James; Rakowsky, George; Spataro, Charles

    2009-09-27

    Short period (14.5mm) hybrid undulator arrays composed of Praseodymium Iron Boron (Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets (CR53, NEOMAX, Inc.) and vanadium permendur poles have been fabricated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Unlike Neodymium Iron Boron (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets which exhibit spin reorientation at temperatures below 150K, PrFeB arrays monotonically increase performance with lower operating temperature. It opens up the posibility for use in operating a cryo-permanent magnet undulator (CPMU) in the range of 40K to 60K where very efficient cryocoolers are available. Magnetic flux density profiles were measured at various temperature ranges from room temperature down to liquid helium (LHe) using the Vertical Testing Facility (VTF) at the National Snchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). Temperature variations of phase error have been characterized. In addition, we examined the use of textured Dysprosium (Dy) poles to replace permendur poles to obtain further improvement in performance.

  13. Apollo 14 Lunar glass fragment known as Genesis bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A tiny green glass fragment taken from an Apollo 14 core tube sampling. Because of its scientific significance and shape, the fragment has been nicknamed the 'Genesis bean'. The main constituents are iron and magnesium.

  14. Glass cullet as a new supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzahosseini, Mohammadreza

    Finely ground glass has the potential for pozzolanic reactivity and can serve as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). Glass reaction kinetics depends on both temperature and glass composition. Uniform composition, amorphous nature, and high silica content of glass make ground glass an ideal material for studying the effects of glass type and particle size on reactivity at different temperature. This study focuses on how three narrow size ranges of clear and green glass cullet, 63--75 mum, 25--38 mum, and smaller than 25 mum, as well as combination of glass types and particle sizes affects the microstructure and performance properties of cementitious systems containing glass cullet as a SCM. Isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images in backscattered (BS) mode were used to quantify the cement reaction kinetics and microstructure. Additionally, compressive strength and water sorptivity experiments were performed on mortar samples to correlate reactivity of cementitious materials containing glass to the performance of cementitious mixtures. A recently-developed modeling platform called "muic the model" was used to simulated pozzolanic reactivity of single type and fraction size and combined types and particle sizes of finely ground glass. Results showed that ground glass exhibits pozzolanic properties, especially when particles of clear and green glass below 25 mum and their combination were used at elevated temperatures, reflecting that glass cullet is a temperature-sensitive SCM. Moreover, glass composition was seen to have a large impact on reactivity. In this study, green glass showed higher reactivity than clear glass. Results also revealed that the simultaneous effect of sizes and types of glass cullet (surface area) on the degree of hydration of glass particles can be accounted for through a linear addition

  15. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Attached to the Bottom of the Frame 14a Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  16. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Attached to the Bottom of the Frame 14a Figures 14a and 14b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  17. Micromagnetic study for magnetic properties of exchange coupled nanocomposite magnetic systems with Nd2Fe14B grains embedded in α-Fe matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryo, Hyok-Su; Hu, Lian-Xi; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Developing high efficiency rare earth alloy magnets at low cost is an economically hopeful way to expand their application area. In this study, magnetic properties of nanocomposite isotropic exchange coupled systems with the structure of Nd2Fe14B crystalline grains embedded in α-Fe matrices have been simulated by micromagnetic finite element method (FEM). The results have been analyzed by means of the effect of volume fraction of nanosized exchange coupling area between the magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B and soft α-Fe phase on magnetic properties of the exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe magnetic systems. The results show that the magnetic systems with the structure of Nd2Fe14B grains embedded in α-Fe matrices can have comparatively advanced magnetic properties with small amount of Nd2Fe14B components, because of efficient inter-phase exchange coupling between magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B grains and soft α-Fe matrix.

  18. A new approach to fabricate Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite precursors by selective removal of Nd from Nd-Fe-B powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junwu; Du, Juan; Liu, Jingjing; Yin, Wenzong; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Aru

    2012-01-01

    A facile method based on α-Fe self-supply was developed to get exchange coupling Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposites. A small amount of neodymium was removed from the Nd2Fe14B compound in Nd-rich melt-spun powders by chemical treatment with NH4Cl and CH3COOH acid solution and α-Fe remained. Full dense anisotropic Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe magnets were prepared via hot pressing and hot deformation techniques using the as-prepared powders. The evolution of composition and phase was investigated. The best energy product (BH)max of the Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe magnets was 47.5 MG Oe, 5% higher than that of a single-phase Nd2Fe14B magnet. The α-Fe phase, which was precipitated on the edge of the Nd2Fe14B particle, contributed to the exchange coupling effect and the enhancement of remanence (Br). This method can be applied as a new strategy to prepare next generation nanocomposite magnets with good magnetic properties.

  19. Pinhole Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  20. ORBITAL ORIENTATIONS OF EXOPLANETS: HAT-P-4b IS PROGRADE AND HAT-P-14b IS RETROGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Shporer, Avi; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-02-15

    We present observations of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for two exoplanetary systems, revealing the orientations of their orbits relative to the rotation axes of their parent stars. HAT-P-4b is prograde, with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of {lambda} = -4.9 {+-} 11.9 deg. In contrast, HAT-P-14b is retrograde, with {lambda} = 189.1 {+-} 5.1 deg. These results conform with a previously noted pattern among the stellar hosts of close-in giant planets: hotter stars have a wide range of obliquities and cooler stars have low obliquities. This, in turn, suggests that three-body dynamics and tidal dissipation are responsible for the short-period orbits of many exoplanets. In addition, our data revealed a third body in the HAT-P-4 system, which could be a second planet or a companion star.

  1. Structure of 14C and 14B from the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedoor, S.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, Sergio; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P. F.; Deibel, C. M.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Mcneel, D. G.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shetty, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 proton-removing reactions in inverse kinematics. The (d ,3He ) reaction probes the proton occupation of the target ground state, and also provides spectroscopic information about the final states in B,1413. The experiments were performed using C,1514 beams from the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The reaction products were analyzed with the HELIOS device. Angular distributions were obtained for transitions from both reactions. The 14C-beam data reveal transitions to excited states in 13B that suggest configurations with protons outside the π (0 p3 /2) orbital, and some possibility of proton cross-shell 0 p -1 s 0 d excitations, in the 14C ground state. The 15C-beam data confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state in 14B. The experimental data are compared to the results of shell-model calculations.

  2. Effect of Zr Addition on the Magnetization Reversal Behavior for α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B Nanocomposite Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Minxiang; Zhang, Pengyue; Ge, Hongliang; Hong, Zhanglian; Wu, Qiong; Jiao, Zhiwei; Yang, Hangfu

    2011-09-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the Zr-doped α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B nanocomposite magnets prepared by melt-spinning method have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. The magnetization reversal behavior during the recoil processes of nanocomposite alloys has been investigated by analyzing the hysteresis curves and recoil loops of demagnetization curves. An enhanced magnetic properties has been obtained by the addition of 1 at. % Zr in α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B alloys, where the coercivity Hc increases from 470.7 to 793.2 kA/m, the maximum energy product (BH)max from 66.8 to 90.8 kJ/m3, the remanence ratio Mr/Ms from 0.74 to 0.77. The recoil loop results show that the maximum value of the integrated recoil loop area for 1 at. % Zr doped sample is quietly low of 1.87×10-3, only 1/2 for the Zr-free and 1/3 for 5 at. % Zr doped samples respectively. This result indicates that the 1 at. % Zr doped sample has a lower energy loss, resulting from a low recoverable portion of the magnetization remaining as long as the applied reversal field is below the coercivity Hc. This study provides a promising guideline for the future fabrication of low-energy-loss nanocomposite magnets for electric machines and generators.

  3. Uranium Glass: A Glowing Alternative to Conventional Sources of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, Roeland

    2017-02-01

    There is a relatively simple way of using radioactive material in classroom experiments: uranium glass, which provides teachers with a suitable substance. By using the right computer software and a radiation sensor, it can be demonstrated that uranium glass emits radiation at a greater rate than the background radiation and with the aid of UV light a bright green luster appears. Therefore, with two pieces of uranium glass, students can learn about two different physical phenomena: fluorescence and radioactivity.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Small Business Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, RevTech, developed a process to print top-quality labels directly on glass. Their Envirogluv inks have no heavy metals, have little to no VOCs, and are biodegradable.

  5. Electrochromic Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    Li20-B203 and Na20-B203 or Te02 . These glasses exhibit for the first time, electrochromic and photochromic behaviour and have potential for use in...the complete spectral distribution of the absorption at levels of 10- cm- I for the first time. In the past, it was only possible to measure low...distribution of the absorption at levels at 10 -cm it was possible, for the first time, to identify extrinsic impurities in highly transparent solids. This

  6. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  7. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  8. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  9. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  10. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  11. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  12. Clinical evaluation of neodymium-iron-boron (Ne2Fe14B) rare earth magnets in the treatment of mid line diastemas

    PubMed Central

    Manoj-Kumar, Mitta; Gowri-Sankar, Singaraju; Chaitanya, Nellore; Vivek-Reddy, Ganugapanta; Venkatesh, Nettam

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the closure of midline diastema using the Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets and to compare the treatment duration of midline diastemas with the use of magnets compared to regular orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods Thirty patients with age group 12 to 30 years with the midline diastema ranging from 0.5 to 3mm were selected. These patients were divided into two groups. Diastema closure in one group was accomplished by conventional method, in other group was done with Ne2Fe14B magnets. These magnets were fitted to the labial surfaces of the maxillary central incisors such a way that the opposite poles of the magnets face each other. At each appointment, study models and radiographs were taken for study subjects and the midline diastema was measured using digital vernier calipers on the study models obtained. Descriptive statistics carried out using Paired t-test. Results Subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets showed a significant difference compared to fixed orthodontic appliance subjects with respect to time of closure, rate of space closure and incisal inclination. Significant difference between 2 groups with reduction of 64.6 days in time to diastema closure in subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets (P<0.05). Conclusions Ne2Fe14B magnets more efficient in complete closure of mid line diastema in less duration of time. Key words:Midline diastema, Ne2Fe14B magnets, rare earth magnets, space closure. PMID:27034757

  13. The role of dysprosium on the structural and magnetic properties of (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-02-01

    In current work, Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles was synthesized by sol-gel method. Dysprosium powders were added into Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles by mechanical alloying process in order to enhancement of coercivity. The phase analysis, structure, and magnetic properties of annealed (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles with different Dy-content (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) were investigated by employing X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. The results showed that with an increase in Dy amounts, the coercivity of particles increased from 2.9 kOe to 13.4 kOe and then decreased to 5.6 kOe. By adding an optimum amount of Dy (x=0.4), the coercivity was significantly increased from 2.9 kOe to 13.4 kOe. The average particle size of annealed (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles was below 10 nm. Magnetization reversal studies indicate that the coercivity of milled and annealed (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B nanoparticles is controlled by the nucleation of reversed magnetic domains. The experimental results in the angular dependence of coercivity for (Nd1-xDyx)2Fe14B permanent magnets showed that the normalized coercivity of the permanent magnets Hc(θ)/Hc(0) increases from 1 to about 1.2-1.5 with increasing θ from 0 to about π/3, for x=0.4-0.6.

  14. First-principles study of interface magnetic structure in Nd2Fe14B /(Fe ,Co ) exchange spring magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Akimasa; Toga, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B (NFB)/transition metal (TM = Fe, Co) multilayer systems are studied on the basis of first-principles density functional calculations. Assuming a collinear spin structure, we optimize the model structure under a variety of crystallographic alignments of the NFB layer, and analyze the mechanism of interface magnetic coupling. Improvements in remanent magnetization compared to that of single NFB are observed in NFB(001)/Fe, NFB(110)/Fe, and NFB(100)/Co. On the other hand, in NFB(100)/Fe, remanence degradation due to the antiparallel magnetization alignment between NFB and Fe layers is observed. In this system, which has the shortest optimized interlayer distance among all considered systems, an itinerant electron magnetism is required around the interface to lower the total energy, and accordingly, antiferromagnetic coupling is preferred. The significant difference in property between NFB(100)/Fe and NFB(100)/Co is attributed to the difference between their interface structures, optimized interlayer distances, and magnetic stiffness of TM layers.

  15. Site preferences for La and Pr in Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2016-11-01

    Using the first principles method, we studied the site preference and the magnetic ground state of rare-earth elements La and Pr doped Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet. It was found that the La preferred the f-site doping at low doping ratio (12.5 %) while the g-site was more favorable at high doping (25 %). For the Pr impurity, we observed the opposite behavior because the site preference was switched. In addition, the spin configuration also depended on the impurity type and concentration. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) type spin configuration was found at both lower and higher doping ratios of La. For the Pr impurity, at a lower doping ratio, the AFM spin configuration was still preserved. However, the ferromagnetic spin configuration was more stable at a high doping ratio. Through impurity-substitution energy calculations, we found that the La impurity preferred to enter into the 2:14:1 phase at low doping, but it favored the grain-boundary phase at high (25 %) doping ratio. On the other hand, we observed that the Pr always preferred the main phase for both low and high doping concentrations.

  16. Roman coloured and opaque glass: a chemical and spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arletti, R.; Dalconi, M. C.; Quartieri, S.; Triscari, M.; Vezzalini, G.

    2006-05-01

    This work reports the results of an archaeometrical investigation of opaque Roman glass and is mainly focussed on the role of configuration and oxidation state of copper on the colour and opacity of red and green opaque finds (mosaic tesserae, game counters, and glass artefacts) from Sicily and Pompeii excavations. The glass fragments were characterised by EMPA, SEM-EDS, TEM, and XRPD analyses and the copper local environment was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The analyses of high-resolution Cu-K edge XANES and EXAFS spectra suggest that, in red samples, copper is present as monovalent cations coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the glass framework, accompanied by metallic clusters. In green samples all the copper cations are incorporated in the glass matrix.

  17. Optical properties of Er3 +-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu

    2016-02-01

    Er3 +-singly doped and Er3 +/Yb3 +-codoped 50SiO2-(50 - x)BaF2-xZnF2(SBZx) oxyfluoride glasses are prepared and the optical properties of Er3 +-singly doped glasses are investigated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. Bright green and red upconversion luminescence of Er3 +/Yb3 +-codoped glasses is obtained under 980 nm excitation. Furthermore, factors affecting this phenomenon such as glass composition, doping concentration of Er3 + and Yb3 + ions, and pump power are discussed in details.

  18. GlassForm

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT).

  19. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  20. Quenching Effects on Iron Site Partitioning in the Apollo 17 Orange Glass Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Mare petrogenesis and the structure of the lunar interior were studied. Analyses of the spectral signatures of glasses was useful to remote sensing applications in areas of the moon where glass is in significant proportions in the lunar soil. The studies provided information on Fe site occupancies in glasses, which are used to construe oxygen fugacities at the lunar surface. Data were obtained through work on synthetic analogues of lunar glasses. However, recent Mossbauer studies of an Apollo 15 green glass composition have shown that synthetic glasses are extremely sensitive to variations in quenching media. Glass structure and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios are strongly controlled by quenching conditions, which may mask the effects of the original glass' formation temperature or oxygen partial pressure. Synthetic glasses were often run at low fugacities on Pt wires. The effects of quench media on the Apollo 17 orange glass composition are considered.

  1. Strength of inorganic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkjian, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

  2. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  3. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  4. Bidirectional effects of hydrogen sulfide via ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and transient receptor potential A1 channels in RIN14B cells.

    PubMed

    Ujike, Ayako; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-10-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reportedly acts as a gasotransmitter because it mediates various cellular responses through several ion channels including ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels and transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels. H2S can activate both KATP and TRPA1 channels at a similar concentration range. In a single cell expressing both channels, however, it remains unknown what happens when both channels are simultaneously activated by H2S. In this study, we examined the effects of H2S on RIN14B cells that express both KATP and TRPA1 channels. RIN14B cells showed several intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) responses to NaHS (300 µM), an H2S donor, i.e., inhibition of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations (37%), inhibition followed by [Ca(2+)]i increase (24%), and a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)]i (25%). KATP channel blockers, glibenclamide or tolbutamide, abolished any inhibitory effects of NaHS and enhanced NaHS-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases, which were inhibited by extracellular Ca(2+) removal, HC030031 (a TRPA1 antagonist), and disulfide bond-reducing agents. NaHS induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from RIN14B cells, which was also inhibited by TRPA1 antagonists. These results indicate that H2S has both inhibitory and excitatory effects by opening KATP and TRPA1 channels, respectively, in RIN14B cells, suggesting potential bidirectional modulation of secretory functions.

  5. Development and operation of a Pr2 Fe14 B based cryogenic permanent magnet undulator for a high spatial resolution x-ray beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Ghaith, A.; Berteaud, P.; Chapuis, L.; Marteau, F.; Briquez, F.; Marcouillé, O.; Marlats, J.-L.; Tavakoli, K.; Mary, A.; Zerbib, D.; Lestrade, A.; Louvet, M.; Brunelle, P.; Medjoubi, K.; Herbeaux, C.; Béchu, N.; Rommeluere, P.; Somogyi, A.; Chubar, O.; Kitegi, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2017-03-01

    Short period, high field undulators are used to produce hard x-rays on synchrotron radiation based storage ring facilities of intermediate energy and enable short wavelength free electron laser. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators take benefit from improved magnetic properties of RE2 Fe14B (Rare Earth based magnets) at low temperatures for achieving short period, high magnetic field and high coercivity. Using Pr2 Fe14B instead of Nd2 Fe14B , which is generally employed for undulators, avoids the limitation caused by the spin reorientation transition phenomenon, and simplifies the cooling system by allowing the working temperature of the undulator to be directly at the liquid nitrogen one (77 K). We describe here the development of a full scale (2 m), 18 mm period Pr2 Fe14B cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (U18). The design, construction and optimization, as well as magnetic measurements and shimming at low temperature are presented. The commissioning and operation of the undulator with the electron beam and spectrum measurement using the Nanoscopmium beamline at SOLEIL are also reported.

  6. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  7. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  8. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  9. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  10. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  11. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  12. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  13. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  14. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  15. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  16. High-power direct green laser oscillation of 598 mW in Pr(3+)-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Jun; Horiuchi, Yuya; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Yoshida, Minoru; Fujimoto, Yasushi

    2011-05-15

    We demonstrated a high-power and highly efficient Pr-doped waterproof fluoride glass fiber laser at 522.2 nm excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes and achieved a subwatt output power of 598 mW and slope efficiency of 43.0%. This system will enable us to make a vivid laser display, a photocoagulation laser for eye surgery, a color confocal scanning laser microscope, and an effective laser for material processing. Direct visible ultrashort pulse generation is also expected.

  17. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  18. Demonstrating High-precision, Multiband Transit Photometry with MuSCAT: A Case for HAT-P-14b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Akihiko; Narita, Norio; Kawashima, Yui; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Ryu, Tsuguru; Ikoma, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    The Multicolor Simultaneous Camera for studying Atmospheres of Transiting exoplanets (MuSCAT) is an optical three-band ({g}2\\prime -, {r}2\\prime - and {z}{{s},2}-band) imager that was recently developed for the 188 cm telescope at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory with the aim of validating and characterizing transiting planets. In a pilot observation with MuSCAT we observed a primary transit of HAT-P-14b, a high-surface gravity (gp = 38 ms-2) hot Jupiter around a bright (V = 10) F-type star. From a 2.9 hr observation we achieved the five-minute binned photometric precisions of 0.028%, 0.022%, and 0.024% in the {g}2\\prime , {r}2\\prime , and {z}{{s},2} bands, respectively, which provided the highest-quality photometric data for this planet. Combining these results with those of previous observations, we search for variations of transit timing and duration over five years as well as variations of planet-star radius ratio ({R}{{p}}/{R}{{s}}) with wavelengths, but can find no considerable variation in any parameters. On the other hand, using the transit-subtracted light curves we simulate the achievable measurement error of {R}{{p}}/{R}{{s}} with MuSCAT for various planetary sizes, assuming three types of host stars: HAT-P-14, the nearby K-dwarf HAT-P-11, and the nearby M-dwarf GJ1214. Comparing our results with the expected atmospheric scale heights, we find that MuSCAT is capable of probing the atmospheres of planets as small as a sub-Jupiter ({R}{{p}}˜ 6{R}\\oplus ) around HAT-P-14 in all bands, a Neptune (˜ 4{R}\\oplus ) around HAT-P-11 in all bands, and a super-Earth (˜ 2.5{R}\\oplus ) around GJ1214 in {r}2\\prime and {z}{{s},2} bands. These results promise that MuSCAT will produce fruitful scientific outcomes in the K2 and TESS era.

  19. Inverted glass harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Brian J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions.

  20. Metal particle manipulation by laser irradiation in borosilicate glass.

    PubMed

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Takato; Itoh, Sho; Hiromatsu, Kuniaki; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2010-09-13

    We propose a new technique of manipulating a metal particle in borosilicate glass. A metal particle that is heated by laser illumination heats the surrounding glass by radiation and conduction. A softened glass enabled metal particle migration. A 1-µm-thick platinum film was deposited on the back surface of a glass plate and irradiated with a green CW laser beam through the glass. As a result, the platinum film was melted and implanted into the glass as a particle. Platinum particles with diameters of 3 to 50 μm migrated at speeds up to 10 mm/s. In addition to platinum particles, nickel and austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) particles can be implanted.

  1. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  2. [Pitfalls in the determination of distance glasses].

    PubMed

    Lachenmayr, B

    2011-04-01

    The correct determination of distance glasses depends on a correct objective refraction and a subject determination of power and axis of a possible astigmatism in both a coarse and fine manner. In suitable cases a binocular fine refraction under polarized conditions with a red-green test should be performed. Special considerations have to be taken into account in cases of high unilateral congenital or acquired astigmatism as well as in case of congenital or acquired anisometropia or aniseiconia.

  3. The Effects of the Addition of Dy, Nb, and Ga on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe Nanocomposite Permanent Magnetic Alloys.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kezhi; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Heyun; Xu, Hui; Han, Ke

    2017-03-20

    We study the effects of Dy, Nb, and Ga additions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposites. Dy, Nb, and Ga additions inhibit the growth of the soft magnetic α-Fe phase. Dy and Nb additions are able to refine the microstructure, whereas Ga addition plays only a minor role in prohibiting crystal growth. The magnetic properties are sensitive to Dy, Nb, and Ga additions. The Dy-containing alloy enhances the intrinsic coercivity of 872 kA/m because Dy partially replaces Nd, forming (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B. Nb addition refines the microstructure, and consequently increases the exchange coupling between magnetic grains. The Nd9.5Fe75.4Co5Zr3B6.5Ga0.6 alloy exhibits the highest remanence (0.92 T) due to Ga addition.

  4. Low-temperature anomaly of the magnetization in alloys (Pr,Dy, M)2(Fe,Co)14B ( M = Gd, Sm, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablov, E. N.; Ospennikova, O. G.; Rezchikova, I. I.; Valeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, I. V.; Kunitsyna, E. I.; Morgunov, R. B.; Piskorskii, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    It has been found that temperature dependences of the saturation magnetization of sintered hard magnetic (Pr,Dy, M)2(Fe,Co)14B ( M = Gd, Sm, Nd) alloys demonstrate an increase at a temperature lower than a critical temperature (150 K for Sm and Nd and 70 K for Gd). An additive of copper does not influence the critical temperature. It has been assumed that there is a low-temperature phase in which cobalt is replaced with boron that diffuses from the (Pr,Dy,Gd)(Fe,Co)4B phase to the near-surface region of grains of the main magnetic (Pr,Dy,Gd)2(Fe,Co)14B phase.

  5. Picture Wall (Glass Structures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Photo shows a subway station in Toronto, Ontario, which is entirely glass-enclosed. The all-glass structure was made possible by a unique glazing concept developed by PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of flat glass. In the TVS glazing system, transparent glass "fins" replace conventional vertical support members used to provide support for wind load resistance. For stiffening, silicone sealant bonds the fins to adjacent glass panels. At its glass research center near Pittsburgh, PPG Industries uses the NASTRAN computer program to analyze the stability of enclosures made entirely of glass. The company also uses NASTRAN to simulate stresses on large containers of molten glass and to analyze stress effects of solar heating on flat glass.

  6. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, R D

    1993-01-01

    Bioactive materials are designed to induce a specific biological activity; in most cases the desired biological activity is one that will give strong bonding to bone. A range of materials has been assessed as being capable of bonding to bone, but this paper is solely concerned with bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. Firstly, the structure and processing of glasses and glass-ceramics are described, as a basic knowledge is essential for the understanding of the development and properties of the bioactive materials. The effect of composition and structure on the bioactivity is then discussed, and it will be shown that bioactivity is associated with the formation of an apatite layer on the surface of the implant. A survey of mechanical performance demonstrates that the structure and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics depend upon whether the processing involves casting or sintering and that the strength and toughness of glass-ceramics are superior to those of glasses. Attempts to further improve the mechanical performance by the use of non-monolithic components, i.e. bioactive coatings on metal substrates and glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites, are also reviewed and are shown to have varying degrees of success. Finally, some miscellaneous applications, namely bioactive bone cements and bone fillers, are briefly covered.

  7. Reaction cured glass and glass coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Leiser, D. B.; Katvala, V. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to reaction cured glass and glass coatings prepared by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, other boron silicides, boron and mixtures with a reactive glass frit composed of a porous high silica borosilicate glass and boron oxide. The glassy composites of the present invention are useful as coatings on low density fibrous porous silica insulations used as heat shields and for articles such as reaction vessels that are subjected to high temperatures with rapid heating and cooling and that require resistance to temperature and repeated thermal shock at temperatures up to about 1482C (2700PF).

  8. The Development of a High Average Power Glass Laser Source.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    piezo-optic constants at X=632.8nm and X=1152nm were carried out using a modified Dyson Interfermeter and a Twyman -Green Interferometer respectively...Jaman interferometer to observe the wave- front distortion of the glass rods. This distortion was then analyzed by ZAPF with FRINGE. The isometric plots...and laser rod is about .160 inches. Because of the index of refraction of the glass (approximately 1.55), the apparent rod-lamp distance is reduced

  9. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  10. Extrinsic Curie temperature and spin reorientation changes in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/{alpha}-Fe nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.H.; Panchanathan, V.

    1998-05-01

    The Curie temperatures and spin reorientation temperatures of a series of four melt-spun nanocomposite materials comprised of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 1}4B and varying amounts of {alpha}-Fe were measured using independent techniques. The phase constitution and grain size was assessed with synchrotron x-ray diffraction; the Curie temperatures were measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dc SQUID magnetometry in the temperature range 375 K {le} T {le} 800 K, whereas the spin reorientation transition temperature was determined from ac susceptibility measurements taken in the range 10 K {le} T {le} 300 K. The Curie temperature increases with increasing excess iron content, resulting in a 18 {degree} enhancement over the Curie temperature of pure Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B for 27 wt% excess {alpha}-Fe. The spin reorientation temperatures are depressed from the single-crystal value by an average of 10 degrees. Both anomalous effects are attributed to intergranular exchange coupling present in the alloys, although the effects of uncompensated stress between the constituent phases cannot be ruled out The experimental results suggest that while the Curie temperature of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase may be extrinsically enhanced significantly beyond the bulk value, possibly extending the range of applications of this compound, the anisotropy may be simultaneously lowered, impeding the attainment of high coercivities in these alloys.

  11. One pot synthesis of exchange coupled Nd2Fe14B/alpha-Fe by pechini type sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Jadhav, Abhijit P; Baek, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Hul Jin; Lee, Jaeho; Kang, Young Soo

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a combination of nanoparticles of Nd2Fe14B hard magnetic phase and alpha-Fe soft magnetic phase were synthesized by one pot chemical synthesis technique using sol-gel method. A gel of Nd-Fe-B was prepared using NdCl3 x 6H2O, FeCl3 x 6H2O, H3BO3, citric acid, and ethylene glycol by pechini type sol-gel method. The gel was subsequently calcined and annealed to obtain the mixed oxide powders. The produced metal oxide particles were identified with XRD, SEM, TEM to obtain the crystal structure, shape and domain structure of them. The nanoparticles of mixed phase of Nd2Fe14B/alpha-Fe were obtained from these oxides by a process of reduction-diffusion in vacuum by employing CaH2 as reducing agent. During this process it was optimized by controlling temperature, reaction time and concentration of the reducing agent (CaH2). The phase formation of Nd2Fe14B was resulted by the direct diffusion of NdH2, Fe and B. The magnetic property of produced hard and soft phases was successfully identified with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The mixed domains of the hard and soft phases were identified with selected area electron diffraction method (SAED) patterns.

  12. Textured Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B flakes with submicron or nanosize thickness prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wen-Liang E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Liu, Rong-Ming; Zheng, Xin-Qi; Wu, Rong-Rong; Hu, Feng-Xia; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-05-07

    The textured Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanoflakes were produced by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). Single phase tetragonal structure was characterized for the samples before and after SABM by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thickness and length of the as-milled flakes are mainly in the range of 50–150 nm and 0.5–2 μm, respectively. For the field-aligned Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanoflakes, the out-of-plane texture (the easy magnetization direction (EMD) along the c-axis) is indicated from the increasing (00l) peaks in the XRD patterns. SEM image demonstrates that the EMD is parallel to flaky surface, which is different from the RCo{sub 5} (R = rare earth) system with EMD perpendicular to the surface. We propose a hypothesis that the easy glide planes are related with the area of crystal planes. In addition, a large coercivity H{sub c} = 3.9 kOe is observed in the Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B flakes with strong texture.

  13. Comparative study of finite temperature demagnetization in Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5 based hard-soft composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belemuk, A. M.; Chui, S. T.

    2011-10-01

    We study with finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation under periodic boundary conditions the demagnetization behavior of exchanged-coupled hard/soft magnets composed of hard cube inclusions (Nd2 Fe14B, or SmCo5) in a soft (FeCo) matrix. The easy axis of the hard and soft phases are parallel to the applied field. We study the effect of finite temperature and the soft phase content on the coercivity, the remanence, and the energy product of the composites. We find that because of the difference in magnetization between the two phases, to lower the dipolar energy the magnetization of the two phases is not completely parallel to each other. This results in a much smaller increase of the remnant magnetization with increasing the soft magnet content than anticipated, especially at higher temperatures. This, together with the lower coercivity of Nd2 Fe14B, greatly affects the energy product in Nd2 Fe14B/FeCo in comparison with SmCo5/FeCo. We underline the essential difference in the induction dependence on the applied field in these compounds.

  14. Phosphorylation of Skp2 regulated by CDK2 and Cdc14B protects it from degradation by APCCdh1 in G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Geneviève; Coulombe, Philippe; Tanguay, Pierre-Luc; Boutonnet, Christel; Meloche, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    The p27Kip1 ubiquitin ligase receptor Skp2 is often overexpressed in human tumours and displays oncogenic properties. The activity of SCFSkp2 is regulated by the APCCdh1, which targets Skp2 for degradation. Here we show that Skp2 phosphorylation on Ser64/Ser72 positively regulates its function in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ser64, and to a lesser extent Ser72, stabilizes Skp2 by interfering with its association with Cdh1, without affecting intrinsic ligase activity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2-mediated phosphorylation of Skp2 on Ser64 allows its expression in mid-G1 phase, even in the presence of active APCCdh1. Reciprocally, dephosphorylation of Skp2 by the mitotic phosphatase Cdc14B at the M → G1 transition promotes its degradation by APCCdh1. Importantly, lowering the levels of Cdc14B accelerates cell cycle progression from mitosis to S phase in an Skp2-dependent manner, demonstrating epistatic relationship of Cdc14B and Skp2 in the regulation of G1 length. Thus, our results reveal that reversible phosphorylation plays a key role in the timing of Skp2 expression in the cell cycle. PMID:18239684

  15. Novel oxyfluoride glass and transparent glass-ceramics for fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Masaki, Shin-ichiro; Mizuno, Kento; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2010-05-01

    Transparent glass-ceramics containing nano-crystals were prepared by controlled heat-treatment of conventionally melt-quenched NaF-YF3-Al2O3-SiO2 oxyfluoride glass. The precipitated crystallites were composed of only cubic NaYF4 and the average diameter was estimated as less than 10 nm from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystallites were so small that the transparency of the glass was kept after crystallization. NaYF4 has a crystal structure of a fluorite type that cation sites were randomly occupied by Na+ and Y3+. It is expected that the Y3+ sites can be substituted to other rare-earth ions which have the similar ionic radii. We have been prepared Tb3+ and Yb3+ co-doped glass and glass-ceramics. Green fluorescence was observed when the glass and glass-ceramics were excited by a 974 nm laser. The up-conversion intensity was enhanced by the crystallization.

  16. Development of a new green non-dispersive ionic liquid microextraction method in a narrow glass column for determination of cadmium prior to couple with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Tuzen, Mustafa; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Citak, Demirhan

    2014-02-17

    Easy and innovative non-dispersive ionic liquid based microextraction (NDILME) has been developed for preconcentration of trace level of cadmium (Cd) in aqueous real surface water samples prior to couple with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A 200 cm long narrow glass column containing aqueous solution of standard/sample was used to increase phase transfer ratio by providing more contact area between two medium (aqueous and extractive), which drastically improve the recoveries of labile hydrophobic chelate of Cd ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), into ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4mim][PF6]. Different aspect of the desire method have been investigated and optimized. Under the optimized key experimental variables, limit of detection (LOD) and enhancement factor (EF) were achieved to be 0.5 ng L(-1) and 150, respectively. Reliability of the model method was checked by relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be <5%. Validity and accuracy of the developed method was checked by analysis of certified reference water samples (SLRS-4 Riverine water) using standard addition method. Application of the model method was productively performed by analysis of Cd in real surface water samples (tap and sea).

  17. The effect of colouring agent on the physical properties of glass ceramic produced from waste glass for antimicrobial coating deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juoi, J. M.; Ayoob, N. F.; Rosli, Z. M.; Rosli, N. R.; Husain, K.

    2016-07-01

    Domestic waste glass is utilized as raw material for the production of glass ceramic material (GCM) via sinter crystallisation route. The glass ceramic material in a form of tiles is to be utilized for the deposition of Ag-TiO2 antimicrobial coating. Two types of soda lime glass (SLG) that are non-coloured and green SLG are utilised as main raw materials during the batch formulation in order to study the effect of colouring agent (Fe2O3) on the physical and mechanical properties of glass ceramic produced. Glass powder were prepared by crushing bottles using hammer milled with milling machine and sieved until they passed through 75 µm sieve. The process continues by mixing glass powder with ball clay with ratio of 95:5 wt. %, 90:10 wt. % and 85:15 wt. %. Each batch mixture was then uniaxial pressed and sintered at 800°C, 825 °C and 850 °C. The physical and mechanical properties were then determined and compared between those produced from non-coloured and green coloured SLG in order to evaluate the effect of colouring agent (Fe2O3) on the GCM produced. The optimum properties of non-coloured SLG is produced with smaller ball clay content (10 wt. %) compared to green SLG (15 wt. %). The physical properties (determined thru ASTM C373) of the optimized GCM produced from non-coloured SLG and green SLG are 0.69 % of porosity, 1.92 g/cm3 of bulk density, 0.36 % of water absorption; and 1.96 % of porosity, 2.69 g/cm3 of bulk density, 0.73 % of water absorption; respectively. Results also indicate that the most suitable temperature in producing GCM from both glasses with optimized physical and mechanical properties is at 850 °C.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Oxynitride glass fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

  1. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  2. Failure in glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of state of the art concerning glass failure mechanisms and fatigue theories discusses brittle fracture in glass, fatigue mechanisms, fatigue behavior, environmental effects on failure rate, and aging.

  3. Galactic Hearts of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger graph

    This artist's concept shows delicate greenish crystals sprinkled throughout the violent core of a pair of colliding galaxies. The white spots represent a thriving population of stars of all sizes and ages. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected more than 20 bright and dusty galactic mergers like the one depicted here, all teeming with the tiny gem-like crystals.

    When galaxies collide, they trigger the birth of large numbers of massive stars. Astronomers believe these blazing hot stars act like furnaces to produce silicate crystals in the same way that glass is made from sand. The stars probably shed the crystals as they age, and as they blow apart in supernovae explosions.

    At the same time the crystals are being churned out, they are also being destroyed. Fast-moving particles from supernova blasts easily convert silicates crystals back to their amorphous, or shapeless, form.

    How is Spitzer seeing the crystals if they are rapidly disappearing? Astronomers say that, for a short period of time at the beginning of galactic mergers, massive stars might be producing silicate crystals faster than they are eliminating them. When our own galaxy merges with the Andromeda galaxy in a few billion years, a similar burst of massive stars and silicate crystals might occur.

    Crystal Storm in Distant Galaxy The graph (see inset above) of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that a distant galaxy called IRAS 08752+3915 is experiencing a storm of tiny crystals made up of silicates. The crystals are similar to the glass-like grains of sand found on Earth's many beaches.

    The data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light open to reveal its rainbow-like components. The resulting spectrum shown here reveals the signatures of both crystalline (green) and non-crystalline (brown) silicates.

    Spitzer detected the same

  4. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  5. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  6. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  7. Green Vehicle Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Green Vehicle Guide Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... your needs. Search for a SmartWay Vehicle Green Vehicle Guide ​What is a green vehicle? Alternative fuels ...

  8. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  9. Glass in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Neville

    2005-01-01

    Glass is reviewed from fabrication to application, laying emphasis on the wide-ranging physics involved. This begins with liquids and solids and the way in which glasses are defined and can be demonstrated in the classroom. At the atomic level the regular structure of crystals and their irregular counterparts in glasses are explained through…

  10. Imaging polarimetry of glass buildings: why do vertical glass surfaces attract polarotactic insects?

    PubMed

    Malik, Péter; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-08-20

    Recently it was observed that the Hydropsyche pellucidula caddis flies swarm near sunset at the vertical glass surfaces of buildings standing on the bank of the Danube river in Budapest, Hungary. These aquatic insects emerge from the Danube and are lured to dark vertical panes of glass, where they swarm, land, copulate, and remain for hours. It was also shown that ovipositing H. pellucidula caddis flies are attracted to highly and horizontally polarized light stimulating their ventral eye region and thus have positive polarotaxis. The attraction of these aquatic insects to vertical reflectors is surprising, because after their aerial swarming, they must return to the horizontal surface of water bodies from which they emerge and at which they lay their eggs. Our aim is to answer the questions: Why are flying polarotactic caddis flies attracted to vertical glass surfaces? And why do these aquatic insects remain on vertical panes of glass after landing? We propose that both questions can be partly explained by the reflection-polarization characteristics of vertical glass surfaces and the positive polarotaxis of caddis flies. We measured the reflection-polarization patterns of shady and sunlit, black and white vertical glass surfaces from different directions of view under clear and overcast skies by imaging polarimetry in the red, green, and blue parts of the spectrum. Using these polarization patterns we determined which areas of the investigated glass surfaces are sensed as water by a hypothetical polarotactic insect facing and flying toward or landed on a vertical pane of glass. Our results strongly support the mentioned proposition. The main optical characteristics of "green," that is, environmentally friendly, buildings, considering the protection of polarotactic aquatic insects, are also discussed. Such "green" buildings possess features that attract only a small number of polarotactic aquatic insects when standing in the vicinity of fresh waters. Since vertical

  11. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  12. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  13. Oxynitride glass production procedure

    DOEpatents

    Weidner, Jerry R.; Schuetz, Stanley T.; O'Brien, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the preparation of high quality oxynitride glasses without resorting to high pressures. Nitrogen-containing compounds such as Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 are first encapsulated in a low melting temperature glass. Particles of the encapsulated nitrogen-containing compound are mixed with other oxide glass-formers and melted in an atmosphere of flowing nitrogen and in the presence of buffering gas to form the oxynitride glass. Glasses containing up to 15 at % nitrogen have been prepared by this method.

  14. Developing photorefractive glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duignan, Jason P.; Taylor, Lesley L.; Cook, Gary

    2002-01-01

    The production of a transparent photorefractive glass composite would offer a useful alternative to bulk crystal materials. We aim to produce such a material by incorporating single domain photorefractive Fe:LiNbO3 particles into a refractive index matched glass host. This glass host is also required to be chemically compatible with the photorefractive material. This compatibility will ensure that the Fe:LiNbO3 particles added to the host glass will remain in the intended crystalline phase and not simply dissolve in the glass. Due to the high refractive index of the Fe:LiNbO3 (no equals 2.35 532 nm), producing a chemically compatible and refractive index matched glass host is technically challenging. By examining common Tellurite, Bismuthate, and Gallate glasses as a starting point and then developing new and hybrid glasses, we have succeeded in producing a chemically compatible glass host and also a refractive index matched glass host. We have produced preliminary glass composite samples which contain a large amount of Fe:LiNbO3. We are currently able to retain nearly 90% of the incorporated Fe:LiNbO3 in the correct crystalline phase, a substantial improvement over previous work conducted in this area in recent years. In this paper we present our progress and findings in this area.

  15. Acoustics of glass harmonicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2004-05-01

    Glass musical instruments are probably as old as glassmaking. At least as early as the 17th century it was discovered that wine glasses, when rubbed with a wet finger, produced a musical tone. A collection of glasses played in this manner is called a glass harp. Another type of glass harmonica, called the armonica by its inventor Benjamin Franklin, employs glass bowls or cups turned by a horizontal axle, so the performer need only touch the rim of the bowls as they rotate to set them into vibration. We discuss the modes of vibration of both types of glass harmonica, and describe the different sounds that are emitted by rubbing, tapping, or bowing them. Rubbing with a wet finger tends to excite only the (2,0) mode and its harmonics through a ``stick-slip'' process, while tapping excites the other modes as well.

  16. Manipulating Ce Valence in RE2Fe14B Tetragonal Compounds by La-Ce Co-doping: Resultant Crystallographic and Magnetic Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiaying; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Qian, Zeyu; Wu, Chen; Ma, Tianyu; Shen, Baogen; Yan, Mi

    2016-07-26

    Abundant and low-cost Ce has attracted considerable interest as a prospective alternative for those critically relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-type permanent magnets. The (Nd, Ce)2Fe14B compound with inferior intrinsic magnetic properties to Nd2Fe14B, however, cannot provide an equivalent magnetic performance. Since Ce valence is sensitive to local steric environment, manipulating it towards the favorable trivalent state provides a way to enhance the magnetic properties. Here we report that such a desirable Ce valence can be induced by La-Ce co-doping into [(Pr, Nd)1-x(La, Ce)x]2.14Fe14B (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) compounds via strip casting. As verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, Ce valence shifts towards the magnetically favorable Ce(3+) state in the composition range of x > 0.3, owing to the co-doping of large radius La(3+) into 2:14:1 phase lattice. As a result, both crystallographic and magnetic anomalies are observed in the same vicinity of x = 0.3, above which lattice parameters a and c, and saturation magnetization Ms increase simultaneously. Over the whole doping range, 2:14:1 tetragonal structure forms and keeps stable even at 1250 K. This finding may shed light on obtaining a favorable Ce valence via La-Ce co-doping, thus maintaining the intrinsic magnetic properties of 2:14:1-type permanent magnets.

  17. Manipulating Ce Valence in RE2Fe14B Tetragonal Compounds by La-Ce Co-doping: Resultant Crystallographic and Magnetic Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiaying; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Qian, Zeyu; Wu, Chen; Ma, Tianyu; Shen, Baogen; Yan, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant and low-cost Ce has attracted considerable interest as a prospective alternative for those critically relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-type permanent magnets. The (Nd, Ce)2Fe14B compound with inferior intrinsic magnetic properties to Nd2Fe14B, however, cannot provide an equivalent magnetic performance. Since Ce valence is sensitive to local steric environment, manipulating it towards the favorable trivalent state provides a way to enhance the magnetic properties. Here we report that such a desirable Ce valence can be induced by La-Ce co-doping into [(Pr, Nd)1−x(La, Ce)x]2.14Fe14B (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) compounds via strip casting. As verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, Ce valence shifts towards the magnetically favorable Ce3+ state in the composition range of x > 0.3, owing to the co-doping of large radius La3+ into 2:14:1 phase lattice. As a result, both crystallographic and magnetic anomalies are observed in the same vicinity of x = 0.3, above which lattice parameters a and c, and saturation magnetization Ms increase simultaneously. Over the whole doping range, 2:14:1 tetragonal structure forms and keeps stable even at 1250 K. This finding may shed light on obtaining a favorable Ce valence via La-Ce co-doping, thus maintaining the intrinsic magnetic properties of 2:14:1-type permanent magnets. PMID:27457408

  18. ADAR2-editing activity inhibits glioblastoma growth through the modulation of the CDC14B/Skp2/p21/p27 axis.

    PubMed

    Galeano, F; Rossetti, C; Tomaselli, S; Cifaldi, L; Lezzerini, M; Pezzullo, M; Boldrini, R; Massimi, L; Di Rocco, C M; Locatelli, F; Gallo, A

    2013-02-21

    Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive and lethal tumors affecting humans. ADAR2-mediated A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional modification event in brain, is impaired in GBMs and astrocytoma cell lines. However, the role of ADAR2 editing in astrocytomas remains to be defined. Here, we show that ADAR2 editing rescue in astrocytomas prevents tumor growth in vivo and modulates an important cell cycle pathway involving the Skp2/p21/p27 proteins, often altered in glioblastoma. We demonstrate that ADAR2 deaminase activity is essential to inhibit tumor growth. Indeed, we identify the phosphatase CDC14B, which acts upstream of the Skp2/p21/p27 pathway, as a novel and critical ADAR2 target gene involved in glioblastoma growth. Specifically, ADAR2-mediated editing on CDC14B pre-mRNA increases its expression with a consequent reduction of the Skp2 target protein, as shown both in vitro and in vivo. We found that, compared to normal brain, both CDC14B editing and expression are progressively impaired in astrocytomas from grade I to IV, being very low in GBMs. These findings (1) demonstrate that post-transcriptional A-to-I RNA editing might be crucial for glioblastoma pathogenesis, (2) identify ADAR2-editing enzyme as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene and (3) provide proof of principle that ADAR2 or its substrates may represent a suitable target(s) for possible novel, more effective and less toxic approaches to the treatment of GBMs.

  19. NMR study of the low temperature spin canting in Nd sub 2 (CoFe) sub 14 B with low Fe content

    SciTech Connect

    Jedryka, E. IPCMS GEMME, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67070 Strasbourg ); Wojcik, M. ); Panissod, P. ); Buschow, K.H.J. )

    1990-05-01

    {sup 59}Co NMR was studied in a series of Nd{sub 2}(Co{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Fe{sub {ital x}}){sub 14}B compounds with {ital x}=0.001, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10 between 4.2 and 77 K. A fast increase of the canting angle between the magnetization and {ital c} axis upon Fe substitution has been found. Nonregular local environment effects in the form of rapidly developing satellite structure with significant intensity have been observed and tentatively attributed to the Fe influence on the crystal field experienced by the Nd sublattice.

  20. Raman spectroscopic study on archaeological glasses in Thailand: Ancient Thai Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongkam, Y.; Pongkrapan, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Thongleurm, C.; Kamwanna, T.; Leelawathanasuk, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2011-12-01

    Glasses have been used as ornamental and decorative objects in Thailand for several hundred years as seen in archaeological artifacts, such as glass beads found throughout the regions. Decorative glasses can generally be seen as architectural components in Buddhist temples and old-styled palaces. They came in various colors ranging from transparent to amber, blue, green and red of different shades and tones. Fragments of archaeological glass samples were characterized for the first time using Raman spectrophotometer with the aim of obtaining information that would lead to the identification of the glass samples by means of laser scattering. The samples were also investigated using other techniques, such as proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and synchrotron radiation to induced X-ray fluorescence. The results showed that they were mostly lead-silica based glasses whose colors were induced by metal ions. The differences in chemical compositions were confirmed by Raman signature spectra.

  1. Raman spectroscopic study on archaeological glasses in Thailand: ancient Thai glass.

    PubMed

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Pongkrapan, S; Intarasiri, S; Thongleurm, C; Kamwanna, T; Leelawathanasuk, T; Dararutana, P

    2011-12-01

    Glasses have been used as ornamental and decorative objects in Thailand for several hundred years as seen in archaeological artifacts, such as glass beads found throughout the regions. Decorative glasses can generally be seen as architectural components in Buddhist temples and old-styled palaces. They came in various colors ranging from transparent to amber, blue, green and red of different shades and tones. Fragments of archaeological glass samples were characterized for the first time using Raman spectrophotometer with the aim of obtaining information that would lead to the identification of the glass samples by means of laser scattering. The samples were also investigated using other techniques, such as proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and synchrotron radiation to induced X-ray fluorescence. The results showed that they were mostly lead-silica based glasses whose colors were induced by metal ions. The differences in chemical compositions were confirmed by Raman signature spectra.

  2. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  3. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  4. Green chromatography.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point.

  5. RGB and white-emitting organic lasers on flexible glass.

    PubMed

    Foucher, C; Guilhabert, B; Kanibolotsky, A L; Skabara, P J; Laurand, N; Dawson, M D

    2016-02-08

    Two formats of multiwavelength red, green and blue (RGB) laser on mechanically-flexible glass are demonstrated. In both cases, three all-organic, vertically-emitting distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are assembled onto a common ultra-thin glass membrane substrate and fully encapsulated by a thin polymer overlayer and an additional 50 µm-thick glass membrane in order to improve the performance. The first device format has the three DFB lasers sitting next to each other on the glass substrate. The DFB lasers are simultaneously excited by a single overlapping optical pump, emitting spatially separated red, green and blue laser output with individual thresholds of, respectively, 28 µJ/cm(2), 11 µJ/cm(2) and 32 µJ/cm(2) (for 5 ns pump pulses). The second device format has the three DFB lasers, respectively the red, green and blue laser, vertically stacked onto the flexible glass. This device format emits a white laser output for an optical pump fluence above 42 µJ/cm(2).

  6. High spatial resolution geochemistry and textural characteristics of 'microtektite' glass spherules in proximal Cretaceous-Paleogene sections: Insights into glass alteration patterns and precursor melt lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belza, Joke; Goderis, Steven; Smit, Jan; Vanhaecke, Frank; Baert, Kitty; Terryn, Herman; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we have conducted spatially resolved trace element analysis on fresh, unaltered microtektite glasses linked to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary Chicxulub crater and on their surrounding alteration phases. This unique approach offers the opportunity to study in situ and at high spatial resolution both the mixing of different target lithologies and the variation of the major and trace element budget during the alteration process. In addition, two-dimensional element distribution maps reveal important geochemical information beyond the capabilities of single spot laser drilling. Glasses from two localities in opposite quadrants from the source crater were studied. At the Beloc locality (Haiti), the glass population is dominated by the presence of yellow high-Ca glass and black andesitic glass formed by admixture of carbonate/dolomite/anhydrite platform lithologies with crystalline basement. These glasses alter according to the well-established hydration-palagonitization model postulated for mafic volcanic glasses. REEs become progressively leached from the glass to below the detection limit for the applied spot size, while immobile Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta passively accumulate in the process exhibiting both inter-element ratios and absolute concentrations similar to those for the original glass. In contrast, The Arroyo El Mimbral locality (NE Mexico) is characterized by abundant green glass fragments high in Si, Al and alkalis, and low in Mg, Ca, Fe. Low Si black glass is less abundant though similar in composition to the black glass variety at Beloc. The alteration pattern of high-Si, Al green glass at the Mimbral locality is more complex, including numerous competing reaction processes (ion-exchange, hydration, dissolution, and secondary mineral precipitation) generally controlled by the pH and composition of the surrounding fluid. All green, high-Si, Al glasses are hydrated and

  7. Multicolor upconversion emission from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, N. K.; Rai, D. K.; Rai, S. B.

    2008-06-01

    Multicolor emission has been produced using 798 nm and 980 nm laser excitation in a Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite based glass. This glass generates simultaneously red, green and blue (RGB) emission on 798 nm excitation. Multicolor emission thus obtained was tuned to white luminescence by adjusting the Ho3+ ion concentration. There is a close match between the calculated color coordinate for the white luminescence obtained here and the point of equal energy which represents white in the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram. The 980 nm excitation of the same sample on the other hand gives intense green and red emission and the glass appears greenish.

  8. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B powder prepared by using high energy milling from elements metal Nd,Fe,B powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramlan; Muljadi; Sardjono, P.; Gulo, F.; Setiabudidaya, D.

    2016-11-01

    The Nd2Fe14B powder has been made by using High Energy Milling (HEM) from mixed metal powders Iron (Fe), Neodymium (Nd) and Boron (B). The Nd, Fe and B powders were mixed according stoichiometric composition (atomic ratio Nd:Fe:B = 2: 14: 1) and milled and milling time was varied in 10, 20, and 40 hours by using HEM. Toluene liquid was used as milling media to protect of metal powders from oxygen. The measurement result of x- ray diffraction show that the optimum Nd2Fe14B phase already formed about 69,46% after milling 40 hours with crystallite size about 25.64 nm. The magnetic properties of milled powders were measured by using VSM at room temperature. The highest value of magnetic properties are obtained at powder milled in 40 hours, at this condition, it is obtained Ms = 122 emu/g, Mr = 81 emu/g, Hc = 5.54 kOe and BHmax = 11.01 MGOe.

  9. Cryogenic Field Measurement of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B Undulator and Performance Enhancement Options at the NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Chubar, Oleg; Harder, David A.; Rank, James; Spataro, Charles; Lehecka, Michael; Rakowsky, George

    2010-06-23

    Short period (14.5mm) hybrid undulator arrays composed of Praseodymium Iron Boron (Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets (CR53, NEOMAX, Inc.) and vanadium permendur poles have been fabricated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Unlike Neodymium Iron Boron (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) magnets which exhibit spin reorientation at a temperatures below 150 K, PrFeB arrays monotonically increase performance with lower operating temperature. It opens up the possibility for use in operating a cryo-permanent magnet undulator (CPMU) in the range of 40 K to 60 K where very efficient cryocoolers are available. Magnetic flux density profiles were measured at various temperature ranges from room temperature down to liquid helium (LHe) using the Vertical Testing Facility (VTF) at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). Temperature variations of phase error have been characterized. In addition, we examined the use of textured Dysprosium (Dy) poles to replace permendur poles to obtain further improvement in performance.

  10. Effects of trace elements on the crystal field parameters of Nd ions at the surface of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains

    SciTech Connect

    Toga, Yuta; Suzuki, Tsuneaki; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2015-06-14

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the positional dependence of trace elements such as O and Cu on the crystal field parameter A{sub 2}{sup 0}, proportional to the magnetic anisotropy constant K{sub u} of Nd ions placed at the surface of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. The results suggest the possibility that the A{sub 2}{sup 0} parameter of Nd ions at the (001) surface of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains exhibits a negative value when the O or Cu atom is located near the surface, closer than its equilibrium position. At the (110) surface, however, O atoms located at the equilibrium position provide a negative A{sub 2}{sup 0}, while for Cu additions A{sub 2}{sup 0} remains positive regardless of Cu's position. Thus, Cu atoms are expected to maintain a positive local K{sub u} of surface Nd ions more frequently than O atoms when they approach the grain surfaces in the Nd-Fe-B grains.

  11. Calculations of the magnetic properties of R2M14B intermetallic compounds (R=rare earth, M=Fe, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masaaki; Yano, Masao; Dempsey, Nora M.; Givord, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The hard magnetic properties of "R-M-B" (R=rare earth, M=mainly Fe) magnets derive from the specific intrinsic magnetic properties encountered in Fe-rich R2M14B compounds. Exchange interactions are dominated by the 3d elements, Fe and Co, and may be modeled at the macroscopic scale with good accuracy. Based on classical formulae that relate the anisotropy coefficients to the crystalline electric field parameters and exchange interactions, a simple numerical approach is used to derive the temperature dependence of anisotropy in various R2Fe14B compounds (R=Pr, Nd, Dy). Remarkably, a unique set of crystal field parameters give fair agreement with the experimentally measured properties of all compounds. This implies reciprocally that the properties of compounds that incorporate a mixture of different rare-earth elements may be predicted accurately. This is of special interest for material optimization that often involves the partial replacement of Nd with another R element and also the substitution of Co for Fe.

  12. Reversing Glass Wettability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, J. E., Jr.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment reverses wettability of glassware: Liquids that normally wet glass no longer do, and those that do not wet glass are made to do so. Useful in research on container effects in nucleation and growth of secondary phase from solution. Treatment consists of spreading 3 percent (by weight) solution of silicone oil in hexane isomers over glass, drying in air, and curing at 300 degrees C in vacuum for one hour.

  13. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  14. Drugstore Reading Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2006-03-01

    The occasion for this paper was my reading of a paper in the February 2005 issue of TPT. As one gets older the near point of the eye begins to recede.2 This is called presbyopia.3 An alternative to purchasing glasses from an optometrist is to purchase an inexpensive pair of reading glasses in a pharmacy. The pharmacy has these glasses ordered by diopters corresponding to the strength of the lens needed for a particular presbyopic eye. The glasses are, of course, not available for myopic eyes.

  15. Chalcogenide glass microsphere laser.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Gregor R; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Zervas, Michalis N; Hewak, Daniel W

    2010-12-06

    Laser action has been demonstrated in chalcogenide glass microsphere. A sub millimeter neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass sphere was pumped at 808 nm with a laser diode and single and multimode laser action demonstrated at wavelengths between 1075 and 1086 nm. The gallium lanthanum sulphide family of glass offer higher thermal stability compared to other chalcogenide glasses, and this, along with an optimized Q-factor for the microcavity allowed laser action to be achieved. When varying the pump power, changes in the output spectrum suggest nonlinear and/or thermal effects have a strong effect on laser action.

  16. Photoprotection: clothing and glass.

    PubMed

    Almutawa, Fahad; Buabbas, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) has well-known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Little attention is given to physical means of photoprotection, namely glass, window films, sunglasses, and clothing. In general, all types of glass block UV-B. For UV-A, the degree of transmission depends on the type, thickness, and color of the glass. Adding window films to glass can greatly decrease the transmission of UV-A. Factors that can affect the transmission of UVR through cloth include tightness of weave, thickness, weight, type of fabrics, laundering, hydration, stretch, fabric processing, UV absorbers, color, and fabric-to-skin distance.

  17. Glass--Sand + Imagination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris K.

    2000-07-01

    Glass is older than recorded history, and yet it is as new as tomorrow! How, when, or where man first learned to make glass is not known, but we do know that the ancient Egyptians were making glass articles as early as 2,600 B.C.E. (The making of glass beads may have begun as much as 3000 years earlier.) They used it to make jewelry and luxury items, such as decorative bowls and perfume bottles, available only to the wealthy.

  18. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  19. Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters.

    PubMed

    Da, Ning; Peng, Mingying; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2010-02-01

    We report on intense red fluorescence from Mn(2+)-doped sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics of the type ZnO-Na(2)O-SO(3)-P(2)O(5). As a hypothesis, controlled internal crystallization of as-melted glasses is achieved on the basis of thermally-induced bimodal separation of an SO(3)-rich phase. Crystal formation is then confined to the relict structure of phase separation. The whole synthesis procedure is performed in air at glasses, increasing MnO content results in decreasing network polymerization. Stable glasses and continuously increasing emission intensity are observed for relatively high dopant concentration of up to 3 mol.%. Recrystallization of the glass results in strongly increasing emission intensity. Dynamic emission spectroscopy reveals only on type of emission centers in the glassy material, whereas three different centers are observed in the glass ceramic. These are attributed to octahedrally coordinated Mn(2+) in the residual glass phase and in crystalline phosphate and sulfate lattices, respectively. Relatively low crystal field strength results in almost ideal red emission, peaking around 625 nm. Excitation bands lie in the blue-to-green spectral range and exhibit strong overlap. The optimum excitation range matches the emission properties of GaN- and InGaN-based light emitting devices.

  20. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  1. Lanthanoides in Glass and Glass Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Jürgen; Kilo, Martin; Somorowsky, Ferdinand; Hopp, Werner

    2017-03-01

    Many types of glass contain lanthanoides; among them, special glass for optical applications is the one with the highest content of lanthanoides. The precise determination of the lanthanoides' concentration is performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). However, up to now, there are no established standard processes guaranteeing a uniform approach to the lanthanoide analysis. The knowledge of the lanthanoides' concentrations is necessary on the microscale in some cases, especially if a suitable separation and recycling procedure is to be applied. Here, the analysis is performed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) or wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) analytics in the scanning electron microscope.

  2. Getting Started with Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The metamorphosis of glass when heated is a magical process to students, yet teachers are often reluctant to try it in class. The biggest challenge in working with glass in the classroom is to simplify procedures just enough to ensure student success while maintaining strict safety practices so no students are injured. Project concepts and safety…

  3. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... about special eyewear you can wear on the field. With glasses, you'll also want to find out how to clean them properly. And it helps if you have a glasses case and put them in it when you're not wearing them. The last thing you want is to sit on your ...

  4. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A What's in this ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  5. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  6. Dramatic Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  7. Reaction cross sections of 14B and 8He on proton targets for the separation of proton and neutron density distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Fukuda, Mitunori; Nishimura, Daiki; Suzuki, Shinji; Takechi, Maya; Mihara, Mototsugu; Matsuta, Kensaku; Oono, Junnichi; Yamaoka, Shintaro; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Izumikawa, Takuji; Nagashima, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Sato, Shinji; Himac H093 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    In order to discuss the exotic surface structures of neutron- / proton-rich nuclei such as halo and skin in detail, it is important to clarify the distributions of neutron and proton respectively. For this purpose, we utilize the isospin (p-p or p-n) asymmetry of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections in the intermediate energy region. We employed a Proton target as the isospin asymmetric target, which is the most asymmetric one. Also, we employed Be, C, and Al targets which are isospin symmetric to be contrast with Proton target. In the present work, we have measured reaction cross sections for 14B and 8He on Proton, Be, C, and Al targets at intermediate energies. The experiments were carried out at the HIMAC heavy ion synchrotron facility, Japan. We will report results of the analyses.

  8. Simplified model evaluation of cooling rates for glass-containing lunar compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlmann, D. R.; Yinnon, H.; Fang, C.-Y.

    1982-01-01

    The simplified model of glass formation and the development of partial crystallinity in cooled bodies has been applied to lunar compositions 10060, 15028, 15086, 15101, 15286, 15301, 15498, 15499, 60255, 65016, 77017, Apollo 15 green glass and LUNA 24 highland basalt. The critical cooling rates for glass formation predicted by the simplified model are found to be in good agreement (to within an order of magnitude) with those predicted by the exact treatment of crystallization statistics. These predicted critical cooling rates are in even better agreement (a factor of 2) with measured values of the rates required to form glasses of the materials.

  9. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  10. 3.6 AND 4.5 μm PHASE CURVES OF THE HIGHLY IRRADIATED ECCENTRIC HOT JUPITER WASP-14b

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Schwartz, Joel; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.; Todorov, Kamen

    2015-10-01

    We present full-orbit phase curve observations of the eccentric (e ∼ 0.08) transiting hot Jupiter WASP-14b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We use two different methods for removing the intrapixel sensitivity effect and compare their efficacy in decoupling the instrumental noise. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.1882% ± 0.0048% and 0.2247% ± 0.0086% at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively, are both consistent with a blackbody temperature of 2402 ± 35 K. We place a 2σ upper limit on the nightside flux at 3.6 μm and find it to be 9% ± 1% of the dayside flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1079 K. At 4.5 μm, the minimum planet flux is 30% ± 5% of the maximum flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1380 ± 65 K. We compare our measured phase curves to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer and three-dimensional general circulation models. We find that WASP-14b’s measured dayside emission is consistent with a model atmosphere with equilibrium chemistry and a moderate temperature inversion. These same models tend to overpredict the nightside emission at 3.6 μm, while underpredicting the nightside emission at 4.5 μm. We propose that this discrepancy might be explained by an enhanced global C/O ratio. In addition, we find that the phase curves of WASP-14b (7.8 M{sub Jup}) are consistent with a much lower albedo than those of other Jovian mass planets with thermal phase curve measurements, suggesting that it may be emitting detectable heat from the deep atmosphere or interior processes.

  11. 3.6 and 4.5 μm Phase Curves of the Highly Irradiated Eccentric Hot Jupiter WASP-14b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Schwartz, Joel; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Gregory; Showman, Adam P.; Todorov, Kamen

    2015-10-01

    We present full-orbit phase curve observations of the eccentric (e ∼ 0.08) transiting hot Jupiter WASP-14b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We use two different methods for removing the intrapixel sensitivity effect and compare their efficacy in decoupling the instrumental noise. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.1882% ± 0.0048% and 0.2247% ± 0.0086% at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively, are both consistent with a blackbody temperature of 2402 ± 35 K. We place a 2σ upper limit on the nightside flux at 3.6 μm and find it to be 9% ± 1% of the dayside flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1079 K. At 4.5 μm, the minimum planet flux is 30% ± 5% of the maximum flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1380 ± 65 K. We compare our measured phase curves to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer and three-dimensional general circulation models. We find that WASP-14b’s measured dayside emission is consistent with a model atmosphere with equilibrium chemistry and a moderate temperature inversion. These same models tend to overpredict the nightside emission at 3.6 μm, while underpredicting the nightside emission at 4.5 μm. We propose that this discrepancy might be explained by an enhanced global C/O ratio. In addition, we find that the phase curves of WASP-14b (7.8 MJup) are consistent with a much lower albedo than those of other Jovian mass planets with thermal phase curve measurements, suggesting that it may be emitting detectable heat from the deep atmosphere or interior processes.

  12. Precise Magnetic Structures of Hard Ferromagnets of ND2FE14B Type as Determined at Low Temperature from Single Crystal Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfers, P.; Bacmann, M.; Fruchart, D.

    2000-09-01

    The main constituent of the hard magnet materials Nd-Fe-B is the prototype of a new ferromagnet series, the Nd2Fe14B type (Space Group P42/nmm). Such compounds are characterised by high magnetocrystalline anisotropy parameters, those of rare earth origin being several times higher than the contribution of the iron subblattices. In many cases, these two contributions exhibit markedly different thermal behaviours, resulting in spin rotation phenomena or (and) lowering of the crystalline and the magnetic symmetry from the tetragonal high temperature state. Low temperature very precise studies on selected compounds of the series R2Fe14B with R = Nd, Ho, Er and Y, were undertaken by using neutron four circle diffractometry on single crystals. When temperature is lowered, the two first compounds exhibit a continuous spin reorientation within the [110] plane from the c-axis at high temperature towards an intermediate direction. The Er compound presents a first order transition around 350K where the resulting magnetisation first order rotates from the c-axis a high temperature to the a basal plane direction at low temperature. The last one compound remains c-easy axis in the whole temperature range. From our neutron diffraction experiments, lowering of the crystal symmetry to monoclinic (orthorhombic) space groups was precisely measured for the two first (third) samples. Besides marked deviations to collinearity affect the different sublattice magnetisations. Yet, these well marked phenomena have not been accounted for in the hundert experimental and theoretical analysis dedicated to the series. However, our results are in good agreement with a detailed 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis of the Ho ternary hydrides.

  13. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  14. Preparation and photoluminescence of monolithic silica glass doped with Tb3+ ions using SiO2-PVA nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahiro; Fujino, Shigeru

    2014-05-01

    The monolithic silica glass doped with Tb3+ ions was fabricated using the SiO2-PVA nanocomposite as the glass precursor. In order to dope Tb3+ ions in the monolithic silica glass, the mesoporous SiO2-PVA nanocomposite was immersed in the Tb3+ ions contained solution and subsequently sintered at 1100 °C in air. Consequently the monolithic transparent silica glass was obtained, exhibiting green fluorescence attributed to 5D4 → 7F5 main transitions under UV excitation. The Tb concentration in the sintered glass could be controlled by immersion time of the nanocomposite in the solution.

  15. Photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses.

    PubMed

    Tuchinda, Chanisada; Srivannaboon, Sabong; Lim, Henry W

    2006-05-01

    In daily activity, much time is spent indoors and in vehicles. Although the adverse effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is now well recognized and active public education programs on photoprotection have been undertaken, the role of window glass in photoprotection has been rarely addressed. It has been known for some time that window glass filters out UVB and transmits UVA and visible light. Recent developments in the glass industry have resulted in glass that provides broad UV protection without the historically associated loss of visible light transmission. Factors affecting UV-protective properties of glass are glass type, glass color, interleave between glass, and glass coating. In this article, photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses is reviewed.

  16. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  17. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  18. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  19. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  20. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  1. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  2. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  3. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  4. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  5. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  7. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  8. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  9. Deduction of the chemical state and the electronic structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core-level and valence-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Le; Zhang, Lanting E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn; Sun, Limin E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn; Hirano, Shinichi

    2014-10-28

    Characterization of chemical state and electronic structure of the technologically important Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is attractive for understanding the physical nature of its excellent magnetic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of such rare-earth compound is important and also challenging due to the easy oxidation of surface and small photoelectron cross-sections of rare-earth 4f electrons and B 2p electrons, etc. Here, we reported an investigation based on XPS spectra of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound as a function of Ar ion sputtering time. The chemical state of Fe and that of B in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound can be clearly determined to be 0 and −3, respectively. The Nd in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is found to have the chemical state of close to +3 instead of +3 as compared with the Nd in Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, by comparing the valence-band spectrum of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound to that of the pure Fe, the contributions from Nd, Fe, and B to the valence-band structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is made more clear. The B 2p states and B 2s states are identified to be at ∼11.2 eV and ∼24.6 eV, respectively, which is reported for the first time. The contribution from Nd 4f states can be identified both in XPS core-level spectrum and XPS valence-band spectrum. Although Nd 4f states partially hybridize with Fe 3d states, Nd 4f states are mainly localized in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound.

  10. Green Streets Help Baltimore, Others

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fifteen Green Streets, Green Towns, Green Jobs (G3) grants for will support projects in three states, including the conversion of hard surfaces to green space at Sarah’s Hope, a homeless shelter in a troubled Baltimore neighborhood.

  11. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  12. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  13. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  14. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  15. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  16. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  17. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  18. Effect of different glasses in glass bonded zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.; Verma, S.

    1995-05-01

    A mineral waste form has been developed for chloride waste salt generated during the pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of salt-occluded zeolite powders bound within a glass matrix. The zeolite contains the salt and immobilizes the fission products. The zeolite powders are hot pressed to form a mechanically stable, durable glass bonded zeolite. Further development of glass bonded zeolite as a waste form requires an understanding of the interaction between the glass and the zeolite. Properties of the glass that enhance binding and durability of the glass bonded zeolite need to be identified. Three types of glass, boroaluminosilicate, soda-lime silicate, and high silica glasses, have a range of properties and are now being investigated. Each glass was hot pressed by itself and with an equal amount of zeolite. MCC-1 leach tests were run on both. Soda-lime silicate and high silica glasses did not give a durable glass bonded zeolite. Boroaluminosilicate glasses rich in alkaline earths did bind the zeolite and gave a durable glass bonded zeolite. Scanning electron micrographs suggest that the boroaluminosilicate glasses wetted the zeolite powders better than the other glasses. Development of the glass bonded zeolite as a waste form for chloride waste salt is continuing.

  19. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H.; Roche, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  20. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  1. Indocyanine green video angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frambach, Donald A.

    1994-06-01

    Over the last two years, ophthalmologists have begun to use indocyanine green angiography as a supplement to fluorescein angiography. Unlike fluorescein, indocyanine green absorbs near infrared and emits slightly longer infrared light. Therefore, indocyanine green angiography images structures deeper in the retina and through blood, pigment, and turbid serous fluid that accumulates in a number of diseases. In addition, indocyanine green shows very different properties of dye leakage than does fluorescein and this can be used to identify certain abnormal blood vessels that grow beneath the retinas of patients with macular degeneration. Finally, indocyanine green fluoresces only 4% as efficiently as fluorescein which has presented a major technical problem until highly amplified video systems have become available to ophthalmologists. We have used a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to perform video indocyanine green angiography at the Doheny Eye Institute since November, 1991. In this paper, I will present several clinical cases that demonstrate the clinical usefulness of indocyanine green angiography.

  2. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  3. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  4. Seeing Glass Contractors Clearly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliberato, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Offers seven tips for finding and working with an effective glass contractor. For example, schools should consider the company's reputation and longevity of service, and whether it has in-house engineering capabilities. (EV)

  5. Glass formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of containerless glass-forming experiments conducted aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985, using a single-axis acoustic levitator furnace apparatus. An attempt was made to obtain quantitative evidence for the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation/crystallization in containerless melts under microgravity conditions, as well as to study melt homogenization in the absence of gravity-driven convection and assess the feasibility of laser fusion target glass microsphere preparation with a microgravity apparatus of the present type. A ternary calcia-gallia-silica glass thus obtained indicated a 2-3-fold increase in glass-formation tendency for this material composition in microgravity, by comparison with 1g.

  6. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  7. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  8. Metallic glass composition

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; Koch, Carl C.

    1986-01-01

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  9. Frangible glass canisters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, R.

    1972-01-01

    The need for a canister that can release its contents without disturbing the contents dynamically is discussed. The solution of this problem by the use of a frangible glass canister is considered. The basic theory applicable to frangible glass and the method of initiating a command flaw are discussed. A brief description of the test program and the results of a flight test are presented.

  10. Method for making glass nonfogging

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Carter, Gary W.; Petrini, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    A method for rendering glass nonfogging (to condensation fog) by sandwiching the glass between two electrodes such that the glass functions as the dielectric of a capacitor, a large alternating current (AC) voltage is applied across the electrodes for a selected time period causing the glass to absorb a charge, and the electrodes are removed. The glass absorbs a charge from the electrodes rendering it nonfogging. The glass surface is undamaged by application of the AC voltage, and normal optical properties are unaffected. This method can be applied to optical surfaces such as lenses, auto windshields, mirrors, etc., wherever condensation fog on glass is a problem.

  11. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  12. Containerless synthesis of interesting glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    One aspect of containerless glass experimentation was thoroughly examined: glass forming ability. It is argued that although containerless processing will abet glass formation, other ground-based methods can do the job better. However, these methods have limitations, such as sample dimensions and concomitant ability to make property measurements. Most importantly, perhaps, is the observation that glass properties are a function of preparation procedure. Thus, it seems as though there still is an argument for use of containerless processing for glass forming.

  13. On the strength of glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wisitsorasak, Apiwat; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable strength of glasses is examined using the random first order transition theory of the glass transition. The theory predicts that strength depends on elastic modulus but also on the configurational energy frozen in when the glass is prepared. The stress catalysis of cooperative rearrangements of the type responsible for the supercooled liquid’s high viscosity account quantitatively for the measured strength of a range of metallic glasses, silica, and a polymer glass. PMID:22988070

  14. Glass microsphere lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the

  15. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  16. Purification of rare-earth metals as the approach to improving properties of hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchugina, N. B.; Burkhanov, G. S.; Dormidontov, A. G.; Lukin, A. A.; Koshkid'ko, Yu S.; Skotnicová, K.; Drulis, H.; Smetana, B.

    2016-01-01

    Purification of rare-earth metals, namely, Nd, Pr, Tb, Dy used in manufacturing Nd2Fe14B-based magnets was realized. The metals were purified by vacuum distillation/sublimation. Conditions of the process were optimized and the structure of distilled metals was studied. Distilled terbium and dysprosium were used to prepare hydrides TbH2 and DyH2. Peculiarities of the decomposition of terbium and dysprosium hydrides were studied with the view of the use of the compounds as efficient additions, which allow the high- coercivity state of sintered magnets to be formed. Terbium hydride additions (to 4 wt %) favor the marked increase in the magnetization coercive force without excessive attenuation of the remanence (j H c = 1940 kA/m, (BH max) = 292 kJ/m3). Dysprosium hydride additions increase the stability of high-coercivity state (j H c = 1310 kA/m, (BH max) = 322 kJ/m3 at 2 wt% DyH2).

  17. Measuring magnetisation reversal in micron-sized Nd2Fe14B single crystals by microbeam x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Akira; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, T.; Lee, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetisation reversal of micron-sized Nd2Fe14B single crystals with magnetisation as weak as 10-9 emu (1 µm size) was studied. Single-crystal specimens (cylinders with diameter and height of 1 to 6 µm) were prepared by focused-ion beam so that both the magnetic easy and hard axes were included in the basal plane. Their magnetic hysteresis loops were measured when they were rotated with respect to the cylindrical axis by using microbeam hard-x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) under transmission geometry. It was found that coercivity is inversely proportional to the cosine of the angle between the magnetocrystalline easy axis and magnetic-field direction and that the magnetisation reversal is dominated by domain-wall pinning in two different modes. One is related to penetration of the reversed domain nucleated in a subsurface soft layer into the bulk hard phase, of which the hysteresis loops exhibit a single-stage abrupt jump in magnetization. The other mode is pinning of the walls within the bulk grain, of which the hysteresis loops exhibit a plateau. The multi-domain structure associated with the pinning was confirmed by XMCD mapping. The proposed method fills the gap between conventional bulk magnetic measurement and submicron-scale electrical-transport measurement for nanofabricated thin films and/or fine particles. It is expected to provide new insights into elemental magnetisation processes in micron-scale regions.

  18. Abnormal variation of magnetic properties with Ce content in (PrNdCe)2Fe14B sintered magnets prepared by dual alloy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Feng, Zhang; Jian-Ting, Lan; Zhu-Bai, Li; Yan-Li, Liu; Le-Le, Zhang; Yong-Feng, Li; Qian, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Resource-saving (PrNdCe)2Fe14B sintered magnets with nominal composition (PrNd)15-x Ce x Fe77B8 (x = 0-10) were prepared using a dual alloy method by mixing (PrNd)5Ce10Fe77B8 with (PrNd)15Fe77B8 powders. For Ce atomic percent of 1% and 2%, coercivity decreases dramatically. With further increase of Ce atomic percent, the coercivity increases, peaks at 6.38 kOe in (PrNd)11Ce4Fe77B8, and then declines gradually. The abnormal dependence of coercivity is likely related to the inhomogeneity of rare earth chemical composition in the intergranular phase, where PrNd concentration is strongly dependent on the additive amount of (PrNd)5Ce10Fe77B8 powders. In addition, for Ce atomic percent of 8%, 7%, and 6% the coercivity is higher than that of magnets prepared by the conventional method, which shows the advantage of the dual alloy method in preparing high abundant rare earth magnets. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51461033, 51571126, 51541105, and 11547032), the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia, China (Grant No. 2013MS0110), and the Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology Innovation Fund, China.

  19. MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC IMAGING OF RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (RE=Nd,Pr) PERMANENT MAGNETS

    SciTech Connect

    ZHU,Y.; VOLKOV,V.V.

    2000-04-20

    This chapter aims to review the magnetic structures observed in the RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (RE = Nd, Pr) system using various TEM magnetic imaging techniques. The authors focus on studies of die-upset Nd-based permanent magnets conducted mainly at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the past several years. Investigations on Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets and single crystals, as well as Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets also will be covered. In Sec.2 and Sec.3 they review the microstructure, including grain alignment and secondary phases of the materials, and grain boundary structure and composition of the intergranular phase. Sec.4 is devoted to the domain structure, such as the width of domain and domain wall and domain-wall energy. Monte Carlo simulation of the effects of demagnetization fields will be presented in Sec.5. In-situ experiments on the dynamic behavior of domain reorientation as a function of temperature, pinning, grain boundary nucleation related to coercivity under various fields are described in Sec.6. Finally, in Sec.7 the correlation between microstructure and properties are discussed.

  20. Radiation effects in amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/P/sub 14/B/sub 6/

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, W T; Steck, G; Kramer, J J; Murray, R B; Onn, D G

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the Curie temperature and magnetic saturation of the amorphous ferromagnetic series Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/P/sub 14/B/sub 6/ for 20 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 34 induced by proton bombardment have been studied, and correlated with small angle x-ray scattering measurements performed for x = 20 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both the Curie temperature and the low temperature saturation magnetization increase with proton fluence up to 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/ but are constant for higher fluences. Protons of energy 2.25 MeV (range much greater than the sample thickness) are more effective at producing changes than protons of energy 0.25 MeV (range much less than sample thickness). Thus, hydrogen implantation is eliminated as the principal source of the observed changes. In addition, careful attention to sample temperature during irradiation excludes thermal annealing as the origin of the effect. Proton bombardment at the same fluences produces scattering centers that are observed by small angle x-ray scattering. The concentration of scattering centers increases with proton fluence up to 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/, but remains constant thereafter. The size of the centers remains constant at about 16 to 30 A. Possible structural changes to account for these observations are incipient recrystallization, void formation, and phosphorous segregation.

  1. Experimental design and process analysis for acidic leaching of metal-rich glass wastes.

    PubMed

    Tuncuk, A; Ciftci, H; Akcil, A; Ognyanova, A; Vegliò, F

    2010-05-01

    The removal of iron, titanium and aluminium from colourless and green waste glasses has been studied under various experimental conditions in order to optimize the process parameters and to decrease the metal content in the waste glass by acidic leaching. Statistical design of experiments and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were performed in order to determine the main effects and interactions between the investigated factors (sample ratio, acid concentration, temperature and leaching time). A full factorial experiment was performed by sulphuric acid leaching of glass for metal removal. After treating, the iron content was 530 ppm, corresponding to 1880 ppm initial concentration of Fe(2)O(3) in the original colourless sample. This result is achieved using 1M H(2)SO( 4) and 30% sample ratio at 90(o)C leaching temperature for 2 hours. The iron content in the green waste glass sample was reduced from 3350 ppm initial concentration to 2470 ppm after treating.

  2. Survey and research on up-conversion emission character and energy transition of Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped phosphate glass and glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yin; Song, Feng; Ming, Chengguo; Liu, Jiadong; Li, Wei; Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Hongyan

    2012-11-01

    By conventional high-temperature melting method, Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped phosphate glass was synthesized. After annealing the precursor glass, the phosphate glass ceramic (GC) was obtained. By measuring the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, it is proved that the LiYbP4O12 and Li6P6O18 nano-crystals have existed in the phosphate GC. The up-conversion (UC) emission intensity of the GC is obvious stronger compared to that of the glass. The reason is that the shorter distance between rare earth ions in the glass ceramic increases the energy transitions from the sensitized ions (Yb3+) to the luminous ions (Er3+ and Tm3+). By studying the dependence of UC emissions on the pump power, the 523 and 546 nm green emissions of Er3+ ions in the glass are two-photon processes. But in the glass ceramic, they are two/three-photon processes. The phenomenon implies that a three-photon process has participated in the population of the two green emissions. Using Dexter theory, we discuss the energy transitions of Er3+ and Tm3+. The results indicate the energy transition of Tm3+ to Er3+ is very strong in the GC, which changes the population mechanism of UC emissions of Er3+.

  3. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  4. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  5. Greening America's Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  6. Malachite green photosensitive plates.

    PubMed

    Solano, C

    1989-08-15

    An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

  7. Feasibility research report of villa constructed of glass fiber reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Lu, Yu; Wang, Dongwei

    2011-04-01

    With the development of economy and improvement degree of modernization, the villa project design program tend to focus on the green, high-tech, humanities, and more emphasis on the integrity of space, noble and elegant feeling. Therefore, based on the study of literatures, this paper discussed the present situation and issue and features of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete and the feature of assembly house, and confirmed that the villa of assemble house is feasible by built of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

  8. Silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3 - 2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  9. Method of producing a silicon carbide fiber reinforced strontium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A SrO-Al2O3-2SrO2 (SAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD SiC continuous fibers. This material is prepared by casting a slurry of SAS glass powder into tapes. Mats of continuous CVD-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with the matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite. Organic constituents are burned out of the 'green' composite, and the remaining interim material is hot pressed.

  10. Photo-thermo-refractive glass with sensitivity extended to near infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompan, F.; Venus, G.; Glebova, L.; Mingareev, H.; Glebov, L.

    2016-02-01

    Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is a multicomponent silicate glass doped with Ce3+ and Ag+ which is extensively used for holographic recording of volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). Possibility of recording of advanced, complex holograms in the PTR glass is of current interest as it offers great opportunities in imaging and laser systems control. However, the glass does not have capabilities for recording of complex holograms with using light from the visible / IR spectral region due to its UV photosensitivity. Extension of the PTR-glass sensitivity range into the visible / IR spectral region was carried out by doping the original glass with trivalent terbium ions. Photosensitivity mechanism was implemented by means of excited state absorption using a UV photon and a visible photon for excitation of the Tb3+ 5d14f7 band. For the first time refractive index modulation on the order of 2x10-4 was obtained in PTR glass after exposure to the visible / IR light. Resulting magnitude of induced refractive index allows for high efficiency complex hologram fabrication in Tb3+ doped PTR glass for use which in the visible / IR region. Holographic capabilities of Tb3+ doped PTR glass were demonstrated by recording a complex hologram in the glass using green and blue light.

  11. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    DOEpatents

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  12. Glass formation - A contemporary view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlmann, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The process of glass formation is discussed from several perspectives. Particular attention is directed to kinetic treatments of glass formation and to the question of how fast a given liquid must be cooled in order to form a glass. Specific consideration is paid to the calculation of critical cooling rates for glass formation, to the effects of nucleating heterogeneities and transients in nucleation on the critical cooling rates, to crystallization on reheating a glass, to the experimental determination of nucleation rates and barriers to crystal nucleation, and to the characteristics of materials which are most conducive to glass formation.

  13. Electrochemical Measurement of Activities for NiO, Ru2O3, and ZnO in a Lunar Volcanic Glass Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, R. O.; Hendrickson, T. R.; Malum, K. M.; Floden, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    Differential Pulse Voltammetry is a fast in situ method for measuring component activities in silicate melts. We report methods for confirming equilibrium conditions and activities for oxide components in an Apollo 15 green glass analog composition.

  14. Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

  15. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600[degrees]C--1000[degrees]C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  16. Waste glass melting stages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600{degrees}C--1000{degrees}C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied.

  17. Crystallization of fluorozirconate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Doremus, Robert H.; Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The crystallization of a number of glasses of the fluorozirconate family has been studied (using powder X-ray diffraction and DSC) as a function of time and temperature of heating. The main crystalline phases were beta BaZrF6 and beta BaZr2F10. Stable and metastble transformations to the low-temperature alpha phases were also investigated. The size of crystallites in fully devitrified glasses was calculated (from line broadening of the X-ray diffraction peaks) to be about 60 nm.

  18. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  19. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  20. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  1. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  2. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  3. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  4. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  5. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In…

  6. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  7. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  8. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  9. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  10. Containerless processing of fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-based experiments on glass formation, crystallization, surface tension, vaporization, and chemical durability of a zirconium-barium-lanthanum (ZBL) fluoride glass are summarized. In a container large, columnar grains grew out from the container-glass interface during cooling. The main crystalline phase was alpha BaZrF6. A ZBL glass sphere was levitated acoustically during Shuttle flight STS-11. The glass was melted and then cooled while being levitated (containerless). Crystallization in the recovered sample was very fine and mainly beta BaZr2F10, showing the influence of the container on the nucleation and microstructure of crystallization in the glass. Glass formation should be easier for a containerless glass than in a container.

  11. Characterizing glass frits for slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, H. N.

    1979-01-01

    Glass frit can be mixed with consistently reproducible properties even from different batches of glass frit using technique to measure one quantity that determines integrated properties of frit for combination with given liquid.

  12. Barstow heliostat mirror glass characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, M. A.; Buckwalter, C. Q.

    1980-09-01

    The technical analysis performed on the special run of low iron float glass for a ten megawatt solar thermal/electric pilot power plant is discussed. The topics that are addressed include the optical properties and the relative durability of the glass. Two optical parameters, solar transmittance and optical flatness, were measured as referenced in the specification and found to be better than the stated tolerances. The average solar transmittance exceeded 0.890 transmittance units. The glass also exhibited optical angular flatness deviations less than + or - 1.0 mrad as required. Both qualitative and quantitative accelerated weathering tests were performed on the glass in order to compare its durability to other soda lime float glass and alternate composition glasses of interest to the solar community. In both the quantitative leaching experiments and the more qualitative room temperature and elevated temperature water vapor exposure experiments the heliostat glass exhibited the same characteristics as the other soda lime silicate float glasses.

  13. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  14. Making Highly Pure Glass Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

  15. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  16. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  17. Shimmering Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Gail Murray

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for fifth- and sixth-graders where they create a translucent design of colored cellophane on black paper inspired by the stained-glass windows of the Middle Ages and the artwork of Lewis Comfort Tiffany. Enables the students to become crafts people rather than just observers of the past. (CMK)

  18. Stained-Glass Pastels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

  19. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  20. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  1. Yesterday's Trash Makes Tomorrow's "Glass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Dale

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a glass art project inspired by Dale Chihuly. This project uses two-liter plastic soda bottles which are cut apart and trimmed. Applying heat using a hair dryer, the plastic curls and takes an uneven blown-glass quality. The "glass" is then painted using acrylic paint. (Contains 2 resources and 1 online…

  2. Barstow heliostat mirror glass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.

    1980-09-01

    The technical analysis performed on the special run of low iron float glass procured from the Ford Glass Division for the ten megawatt solar thermal/electric pilot power plant to be constructed at Barstow, California is discussed. The topics that are addressed include the optical properties and the relative durability of the glass. Two optical parameters, solar transmittance and optical flatness, were measured as referenced in the specification and found to be better than the stated tolerances. The average solar transmittance exceeded 0.890 transmittance units. The glass also exhibited optical angular flatness deviations less than +-1.0 mrad as required. Both qualitative and quantitative accelerated weathering tests were performed on the glass in order to compare its durability to other soda lime float glass and alternate composition glasses of interest to the solar community. In both the quantitative leaching experiments and the more qualitative room temperature and elevated temperature water vapor exposure experiments the heliostat glass exhibited the same characteristics as the other soda-lime silicate float glasses. As a final test for mirroring compatability, selected samples of the production run of the glass were sent to four different commercial manufacturers for mirror coating. None of the manufacturers reported any difficulty silvering the glass. Based on the tests performed, the glass meets or exceeds all optical specifications for the Barstow heliostat field.

  3. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  4. The Apollo 17 drill core - Modal petrology and glass chemistry /sections 70007, 70008, 70009/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of modal petrography the upper, mare basalt-rich portion of the Apollo 17 drill core (sections 70007, 70008, 70009) can be subdivided into three major stratigraphic units. The lower unit (a) falls within 70007, is relatively mature, and contains evidence of an increase in highland component and decrease of mare component within the lower approximately 8 cm. The middle unit (b) is coarse-grained and relatively immature; this unit has the highest concentration of mare basalt lithic and mineral fragments and mare orange/black glasses. The top unit (c) falls within 70009 and is relatively mature. Within these three sections of the drill core, there are compositional clusters of glass beads that correspond to high Ti subfloor basalt (orange/black glass), anorthositic gabbro (clear glass), and a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt (yellow/green glass).

  5. Volcanic glass as a natural analog for borosilicate waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstein, M.E.; Shettel, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Obsidian and basaltic glass are opposite end-members of natural volcanic glass compositions. Syngenetic and diagenetic tensile failure in basaltic glass (low silica glass) is pervasive and provides abundant alteration fronts deep into the glass structure. Perlitic fracturing in obsidian (high silica glass) limits the alteration zones to an {open_quotes}onion skin{close_quotes} geometry. Borosilicate waste glass behaves similarly to the natural analog of basaltic glass (sideromelane). During geologic time, established and tensile fracture networks form glass cells (a three-dimensional reticulated pattern) where the production of new fracture surfaces increases through time by geometric progression. This suggests that borosilicate glass monoliths will eventually become rubble. Rates of reaction appear to double for every 12C{degrees} of temperature increase. Published leach rates suggest that the entire inventory of certain radionuclides may be released during the 10,000 year regulatory time period. Steam alteration prior to liquid attack combined with pervasive deep tensile failure behavior may suggest that the glass waste form is not license defensible without a metallic- and/or ceramic-type composite barrier as an overpack.

  6. Potential utilization of glass experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidl, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    Materials processing in space utilizing the microgravity environment is discussed; glass processing in particular is considered. Attention is given to the processing of glass shells, critical cooling rate and novel glasses, gel synthesis of glasses, immiscibility, surface tension, and glass composites. Soviet glass experiments in space are also enumerated.

  7. Implementation of a soil albedo scheme in the CABLEv1.4b land surface model and evaluation against MODIS estimates over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, J.; Evans, J. P.; Pitman, A. J.; Schaaf, C. B.; Decker, M.; Carouge, C.; Mocko, D.; Sun, Q.

    2014-09-01

    Land surface albedo, the fraction of incoming solar radiation reflected by the land surface, is a key component of the Earth system. This study evaluates snow-free surface albedo simulations by the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv1.4b) model with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Satellite Pour L'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) albedo. We compare results from offline simulations over the Australian continent. The control simulation has prescribed background snow-free and vegetation-free soil albedo derived from MODIS whilst the experiments use a simple parameterisation based on soil moisture and colour, originally from the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), and adopted in the Common Land Model (CLM). The control simulation, with prescribed soil albedo, shows that CABLE simulates overall albedo over Australia reasonably well, with differences compared to MODIS and SPOT albedos within ±0.1. Application of the original BATS scheme, which uses an eight-class soil classification, resulted in large differences of up to -0.25 for the near-infrared (NIR) albedo over large parts of the desert regions of central Australia. The use of a recalibrated 20-class soil colour classification from the CLM, which includes a higher range for saturated and VIS (visible) and NIR soil albedos, reduced the underestimation of the NIR albedo. However, this soil colour mapping is tuned to CLM soil moisture, a quantity which is not necessarily transferrable between land surface models. We therefore recalibrated the soil color map using CABLE's climatological soil moisture, which further reduced the underestimation of the NIR albedo to within ±0.15 over most of the continent as compared to MODIS and SPOT albedos. Small areas of larger differences of up to -0.25 remained within the central arid parts of the continent during summer; however, the spatial extent of these large differences is substantially reduced as compared to the simulation using the default eight-class uncalibrated soil colour map. It is now possible to use CABLE coupled to atmospheric models to investigate soil-moisture-albedo feedbacks, an important enhancement of the model.

  8. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  9. Biocompatible glass-ceramic materials for bone substitution.

    PubMed

    Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Verné, Enrica; Robiglio, Lorenza; Martinasso, Germana; Canuto, Rosa A; Muzio, Giuliana

    2008-01-01

    A new bioactive glass composition (CEL2) in the SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaO-MgO-K(2)O-Na(2)O system was tailored to control pH variations due to ion leaching phenomena when the glass is in contact with physiological fluids. CEL2 was prepared by a traditional melting-quenching process obtaining slices that were heat-treated to obtain a glass-ceramic material (CEL2GC) that was characterized thorough SEM analysis. Pre-treatment of CEL2GC with SBF was found to enhance its biocompatibility, as assessed by in vitro tests. CEL2 powder was then used to synthesize macroporous glass-ceramic scaffolds. To this end, CEL2 powders were mixed with polyethylene particles within the 300-600 microm size-range and then pressed to obtain crack-free compacted powders (green). This was heat-treated to remove the organic phase and to sinter the inorganic phase, leaving a porous structure. The biomaterial thus obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurement, image analysis, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation, and found to be a glass-ceramic macroporous scaffold with uniformly distributed and highly interconnected porosity. The extent and size-range of the porosity can be tailored by varying the amount and size of the polyethylene particles.

  10. White light upconversion emissions from Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite and germanate glasses on excitation with 798 nm radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Neeraj Kumar; Rai, D. K.; Rai, S. B.

    2008-12-01

    White light has been produced using 798 nm laser excitation in Tm3++Ho3++Yb3+ codoped tellurite and germanate glasses. These glasses simultaneously generate the three primary colors, red, green, and blue, on 798 nm excitation. Thus, multicolor emission obtained was tuned to white luminescence by adjusting the Ho3+ ion concentration and excitation power. UV excitation and fluorescence spectra of these triply doped glasses give additional emissions, which do not appear on 798 nm excitation.

  11. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  12. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  13. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  14. Spectroscopy of the Er-doped lithium tetraborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padlyak, B. V.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, and luminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as luminescence kinetics of the Er-doped glasses with Li2B4O7 composition were investigated and analysed. The high optical quality glasses with Li2B4O7:Er composition containing 0.5 and 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were obtained from corresponding polycrystalline compound by standard glass synthesis. The EPR spectroscopy in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and optical spectroscopy at 300 K show that the Er impurity is incorporated into the network of Li2B4O7 glass as Er3+ (4f11, 4I15/2) ions, exclusively. The local structure of the Er3+ luminescence centres in Li sites of the glass network is proposed. Based on the standard Judd-Ofelt theory the oscillator strength (Pcal) and experimental oscillator strength (Pexp) for observed absorption transitions as well as phenomenological intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) for Er3+ centres in the Li2B4O7:Er glass containing 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were calculated. Spectroscopic parameters of relevance for laser applications, including emission probabilities of transitions (Wr), branching ratios (β), and radiative lifetime (τrad) have been calculated for main observed emission transitions of the Er3+ centres in Li2B4O7:Er glasses. Experimental and calculated lifetimes were compared and quantum efficiency (η) for green (4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition) and infrared (4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition) emission bands has been estimated.

  15. Superfund Green Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  16. Green Ampt approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Li, L.; Jeng, D.-S.; Crapper, M.

    2005-10-01

    The solution to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is expressible in terms of the Lambert W-1 function. Approximations for Green and Ampt infiltration are thus derivable from approximations for the W-1 function and vice versa. An infinite family of asymptotic expansions to W-1 is presented. Although these expansions do not converge near the branch point of the W function (corresponds to Green-Ampt infiltration with immediate ponding), a method is presented for approximating W-1 that is exact at the branch point and asymptotically, with interpolation between these limits. Some existing and several new simple and compact yet robust approximations applicable to Green-Ampt infiltration and flux are presented, the most accurate of which has a maximum relative error of 5 × 10 -5%. This error is orders of magnitude lower than any existing analytical approximations.

  17. Green Power Procurement Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products are available from a variety of different vendors, including utilities, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, on-site system integrators, and non-profit organizations. This page lists considerations to evaluate during selection

  18. Green Building Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  19. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  20. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  1. Green Power Partnership Scope

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Organizations can elect to join organization-wide or at the facility level.

  2. Green Power Partnership Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. To join, organizations must meet EPA's program requirements.

  3. Spin Glass Patch Planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  4. Polyamorphism in metalic glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, H. W.; Liu, H. Z.; Cheng, Y. Q.; Wen, J.; Lee, P.L.; Luo, W.K.; Shastri, S.D.; Ma, E.; X-Ray Science Division; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2007-03-01

    A metal, or an alloy, can often exist in more than one crystal structure. The face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic forms of iron (or steel) are a familiar example of such polymorphism. When metallic materials are made in the amorphous form, is a parallel 'polyamorphism' possible? So far, polyamorphic phase transitions in the glassy state have been observed only in glasses involving directional and open (such as tetrahedral) coordination environments. Here, we report an in situ X-ray diffraction observation of a pressure-induced transition between two distinct amorphous polymorphs in a Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} metallic glass. The large density difference observed between the two polyamorphs is attributed to their different electronic and atomic structures, in particular the bond shortening revealed by ab initio modeling of the effects of f-electron delocalization. This discovery offers a new perspective of the amorphous state of metals, and has implications for understanding the structure, evolution and properties of metallic glasses and related liquids. Our work also opens a new avenue towards technologically useful amorphous alloys that are compositionally identical but with different thermodynamic, functional and rheological properties due to different bonding and structural characteristics.

  5. Picritic glasses from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Weber, W.S.; Dixon, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    ESTIMATES of the MgO content of primary Hawaiian tholeiitic melts range from 8wt% to as high as 25wt% (refs 1, 2). In general, these estimates are derived from analysis of the whole-rock composition of lavas, coupled with the compositions of the most magnesian olivine phenocrysts observed. But the best estimate of magma composition comes from volcanic glass, as it represents the liquid composition at the time of quenching; minimal changes occur during the quenching process. Here we report the discovery of tholeiitic basalt glasses, recovered offshore of Kilauea volcano, that contain up to 15.0 wt% MgO. To our knowledge, these are the most magnesian glasses, and have the highest eruption temperatures (??? 1,316 ??C), yet found. The existence of these picritic (high-MgO) liquids provides constraints on the temperature structure of the upper mantle, magma transport and the material and thermal budgets of the Hawaiian volcanoes. Furthermore, picritic melts are affected little by magma-reservoir processes, and it is therefore relatively straightforward to extrapolate back to the composition of the primary melt and its volatile contents.

  6. Upconversion photon quantification of holmium and erbium ions in waveguide-adaptive germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. L.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Wang, Z. Q.; Lin, H.

    2017-02-01

    Visible upconversion photons have been quantified precisely in Ho3+/Yb3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ doped waveguide-adaptive aluminum germanate (NMAG) glasses, and effective red and green upconversion emissions generated from Ho3+ and Er3+ were illustrated in contrast. The emission photon numbers are identified as a positive correlation with the laser power densities, and stronger dominance of red emission in the Ho3+/Yb3+ doped NMAG glasses and more effectiveness of photon generation in Er3+/Yb3+ doped case were proved. When the power density is 1227 W/cm2, the absolute quantum yields for red and green (660 and 548 nm) upconversion fluorescences are derived to be 2.41 × 10-5 and 0.17 × 10-5 in Ho3+/Yb3+ doped NMAG glasses, and the ones (665 and 548 nm) in Er3+/Yb3+ doped NMAG glasses are 4.26 × 10-5 and 1.44 × 10-5. The macroscopic quantization of red and green upconversion emissions in Ho3+/Yb3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ doped waveguide-adaptive NMAG glasses provides the original referenced data for developing upconversion waveguide-typed irradiation light sources.

  7. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; ...

    2015-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model hasmore » been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.« less

  8. Laser Glass Frit Sealing for Encapsulation of Vacuum Insulation Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, H.; Gehlen, E.; Aden, M.; Olowinsky, A.; Gillner, A.

    Laser glass frit sealing is a joining method predestined in electronics for the sealing of engineered materials housings in dimensions of some 1 mm2 to several 10 mm2. The application field ranges from encapsulation of display panels to sensor housings. Laser glass frit sealing enables a hermetical closure excluding humidity and gas penetration. But the seam quality is also interesting for other applications requiring a hermetical sealing. One application is the encapsulation of vacuum insulation glass. The gap between two panes must be evacuated for reducing the thermal conductivity. Only an efficient encapsulating technique ensures durable tight joints of two panes for years. Laser glass frit sealing is an alternative joining method even though the material properties of soda lime glass like sensitivity to thermal stresses are much higher as known from engineered materials. An adapted thermal management of the process is necessary to prevent the thermal stresses within the pane to achieve crack free and tight glass frit seams.

  9. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Glass-state conversion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K.; Kolopus, James A.; Carroll, Kyler; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kirklin, S.; Wolverton, C.; Stooksbury, Shelby L.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses can undergo glass-state conversion (GSC) reactions to provide an alternate class of high-capacity cathode materials. GSC reactions have been demonstrated in phosphate/vanadate glasses with Ag, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni cations. These MP glasses provided high capacity and good high power performance, but suffer from moderate voltages, large voltage hysteresis, and significant capacity fade with cycling. Details of the GSC reaction have been revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of ex situ cathodes at key states of charge. Using the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), a computational thermodynamic model has been developed to predict the near-equilibrium voltages of glass-state conversion reactions in MP glasses.

  10. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  11. Impact resistance of bar glasses.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J P; Huggett, R H; Kidner, G

    1993-12-01

    Bar glasses are often used as weapons in interpersonal violence. Violence often erupts spontaneously and assailants use objects close to hand as weapons. After an initial national Accident and Emergency Department study to identify glass designs most often implicated in interpersonal violence, the impact resistance of 1-pint beer glasses was tested in a materials laboratory with a Zwick 5102 pendulum impact tester. Both straight-sided (nonik) glasses (annealed and tempered) and handled tankards (annealed) were tested to destruction. The impact resistance of new glasses was compared with that of glasses subjected to wear. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks did not differ significantly although new glasses were significantly more resistant than worn glasses (p < 0.01). It was not possible to break any of the tempered glasses with the pendulum used (maximum impact energy, 4 J). When noniks had been scratched at the rim to mimic wear, tempered glasses also had the highest impact resistance (p < 0.01) whereas the mean resistance of the annealed noniks was not significantly different. When tempered glasses failed during testing, they all disintegrated into relatively harmless cubes of glass, particularly the thicker bases of glasses. In contrast, annealed designs fractured leaving sharp shards although the thicker bases remained intact. The mean impact resistance of new annealed noniks was 0.5 J, of worn annealed noniks 0.08 J, of tempered new noniks > 4 J, of worn tempered noniks 0.18 J, and of tankards, 1.7 J.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  13. Method of producing a ceramic fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced composite composed of a BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2 (BAS) glass ceramic matrix is reinforced with CVD silicon carbide continuous fibers. A slurry of BAS glass powders is prepared and celsian seeds are added during ball melting. The slurry is cast into tapes which are cut to the proper size. Continuous CVD-SiC fibers are formed into mats of the desired size. The matrix tapes and the fiber mats are alternately stacked in the proper orientation. This tape-mat stack is warm pressed to produce a 'green' composite. The 'green' composite is then heated to an elevated temperature to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot pressed to form a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced celsian (BAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite which may be machined to size.

  14. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  15. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Carroll, Kyler J; Kiggans Jr, James O; Veith, Gabriel M; Meisner, Roberta; Boatner, Lynn A; Dudney, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  16. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of magnetic compensation of the rare-earth sublattice in Nd{sub 2-x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 14}B compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chaboy, J.; Piquer, C.; Plugaru, N.; Bartolome, F.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.

    2007-10-01

    We present here a study of the magnetic properties of the Nd{sub 2-x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 14}B series. The macroscopic properties of these compounds evolve continuously from those of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B to those of Ho{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B as Ho gradually replaces Nd. The system shows a compensation of the rare-earth sublattice magnetization for a critical concentration, x{sub c}=0.55, that is reflected into the anomalous behavior of both macroscopic and microscopic magnetic probes. The combined analysis of magnetization, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fe K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements suggests that the origin of the anomalous magnetic behavior found at x{sub c}=0.55 is mainly due to the Ho sublattice. Moreover, the analysis of the Fe K-edge XMCD signals reveal the presence of a rare-earth contribution, reflecting the coupling of the rare-earth and Fe magnetic moments, which can lead to the possibility of disentangling the magnetic behavior of both Fe and R atoms using a single absorption edge.

  17. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014.

    PubMed

    Inns, T; Lane, C; Peters, T; Dallman, T; Chatt, C; McFarland, N; Crook, P; Bishop, T; Edge, J; Hawker, J; Elson, R; Neal, K; Adak, G K; Cleary, P

    2015-04-23

    We report an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b (PT14b) in the United Kingdom (UK) between May and September 2014 where Public Health England launched an investigation to identify the source of infection and implement control measures. During the same period, outbreaks caused by a Salmonella Enteritidis strain with a specific multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profile occurred in other European Union Member States. Isolates from a number of persons affected by the UK outbreak, who had initially been tested by MLVA also shared this particular profile. Cases were defined as any person infected with S. Enteritidis PT14b, resident in England or Wales and without history of travel outside of this geographical area during the incubation period, reported from 1 June 2014 onwards, with a MLVA profile of 2–11–9-7–4-3–2-8–9 or a single locus variant thereof. In total, 287 cases met the definition. Food traceback investigations in the UK and other affected European countries linked the outbreaks to chicken eggs from a German company. We undertook whole genome sequencing of isolates from UK and European cases, implicated UK premises, and German eggs: isolates were highly similar. Combined with food traceback information, this confirmed that the UK outbreak was also linked to a German producer.

  18. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  19. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwissler, J. G.; Adams, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solr concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  20. Volcanic Coatings on Picritic Apollo 17 Glasses; Submicrometer-Deposits of Fe-CR-Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, K.; Clementt, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of our ongoing investigations of Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange and black volcanic glasses are threefold: first, to increase our understanding of the volcanic origin of the glasses; second, to determine the nature of the coating materials deposited on the glasses during their cooling in the volcanic environment; and, third, to help determine the nature of the gases involved in the volcanic fire-fountaining that occurred at approximately 3.5 Ga on the moon. We are continuing studies of coatings on volcanic glasses using analytical techniques not available when these glasses were originally studied; these include high-resolution FE-TEM and X-ray mapping, along with other highly detailed methods including TEM electron diffraction analysis. Initial studies of Apollo 15 green volcanic glasses using the techniques described above revealed for the first time the presence of areas containing distinct layering of volcanic surface deposits. S was associated with some of the inner layer of metallic Fe but was absent from the outer layer. Zn was associated with S in some places in the inner layer. An example of a typical spherule used for this study is shown in Fig. 1. It is a black (quench-crystallized) bead from near the bottom of the 74001/2 double drive tube; black beads such as this one are essentially identical in composition to the orange (uncrystallized) beads of the 74001/2 core.

  1. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Manuel Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine Wk; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-03-29

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  2. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  3. Recycled Glass and Dredged Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    stations, and is either source-separated or co-mingled with plastics , aluminum cans, ceramics, or colored glass containers. In the United States in...cullet (for new bottles and other containers) or non-container glass cullet (all other uses), and non-container processed cullet production is...aggregates (i.e. opposition to change), cost, and regulations. Contamination and Safety Issues. Recycled container glass may contain debris (defined as

  4. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Ali, M. I.

    1977-01-01

    The manner in which the weightless, containerless nature of in-space processing can be successfully utilized to improve the quality of infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses is determined. The technique of space processing chalcogenide glass was developed, and the process and equipment necessary to do so was defined. Earthbound processing experiments with As2S3 and G28Sb12Se60 glasses were experimented with. Incorporated into these experiments is the use of an acoustic levitation device.

  5. Glass corrosion in natural environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.

    1989-01-01

    A series of studies of the effects of solutes which appear in natural aqueous environments, specifically Mg and Al, under controlled conditions, permit characterization of the retardation of silicate glass leaching in water containing such solutes. In the case of Mg the interaction with the glass appears to consist of exchange with alkali ions present in the glass to a depth of several microns. The effect of Al can be observed at much lower levels, indicating that the mechanism in the case of Al involves irreversible formation of aluminosilicate species at the glass surface.

  6. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  7. POLYESTER GLASS PLASTICS FOR SHIPBUILDING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLYESTER PLASTICS , SHIP HULLS), (*SHIP HULLS, POLYESTER PLASTICS ), GLASS TEXTILES, REINFORCING MATERIALS, SHIP STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, PROCESSING, CHEMISTRY, HANDBOOKS, BINDERS, USSR

  8. THERMAL STABILITY OF GLASS PLASTICS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPOSITE MATERIALS, THERMAL STABILITY), (* GLASS TEXTILES, THERMAL STABILITY), (*LAMINATED PLASTICS , THERMAL STABILITY), HEATING, COOLING, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, FATIGUE(MECHANICS), FLEXURAL STRENGTH, THERMAL STRESSES, USSR

  9. Glass corrosion in natural environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.; Barkatt, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Experiments carried out during the progress period are summarized. Experiments carried out involving glass samples exposed to solutions of Tris have shown the appearance of 'spikes' upon monitoring glass dissolution as a function of time. The periodic 'spikes' observed in Tris-based media were interpreted in terms of cracking due to excessive stress in the surface region of the glass. Studies of the interactions of silicate glasses with metal ions in buffered media were extended to systems containing Al. Caps buffer was used to establish the pH. The procedures used are described and the results are given. Preliminary studies were initiated as to the feasibility of adding a slowly dissolving solid compound of the additive to the glass-water system to maintain a supply of dissolved additive. It appears that several magnesium compounds have a suitable combination of solubility and affinity towards silicate glass surfaces to have a pronounced retarding effect on the extraction of uranium from the glass. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that introducing a magnesium source into geologic repositories for nuclear waste glass in the form of a sparingly soluble Mg-based backfill material may cause a substantial reduction in the extent of long-term glass corrosion. The studies described also provide mechanistic understanding of the roles of various metal solutes in the leachant. Such understanding forms the basis for developing long-term predictions of nuclear waste glass durability under repository conditions. From what is known about natural highly reduced glasses such as tektites, it is clear that iron is dissolved as ferrous iron with little or no ferric iron. The reducing conditions were high enough to cause metallic iron to exsolve out of the glass in the form of submicroscopic spherules. As the nuclear waste glass is much less reduced, a study was initiated on other natural glasses in addition to the nuclear waste glass. Extensive measurements were

  10. Halide laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1982-01-14

    Energy storage and energy extraction are of prime importance for efficient laser action and are affected by the line strengths and linewidths of optical transitions, excited-state lifetimes, nonradiative decay processes, spectroscopic inhomogeneities, nonlinear refractive index, and damage threshold. These properties are all host dependent. To illustrate this, the spectroscopic properties of Nd/sup 3 +/ have been measured in numerous oxide, oxyhalide, and halide glasses. A table summarizes the reported ranges of stimulated emission cross sections, peak wavelengths, linewidths, and radiative lifetimes associated with the /sup 4/F/sub 3/2/ ..-->.. /sup 4/I/sub 11/2/ lasing transition.

  11. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  12. Solarization of heliostat glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitko, J., Jr.; Shelby, J. E.

    1980-09-01

    A solar-induced decrease in Fe(2+) absorption was observed in heliostat glasses from the solar furnace at Odeillo, France. This decrease occurs throughout the sample and is of sufficient magnitude to result in an increase of 2.5% in solar transmittance in a period of nine years. Optical and ESR studies did not detect a corresponding increase in Fe(3+) concentration. The effect of these results on a microscopic model for the observed solarization is discussed. Solar simulation studies produced changes of magnitude and sign similar to those observed in the field exposed samples, and offer attractive means for screening samples for solarization tendencies.

  13. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  14. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  15. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  16. Examination of glass-silicon and glass-glass bonding techniques for microfluidic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raley, N.F.; Davidson, J.C.; Balch, J.W.

    1995-10-23

    We report here on the results of experiments concerning particular bonding processes potentially useful for ultimate miniaturization of microfluidic systems. Direct anodic bonding of continuous thin pyrex glass of 250 {mu}m thickness to silicon substrates gives multiple, large voids in the glass. Etchback of thick glass of 1200 {mu}m thickness bonded to silicon substrates gives thin continuous glass layers of 189 {mu}m thickness without voids over areas of 5 cm {times} 12 cm. Glass was also successfully bonded to glass by thermal bonding at 800{degrees}C over a 5 cm {times} 7 cm area. Anticipated applications include microfabricated DNA sequencing, flow injection analysis, and liquid and gas chromatography microinstruments.

  17. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  18. Three-photon-excited upconversion luminescence of niobium ions doped silicate glass by a femtosecond laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huidan; Song, Juan; Chen, Danping; Yuan, Shuanglong; Jiang, Xiongwei; Cheng, Ya; Yang, Yunxia; Chen, Guorong

    2008-04-28

    We report on the bluish green upconversion luminescence of niobium ions doped silicate glass by a femtosecond laser irradiation. The dependence of the fluorescence intensity on the pump power density of laser indicates that the conversion of infrared irradiation to visible emission is dominated by three-photon excitation process. We suggest that the charge transfer from O(2-) to Nb(5+) can efficiently contribute to the bluish green emission. The results indicate that transition metal ions without d electrons play an important role in fields of optics when embedded into silicate glass matrix.

  19. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  20. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  1. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  2. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  3. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  4. Magnetic properties and microstructure of gas atomized MRE2(Fe,Co)14B powder with ZrC addition (MRE=Nd+Y+Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W.; Wu, Y. Q.; Dennis, K. W.; Oster, N. T.; Kramer, M. J.; Anderson, I. E.; McCallum, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    Gas atomization powder with Zr substitutions for the MRE and ZrC additions were systematically studied. The results show that the partial substitutions of Zr and the ZrC additions effectively improved glass formability in the alloys. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the as-atomized powder with a particle size of less than 32 μm is predominately uniform equiaxed grains with an average grain size of 1.5 μm. X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis measurements detected very tiny amounts of amorphous phase. After annealing at 700 °C for 15 min, the SEM grain microstructure exhibits a minor change, but magnetic properties are substantially improved. M versus T measurements reveal that the phase composition evolved from 2:14:1 plus a small amount of 2:17 phases to a single 2:14:1 phase during the annealing process. The sieve analysis of the powders showed a particle size distribution with 90 wt % of the powder less than 45 μm. The magnetic properties of the annealed powder varied with particle size. (BH)max first increases with increasing particle size from 5 μm, reaches the peak value in the size range of 20-25 μm, and then decreases with increasing particle size. For the 20-25 μm powder sample annealed at 700 °C for 15 min, the (BH)max of 9.6 MG Oe at room temperature and 5.6 MG Oe at 200 °C were obtained, respectively.

  5. Spheroidization of glass powders for glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Kumar, R

    2004-08-01

    Commercial angular glass powders were spheroidized using both the flame spraying and inductively coupled radio frequency plasma spraying techniques. Spherical powders with different particle size distributions were obtained after spheroidization. The effects of spherical glass powders on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of the glass powders had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of GICs. Powders with a bimodal particle size distribution ensured a high packing density of glass ionomer cements, giving relatively high mechanical properties of GICs. GICs prepared by flame-spheroidized powders showed low strength values due to the loss of fine particles during flame spraying, leading to a low packing density and few metal ions reacting with polyacrylic acid to form cross-linking. GICs prepared by the nano-sized powders showed low strength because of the low bulk density of the nano-sized powders and hence low powder/liquid ratio of GICs.

  6. Mechanical failure and glass transition in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The current majority view on the phenomenon of mechanical failure in metallic glasses appears to be that it is caused by the activity of some structural defects, such as free-volumes or shear transformation zones, and the concentration of such defects is small, only of the order of 1%. However, the recent results compel us to revise this view. Through molecular dynamics simulation it has been shown that mechanical failure is the stress-induced glass transition. According to our theory the concentration of the liquid-like sites (defects) is well over 20% at the glass transition. We suggest that the defect concentration in metallic glasses is actually very high, and percolation of such defects causes atomic avalanche and mechanical failure. In this article we discuss the glass transition, mechanical failure and viscosity from such a point of view.

  7. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-06-21

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10{sup 4} s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses.

  8. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped lead phosphate glasses for photonic application 4-23-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C. C.; Guedes, I.; Moura, A. L. Moura; de Araujo, M. T.; Jacinto, C.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Loong, C. K.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2010-01-01

    The spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+-doped lead phosphate glasses have been investigated, and Judd-Ofelt analysis was used to evaluate the effect of increasing the Er3+ content on the glass matrices. The intensity-dependent Judd=-Ofelt parameters: (4) and (6) remained constant while (2) decreased. Photoluminescence analysis revealed a low up-conversion efficiency through the weak green (530 and 550 nm) and red (660 nm) signals that were present under excitation at 800 nm. The concentration quenching effect on the lifetime of the Er3+: 4I13/2 4I15/2 (1530 nm) transition is also evaluated as a result of the addition of Er3+ to the lead phosphate glass composition. The observed relatively large reduction in the lifetime reflects the significant effects of non-radiative processes in this system. The potential use of these glasses as photonic devices is also discussed.

  9. Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho{sup 3+}-doped nanophase glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoz, F.; Martin, I.R.; Calvilla-Quintero, J.M.

    2005-01-31

    Ho{sup 3+}-doped fluoride nanophase glass ceramics have been synthesized from silica-based oxyfluoride glass. An intense white emission light is observed by the naked eye under near infrared excitation at 750 nm. This visible upconversion is due to three strong emission bands in the primary color components, red, green, and blue. Besides, ultraviolet signals are also recorded upon the same excitation wavelength. The excitation mechanism of both the ultraviolet and the visible emissions is a photon avalanche process with a relatively low pump power threshold at about 20 mW. The total upconverted emission intensity has been estimated to increase by about a factor of 20 in the glass ceramic compared to the precursor glass, in which an avalanche type mechanism is not generated.

  10. Glasses in the D'Orbigny Angrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, M. E.; Kurat, G.; Brandstätter, F.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.; Metrich, N.

    2001-03-01

    The D'Orbigny angrite contains abundant glasses, a phase which has not been previously reported from any other angrite. Glasses fill in part open druses and intersticial spaces between major silicates, or occur as glass inclusions in olivine.

  11. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time.

  12. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  13. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne; Pickett, John Butler; Brown, Kevin George; Edwards, Thomas Barry

    1998-01-01

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  14. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Schramm, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technique of space processing for chalcogenide glass, and to define the process and equipment necessary. In the course of this program, successful long term levitation of objects in a 1-g environment was achieved. Glass beads 4 mm diameter were containerless melted and fused together.

  15. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  16. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  17. Making a Better Beer Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, Alan R.

    1982-01-01

    A class activity is detailed in which alternative designs for glasses are examined. The goal is to design a glass which is built tilted, so that beer can be poured in without creating a foam problem. The activity is viewed as one leading to interesting questions. (MP)

  18. Holder for rotating glass body

    DOEpatents

    Kolleck, Floyd W.

    1978-04-04

    A device is provided for holding and centering a rotating glass body such as a rod or tube. The device includes a tubular tip holder which may be held in a lathe chuck. The device can utilize a variety of centering tips each adapted for a particular configuration, such as a glass O-ring joint or semi-ball joint.

  19. International Congress on Glass XII

    SciTech Connect

    Doremus, R H; LaCourse, W C; Mackenzie, J D; Varner, J R; Wolf, W W

    1980-01-01

    A total of 158 papers are included under nine headings: structure and glass formation; optical properties; electrical and magnetic properties; mechanical properties and relaxation; mass transport; chemical durability and surfaces; nucleation; crystallization; and glass ceramics; processing; and automatic controls. Separate abstracts were prepared for eight papers; four of the remaining papers had been processed previously for the data base. (DLC)

  20. Greening America's Capitals - Charleston, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America’s Capitals report outlines design concepts that could improve Slack Plaza in Charleston, WV, by creating more opportunities for local businesses, better managing stormwater runoff, and increasing green space.

  1. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  2. Become a Green Power Partner

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Partner, including recognition opportunities.

  3. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  4. Green Power Partnership Program Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership has a number of initiatives that focus on the collective green power efforts within specific sectors and renewable energy procurement strategies, which provide recognition opportunities for Partners and increase awareness.

  5. Green Power Partnership Resource Eligibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page details the resources EPA considers eligible green power.

  6. Partnership Green Power Use Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This pages details green power use requirements for Partnership.

  7. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  8. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  9. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote…

  10. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  11. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  12. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  13. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  14. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  15. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  16. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  17. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  18. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  19. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  20. Glass-An Environmental Protector

    SciTech Connect

    MARRA, JAMES

    2004-11-01

    From asbestos abatement to lead paint removal to nuclear waste stabilization and even to heavy metal removal using microorganisms, glass has great potential as a solution to many environmental problems. The ability to accommodate an array of chemical elements within the glass structure has facilitated the use of glass as a medium for the stabilization of numerous hazardous substances. The resulting glasses have proven to be durable enough for direct land disposal. In many cases, the stabilized forms have been deemed suitable for re-use in other applications. As recycling and hazardous material treatment become even more important in the global materials cycle, it is a certainty that glass will assume a prominent role.

  1. Relaxation in quantum glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona Torres, Carlos E.

    The Ising model in transverse field provides the simplest description of a quantum glass. I study two systems that are realizations of the Ising model in transverse field, LiHoxY1-- xF4 and Rb1-- x(NH4)xH2PO 4. In the spin glass LiHoxY1-- xF4, applying a magnetic field Ht transverse to the Ising direction introduces tunneling between the bare Ising eigenstates. In addition, the coupling between the transverse dipolar interaction and the transverse field introduces entanglement or tunable random fields depending on the concentration. By comparing the classical and quantum transitions in LiHo0.198Y0.802F4 and LiHo 0.167Y0.833F4, I characterize the crossover from random field dominated behavior in the 19.8% sample to entanglement dominated behavior in the 16.7% sample. The quantum transition in the 19.8% sample is dominated by the limit on its correlation length caused by the random fields, while the dominant effect in the 16.7% sample is the enhanced tunneling rate introduced by entanglement. The proton glass Rb1--x(NH 4)xH2PO4 relaxes through tunneling of protons in the hydrogen bonds of the crystal, yielding an effective Ising model in transverse field. Since this field cannot be tuned directly, I combine bulk dielectric susceptibility measurements with neutron Compton scattering measurements of the local tunneling potential in two different concentrations, x = 35% and 72%. I find that tunneling drives the fastest relaxation processes at temperatures as high as 20 K and explicitly calculate the tunneling rate from the tunneling potential of the hydrogen bond. Moreover, the structural mechanism for the glassy relaxation allows a real-space picture of the relaxation dynamics to be correlated to the free energy description of aging. I find that the glassy relaxation is driven by the sequential diffusion of defects called Takagi configurations with a classical to quantum crossover in the relaxation at 3 K. I relate the relaxation rate to the quantum action of tunneling

  2. From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Rogério T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Do Lago, Claudimir L.

    1995-12-01

    In potentiometric techniques, pH measurements require a costly and fragile accessory: the glass electrode. A glass electrode is difficult to make because the wall of the sensing glass bulb must be very thin, and glass of special composition is required. Although the glass bulb may be made by a skilled glazier, we choose a more impressive and simple way. The glass bulb can be made from a Christmas-tree ornamental ball.

  3. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  4. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  5. Energetics of glass fragmentation: Experiments on synthetic and natural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Natural silicate glasses are an essential component of many volcanic rock types including coherent and pyroclastic rocks; they span a wide range of compositions, occur in diverse environments, and form under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. In subsurface volcanic environments (e.g., conduits and feeders), melts intersect the thermodynamically defined glass transition temperature to form glasses at elevated confining pressures and under differential stresses. We present a series of room temperature experiments designed to explore the fundamental mechanical and fragmentation behavior of natural (obsidian) and synthetic glasses (Pyrex™) under confining pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. In each experiment, glass cores are driven to brittle failure under compressive triaxial stress. Analysis of the load-displacement response curves is used to quantify the storage of energy in samples prior to failure, the (brittle) release of elastic energy at failure, and the residual energy stored in the post-failure material. We then establish a relationship between the energy density within the sample at failure and the grain-size distributions (D-values) of the experimental products. The relationship between D-values and energy density for compressive fragmentation is significantly different from relationships established by previous workers for decompressive fragmentation. Compressive fragmentation is found to have lower fragmentation efficiency than fragmentation through decompression (i.e., a smaller change in D-value with increasing energy density). We further show that the stress storage capacity of natural glasses can be enhanced (approaching synthetic glasses) through heat treatment.

  6. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  7. LUBRICATING AND SIZING AGENT FOR GLASS FIBER,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GLASS TEXTILES, SURFACE PROPERTIES), (*LUBRICANTS, GLASS TEXTILES), FIBERS , POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, STEARATES, CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, MIXTURES, LACTATES, TITANIUM COMPOUNDS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, USSR

  8. Containerless glass fiber processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An acoustic levitation furnace system is described that was developed for testing the feasibility of containerless fiber pulling experiments. It is possible to levitate very dense materials such as platinum at room temperature. Levitation at elevated temperatures is much more difficult. Samples of dense heavy metal fluoride glass were levitated at 300 C. It is therefore possible that containerless fiber pulling experiments could be performed. Fiber pulling from the melt at 650 C is not possible at unit gravity but could be possible at reduced gravities. The Acoustic Levitation Furnace is described, including engineering parameters and processing information. It is illustrated that a shaped reflector greatly increases the levitation force aiding the levitation of more dense materials.

  9. Green Power Partnership Events and Webinars

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership hosts variety of events, such as webinars and presentations at conferences, on a regular basis. Topics include the Green Power Partnership, green power technologies and products, and information on procuring green power.

  10. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  11. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007…

  12. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  13. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  14. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  15. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  16. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  17. Electronic structure of the (Nd{sub 1−x}Dy{sub x}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) system studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Le; Yang, Bin; Sun, Li-min; Zhang, Lan-ting; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-15

    Systematic characterization of electronic structures in the (Nd{sub 1−x}Dy{sub x}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B system, especially the 4f behavior, provides an insight to the physical nature of the evolution of magnetic properties. A series of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-level and valence-band spectra were used to study the electronic structures. It was found that substitution of Dy for Nd in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B results in a nonlinear variation in the evolution of electronic structures. Only the finite coupling between the Nd 4f states and the Fe 3d states is found at both the Nd-rich regime and the Dy-rich regime. When the Dy concentration and the Nd concentration approach to be equal, a strong coupling between the Nd 4f states and the Fe 3d states is found, which results in a bonding state between them. Additionally, the 4f components in the (Nd{sub 1−x}Dy{sub x}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B system are ascribed to three parts: 1) the individual contribution of the Dy 4f states, which emerges just after the Dy-substitution; 2) the contribution of the coupling between the Nd 4f states and the Dy 4f states, which arises only when 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6; 3) the associated contributions of the Nd 4f states and the Dy 4f states, where the contribution of the Nd 4f states and that of the Dy 4f states are prominent in the Nd-rich regime and Dy-rich regime, respectively.

  18. Complete Sequence of pSAM7, an IncX4 Plasmid Carrying a Novel blaCTX-M-14b Transposition Unit Isolated from Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae from Cattle

    PubMed Central

    AbuOun, M.; Umur, S.; Wu, G.; Partridge, S. R.; Mevius, D. J.; Coldham, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    The same plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-14b was identified from an Escherichia coli isolate and an Enterobacter cloacae isolate collected from cattle in the United Kingdom by complete plasmid sequencing. This 35,341-bp plasmid, pSAM7, had an IncX4 backbone that is 99% identical to that of pJIE143 from a human isolate in Australia. PCR screening identified pSAM7-like plasmids in three other E. coli isolates of different multilocus sequence types isolated from cattle on different farms in the United Kingdom. PMID:23836183

  19. An investigation of the feasibility of applying Raman microscopy for exploring stained glass.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Michel; Smith, David C; Carabatos-Nédelec, Constantin

    2007-12-15

    Raman microscopy (RM) is widely used in archaeometrical studies of pigments, geomaterials and biomaterials in the Cultural Heritage, but one domain has received relatively less attention: the colouring of stained glass. This feasibility study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of employing RM alone in this field by means of a study of modern commercial glasses, modern commercial pigments, and a few archaeological stained glasses, but especially by an experimental project whereby the authors created stained glass. The different kinds of possible unreacted or reacted material are rigorously established. The distinction between Na, K, Ca glasses was explored, as well as the red colouring of an industrial glass which was proved to be due to the presence of (Zn, Cd)S(x)Se(1-x). Yellow, green, blue and maroon pigments were studied before and after an initial firing and then after heating on glass. The quality of the Raman spectra varied enormously and was sometimes disappointing. Nevertheless RM successfully identified various coloured products such as bindheimite, crocoite, cobalt aluminate, haematite; relict reactants such as corundum, eskolaite and oxides of Co or Pb; and provided indications of other phases such as maghemite or Co-olivine. One conclusion is that the amount of chemical reaction between the pigments and the glass is small compared to the amount in between the pigments. Comments are made on the potential for dating archaeological glass from the known age of synthesis of the pigments, and of the dangers of this approach. Overall it has been shown that RM can be useful for studying stained glass, especially for remote in situ analytical operations with mobile RM, but one must expect some problems either with fluorescence or weak spectra.

  20. Upconversion properties of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavulu, C. R.; Kiran Kumar, K.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2014-03-01

    Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals have been prepared and investigated their spectroscopic and luminescence properties. The formation of SrF2 nanocrystals in glass-ceramics were confirmed by Xray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Judd-Ofelt parameters have been evaluated from absorption spectra of the Er3+-doped glass, which in turn used to predict radiative properties for the fluorescent levels of Er3+ ions. The intensities of both Stokes and upconversion (anti-Stokes) emissions significantly increase with increase of the size of the fluoride crystals in the glass matrix. The mechanism of green and red upconversion emissions have been ascribed to two photon processes. The lifetime of the 4S3/2 level of the Er3+ ions in glass-ceramics is found to be slightly higher than that of the counter glass, which may be due to the incorporation of Er3+ ions into the low phonon sites of SrF2 nanocrystals.

  1. Glass ceramic seals to inconel

    DOEpatents

    McCollister, Howard L.; Reed, Scott T.

    1983-11-08

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16%, Li.sub.2 O, 2-8% , Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 1-8% K.sub.2 O, 1-5% P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and 1.5-7% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to cause growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  2. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    SciTech Connect

    Zwissler, J.G.; Adams, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    Cellular glasses are prime candidate materials for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solar concentrator reflecting panels. These materials are brittle, however, and susceptible to mechanical failure from slow crack growth caused by a stress corrosion mechanism. The results are detailed of one part of a program established to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize the behavior of these and commercially available materials. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials are developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region I may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  3. [Respiratory function in glass blowers].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Butković, D; Mustajbegović, J

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and diseases and changes in lung function in a group of 80 glass blowers have been investigated. In addition a group of 80 not exposed workers was used as a control group for respiratory symptoms and diseases. In glass blowers, there was significant increase in prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, and sinusitis than in the controls. Glass blowers exposed for more and less than 10 years had similar prevalences of respiratory symptoms. A large number of glass blowers complained of acute across-shift symptoms. Significant increase in FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 was documented at the end of the work shift. Comparison with predicted normal values showed that glass blowers had FVC and FEF25 significantly lower than predicted. RV and RV/TLC were significantly increased compared with the predicted normal values. DLCO was within the normal values in most glass blowers. It is concluded that work in the glass blower industry is likely to lead the development of chronic respiratory disorders.

  4. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  5. Optimising the bioreceptivity of porous glass tiles based on colonization by the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Mas, V; Bond, T; Zhang, Z; Melchiorri, J; Cheeseman, C R

    2016-09-01

    Green façades on buildings can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. An option to obtain green facades is through the natural colonisation of construction materials. This can be achieved by engineering bioreceptive materials. Bioreceptivity is the susceptibility of a material to be colonised by living organisms. The aim of this research was to develop tiles made by sintering granular waste glass that were optimised for bioreceptivity of organisms capable of photosynthesis. Tiles were produced by pressing recycled soda-lime glass with a controlled particle size distribution and sintering compacted samples at temperatures between 680 and 740°C. The primary bioreceptivity of the tiles was evaluated by quantifying colonisation by the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), which was selected as a model photosynthetic micro-organism. Concentrations of C. vulgaris were measured using chlorophyll-a extraction. Relationships between bioreceptivity and the properties of the porous glass tile, including porosity, sorptivity, translucency and pH are reported. Capillary porosity and water sorptivity were the key factors influencing the bioreceptivity of porous glass. Maximum C. vulgaris growth and colonisation was obtained for tiles sintered at 700°C, with chlorophyll-a concentrations reaching up to 11.1±0.4μg/cm(2) of tile. Bioreceptivity was positively correlated with sorptivity and porosity and negatively correlated with light transmittance. The research demonstrates that the microstructure of porous glass, determined by the processing conditions, significantly influences bioreceptivity. Porous glass tiles with high bioreceptivity that are colonised by photosynthetic algae have the potential to form carbon-negative façades for buildings and green infrastructure.

  6. Glass microspheres for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in <1 week, without causing any detectable joint damage. The combination of dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres and EDTA chelation therapy provides an unique "tool" for the medical community, which can deliver a large dose (>100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass

  7. Zirconia solubility in boroaluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.; Bopp, R.; Batcheller, T.A.; Yan, Q.

    1995-12-31

    In the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste streams, zirconia is often the waste load limiting species. It modifies the glass network, enhances durability, increases viscosity and induces crystallization. The limits of its dissolution in boroaluminosilicate glass, with magnesia and soda additions were experimentally determined. A ternary compositional surface is evolved to present the isothermal regimes of liquid, liquid + zircon, liquid + forsterite, and liquid phase sintered ceramic. The potential of partitioning the transuranics, transition elements and solutes in these regimes is discussed. The visible Raman spectroscopic results are presented to elucidate the dependence among glass composition, structure and chemical durability.

  8. Method for manufacturing glass frit

    DOEpatents

    Budrick, Ronald G.; King, Frank T.; Nolen, Jr., Robert L.; Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a glass frit for use in the manufacture of uniform glass microspheres to serve as containers for laser fusion fuel to be exposed to laser energy which includes the formation of a glass gel which is then dried, pulverized, and very accurately sized to particles in a range of, for example, 125 to 149 micrometers. The particles contain an occluded material such as urea which expands when heated. The sized particles are washed, dried, and subjected to heat to control the moisture content prior to being introduced into a system to form microspheres.

  9. Recent developments in laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1983-01-10

    The past decade has witnessed a proliferation of new glass-forming compositions including oxides, halides, oxyhalides, and chalcogenides. Many of these glasses are applicable to lasers and have greatly expanded the range of optical properties and spectroscopic parameters available to the laser designer. Our knowledge and understanding of many properties of interest for laser action - transparency, linear and nonlinear refractive indices, and damage threshold of the host glass and the absorption spectrum, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, fluorescence wavelength, stimulated emission cross section, and spectroscopic inhomogeneities of the lasing ion Nd/sup 3 +/ - are reviewed.

  10. Green Luminescent Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Y.; Annapurna, S.; Bhikshamaiah, G.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a green chemical reduction method using Gum Kondagogu extract as stabilizer. The as-prepared powder samples are characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The as-prepared copper nanoparticles are found to be FCC crystalline and nearly monodispersed with particles size 19 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed strong green visible emission and PL intensity was found enhanced with the presence of natural extract on copper nanoparticle surface. The increase in the PL intensity was mainly due to copper nanoparticles. Photoluminescence spectra of copper nanoparticles show an emission peak at 430 nm when illuminated at 325 nm.

  11. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013).

  12. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  13. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    design with a full load displacement of 6,480 long tons. The vessel was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small...and system complexity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic patrol, green technology, environment, polution , ship design, CISD, fuel cell 16. SECURITY...was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small interdiction and rescue craft. In anticipation of more stringent

  14. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  15. The Green`s function method for critical heterogeneous slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the Green`s Function Method (GFM) has been employed to obtain benchmark-quality results for nuclear engineering and radiative transfer calculations. This was possible because of fast and accurate calculations of the Green`s function and the associated Fourier and Laplace transform inversions. Calculations have been provided in one-dimensional slab geometries for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. A heterogeneous medium is analyzed as a series of homogeneous slabs, and Placzek`s lemma is used to extend each slab to infinity. This allows use of the infinite medium Green`s function (the anisotropic plane source in an infinite homogeneous medium) in the solution. To this point, a drawback of the GFM has been the limitation to media with c < 1, where c is the number of secondary particles produced in a collision. Clearly, no physical steady-state solution exists for an infinite medium that contains an infinite source and is described by c >1; however, mathematical solutions exist which result in oscillating Green`s functions. Such calculations are briefly discussing. The limitation to media with c < 1 has been relaxed so that the Green`s function may also be calculated for media with c {ge} 1. Thus, materials that contain fissionable isotopes may be modeled.

  16. A green process to prepare chromic oxide green pigment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zuo-Hu; Bai, Yu-Lan

    2008-10-01

    A hydrogen reduction and activated sintering process was proposed to prepare chromic oxide green pigment. Through ICP, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV, and CIE-L*a*b* colorimetric analysis, key factors and mechanism that influenced preparation of chromic oxide green pigment were studied. The results revealed that lower hydrogen reduction temperature, suitable addition of Al and Ba, were beneficial to obtaining the high quality chromic oxide green pigment. Typically, when the hydrogen reduction temperature was kept at 450-500 degrees C, physicochemical properties and color performance of the prepared chromic oxide green pigment doped with about 0.1-0.2 wt % Al and 0.2-0.5 wt % Ba conformed to commercial pigment standards. Additionally, characteristics of the green process were discussed. About 90 wt % KOH was reused directly and about 90 wt % Cr(VI) was conversed to Cr(III) directly from potassium chromate to chromic oxide green pigment. Integrating the proprietary green metallurgical process from chromite ore to potassium chromate of this laboratory, more than 99 wt % Cr(VI) could be conversed to Cr(III) compounds and about 99 wt % KOH could be recycled to use. The whole green process, ranging from chromite ore to chromic oxide green pigment, eventually not only provided the possibility for producing the high quality chromic oxide green pigment, but could reach comprehensive utilization of resources, inner recycle of KOH, and zero emission of Cr(VI).

  17. Spin wave stiffness constant on the amorphous and nanocrystalline state of Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.C.; Kepa, H. |; Kim, W.T.; Zeiske, T.; Weiss, L.

    1995-11-01

    The authors report here on the effect of annealing temperatures on the spin wave excitations for the amorphous and nanocrystalline state of Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys, observed from the low temperature magnetization curves and the spectroscopic splitting g factors. The temperature dependence of saturation magnetization was measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer and the SQUID magnetometer. Spectroscopic splitting g-values were estimated from ferromagnetic resonance experiments (FMR). The thermo-magnetization curve is found to obey Bloch`s law, M{sub s}(T) = M{sub s}(0)(1- BT{sup 3/2}-CT{sup 5/2}). The spin wave stiffness constants were also observed from the preliminary results of the neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The spin wave stiffness constants obtained from two different experimental methods on the Fe{sub 76}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 14}B{sub 6} alloys agree fairly well.

  18. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  19. EVA-glass interface bond stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface bond stability was investigated. Special methods to determine the structure of polymer/glass interface were developed. Structural changes related to hydrothermal degradation of polymer/glass interface are examined. Methods to inhibit the degradation reaction which occur at polymer/glass interface are developed.

  20. Synthesis and Crystallization Behavior of Fluoride Glasses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-22

    metal fluoride glasses. Exploration of synthesis conditions for converting precursors to multicomponent oxide gels for conversion to heavy metal fluoride...glasses. Exploration of chemistries and conditions for converting multicomponent oxide gels to heavy metal fluoride glasses. Exploration of...chemical approaches to passivating the surfaces of heavy metal fluoride glasses. Exploration of the possibility of developing a computer model to describe

  1. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  2. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  3. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  4. Containerless Manufacture of Glass Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Ethridge, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination and crystallization reduced in proposed process. Solid optical fiber drawn from an acoustically levitated lump of molten glass. New material added in solid form, melted and then moved into main body of molten glass. Single axis acoustic levitation furnances levitate glass melts at temperature up to about 700 degrees C. Processing in unit limited to low-melting temperature glasses.

  5. Fiber glass pulling. [in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the viability of performing containerless glass fiber pulling in space. The optical transmission properties and glass-forming capabilities of the heavy metal fluorides are reviewed and the acoustic characteristics required for a molten glass levitation system are examined. The design limitations of, and necessary modifications to the acoustic levitation furnace used in the experiments are discussed in detail. Acoustic levitator force measurements were performed and a thermal map of the furnace was generated from thermocouple data. It was determined that the thermal capability of the furnace was inadequate to melt a glass sample in the center. The substitution of a 10 KW carbon monoxide laser for the original furnace heating elements resulted in improved melt heating.

  6. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  7. 2012 Problem 13: Misty Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Li, Xiao; Gao, Wenli; Zhou, Huijun

    2015-10-01

    Based on diffraction theory, we propose a model to explain the formation of colorful rings created by a misty glass. The model is verified by examining the relation between the size of the ring and size of the droplets.

  8. Fluoride Glass Fibres For Telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maze, Gwenael; Cardin, Vincent; Poulain, Marcel

    1983-09-01

    Zirconium fluoride glasses are the best known and the most stable beryllium-free glasses. They offer numerous potential uses for I.R.-transmitting fibres and ultra-long repeaterless optical wave-guides. Various problems arise in the manufacturing of fluoride glass fibres, essentially because of the steep viscosity profile and the devitrification phenomena. This paper discusses the processes for manufacturing step-index preforms and for drawing fibres. Optical quality preforms have been obtained and fibres have been drawn over more than 1 km. A spectral loss measurement system has been constructed using fluoride glass optical components. Several curves showing the optical attenuation versus wavelength are presented and discussed. These fibres are now available for optical transmission in infra-red systems.

  9. All-glass solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisnewski, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed all tempered glass solar collector uses black collection fluid and mirrored bottom to reduce energy loss and overall costs associated with conventional collectors. Collector is more efficient and practically maintenance-free.

  10. High Tech Art: Chameleon Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Dichroic Glass is a technology wherein extremely thin films of metal are vacuum deposited on a glass surface. The coated glass shields spacecraft instruments from cosmic radiation and protects human vision from unfiltered sunlight in space. Because the coating process allows some wavelengths of light and color to reflect and others to pass through, a chameleon effect is produced. Murray Schwartz, a former aerospace engineer, has based his business KROMA on this NASA optical technology. He produces dichroic stained glass windows, mobiles and jewelry. The technique involves deposition of super thin layers of metal oxides applied one layer at a time in a specific order and thickness for the desired effect. His product line is unique and has been very successful.

  11. Glass-formers vs. Assemblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzer, Sharon

    2015-03-01

    In most instances, the formation of a glass signifies an inability of the constituents of a system to self-organize into a well-defined, thermodynamically preferred ordered structure. Thus good ''assemblers'' may make poor glass-formers, and good glass-formers tend to be poor assemblers. How good or bad a system is in assembling or vitrifying/jamming depends on many features of the constituent building blocks, including shape and interactions. In many cases, building blocks whose shapes make them good glass-formers can, through almost imperceptible perturbations, become good assemblers, and vice versa. We examine these issues through consideration of several model systems, including colloidal ''rocks'' and foldable nets. *with E.R. Chen, P. Damasceno, P. Dodd, M. Engel, A.S. Keys, D. Klotsa, E. Teich, and G. van Anders

  12. Fast Crystals and Strong Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Weitz, David

    2009-11-04

    This talk describes new results on model colloid systems that provide insight into the behavior of fundamental problems in colloid physics, and more generally, for other materials as well. By visualizing the nucleation and growth of colloid crystals, we find that the incipient crystallites are much more disordered than expected, leading to a larger diversity of crystal morphologies. When the entropic contribution of these diverse morphologies is included in the free energy, we are able to describe the behavior very well, and can predict the nucleation rate surprisingly accurately. The talk also describes the glass transition in deformable colloidal particles, and will show that when the internal elasticity of the particles is included, the colloidal glass transition mimics that of molecular glass formers much more completely. These results also suggest that the elasticity at the scale of the fundamental unit, either colloid particle or molecule, determines the nature of the glass transition, as described by the "fragility."

  13. Injuring potential of drinking glasses.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, Vera; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Ropohl, Dirk; Bohnert, Michael

    2008-08-06

    At a party of a sports club, an argument started between two groups of young men, in the course of which one of the persons involved threw a beer glass hitting a young man of the other group, who collapsed with a profusely bleeding wound. Although resuscitation measures were initiated immediately, the victim died at the scene due to exsanguination from the completely severed left external carotid artery in combination with the aspiration of blood. Tests with drinking glasses thrown at a skull-neck model suggested that an undamaged beer glass thrown at the head of the victim could not cause the fatal injuries on the neck because of its splintering behaviour. In fact, it seemed that the beer glass had been damaged prior to throwing it and that its sharp edges perforated the skin on hitting the neck.

  14. Surface reactions of natural glasses

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.F.

    1986-12-31

    Reactions at natural glass surfaces are important in studies involving nuclear waste transport due to chemical control on ground water in host rocks such as basalt and tuff, to potential diffusion into natural hydrated glass surfaces and as natural analogs for waste glass stability. Dissolution kinetics can be described by linear surface reaction coupled with cation interdiffusion with resulting rates similar to those of synthetic silicate glasses. Rates of Cs diffusion into hydrated obsidian surfaces between 25{sup 0} and 75{sup 0}C were determined by XPS depth profiles and loss rates from aqueous solutions. Calculated diffusion coefficients were ten others of magnitude more rapid than predicted from an Arrhenius extrapolation of high temperature tracer diffusion data due to surface hydration reactions.

  15. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  16. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  17. Driving bubbles out of glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Surface tension gradient in melt forces gas bubbles to surface, increasing glass strength and transparency. Conventional chemical and buoyant fining are extremely slow in viscous glasses, but tension gradient method moves 250 um bubbles as rapidly as 30 um/s. Heat required for high temperature part of melt is furnished by stationary electrical or natural-gas heater; induction and laser heating are also possible. Method has many applications in industry processes.

  18. Multimegajoule laser design. [Glass lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, K.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Hagen, W.F.; Holzrichtr, J.F.

    1985-08-01

    New technologies make multimegajoule glass lasers economically feasible. We have devised new laser architectures using harmonic switchout, target-plane holographic injection, phase conjugation, continuous apodization, and higher amplifier efficiencies. Our plan for building a multimegajoule laser for a recurring cost under $300 million relies on the following manufacturing economies of scale: high-volume glass production, rapid harmonic-crystal growth, capacitor sizing and packing to increase energy capacity, and part standardization.

  19. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  20. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  1. Comparison of Macedon and Darwin glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, D.R.; Keil, Klaus; Annell, C.

    1967-01-01

    Chemical analyses are presented for major and minor elements in two specimens of natural glass reported from Macedon, Victoria, and are compared with new analyses of glass from Mt. Darwin, Tasmania. One specimen of Macedon glass is dark, the other light; both are spongy with relatively large cavities of size uncommon in Darwin glass. Some of the new analyses of Darwin glass extend considerably the compositional range previously reported for Mg, Ni and Co. The chemical composition of Macedon glass cannot be distinguished from that of Darwin glass for any of twenty-five elements investigated. It appears possible that the two specimens of glass reported from Macedon may represent either two mislabelled pieces of Darwin glass, or else a separate natural occurrence of Darwin glass 560 km north of Mt. Darwin. ?? 1967.

  2. Optical transitions and frequency upconversion emission of Er 3+ions in novel lead-bismuthate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongtao; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Debao; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2004-12-01

    Er 3+-doped strontiam lead bismuth glass for developing upconversion lasers has been fabricated and characterized. The Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed on the absorption spectrum and the transition probabilities, excited state lifetimes, and the fluorescence branching ratios were calculated and discussed. Under 975 nm excitation, intense green and red emissions centered at 525, 546, and 657 nm, corresponding to the transitions 2H→4I, 4S→4I, and 4F→4I, respectively, were observed. The upconversion mechanisms are discussed based on the energy matching and quadratic dependence on excitation power, and the dominant mechanisms are excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for the green and red emissions.

  3. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M. A.; Larsen, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The manner in which the weightless, containerless nature of in-space processing can be successfully utilized to improve the quality of infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses was investigated. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Laboratory experiments have established the techniques, processes and equipment necessary for the production of high purity chalcogenide glasses. (2) Processing techniques have been successfully adopted for Ge28Sb12Se60 glass in a 1-g environment. (3) The Ge28Sb12Se60 glasses that have been processed have optical transmission around 63% (5 mm thick). (4) Laboratory experiments have established that the use of precursor materials in powdered form increases the oxygen contamination of the processed glass. This indicates that high purity precursor materials in bar or pellet form should be used. (5) Modifications were made on the MSFC acoustic levitator in an attempt to improve levitation stability during long-time experiments. Room temperature experiments on As2S3 glasses and high temperature experiments on polystyrene were conducted.

  4. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  5. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  6. Bioactive Glasses: Frontiers and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Hench, Larry L; Jones, Julian R

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong, and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980s, it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass(®). The four eras are (a) discovery, (b) clinical application, (c) tissue regeneration, and (d) innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  7. Going for green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2010-05-01

    Thousands of times per second a point of light turns on and off, moving side to side, top to bottom. It is a rhythm that ticks around the world, illuminating living rooms and office desks in the process. However, the cathode-ray TVs and monitors that metronomically fire electron guns at viewers - who are shielded only by thin sheets of glass - are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technologies. Yet as the creation of images using scanning electron beams fades into history, a new form of technology is emerging that builds up pictures by scanning with light.

  8. GreenSCOR: Developing a Green Supply Chain Analytical Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    An emerging area in supply chain practice is green supply chain management, which integrates environmental management with traditional supply chain management...GreenSCOR is the solution to closing this gap. GreenSCOR is a modification of version 5.0 of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR...model developed by the Supply - Chain Council (SCC). LMI used SCOR as a foundation because it has been proven over several years of continual development

  9. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOEpatents

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  10. Downdraw Extrusion of ULE(TM) Glass.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    34 diameter orifice and a 7" inner diameter muffle plate. E. Glass Loading After removing the plastic and tissue paper from the cleaned feedstock glass , the...Final Technical Report December 1964 DOWNDRAW EXTRUSION OF ULETM GLASS0 Corning Glass Works P. M. Smith and C. E. Peters APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If Gpptieabte ) "Corning Glass Works Rome Air Development Center (OCSE

  11. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  12. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  13. Metastable metallic hydrogen glass

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W J

    2001-02-06

    The quest for metallic hydrogen has been going on for over one hundred years. Before hydrogen was first condensed into a liquid in 1898, it was commonly thought that condensed hydrogen would be a metal, like the monatomic alkali metals below hydrogen in the first column of the Periodic Table. Instead, condensed hydrogen turned out to be transparent, like the diatomic insulating halogens in the seventh column of the Periodic Table. Wigner and Huntington predicted in 1935 that solid hydrogen at 0 K would undergo a first-order phase transition from a diatomic to a monatomic crystallographically ordered solid at {approx}25 GPa. This first-order transition would be accompanied by an insulator-metal transition. Though searched for extensively, a first-order transition from an ordered diatomic insulator to a monatomic metal is yet to be observed at pressures up to 120 and 340 GPa using x-ray diffraction and visual inspection, respectively. On the other hand, hydrogen reaches the minimum electrical conductivity of a metal at 140 GPa, 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}, and 3000 K. These conditions were achieved using a shock wave reverberating between two stiff sapphire anvils. The shock wave was generated with a two-stage light-gas gun. This temperature exceeds the calculated melting temperature at 140 GPa by a factor of {approx}2, indicating that this metal is in the disordered fluid phase. The disorder permits hydrogen to become metallic via a Mott transition in the liquid at a much smaller pressure than in the solid, which has an electronic bandgap to the highest pressures reached to date. Thus, by using the finite temperature achieved with shock compression to achieve a disordered melt, metallic hydrogen can be achieved at a much lower pressure in a fluid than in a solid. It is not known how, nor even whether, metallic hydrogen can be quenched from a fluid at high pressures to a disordered solid metallic glass at ambient pressure and temperature. Because metallization occurs by simply

  14. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS FORMULATION MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDY 2009 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL VERSUS 1996 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    BELSHER JD; MEINERT FL

    2009-12-07

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  15. Glass matrix composites from coal flyash and waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, A.R.; Buecker, M.; Bossert, J.; Marszalek, K.

    1997-12-31

    Glass matrix composites have been fabricated from waste materials by means of powder technology. Flyash from coal power stations and waste glass, residue of float glass production, were used. Commercial alumina platelets were employed as the reinforcing component. For flyash contents up to 20% by weight nearly fully dense compacts could be fabricated by using relatively low sintering temperatures (650 C). For higher flyash contents the densification was hindered due to the presence of crystalline particles in the as-received flyash, which jeopardized the viscous flow densification mechanism. The addition of alumina platelets resulted in better mechanical properties of the composites than those of the unreinforced matrix, despite a residual porosity present. Young`s modulus, modulus of rupture, hardness and fracture toughness increase with platelet volume fraction. The low brittleness index of the composites suggests that the materials have good machinability. A qualitative analysis of the wear behavior showed that the composite containing 20% by volume platelet addition has a higher wear resistance than the unreinforced matrix. Overall, the results indicate that the materials may compete with conventional glasses and glass-ceramics in technical applications.

  16. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  17. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  18. Characteristic length of glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donth, E.

    1996-03-01

    The characteristic length of the glass transition (ξ _α ) is based on the concept of cooperatively rearranging regions (CRR's) by Adam & Gibbs (1965): ξ _α is the diameter of one CRR. In the theoretical part of the talk a formula is derived how this length can be calculated from calorimetric data of the transformation interval. The approach is based on fluctuations in natural functional subsystems. The corresponding thermodynamics is represented e.g. in a book of the author (E. Donth, Relaxation and Thermodynamics in Polymers. Glass Transition, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1992). A typical value for this length is 3 nanometers. In the experimental part several examples are reported to enlarge the experimental evidence for such a length: Squeezing the glass transition in the amorphous layers of partially crystallized PET (C. Schick, Rostock), glass transition of small-molecule glass formers in a series of nanoscaled pores of porous glasses (F. Kremer, Leipzig), comparison with a concentration fluctuation model in homogeneous polymer mixtures (E.W. Fischer, Mainz), and, from our laboratory, backscaling to ξ _α across the main transition from the entanglement spacing in several amorphous polymers such as PVAC, PS, NR, and some polymer networks. Rouse backscaling was possible in the α β splitting region of several poly(n alkyl methacrylates) resulting in small characteristic lengths of order 1 nanometer near the onset of α cooperativity. In a speculative outlook a dynamic density pattern is presented, having a cellular structure with higher density and lower mobility of the cell walls. It will be explained, with the aid of different thermal expansion of wall and clusters, how the clusters within the cells maintain a certain mobility far below the glass temperature.

  19. Advanced Interactive Facades - Critical Elements for Future GreenBuildings?

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Aschehoug, Oyvind; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2003-11-01

    Building designers and owners have always been fascinated with the extensive use of glass in building envelopes. Today the highly glazed facade has almost become an iconic element for a 'green building' that provides daylighting and a visual connection with the natural environment. Even before the current interest in green buildings there was no shortage of highly glazed building designs. But many of these buildings either rejected sunlight, and some associated daylight and view with highly reflective glazings or used highly transmissive glass and encountered serious internal comfort problems that could only be overcome with large HVAC systems, resulting in significant energy, cost and environmental penalties. From the 1960's to the 1990's innovation in glazing made heat absorbing glass, reflective glass and double glazing commonplace, with an associated set of aesthetic features. In the last decade there has been a subtle shift from trying to optimize an ideal, static design solution using these glazings to making the facade responsive, interactive and even intelligent. More sophisticated design approaches and technologies have emerged using new high-performance glazing, improved shading and solar control systems, greater use of automated controls, and integration with other building systems. One relatively new architectural development is the double glass facade that offers a cavity that can provide improved acoustics, better solar control and enhanced ventilation. Taken to its ultimate development, an interactive facade should respond intelligently and reliably to the changing outdoor conditions and internal performance needs. It should exploit available natural energies for lighting, heating and ventilation, should be able to provide large energy savings compared to conventional technologies, and at the same time maintain optimal indoor visual and thermal comfort conditions. As photovoltaic costs decrease in the future, these onsite power systems will be

  20. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).