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  1. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  2. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  3. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  4. Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolò; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

    1993-01-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170912

  5. Experimental lead nitrate poisoning: microscopic and ultrastructural study of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.).

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E

    1990-01-01

    A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740

  6. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  7. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  8. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  9. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  10. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of a superstructure of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W

    1997-01-01

    Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through a porous technical membrane. Sampling and cryofixation took place at various times within 3 weeks after the preparation. From the micrographs we infer that the small fraction of vesicles enclosing one another develop passages (connections) between the bilayers. In contrast, the superstructure is basically a feature of disconnected membranes. Among its modifications are isolated membrane bends or folds and a grainy membrane texture with a minimal grain spacing of 4-6 nm. In the extruded dispersions the passages and the superstructure seem to be formed mostly within the first day. The fraction of smooth and unilamellar vesicles is large at all times and in all dispersions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:9414216

  11. Intraoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler imaging: a basic transesophageal single plane patient examination sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339

  12. Pulmonary and thoracic macrophage subpopulations and clearance of particles from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, B E

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary macrophages consist of several subpopulations that can be defined by their anatomical locations as well as by other criteria. In addition to the well-known alveolar macrophages that reside on the alveolar surface, pulmonary macrophages also occur in the conducting airways, in various pulmonary interstitial regions, and, in some mammalian species, in the lung's intravascular compartment. Other thoracic macrophages of relevance to pulmonary defense and some lung disease processes are the pleural macrophages resident in the pleural space and macrophages present in regional lymph nodes that receive lymphatic drainage from the lung. Of the above subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, the alveolar macrophages have received the most experimental attention in the context of the pulmonary clearance and retention of deposited particles. Accordingly, less information is currently available regarding the roles other pulmonary and thoracic populations of macrophages may play in the removal of particles from the lower respiratory tract and associated tissue compartments. This report provides an overview of the various subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, as defined by their anatomical locations. The known and postulated roles of macrophages in the pulmonary clearance and retention of particles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on macrophage-associated processes involved in the pulmonary clearance of relatively insoluble particles. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. A FIGURE 19. B FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. PMID:1396454

  13. Histogenesis of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster: ultrastructural evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Flaks, B

    1984-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by beta-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of "ductal" adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dysplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. PMID:6383797

  14. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W C

    1985-01-01

    The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:3938582

  15. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  16. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  17. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  18. Lymphoreticular and myeloid pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. H.; Harrison, A.; Murphy, K.; Flemister, M.; Murphy, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural, histopathologic, and virologic studies of adult hamsters infected with virulent Venezuelan equine encelphalomyelitis (VEE) virus (Subtype I-B) demonstrated precise chronologic and topographic progression of lesions and viral replication in extraneural sites. Thymus contained the earliest lesions and the highest initial and subsequent viral titers. No particular cytotropism was observed as highly efficient viral replication and severe cytonecrosis proceded. Early cortical necrosis of splenic periarteriolar lymphocytic sheath was followed by lymphoblastoid repopulation of the peripheral zone. Massive bone marrow necrosis was accompained by ultrastructural evidence of VEE viral particle production in reticulum cells, rubricytes, myeloid cells, lymphoblastoid cells, and megakaryocytes. Speed, efficiency, destructiveness, and relative sensitivity of virtually all lymphoreticular and hematopoetic cells were hallmarks of virulent VEE infection in the hamster. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12A and B Figure 13 Figure 7 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:941983

  19. Before Nugent took charge: early efforts to reform chiropractic education, 1919-1941

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2003-01-01

    John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38

  20. Widespread histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell-surface collagen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774

  1. XH1--a new cervical carcinoma cell line and xenograft model of tumour invasion, 'metastasis' and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212

  2. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  3. The association of viruses with urveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, D M

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833

  4. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  5. Effect of angiotensin-induced hypertension on rat coronary arteries and myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, F.; Anversa, P.; Wiener, J.

    1976-01-01

    Acute hypertension has been produced in rats by the intravenous infusion of angiotensin amide for 4 hours. Both control and hypertensive animals were injected intravenously prior to sacrifice with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or colloidal carbon. Epicardial arteries and blocks of ventricular myocardium containing intramyocardial arteries and arterioles have been processed for electron microscopy. HRP appears to penetrate the endoethelium of epicardial arteries from control animals within vesicles that bypass endothelial junctions and empty into interendoethelial clefts. Peroxidase does not traverse the endothelium of intramural arteries and arterioles of controls over the 10-minute period of observation. There is acceleration of lateral vesicular transport in the endothelium of epicardial arteries after angiotensin infusion and direct permeation of interendothelial clefts of intramural arterial vessels. Medial fragmentation and more extensive necrosis are observed in intramyocardial but not in epicardial arterial vessels. Foci of myocardial damage resembling irreversible ischemic or anoxic injury followed by reflow are described. It is suggested that the increased permeability of epicardial arteries may be due to elevated pressure, while the altered permeability and vascular lesions of intramural arteries and arterioles are more readily attributable to the vasoconstriction produced by angiotension. The vascular and myocardial lesions are also discussed in relation to the regional actions of angiotensin on the coronary circulation and known effects of this vasoactive peptide on myocardium. Images Figure 19 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 20 and 21 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5-8 Figure 9 Figure 22 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:937512

  6. An elastic network model based on the structure of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J C; Skalak, R; Chien, S; Hoger, A

    1996-01-01

    A finite element network model has been developed to predict the macroscopic elastic shear modulus and the area expansion modulus of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton on the basis of its microstructure. The topological organization of connections between spectrin molecules is represented by the edges of a random Delaunay triangulation, and the elasticity of an individual spectrin molecule is represented by the spring constant, K, for a linear spring element. The model network is subjected to deformations by prescribing nodal displacements on the boundary. The positions of internal nodes are computed by the finite element program. The average response of the network is used to compute the shear modulus (mu) and area expansion modulus (kappa) for the corresponding effective continuum. For networks with a moderate degree of randomness, this model predicts mu/K = 0.45 and kappa/K = 0.90 in small deformations. These results are consistent with previous computational models and experimental estimates of the ratio mu/kappa. This model also predicts that the elastic moduli vary by 20% or more in networks with varying degrees of randomness. In large deformations, mu increases as a cubic function of the extension ratio lambda 1, with mu/K = 0.62 when lambda 1 = 1.5. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE A1 FIGURE A2 FIGURE A3 PMID:8770194

  7. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit: a clinicopathologic study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A; Font, R L; Zimmerman, L E

    1985-01-01

    Eight adult patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit are described. Only two of the patients were known to have von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. The typical clinical history included the development of a mass in the superonasal quadrant of the orbit, which was palpable immediately beneath the skin of the lid. There was a definite tendency for the lesions to arise in, or grow along, the supraorbital nerve--including posteriorly through the superior orbital fissure to the Gasserian ganglion, and even as far posteriorly along the trigeminal rootlets to the pons. Delays in pathologic diagnosis, which beclouded the true nature of the process, led to multiple recurrences, eventuating in five known fatalities out of the eight patients. In addition to intracranial extension, pulmonary metastases and regional cervical metastases were encountered. Once recognized for their diagnostic value, the histopathologic patterns are highly distinctive: biphasic populations of spindled and epithelioid cells; sheets of epithelioid cells or clusters demarcated by delicate reticulin fibers or thicker collagenous trabeculae; malignant plexiform patterns; and neurotubular patterns. Pure spindle cell populations were encountered only in the two patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, and in each, either a pre-existent benign neurofibroma or a coexistent plexiform neurofibroma was found in the pathology specimens. The best management of this condition depends upon early clinical and pathological recognition, leading to radical surgery, which usually consists of orbital exenteration combined with intracranial extirpation of as much of the trigeminal nerve as possible. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy after radical surgery might also be advisable. Images FIGURE 16 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:3938581

  8. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  9. Nuclear Inclusions in Alveolar Epithelium of Patients With Fibrotic Lung Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kawanami, Oichi; Ferrans, Victor J.; Fulmer, Jack D.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of pulmonary biopsy specimens from patients with fibrotic lung disease disclosed the presence of nuclear inclusions in 1% or less of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells in 9 of 19 patients, including 6 of 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2 of 3 patients with collagen-vascular disease, and 1 of 3 patients with sarcoidosis. Nuclear inclusions were not observed by ultrastructural study in 5 control patients. The inclusions consisted of masses or aggregates of tubules which probably were derived from the inner nuclear membranes. These tubules were smooth-walled, showed branchings and bifurcations, were composed of single trilaminar membranes, usually had a clear content, and ranged from 500 to 1000 Å in diameter. They resembled nuclear tubules which occur in other cell types under conditions of rapid growth or specific hormonal stimulation. Statistically significant differences between the groups of patients with and without nuclear inclusions in cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells were not found with respect to smoking history, degree of fibrosis in the lung biopsy specimen, or the degree of pulmonary physiologic impairment. However, the average age of the patients having nuclear inclusions was significantly greater than that of patients not having nuclear inclusions. In addition, the frequency of indentations in the nuclei of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells was greater in patients with nuclear inclusions than in patients without nuclear inclusions. Highly significant correlations were observed between the presence of nuclear inclusions and the presence of a) anchoring fibrils and hemidesmosomes along the basal surfaces of alveolar epithelial cells and b) multilayering of the alveolar epithelium. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 10Figure 8Figure 9Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figures 11 and 12Figure 15Figure 16Figure 6Figures 17 through 20 PMID:426030

  10. The Pathogenesis of Experimentally Induced Trypanosoma brucei Infection in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, W. I.; Murray, Max; Sayer, P. D.; Preston, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    polymorphonuclear leukocytes, along with extensive deposition of fibrin, were commonly found in the subcapsular sinuses. During this period, foci of erythropoietic cells were present throughout the red pulp of the spleen. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19 PMID:6110341

  11. Rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine continuously administered at low doses. From basophilic areas of hepatocytes to hepatocellular tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.

    1991-01-01

    application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631

  12. Nonpenetrating Clips Successfully Replacing Sutures in Base of Skull Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David

    1993-01-01

    Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909

  13. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    further study. Specimens from patients with intraocular hemorrhage should be viewed cautiously, since erythrocytes contain high levels of enolase. Analysis of subretinal aspirates is an extremely accurate method of confirming the diagnosis of Coats' disease. The key diagnostic findings are the presence of cholesterol crystals and pigment-laden macrophages and the absence of tumor cells on fresh preparations. The technique should be reserved for patients where retinoblastoma has been ruled out by all noninvasive means and massive subretinal drainage is anticipated. The natural progression in advanced Coats' disease is toward the development of a blind, painful eye. Spontaneous regression does rarely occur, and some eyes quietly progress to a phthisical state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 A FIGURE 34 B FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 A FIGURE 46 B FIGURE 47 A FIGURE 47 B FIGURE 48 A FIGURE 48 B FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 54 (cont.) FIGURE 55 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 A FIGURE 66 B FIGURE 67 A FIGURE 67 B PMID:1808814

  14. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    in cancer initiation. Comparative studies with the development of the human breast and the pathogenesis of breast cancer have contributed to validate rodent-to-human extrapolations. However, it has not been definitively established what type of information is necessary for human risk assessment, whether currently toxicity testing methodologies are sufficient for fulfilling those needs, or whether treatment-induced tumorigenic responses in rodents are predictive of potential human risk. An alternative to the traditional bioassays are mechanism-based toxicology and molecular and cellular approaches, combined with comparative in vitro systems. These approaches might allow the rapid screen of chemicals for setting priorities for further studies to determine the dose-response relationship for chemical effects at low doses, to assess effects other than mutagenesis and/or tumorigenesis, or to establish qualitative and quantitative relationships of biomarkers to toxic effects. Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. PMID:8899375

  15. Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sadun, A

    1998-01-01

    . ( Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURES 24 FIGURES 25 FIGURES 26 FIGURES 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:10360310

  16. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a disease characterized by epithelial-like endothelial cells which influence management and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Krachmer, J H

    1985-01-01

    endothelial rejection, three because of glaucoma, one because of a retrocorneal membrane, two from both a retrocorneal membrane and glaucoma, and one from both an endothelial rejection and glaucoma. Thus, glaucoma was involved in six of the nine failures (27% of all grafts). Clinically visible retrocorneal membranes formed in 4 of the 22 grafts. All four eyes had preoperative slit lamp-visible iridocorneal adhesions. The factor that most prominently influences keratoplasty prognosis is the presence of iridocorneal adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 PMID:3914130

  17. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  18. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936

  19. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52

  20. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDIES OF RENAL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Latta, Harrison

    1960-01-01

    The nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, disseminated lupus erythematosus and the Fanconi syndrome show characteristic changes with electron microscopy. Experimental studies of animals were carried out to determine the significance of such changes by observing reactions that occur under carefully controlled conditions. A lesion with collagen deposition that was found in the centrolobular region of glomeruli sheds new light on the function of this region. This evidence must be considered in developing an understanding of how the production of urine is controlled. Fluid-filled compartments and various bodies associated with the ultrastructure of tubule cells can be produced under conditions which suggest that these structures play a role in tubular resorption. ImagesFigure 1, 2.Figure 3.Figure 4, 5.Figure 6, 7.Figure 8, 9.Figure 10.Figure 11, 12.Figure 13, 14.Figure 15, 16.Figure 17. PMID:13759386

  1. Intraoperative transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography: a basic vertical plane patient examination sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, T. D.; Tousignant, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported a standardized stepwise transesophageal echocardiography transverse plane (monoplane) patient examination sequence suitable for intraoperative use. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography furnishes images of the heart and great vessels in both transverse and vertical planes. This report describes a seven-step vertical plane examination, the completion component of a comprehensive intraoperative biplane evaluation. Each step is illustrated by presentation of a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. Examples of clinical presentations complete the report. Images Figure 2 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14a Figure 14b Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21a Figure 21b Figure 21c PMID:8792603

  2. A morphologic study of unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815

  3. Transvitreal endocyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, J A

    1996-01-01

    Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 PMID:8981713

  4. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149

  5. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  6. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  7. An experimental mouse testicular teratoma as a model for neuroepithelial neoplasia and differentiation. II. Electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962

  8. THE TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT CALCULI

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Wyland F.

    1958-01-01

    From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394

  9. The relation of experimental arthritis to the distribution of streptococcal cell wall fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, F. G.; Cromartie, W. J.; Anderle, S. K.; Clark, R. L.; Schwab, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-carbohydrate fragments from Group A streptococci produces a chronic, polyarticular, erosive synovitis in rats. The cell wall material accumulates rapidly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, where it causes little injury. At the same time, selective localization and persistence of the material in the synovial and periarticular tissues occurs. Its presence in the joint is associated with acute and recurrent inflammation with focal synotivitis, pannus formation, joint destruction, and ankylosis. Cell wall fragments become localized in the synovial and periarticular tissues at a time when there are leukocytes in the bloodstream, which appear to contain the material. During this early phase vascular lesions appear in the synovium and in periarticular tissues with collections of fibrin, neutrophils, macrophages, and cell wall fragments near the venules and capillaries. Recurrent episodes of inflammation and joint injury, associated with persistent cell wall antigen within macrophages, were observed over a period of 90 days. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:6996490

  10. Variations in polyoma virus genotype in relation to tumor induction in mice. Characterization of wild type strains with widely differing tumor profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C. J.; Freund, R.; Mandel, G.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Talmage, D. A.; Benjamin, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have explored the effects of variations in mouse polyoma virus genotype on patterns of tumor formation in the mouse. Four "wild type" virus strains were surveyed. Two were highly oncogenic, inducing multiple tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, at high frequency and with short latency. The other two strains were weakly oncogenic, inducing fewer tumors, solely of mesenchymal origin, and after a long latency. These sharply contrasting tumor profiles were reproduced with virus stocks derived from molecularly cloned viral genomes. Though vastly different in their oncogenic properties, these cloned viruses proved equally effective in transforming established rat fibroblasts in culture and showed the same patterns of tumor antigen expression in cultured mouse cells. Complexes of polyoma middle T antigen and pp60c-src were demonstrated in extracts of epithelial tumors induced by a highly oncogenic virus strain. It is concluded that polyoma viral genetic determinants for tumor induction in the mouse are more complex than those previously defined by the use of cell transformation systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2437801

  11. The isolated ciliary bilayer is useful for studies of aqueous humor formation.

    PubMed Central

    Sears, M L; Yamada, E; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A; Murakami, M

    1991-01-01

    An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial potential reduced by 0.1 mM ouabain. Bicarbonate depletion at a constant pH of 7.4 rapidly and significantly reduces the transepithelial potential. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease transmembrane potential by as much as 30%. These morphologic and physiologic experiments authenticate the validity of this bilayered epithelial preparation for future use in detailed studies of the mechanism of aqueous humor formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:1808804

  12. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  13. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768

  14. Computational functions in biochemical reaction networks.

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, A; Ross, J

    1994-01-01

    In prior work we demonstrated the implementation of logic gates, sequential computers (universal Turing machines), and parallel computers by means of the kinetics of chemical reaction mechanisms. In the present article we develop this subject further by first investigating the computational properties of several enzymatic (single and multiple) reaction mechanisms: we show their steady states are analogous to either Boolean or fuzzy logic gates. Nearly perfect digital function is obtained only in the regime in which the enzymes are saturated with their substrates. With these enzymatic gates, we construct combinational chemical networks that execute a given truth-table. The dynamic range of a network's output is strongly affected by "input/output matching" conditions among the internal gate elements. We find a simple mechanism, similar to the interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate between its two bisphosphate forms (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate), that functions analogously to an AND gate. When the simple model is supplanted with one in which the enzyme rate laws are derived from experimental data, the steady state of the mechanism functions as an asymmetric fuzzy aggregation operator with properties akin to a fuzzy AND gate. The qualitative behavior of the mechanism does not change when situated within a large model of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle. The mechanism, in this case, switches the pathway's mode from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in response to chemical signals of low blood glucose (cAMP) and abundant fuel for the TCA cycle (acetyl coenzyme A). Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:7948674

  15. Eduard Jaeger's Test-Types (Schrift-Scalen) and the historical development of vision tests.

    PubMed Central

    Runge, P E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE

  16. Acquired color vision loss and a possible mechanism of ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Nork, T M

    2000-01-01

    FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:11190032

  17. Binding of myosin subfragment 1 to glycerinated insect flight muscle in the rigor state.

    PubMed Central

    Goody, R S; Reedy, M C; Hofmann, W; Holmes, K C; Reedy, M K

    1985-01-01

    The binding of rabbit muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to glycerinated insect flight muscle fibers has been studied by low-angle x-ray diffraction, quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, quantitative interference microscopy, and electron microscopy. Changes induced in the rigor x-ray diffraction pattern are consistent with the idea that vacant myosin-binding sites on thin filaments are filled by exogenous S1. Electron microscopy indicates that S1 permeates and labels fibers and fibrils completely. Electron micrographs also show that cross-bridges are not displaced by exogenous S1 under the conditions used, and this is supported by the unchanged mechanical stiffness of the S1-labeled fibers. The amount of bound S1, as measured by gel electrophoresis and interference microscopy, together with the magnitude of the intensity changes in the x-ray diffraction pattern, is consistent with a thick filament structure that contains four molecules of endogenous myosin per 14.5 nm of its length, but does not agree well with earlier estimates of six myosins per crown. Lack of information on possible inhibition of S1-binding by factors other than the presence of cross-bridges, e.g., troponin, render uncertain calculations of the number of attached cross-bridges in the rigor state. However, it appears that at least 75% of the endogenous myosin heads are attached. Occupancy of binding sites on thin filaments after incubation with S1 is high, probably greater than 85%, so that x-ray scattering from those parts of the structure that adhere to the symmetry of the thin filaments can be treated as diffraction from S1-decorated thin filaments. In addition, we show in thin flared X cross sections that exo-S1 heads bind to actin with the geometry described in decorated actin by Taylor, K.A., and L.A. Amos. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:3978197

  18. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    metastasizes through regional lymphatics. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:10360307

  19. Renal extracellular matrix accumulation in acute puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. L.; Buch, S.; Post, M.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Eddy, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    tubulointerstitial ECM accumulation occurs in rats with acute PAN nephrosis because of the activation of genes encoding several matrix proteins and inhibition of matrix degradation mediated by TIMP. These events are reversed during the phase of recovery from nephrotic syndrome. Increased mRNA levels for TGF-beta, possibly originating from inflammatory interstitial monocytes, are likely to be one of the mediators of the molecular events observed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1281619

  20. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 679 - Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery 15 Figure 15 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 679—Regulatory Areas for the Pacific...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 679 - Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery 15 Figure 15 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 679—Regulatory Areas for the Pacific...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 679 - Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery 15 Figure 15 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 679—Regulatory Areas for the Pacific...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003...

  11. Wilbrand's knee of the primate optic chiasm is an artefact of monocular enucleation.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, J C

    1997-01-01

    chiasm. It forms gradually over a period of years following monocular enucleation, presumably from shrinkage of the optic chiasm caused by atrophy of fibers from the enucleated eye. Therefore, the superior temporal hemianopia in the "other eye" seen in the anterior chiasmal syndrome cannot be due to compression of Wilbrand's Knee. I propose that it occurs from combined compression of the optic chiasm and one (or both) optic nerves. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 7 G FIGURE 7 H FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 PMID:9440188

  12. Retinal photic injury in normal and scorbutic monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Tso, M O

    1987-01-01

    disruption of the blood-retinal barrier. The photo-oxidative reaction appears to linger, resulting in chronic retinal degeneration. It is hypothesized that in some forms of age-related macular degeneration, patients suffer from repeated mild photic insult throughout their lifetime. Aging has been associated with subclinical scurvy, which leads to even greater susceptibility to photic injury. Although ascorbate moderates many biochemical functions of the body and helps the retina ameliorate photo-oxidative injury, it should be regarded as a nutritional supplement to maintain health when consumed in appropriate amounts and not as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of severe insults. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 4 E FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 5 E FIGURE 5 F FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 8 C FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 9 F FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 10 D FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D FIGURE 11 E FIGURE 11 F FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 A FIGURE 22 B FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 25 A FIGURE 25 B FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 26 C FIGURE 26 D FIGURE 27 A FIGURE 27 B PMID:3447341

  13. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  14. Organization Culture and Its Development in Private Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucinskas, Vytolis; Paulauskaite, Alina

    2005-01-01

    The article is intended to discuss the features, structure, functions and developmental peculiarities of organizational culture in private colleges. A summary and conclusions of empirical research into organizational culture in private colleges are presented. (Contains 6 tables and 14 figures.)

  15. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  16. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  17. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  18. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  19. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of word…

  20. 16 CFR Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Only and Label for Imported Mattress Only 16 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Figs. 16, 17 Figures 16 and 17 to Part 1633—Label for Domestic Mattress Only...

  1. The Mean as the Balance Point: Thought Experiments with Measuring Sticks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents activities to help students establish a connection between the mean and the balance point of a lever. The lever and its law are discussed briefly. Thought experiments with a meterstick are presented to emphasize different properties of the mean and weighted averages. (Contains 16 figures.)

  2. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  5. Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  6. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309

  7. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  8. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  9. 50 CFR Figure 14 to Part 679 - Sablefish Regulatory Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 14 to Part 679 - Sablefish Regulatory Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 14 to Part 679 - Sablefish Regulatory Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  12. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...

  13. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...

  14. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...

  15. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...

  16. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...

  17. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  18. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  2. School Construction Spending in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liner, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how well, after 12 years and 3 billion dollars, North Carolina's counties and their school systems have succeeded in meeting their previously stated needs for school construction. Focuses on the role of state money in helping counties and on the state's efforts to assist the poorest counties in meeting their needs. (Contains 15 figures.)…

  3. Decomposing Solids to Develop Spatial Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Three sets of activities are presented in the form of puzzles. These activities focus on students' investigations of three-dimensional models, observing how they look and feel. The improvement of students' spatial sense and conceptual understanding after experiencing the activities is described. (Contains 15 figures.)

  4. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 679 - Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery 15 Figure 15 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 679 - Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulatory Areas for the Pacific Halibut Fishery 15 Figure 15 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE...

  6. Hearing Is Believing: Dalcroze Solfege and Musical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Kathy M.

    2011-01-01

    Dalcroze solfege engages the ear and the mind in chords, functional harmony, and key relationships, in addition to scales, intervals, and melodies. This article provides an overview of Dalcroze solfege by describing its methodology and by offering sample exercises for beginners as well as advanced students. (Contains 15 figures and 5 notes.)

  7. Gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes using metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1984-05-09

    A study was made of the properties of metal hydrides which may be suitable for use in chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes. Sixty-five alloys were measured, with the best having a hydrogen-deuterium separation factor of 1.35 at 60/sup 0/C. Chromatographic columns using these alloys produced deuterium enrichments of up to 3.6 in a single pass, using natural abundance hydrogen as starting material. 25 references, 16 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Microstructural characterization of nuclear-waste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J.; Clarke, D.R.

    1982-09-22

    Characterization of nuclear waste ceramics requires techniques possessing high spatial and x-ray resolution. XRD, SEM, electron microprobe, TEM and analytical EM techniques are applied to ceramic formulations designed to immobilize both commercial and defense-related reactor wastes. These materials are used to address the strengths and limitations of the techniques above. An iterative approach combining all these techniques is suggested. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  9. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  10. Reactor calculation benchmark PCA blind test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    Further improvement in calculational procedures or a combination of calculations and measurements is necessary to attain 10 to 15% (1 sigma) accuracy for neutron exposure parameters (flux greater than 0.1 MeV, flux greater than 1.0 MeV, and dpa). The calculational modeling of power reactors should be benchmarked in an actual LWR plant to provide final uncertainty estimates for end-of-life predictions and limitations for plant operations. 26 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Protein turbines. I: The bacterial flagellar motor.

    PubMed Central

    Elston, T C; Oster, G

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is driven by a flux of ions between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic lumen. Here we show how an electrostatic mechanism can convert this ion flux into a rotary torque. We demonstrate that, with reasonable parameters, the model can reproduce many of the experimental measurements. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 p720-a PMID:9251788

  12. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  13. Wear of short carbon-fiber-reinforced PAI and PPS

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.W.; Jerina, K.L.; Hahn, H.T.

    1988-07-01

    Wear of short carbon-fiber-reinforced polyamide-imide and polyphenylene sulfide is described. Comparative data from thrust washer wear tests for both polymers are presented. Fiber orientation is shown to have a significant effect on wear rates. The wear mechanisms in both polymers are illustrated with optical and scanning electron micrographs. Wear is shown to be a nonlinear function of time and stress for both PPS and PAI. 15 references, 14 figures.

  14. The status of electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, M.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation discusses current electric utility regulatory reform with a focus on the impacts of competition in the Midwest marketplace. Information and data are presented through 14 figures and 30 tables. Regulatory issues at the state and Federal levels are very briefly outlined, including reciprocity, unbundling, stranded cost recovery, and independent system operation. Graphical data on energy capacity by source, capacity additions, wholesale markets, electricity prices, and market development are also presented.

  15. Biological and aerodynamic problems with the flight of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, E. V.; Kuchemann, D.

    1980-01-01

    Biological and aerodynamic considerations related to birds and insects are discussed. A wide field is open for comparative biological, physiological, and aerodynamic investigations. Considerable mathematics related to the flight of animals is presented, including 20 equations. The 15 figures included depict the design of bird and insect wings, diagrams of propulsion efficiency, thrust, lift, and angles of attack and photographs of flapping wing free flying wing only models which were built and flown.

  16. Spectrometer for measuring the concentration of components in a fluid stream and method for using same

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Stedman, D.H.; Ebner, T.G.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1991-12-03

    A device and method are described for measuring the concentrations of components of a fluid stream. Preferably, the fluid stream is an in-situ gas stream, such as a fossil fuel fired flue gas in a smoke stack. The measurements are determined from the intensity of radiation over a selected range of radiation wavelengths using peak-to-trough calculations. The need for a reference intensity is eliminated. 15 figures.

  17. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600/sup 0/C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Neutron source investigations in support of the cross section program at the Argonne Fast-Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Experimental methods related to the production of neutrons for cross section studies at the Argonne Fast-Neutron Generator are reviewed. Target assemblies commonly employed in these measurements are described, and some of the relevant physical properties of the neutron source reactions are discussed. Various measurements have been performed to ascertain knowledge about these source reaction that is required for cross section data analysis purposes. Some results from these studies are presented, and a few specific examples of neutron-source-related corrections to cross section data are provided. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Analytical representation of the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of UC/sub 1 +- x/, PuC/sub 1-x/, and (U/sub y/Pu/sub 1-y/)C/sub 1 +- x/

    SciTech Connect

    Storms, E.K.

    1982-12-01

    This report uses selected measurements from the literature to construct analytical expressions that describe the electrical and thermal conductivity of pure, high-density UC/sub 1 +- x/, PuC/sub 1-x/, and (U/sub y/Pu/sub 1-y/C/sub 1 +- x/ as a function of x,y, and temperature. The approach shows that many of the differences between the reported measurements can be resolved if the carbon cntent of the single-phase material is taken into account. Analytical expressions are also given that describe the temperature variation of the phase boundaries for these phases. 16 figures.

  20. Methods and apparatus for analysis of chromatographic migration patterns

    DOEpatents

    Stockham, T.G.; Ives, J.T.

    1993-12-28

    A method and apparatus are presented for sharpening signal peaks in a signal representing the distribution of biological or chemical components of a mixture separated by a chromatographic technique such as, but not limited to, electrophoresis. A key step in the method is the use of a blind deconvolution technique, presently embodied as homomorphic filtering, to reduce the contribution of a blurring function to the signal encoding the peaks of the distribution. The invention further includes steps and apparatus directed to determination of a nucleotide sequence from a set of four such signals representing DNA sequence data derived by electrophoretic means. 16 figures.

  1. Energy for development: an international challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.; Friedmann, E.; Howe, J.W.; Parra, F.R.; Pollock, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The first phase of the North-South Energy Roundtable provides background information and ideas from the ongoing international dialogue and research. The report begins by reviewing the global energy scene (by fuel) and suggesting that flexibility instead of confrontation couched in zero-sum game terms will be more productive. Areas of convergence and conflict among dialogue participants are defined in terms of their positions as oil-importing developing countries, oil-exporting developing countries, and industrialized countries. The book explores a framework for policies that will allow these countries to manage the transition from oil to other energy sources. 129 references, 16 figures, 28 tables. (DCK)

  2. Microelectronic superconducting device with multi-layer contact

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.

    1993-10-26

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3] ; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps. The photolithographic process is used to separately pattern the high T[sub c] superconductor thin films. 14 figures.

  3. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Tuan Vodinh.

    1993-12-21

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figures.

  4. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.; Takeyama, Masao.

    1994-02-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250 C and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr[sub 2]Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements. 14 figures.

  5. Data on macrophage mediated muscle transfection upon delivery of naked plasmid DNA with block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    The data contains 14 figures supporting the research article "Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers" [1]. The data explains the surgical procedure and histological characterization of Murine Hind Limb Ischemia. The data also shows the kinetics of luciferase gene expression, spread of GFP expression through muscle and the colocalization of GFP with cellular markers in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA alone or pDNA/Pluronic. Finally the data shows the effect of Pluronic Block Copolymer to enhance total gene expression (cmv-promoter driven luciferase gene) in coculture of DNA transfected MØs with muscle cells. PMID:27222845

  6. Nonrelativistic theory of heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G.

    1984-07-17

    A wide range of phenomena is observed in heavy-ion collisions, calling for a comprehensive theory based on fundamental principles of many-particle quantum mechanics. At low energies, the nuclear dynamics is controlled by the mean field, as we know from spectroscopic nuclear physics. We therefore expect the comprehensive theory of collisions to contain mean-field theory at low energies. The mean-field theory is the subject of the first lectures in this chapter. This theory can be studied quantum mechanically, in which form it is called TDHF (time-dependent Hartree-Fock), or classically, where the equation is called the Vlasov equation. 25 references, 14 figures.

  7. Electrochemical thinning of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Medernach, J.W.

    1994-01-11

    Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.

  8. Determination of three-dimensional low-resolution viral structure from solution x-ray scattering data.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y; Doerschuk, P C; Johnson, J E

    1995-01-01

    The capsid is modeled as a region of constant electron density located between inner and outer envelopes that exhibit icosahedral symmetry. For computational purposes the envelopes are represented as truncated sums of weighted icosahedral harmonics. Methods are described for estimating the weights from x-ray solution scattering patterns based on nonlinear least squares, and two examples of the procedure, for viruses with known atomic-resolution structures, are given. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 PMID:8527677

  9. Synthesis and investigation of neutron-rich transuranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    Spontaneous fission activities produced in the reactions of /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, and /sup 18/O ions with /sup 248/Cm and /sup 249/Bk targets are reported; excitation functions and half-lives of element 104 isotopes are given. Reactions that led to the formation of /sup 259/Fm are discussed in detail. The principal features of the SuperHILAC on-line isotope separator and some of the anticipated applications are described. 14 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  10. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of current and recent work on the distribution of radium and plutonium near the surfaces of human bone and applications of the data. Included are sections on methods, surface deposit thickness, radium distribution near the endosteal surface, the use of alpha spectrometry in conjunction with autoradiography, radium distribution in the mastoid, and factors affecting plutonium specific activity. Emphasis is placed on the alpha spectrometry technique because of its usefulness and its recent application to problems of local dosimetry. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies for the separate detection of halodeoxyuridines and method for their use

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Stanker, L.H.

    1991-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described. 14 figures.

  12. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.

  13. Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1994-03-08

    This work describes a high strength, high toughness bainitic/ferritic steel alloy comprising about 2.75% to 4.0% chromium, about 2.0% to 3.5% tungsten, about 0.10% to 0.30% vanadium, and about 0.1% to 0.15% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy having been heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled at a rate sufficient to produce carbide-free acicular bainite. 15 figures.

  14. Damping capacity measurements of degradation in advanced materials. [Rapidly solidified alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mantena, R.; Gibson, R.F.; Place, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes the application of damping capacity measurements for characterization of degradation in advanced materials. A recently developed impulse-frequency response technique was used to obtain damping capacity measurements on crossplied E-glass/epoxy laminates that had been subjected to four-point bending and cantilever bending to produce matrix cracking in the transverse plies. The size and location of the damage zone were correlated with changes to damping. With the expected introduction of Rapidly Solidified Alloys (RSA) as effective alternatives to conventional materials, the applicability of damping capacity measurements as a non destructive means of evaluating degradation in these materials was also studied. 17 references, 15 figures.

  15. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia: an ammonia fog model

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.; Ermak, D.L.; Chan, S.T.; Rodean, H.C.

    1983-07-01

    Ammonia (NH/sub 3/), a by-product of many chemical processes, is widely used as a fertilizer and as a raw material for many chemical syntheses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the atmospheric dispersion of ammonia resulting from a high pressure release. The resulting nature of the two-phase cloud of ammonia vapor and droplets has a significant effect on its dispersion characteristics. Our calculations of a 40 ton release show that even under moderately high wind conditions, the resulting ammonia cloud remains negatively buoyant for considerable distances downwind. 10 references, 15 figures.

  16. Electrochemical determination of the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys proposed for containment of high level nuclear waste in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Overturf, G.E.; Garrison, R.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1984-06-18

    Long-term geological disposal of nuclear waste requires corrosion-resistant canister materials for encapsulation. Several austenitic stainless steels are under consideration for such purposes for the disposal of high-level waste at the candidate repository site located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. With regard to corrosion considerations, a worst case scenario at this prospective repository location would result from the intrusion of vadose water. This preliminary study focuses on the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of the candidate canister materials under worst-case repository environments. Electrochemical parameters related to localized attack (e.g., pitting potentials) and the electrochemical corrosion rates have been examined. 15 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  18. Physics research opportunities with synchrotron x-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    New x-ray sources of substantially increased brilliance would be available from undulator magnets operating on a new-generation 6 GeV storage ring. To understand what research opportunities would be provided by such improved sources, a number of existing x-ray scattering techniques are briefly described with a qualitative analysis of their requirements for source brilliance. In addition to improvements of existing techniques which will permit application to a generally broader range of problems, new opportunities for magnetic and inelastic x-ray scattering are discussed. 25 references, 15 figures.

  19. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations environmental area characterization report, compiled July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Area Characterization Report describes the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, a potential location for a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The characterization summarizes reports supplied by Sandia National Laboratories, which cover the following topics: atmosphere, radiation background, hydrosphere, biosphere, energy and mineral resources, socioeconomics, and cultural resources. This report is one of a series of documents sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. 43 references, 15 figures, 20 tables.

  20. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.; Mueller, F.M.; Smith, J.L.

    1991-04-09

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency. 15 figures.

  1. Secretary's annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This second annual report of the DOE covers activities of all elements of the department except the independent FERC, which issues its own annual report. Individual chapters concern a posture statement, conservation, solar and other renewable energy, fossil energy, electric energy, nuclear energy, the environment, defense programs, international programs, general science programs, energy information, economic regulation, energy production, and support operations. The following appendixes are also included: foreign direct investments in US energy sources and supplies, exports of energy resources by foreign companies, major recipients of DOE funding, actions taken regarding disclosure of energy assets by DOE employees, financial assistance programs for alternative fuel demonstration facilities, and 1978 budget summary. 16 figures, 56 tables. (RWR)

  2. Fatigue-crack growth correlations for design and analysis of stainless steel components

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1981-10-01

    A relatively large collection of fatigue-crack growth results for annealed Types 304 and 316 stainless steels over a wide range of temperature was processed and analyzed in a consistent way. Only data that satisfied the criteria of ASTM E647-82 was retained and used in the statistical treatments that followed. Linear least-squares regression equations and 95% confidence intervals were fitted through the results for each material/temperature set. The regression results (and their associated limits of validity) provide useful equations for the analysis of structural components. Overlap (or the lack of overlap) of the confidence intervals was employed as a criterion as to whether the results for Types 304 and 316 should be separated into discrete sets, and on this basis it was concluded that the two alloys should be treated separately. 38 references, 16 figures, 1 table.

  3. Experimental reestablishment of red wolves (Canis rufus) on the Tennessee Valley Authority's Land Between the Lakes (LBL)

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, C.J.; Mechler, J.L.

    1983-10-01

    For all practical purposes the red wolf (Canis rufus) is extirpated in its final range in southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Although the species can be preserved in captivity, the only means by which it can be preserved as a naturally occurring element of our national heritage is to reestablish viable populations within the wolf's historic range in the southeastern United States. This proposal outlines a suggested procedure for reestablishing red wolves at Land Between The Lakes (LBL) by initially releasing five adult mated pairs of animals on the area over a two-year period. Recommendations for additions, changes, and deletions to this proposal have been received from the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, other governmental agencies, and interested organizations and individuals in the surrounding area. This proposal includes information describing probable environmental impacts associated with the experimental reestablishment of red wolves at LBL. 39 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Day after midnight: the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, M.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an important contribution to the nuclear-weapons debate. Based on a widely circulated OTA report, The Effects of Nuclear War, it depicts in graphic detail the likely social and economic effects of nuclear war on both the United States and the Soviet Union. The book does not try to assess the probability that nuclear conflict, once initiated, would escalate into an all-out war. Rather, it examines four militarily plausible nuclear-attack scenarios ranging from single-weapons detonations to all-out, massive attacks. The one consistent conclusion in all cases is that nuclear war would be an unmitigated catastrophe unlike anything the world has ever experienced. The inherent uncertainties in these analyses, including the possibility of unbridled escalation, are tremendous. Thus, the total extinction of humanity cannot be completely ruled out. 60 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Southwest under stress: national resource-development issues in a regional setting

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, A.V.; Brown, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This book examines the development-environmental conflict in the four contiguous states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. It emphasizes three issues with implications that extend beyond the Southwest: water, its quantity, quality, and allocation; environment, how and to what extent it should be preserved; and the future of Indian and other poverty-stricken people. Energy receives special attention because the Southwest is a principal repository of fossil and nuclear fuels. The authors are convinced that too little attention is given to the local functioning of national policymaking and implementation. The book discusses ways in which the federal role may change to improve both federal policy itself and cooperation with other levels of government. 144 references, 16 figures, 50 tables.

  6. Applicability of Japanese NO/sub x/ control in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, A.V.

    1980-02-01

    This report surveys the status of NO/sub x/ control for stationary sources in Japan and analyzes applicability of the technology in the US. The principal control methods used in Japan are combustion modification and catalytic reduction using ammonia as the reducing agent. Noncatalytic reduction with ammonia is used to a limited degree. Wet scrubbing methods have been tested but are so unpromising that the development work has practically stopped. The combustion modification developments are applicable in this country but may not be any more effective than methods already under development in the US. Catalytic reduction is fully applicable for oil firing but for coal-fired boilers much more development work is needed to answer the several remaining questions. The needed research is presented in some detail. 16 figures.

  7. Digital hf radar observations of equatorial spread-F

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Modern digital ionosondes, with both direction finding and doppler capabilities can provide large scale pictures of the Spread-F irregularity regions. A morphological framework has been developed that allows interpretation of the hf radar data. A large scale irregularity structure is found to be nightward of the dusk terminator, stationary in the solar reference frame. As the plasma moves through this foehn-wall-like structure it descends, and irregularities may be generated. Localized upwellings, or bubbles, may be produced, and they drift with the background plasma. The spread-F irregularity region is found to be best characterized as a partly cloudy sky, due to the patchiness of the substructures. 13 references, 16 figures.

  8. Preparation and composition of superconducting copper oxides based on Ga-O layers

    DOEpatents

    Dabrowski, B.; Vaughey, J.T.; Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1994-12-20

    A high temperature superconducting material with the general formula GaSr[sub 2]Ln[sub 1[minus]x]M[sub x]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 7[+-]w] wherein Ln is selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pt, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Y and M is selected from the group consisting of C and Sr, 0.2[<=]x[<=]0.4 and w is a small fraction of one. A method of preparing this high temperature superconducting material is provided which includes heating and cooling a mixture to produce a crystalline material which is subsequently fired, ground and annealed at high pressure and temperature in oxygen to establish superconductivity. 14 figures.

  9. Evaluation of TASTEX task H: measurement of plutonium isotopic abundances by gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.; Asakura, Y.; Masui, J.; Ishiguro, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Kataoka, S.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes a computer-based gamma spectrometer system that was developed for measuring isotopic and total plutonium concentrations in nitric acid solutions. The system was installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant where it is undergoing testing and evaluation as part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Exercise (TASTEX). Objectives of TASTEX Task H, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometer for Plutonium Isotopic Analysis, the methods and equipment used, the installation and calibration of the system, and the measurements obtained from several reprocessing campaigns are discussed and described. In general, we find that measurements for gamma spectroscopy agree well with those of mass spectrometry and of other chemical analysis. The system measures both freshly processed plutonium from the product accountability tank and aged plutonium solutions from storage tanks. 14 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Separation of alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth cations by liquid membranes containing macrocyclic carriers. Fourth progress report, 1 November 1981-31 July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J J; Izatt, R M

    1982-07-31

    The H/sub 2/O-CHCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O liquid membrane system was characterized with respect to the effect on cation (K/sup +/) transport rate of salt concentration and anion type. A bulk liquid membrane cell was used. A mathematical model for cation flux is being developed for several cations, several macrocycles, and mixtures of two or three cations. Eu/sup 3 +/ was not transported by 18-crown-6, but its reduced from Eu/sup 2 +/ was. Cation transport properties of calixarenes are also being investigated. Emulsion membrane systems were studied as a way of increasing the cation transport. Pb/sup 2 +/ was found to be transported by dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 through the liquid membrane. Transport rates of metal cation nitrates were measured in a water-toluene-water emulsion membrane system. 14 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  11. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-04-26

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

  12. Zuni sequence in Williston basin - evidence for Mesozoic paleotectonism

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.; Anna, L.O.; Peterson, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Zuni sequence in the Williston basin is a largescale lithogenetic package bounded by interregional unconformities. Within the sequence, three major subdivisions are separated by unconformities or marker beds and correspond with chronostratigraphic units: (1) Middle and Upper Jurassic, (2) Lower Cretaceous, and (3) Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene. The basin has clear expression in the Jurassic subdivision, poor expression in the Lower Cretaceous, and good expression in the Upper Cretaceous. A series of seven marginal paleotectonic elements surround the basin center on the west, south, and east in the US. Five more marginal elements have been described in Canada. Occurrences of oil in the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous and of natural gas in the Upper Cretaceous are broadly related to the pattern of marginal paleotectonic elements. 14 figures, 1 table.

  13. Violent tornado climatography, 1880-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Grazulis, T.P.

    1984-05-01

    All known information sources, ranging from newspaper reports to the University of Chicago (DAPPL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NSSFC) data lists, were utilized to produce a self-consistent compilation and description of violent tornado occurrences in the contiguous United States for the years 1880 through 1982. The 969 F-scale 4 and 5 tornadoes comprise the most complete and rational data base available for studies elated to violent tornado risk assessment; the data provide improved bases for licensing decisions and development of standards in safety at nuclear facility sites. Reconciliation of the DAPPL and NSSFC data lists for violent tornadoes has been achieved. Analysis of the data shows geographical and temporal variability of tornado occurrences; suggestions are given to help account for nonuniform distributions, and other suggestions are made for needed future research. 32 references, 14 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Wildlife distribution and abundance on the Utah oil shale tracts 1975-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.V.

    1986-07-01

    Distribution and abundance of 215 amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were monitored for 10 years on Utah's Oil Shale Tracts using line transects, mist netting, and live trapping. Wildlife monitoring was conducted in four major vegetation types and during all seasons to establish a quantitative baseline for use in impact identification during oil shale mining. Habitat preferences were established for many species in cold desert vegetation of two types of desert shrub, and juniper and riparian woodlands. Seasonal, annual, and habitat distribution of each class demonstrated a variety of adaptive responses to environmental variables. The most important environmental variables, that is, those factors resulting in a predictable change in wildlife populations, were, in descending order: weather, food resource, shelter, and competition. 31 references, 14 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Middle Cenozoic depositional, tectonic, and sea level history of southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Decelles, P.G.

    1988-11-01

    As a prolific producer of hydrocarbons, the San Joaquin basin in south-central California has been the subject of geological research since the late nineteenth century. Much of this research has focused on the subsurface Eocene to lower Miocene succession because of its attractive reservoir potential. Although seismic and well-log data are available in profuse quantities, the complex sedimentary architecture of the basin fill, the application of local and inconsistent stratigraphic nomenclature, and the inherent limitations of subsurface data have led to much confusion concerning the middle Cenozoic history of the basin. This paper presents a sedimentological analysis of the depositional systems in the Eocene to lower Miocene strata of the San Emigdio and Tehachapi Mountains. The various depositional systems are considered within the contexts of encompassing depositional sequences to reconstruct the middle Cenozoic depositional, tectonic, and sea level history of the southern San Joaquin basin. 14 figures, 1 table.

  16. Application of biasing techniques to the contributon Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Dubi, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, a new Monte Carlo Method called the Contribution Monte Carlo Method was developed. The method is based on the theory of contributions, and uses a new receipe for estimating target responses by a volume integral over the contribution current. The analog features of the new method were discussed in previous publications. The application of some biasing methods to the new contribution scheme is examined here. A theoretical model is developed that enables an analytic prediction of the benefit to be expected when these biasing schemes are applied to both the contribution method and regular Monte Carlo. This model is verified by a variety of numerical experiments and is shown to yield satisfying results, especially for deep-penetration problems. Other considerations regarding the efficient use of the new method are also discussed, and remarks are made as to the application of other biasing methods. 14 figures, 1 tables.

  17. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.

    1993-09-28

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

  18. Data on macrophage mediated muscle transfection upon delivery of naked plasmid DNA with block copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The data contains 14 figures supporting the research article “Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers” [1]. The data explains the surgical procedure and histological characterization of Murine Hind Limb Ischemia. The data also shows the kinetics of luciferase gene expression, spread of GFP expression through muscle and the colocalization of GFP with cellular markers in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA alone or pDNA/Pluronic. Finally the data shows the effect of Pluronic Block Copolymer to enhance total gene expression (cmv-promoter driven luciferase gene) in coculture of DNA transfected MØs with muscle cells. PMID:27222845

  19. Phase-sensitive flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Steinkamp, J.A.

    1993-12-14

    A phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts. 15 figures.

  20. Improved quasiclassical trajectory method for state to state reactive scattering cross sections and rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, C.J.; Muckerman, J.T.; Schubert, F.E.

    1984-12-15

    A systematic scheme is developed for the incorporation into quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) methodology of recent advances in the understanding of vibrationally adiabatic barriers in collinear atom + diatom reactions. The resulting hybrid QCT method centers on a definite set of rules for optimally combining the results of forward and reverse trajectory calculations. It is argued, and demonstrated by practical examples, that the hybrid method will give a more consistently reliable account of the threshold behavior of collinear reaction cross sections than the conventional QCT method. Extension of the method to the three dimensional F + H/sub 2/ reaction gives similarly encouraging results, both for state to state reaction cross sections and for rate constants. 43 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Approximation of continuity of lenticular Mesaverde Group sandstone lenses utilizing close-well correlations, Piceance Basin, NW Colorado. SPE 11610

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.E.; Kohout, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Mesaverde Group sandstone units in 13 closely-spaced wells in the central and southern Piceance Basin of Colorado were correlated utilizing wireline log response quantitatively and qualitatively. Based on these correlations, the environmental subdivisions of the Mesaverde Group were characterized as follows: (1) paralic (upper mixed-marine) zone, occurring in the uppermost Mesaverde Group, includes thick sandstone units which are interpreted to be regionally continuous, (2) fluvial zone, containing point-bars 20 to 30+ ft thick, is interpreted to be correlatable to a maximum of 6800 ft, and (3) paludal zone has insufficient data to adequately characterize the sand units. However, 63 percent of the units are correlatable across at least 139 ft. An approximation of the dimensional characteristics of Mesaverde sandstone units has potential applications in designing hydraulic fracturing treatments and estimating gas reserves more accurately. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Comparison of two methods for conveying Kerr-McGee ash concentrate: Fuller-Kinyon pumps (Subcontract 01-13072) vs. Blowtank pneumatic transport system (Subcontract 01-13082). Final report. [Nitrogen for safety

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.; Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-09-01

    The Fuller Company conducted tests to determine the feasibility of conveying Kerr-McGee ash concentrate (KMAC) by two different methods: a Fuller-Kinyon pump conveying system and a blowtank pneumatic transport system. The Fuller-Kinyon tests showed that a 1500-ft/min conveying velocity satisfied a wide range of KMAC flow conditions. No conveying problems occurred in either system at temperatures below 550/sup 0/F at this velocity. Also, no appreciable KMAC attrition was noted. Thus, technically, either system can convey KMAC satisfactorily. Additional studies conducted independently by GKT to compare the economics and on-stream reliability of both methods showed that the Fuller-Kinyon pump is more reliable and has a lower total cost than the blowtank system. Based on these results, ICRC included the Fuller-Kinyon pump conveying system in its Baseline Design for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. 6 references, 15 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Conversion of the 80's - slurry pumping - a vital economic decision

    SciTech Connect

    Kalchthaler, R.F. Jr.

    1985-12-09

    An increasing portion of the total cost of mining and processing coal is associated with the disposal of coal refuse. In addition, current regulatory requirements and rising labor and energy (fuel) costs continue to increase the cost of refuse disposal. Of particular importance is the decision to install or continue to operate fine refuse dewatering systems or to convert to slurry pumping. With today's market conditions and regulatory atmosphere major capital investments and increasing operational costs associated with the transportation and placement of combined coal refuse demand a careful evaluation of the economics of converting to slurry pumping. The results of an industry survey which correlates with SRW Associates Inc.'s experience in the conversion process indicates a significant cost savings when converting to slurry pumping. 2 references, 15 figures.

  4. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  5. Alcohol fuels in Illinois: prospects and implications. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.; Walzer, N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of corn to produce fuel alcohol offered major economic benefits for Illinois in the early 1970s. One of the advantages was increased employment in the alcohol-fuels industry and in the industries indirectly involved in alcohol production. The increased income generated by higher employment creates additional jobs throughout the economy. This report evaluates the employment increase by estimating the demand for gasoline and gasoline-alcohol fuels based on population and income trends - then determines the direct, indirect, and induced employment resulting from various market shares. Three appendices include an annotated bibliography of 21 references, a report on Brazilian experiences with alcohol fuels production, and a general bibliography. 128 references, 15 figures, 35 tables.

  6. Tensile and fatigue strength properties of Kevlar 29 aramid/epoxy unidirectional composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, C.

    1981-07-22

    Static and fatigue tensile strength properties of filament wound undirectional Kevlar 29/epoxy, typical of filament wound material used in flywheel rotors, were studied. Machining techniques were developed to minimize fiber fuzzing on edges. The static modulus, normalized to 70% fiber volume fraction is 8.87 x 10/sup 6/ psi. The major Poisson's ratio is 0.37. The static composite tensile strength, normalized to 70% fiber volume fraction is 200 x 10/sup 3/ psi, corresponding to a fiber stress at failure of 286 x 10/sup 3/ psi, which is good for materials having a very high fiber volume fraction. The S-N curve for R = 0.7 was found to be quite flat. Although the techniques used in this program had previously been employed successfully to study the fatigue behavior of Kevlar 29/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy unidirectional materials, we were unable to overcome the persistent problem of cohesive material failure in the tab regions. The apparent reason for this is the very low interlaminar shear strength of the filament wound material. 16 figures.

  7. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone. Phase two: analysis of research advances. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    The initial objective of this work was to develop a methodology for analyzing the impact of technological advances as a tool to help establish priorities for R and D options in the field of biocatalysis. As an example of a biocatalyzed process, butanol/acetone fermentation (ABE process) was selected as the specific topic of study. A base case model characterizing the technology and economics associated with the ABE process was developed in the previous first phase of study. The project objectives were broadened in this second phase of work to provide parametric estimates of the economic and energy impacts of a variety of research advances in the hydrolysis, fermentation and purification sections of the process. The research advances analyzed in this study were based on a comprehensive literature review. The six process options analyzed were: continuous ABE fermentaton; vacuum ABE fermentation; Baelene solvent extraction; HRI's Lignol process; improved prehydrolysis/dual enzyme hydrolysis; and improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity. Of the six options analyzed, only improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity had a significant positive effect on energy efficiency and economics. This particular process option reduced the base case production cost (including 10% DCF return) by 20% and energy consumption by 16%. Figures and tables.

  8. Parametric cost analysis for advanced energy concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This report presents results of an exploratory study to develop parametric cost estimating relationships for advanced fossil-fuel energy systems. The first of two tasks was to develop a standard Cost Chart of Accounts to serve as a basic organizing framework for energy systems cost analysis. The second task included development of selected parametric cost estimating relationships (CERs) for individual elements (or subsystems) of a fossil fuel plant, nominally for the Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Parametric CERs are presented for the following elements: coal preparation, coal slurry preparation, dissolver (reactor); gasification; oxygen production; acid gas/CO/sub 2/ removal; shift conversion; cryogenic hydrogen recovery; and sulfur removal. While the nominal focus of the study was on the SRC process, each of these elements is found in other fossil fuel processes. Thus, the results of this effort have broader potential application. However, it should also be noted that the CERs presented in this report are based upon a limited data base. Thus, they are applicable over a limited range of values (of the independent variables) and for a limited set of specific technologies (e.g., the gasifier CER is for the multi-train, Koppers-Totzek process). Additional work is required to extend the range of these CERs. 16 figures, 13 tables.

  9. Depositional, diagenetic, thermal, and maturation histories of Cretaceous Mishrif Formation, Fateh Field, Dubai

    SciTech Connect

    Videtich, P.E.; McLimans, R.K.; Watson, H.K.S.; Nagy, R.M.

    1988-10-01

    Rudist reef associated limestones comprising the Cretaceous Mishrif Formation are the major reservoirs in Fateh field, a giant oil field in offshore Dubai. In this study, Mishrif cores from four wells on the western flank of the field were examined to gain insights into the depositional, diagenetic, thermal, and maturation histories of the Mishrif Formation in this area. The wells lowest on the west flank contain relatively deep-water, lower fore-reef facies bounded by two erosional unconformities. The upper unconformity marks the Laffan-Mishrif contact and extends over Fateh field throughout the region. In Fateh field, the lower intra-Mishrif unconformity has been identified only on the western flank, but is probably present in other locations low on the Fateh structure. The identification of the lower unconformity indicates two cycles of Mishrif sedimentation. The cycles are related to deep-seated salt movement and epeiric sea level changes. Fluid inclusion data, maturation calculations, and burial history modeling indicate that the timing of cementation by blocky calcite spar and oil migration were approximately synchronous and occurred during the Oligocene to Miocene. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Coastal and deltaic sedimentation of Upper Cretaceous Eagle Sandstone: relation to shallow gas accumulations, North-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Sandstone were studied at outcrops along the Missouri River and its southern tributaries from the town of Virgelle southeastward to the mouth of the Judith River in north-central Montana. The Eagle Sandstone is underlain by the Telegraph Creek Formation and overlain by the Claggett Shale, both of Late Cretaceous Age. The basal Virgelle was deposited along an eastwardly prograding coastal-interdeltaic mainland shoreline. The middle member of the Eagle represents coastal-plain deposition. The delta-front sandstone was deposited along a wave-dominated shoreline that prograded over a coastal plain following an overall marine transgression. The upper member lies disconformably on the middle member and is represented by rock types which were deposited in two distinct depositional settings. Interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale that exhibit variable bedding types in the northern outcrops probably accumulated in a tidal-flat environment. Natural gas from shallow accumulations in the Eagle Sandstone of the Bearpaw Mountains area is of biogenic origin and was probably generated in the surrounding shales during Late Cretaceous time. Although gravity-induced faults formed after the gas generation provide the final trapping mechanism, the initial control for entrapment was stratigraphic. Most of the early generated gas has remigrated into separate, discrete structural traps where porous reservoirs are developed; some of the gas may have been selectively sealed in origin stratigraphic traps. 16 figures, 1 table.

  11. Report on static hydrothermal alteration studies of Topopah Spring tuff waters in J-13 water at 150{sup 0}C

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.B.

    1984-08-31

    This report presents the results of preliminary experimental work done to define the package environment in a potential nuclear waste repository in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. The work is supported by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project as a part of the Waste Package task to design a package suitable for waste storage within volcanic units at the Nevada Test Site. Static hydrothermal alteration experiments were run for 4 months using polished wafers either fully submerged in an appropriate natural ground water or exposed to water-saturated air with enough excess water to allow refluxing. The aqueous results agreed favorably with similar experiments run using crushed tuff, and the use of solid polished wafers allowed us to directly evaluate the effects of reaction on the tuff. The results are preliminary in the sense that these experiments were run in Teflon-lined, static autoclaves, whereas subsequent experiments have been run in Dickson-type gold-cell rocking autoclaves. The results predict relatively minor changes in water chemistry, very minor alteration of the host rock, and the production of slight amounts of secondary minerals, when liquid water could return to the rock pores following the temperature maximum during the thermal period. 7 references, 16 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie-Pei, W.; Qi, F.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1985-12-01

    Diapiric traps, including diapirs of salt and mud or igneous intrusives, have recently been found in many places in the Cenozoic petroliferous basins in eastern China, and most of them produce oil and gas. During the Eocene-early Oligocene, salt-lake basins evolved extensively. Plastic source materials for diapirism were deposited in the basins in great thickness. We have found that the diapiric traps of salt and mud in eastern China are unpierced or slightly pierced structures. The diapiric materials are a mixture of salt, gypsum, and mudstone, but mudstone is the main component of the plastic bodies. Based on an analysis of the structural features of the diapirs and the regional tectonic setting, we believe that the diapiric traps are caused by a combination of horizontal stress due to regional tectonic movement and vertical stress due to gravitational instability. Some diabase diapirs are arranged in a series of small anticlinal traps along the regional faults in the Subei basin of Jiangsu province. Oil and gas have been found in certain of these diapirs. 16 figures.

  13. Demonstration and evaluation of solid state photomultiplier tube for uranium exploration instrumentation. National uranium resources evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Polichar, R.M.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this program has been to evaluate the recently developed solid state photomultiplier tube (SSPMT) technology as a potential improvment to future uranium exploration instrumentation. To this end, six SSPMTs have been constructed and evaluated in a manner similar to that of conventional phototubes. Special regard has been placed on the measurement of pulse height resolution and the factors that affect it in tube design and manufacture. The tubes were subjected to a number of tests similar to those performed on conventional photomultiplier tubes. The results indicate that good, high-resolution spectra can be obtained from the tubes and that they behave generally in a predictable manner. They exhibited a linear gain increase with applied potential. They show only slight dependence of performance with applied potential. Their sensitivity is, for the most part, uniform and predictable. However, several characteristics were found that were not predictable. These include a general drop in measured quantum efficiency, a worsening resolution with operation, and a bump in the sensitivity curve corresponding to the shape of the projected dimension of the anode. The SSPMT remains an attractive new technology in gamma-ray spectroscopy, and promises to make significant improvements in the area of uranium exploration instrumentation. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Upper Permian (Guadalupian) facies and their association with hydrocarbons - Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Harris, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of Guadalupian sedimentary rocks in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico are a classic example of the facies relationships that span a carbonate shelf. In the subsurface, these rocks form classic hydrocarbon-facies taps. Proceeding from basin to the updip termination of the shelf, the facies are (1) deep-water basin, (2) an apron of allochthonous carbonates, (3) carbonate shelf margin or reef, (4) carbonate sand flats, (5) carbonate barrier islands, (6) lagoon, and (7) coastal playas and supratidal salt flats (sabkhas). Over a half century of exploration drilling has shown that hydrocarbons in the Permian rocks of the Permian basin have accumulated at the updip contact of the lagoonal dolomites and clastics with the coastal evaporites, and in the basinal channel-fill clastics. The shelf marginal (reef) facies contain cavernous porosity, but commonly are water saturated. These facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences provide an exploration model with which to explore and rank hydrocarbon potential in other carbonate provinces. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Genotoxicity of complex mixtures: CHO cell mutagenicity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.E.; Samuel, J.E.

    1985-02-01

    A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mammalian cell assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of complex mixtures (synthetic fuels). The genotoxicity (mutagenic potency) of the mixtures increased as the temperature of their boiling range increased. Most of the genotoxicity in the 750/sup 0/F+ boiling-range materials was associated with the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions. Chemical analysis data indicate that the PAH fractions of high-boiling coal liquids contain a number of known chemical carcinogens, including five- and six-ring polyaromatics (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene) as well as four- and five-ring alkyl-substituted PAH (e.g., methylchrysene and dimethylbenzanthracenes); concentrations are a function of boiling point (bp). In vitro genotoxicity was also detected in fractions of nitrogen-containing polyaromatic compounds, as well as in those with aliphatics of hydroxy-containing PAH. Mutagenic activity of some fractions was detectable in the CHO assay in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system; in some instances, addition of exogenous enzymes and cofactors inhibited expression of the direct-acting mutagenic potential of the fraction. These data indicate that the organic matrix of the chemical fraction determines whether, and to what degree, various mutagens are expressed in the CHO assay. Therefore, the results of biological assays of these mixtures must be correlated with chemical analyses for proper interpretation of these data. 29 references, 16 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Development of BEACON technology. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Process conditions favoring the production of hydrogen were explored this quarter. Excess steam was found to suppress methane formation, and reduction of catalyst methanation activity was demonstrated. The effect of carbon loading on the physical stability of catalyst C77-K2 and the effect of trace sulfur levels on the chemical stability of the catalyst were examined. The carbon loading tests did not show the catalyst breakup that was expected. Tests of chemical stability of the catalyst in the presence of sulfur-containing gases showed a decline in performance even at levels as low as 4 ppM. Experiments conducted using a Paraho-type oil shale retort offgas as a feedstock showed that acceptable performance could be obtained by removing carbon dioxide from the feedgas. Design of the tandem two reactor system is continuing, along with cold flow testing of the proposed solids transfer system. A simplified thermodynamic analysis of the BEACON process shows that BEACON's increased efficiency over competing processes results from more hot gas going to the turbine with less power required to compress the air for combustion. 16 figures, 13 tables.

  17. The ultrastructure of spontaneous coronary arterial lesions in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed Central

    House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154

  18. Rift basins of interior Sudan: petroleum exploration and discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, T.J.

    1988-10-01

    The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.

  19. Student Misconception of Scale in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmude, Richard W.

    2006-09-01

    In one recent class, 77% of my students at the beginning of the semester could not answer question #1 below correctly. One reason for this is the student's misconception of the distances between the planets and the sun. In one textbook, 14 figures did not have the correct distance scale. In all cases each figure focuses on an astronomical concept that is not related to distance; nevertheless when my students examine these figures, their misconception that the planets are very close to each other and to the sun is reinforced. Furthermore, many of my students will go on to become teachers and will continue to convey the misconception of scale to their students. There are several things that can be done to solve the problem of student misconception of distances. One solution is to draw the Sun's light as arrows instead of drawing the Sun's disc. In this way, the distance is not shown in the drawing. In cases where one must draw the incorrect scale, the student should be warned of this. Finally, at least one laboratory exercise in the introductory astronomy class should emphasize the concept of correct scale. 1. The reason why summer is hotter here in Georgia than winter is because: a. The sun is farther away in the summer b. The sun is closer to us in the summer c. Sunlight hits us more directly in the summer d. The moon is closer in the summer e. The sun has a higher surface temperature in the summer

  20. Alignment and defect structures in oriented phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, S A; Pershan, P S

    1979-01-01

    The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691

  1. Corn yield prediction using climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  2. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of the L-Reactor: interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This interim report of findings from studies by SREL has updated information on several key components of the Steel Creek ecosystem. We have emphasized two categories of the Steel Creek biota: Endangered Species (American alligator) and species for which environmental degradation within SRP boundaries might result in changes in offsite resource abundance. Wintering waterfowl surveys in the vicinity of the Steel Creek delta have demonstrated a pattern of increased utilization over the duration of these studies (1981-83). Wood stork utilization of SRP swamp areas also appeared to be substantially increased relative to previous years. Thermal alteration of the Steel Creek delta areas will eliminate this area as wood stork foraging habitat. Anadromous fish utilization of the Steel Creek area was also substantially increased in 1983 relative to 1982. The differences in anadromous fish species utilization patterns between 1982 and 1983 are probably a result of the markedly different river flow conditions between the two years. Studies of the American alligator have continued. No further reproduction by alligators has been observed in the Steel Creek system. 24 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.

  3. Damage development during low cycle fatigue of carbon-black loaded SBR. [Styrene butadiene rubber containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon black

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.; Goldberg, A.; Hiromoto, D.; Patt, J.

    1984-06-18

    Fatigue of elastomers is a subject that has received considerable study over the years. This paper explores the problem of damage accumulation in a series of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based compounds containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon-black under conditions in which a limited number of higher stress cycles have been applied to the material (referred to here as low cycle fatigue). Damage development in elastomers can take many forms. Generally speaking, one can classify the degradation as mechanical or chemical in origin. The most obvious form of mechanical damage is flaw or cut growth, while typical examples of chemical damage include chain scission or thermal oxidation. The fatigue crack growth relationship given in Equation 1 obviously only applies to flaw growth. However, it does an excellent job of following the data and exhibits the threshold behavior observed in both SBR and SBR-35 at room temperature. At higher temperatures, the damaged material shows an increasing deviation from threshold behavior. The obvious implication is that some thermally activated damage mechanism is degrading the material. In previous work, carbon-black loaded SBR subjected to a high temperature, high stress environment was shown to undergo a thermal-mechanical oxidation process. Certainly, this process is a candidate for a damage mechanism in these studies. 6 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  4. Extrinsic fiber optic displacement sensors and displacement sensing systems

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, K.A.; Gunther, M.F.; Vengsarkar, A.M.; Claus, R.O.

    1994-04-05

    An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer. 14 figures.

  5. Lockhart Crossing field: new Wilcox trend in southeastern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Self, G.A.; Breard, S.Q.; Rael, H.P.; Stein, J.A.; Thayer, P.A.; Traugott, M.O.; Eason, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, a significant onshore oil discovery in the lower Eocene Wilcox was made at Lockhart Crossing field, illuminating a new oil trend in southeast Louisiana. Twenty-eight producers and nine dry holes were drilled, resulting in development of 3400 productive acres with estimated recoverable reserves of 21 million bbl of oil after secondary recovery. The main field reservoir is a 40 to 80-ft (12 to 24-m) marine sandstone. The dominant facies is an upward-coarsening sequence of very fine to fine-grained glauconitic sandstone deposited as a nearshore marine bar. The associated facies is a younger, upward-fining, channelized sequence of medium to very fine-grained sandstone. Faulting initiated channeling and erosion into the existing nearshore bar facies with subsequent deposition of channel fill. Together these two facies constitute one reservoir. The primary trapping mechanism is structural, in the form of a rollover anticline. This solution gas drive reservoir is normally pressured and displays a concave-downward producing water level that initially masked the true productive limits of the field. 14 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Relationships among oils and water compositions in Niger delta

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.; George, G.O.; Barker, C.

    1987-10-01

    In some fields of the Tertiary Niger delta of Nigeria, heavy, asphaltic oil is found in shallow reservoirs and light, waxy oil is found in deeper reservoirs in the same field. Both oils appears to have had the same source. The change with depth from heavy to light oil is usually abrupt and occurs at a reservoir temperature between 150/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/ and 82/sup 0/C). In other areas similar degradation of oil has been ascribed to bacteria brought into the oil reservoir by invading meteoric water. In Nigeria, meteoric water is low in dissolved solids and high in bicarbonate, whereas connate water is saltier and contains more chloride. Samples of both types of oil and associated water from six fields were analyzed and compared with previously acquired analyses from these fields. No clear relationship between meteoric water and degraded oil was found. Degraded oil may occur with either meteoric or connate water, and undegraded oil is sometimes found with meteoric water. This suggests extensive secondary migration of oil from one structure to another as well as deep penetration of meteoric water. 14 figures, 1 table.

  7. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Annual report, July 1983-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes the initial results obtained in a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Organic complexants used in the nuclear industry are being emphasized. Data have been obtained with two radioactive (/sup 63/Ni and /sup 239/Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with /sup 63/Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility). 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Observations of crack growth in hard rock loaded by an indenter

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, M.; Tsai, F.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of the processes of rock fragmentation induced by circular flat-bottomed punches from 5 to 20 mm dia loading orthogonal to the flat surface of cylindrical specimens of Sierra granite of 89 mm dia and confined by a steel belt, and 100 mm cube specimens confined in a biaxial frame. It is found that the rock deforms elastically until the applied punch load exceeds 45% of the maximum load that the rock can sustain. At loads greater than 45% of the maximum, a crack is initiated around the perimeter of the punch and this crack propagates in the well-known conical Hertzian manner. When the crack begins to propagate, the location of its front is reasonably well defined. However, as it extends with continued application of the load, an intense zone of microcracks surrounds and conceals the crack tip. Fractures initiating within this microcracked region propagate to the surface and form rock chips. The effects of punch size and confining stress, orthogonal to the punch, on the rock indentation strength are examined. Some decrease in punching strength with increasing punch size is noted; there is an increase in strength with increasing confining stress. At low confining stress, specimens split by cleavage through the axis of the punch. The theory of elasticity is used to show that this could occur with a punch loading against a semi-infinite rock surface and may therefore be an important phenomenon, not just an artifact of finite laboratory specimens. 11 references, 14 figures.

  9. Tar sand occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit

    SciTech Connect

    VerPloeg, A.J.; DeBruin, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics of the oil. Thin sections from both the tar zone and barren zones were made and examined to determine textural characteristics and kinds of pore-filling cements. In addition, samples were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope to gain insight into the diagenesis of the reservoir rock and trapping mechanisms. The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit was investigated because it was considered potentially commercial, and the results of the study could aid in forming an economical plan of development for this deposit and similar deposits elsewhere in the State. Also, the area provided an excellent opportunity to examine surface exposures of a tar sand deposit. The final phase of the study involved mapping the Bush Butte quadrangle and looking for additional tar sand deposits in the quadrangle. The search for additional deposits was carried out based on a model developed by examination of the Trapper Canyon Deposit. 16 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Surgical treatment of obesity: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Fobi, M. A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355

  11. MESOI Version 2. 0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.

  12. Characterization of Devonian oil shales by hydrogen pulse NMR. Project report for 1983-84

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, J.W. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    NMR and ESR measurements have been used to characterize eastern and western United States oil shales. T/sub 1/ measurements which were made at 90 MHz as a function of temperature, together with previously reported 36 MHz results, suggest that paramagnetic centers contribute strongly to the relaxation in some of the shales. A careful study of the ESR spectrum at both X-band and K-band frequencies suggests that a part of the spectrum may be due to naturally irradiated silicates in the shales. Laboratory irradiation experiments suggest a method for determining the age of the oil shale deposits. A new technique has been developed for measuring second moments of the NMR power spectrum. Measurements made on a Colorado shale show a rapid decrease with increasing temperature in the vicinity of a previously reported T/sub 1r/ minimum. Unpaired electron spin concentrations and room temperature T/sub 1/ values were measured in 60 oil shale samples from north Alabama and south Tennessee. No correlation between spin concentration and oil Fischer assay was observed except for samples from a 100 ft bore hole in Etowah Co., AL, where a linear correlation was observed. Room temperature T/sub 1/'s were found to approximately increase with increasing spin concentration, supporting the contention that relaxation due to interactions with paramagnetic centers is important. 11 references, 14 figures.

  13. Idaho Field Experiment 1981. Volume 1. Experimental design and measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Cate, J H; Dickson, C R; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R

    1983-10-01

    The Idaho Field Experiment is reported in three volumes and supplemented by special contractor reports. Volume I describes the design and goals of the measurement program and the measurement systems utilized during the field program. The measurement systems layouts are described as well. The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in South East Idaho over the Upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were measured between July 15 and 30, 1981. Eight-hour releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made from 46 m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24 km square. Also, a single total integrated sample, of about 30 hours duration, was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72 km (using 6 km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plumes were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High-altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were also collected. 10 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  14. National Surface Water Survey, western wilderness area lakes: environmental assessment. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to sample 498 lakes in federally designated wilderness areas and national parks during the western part of the National Surface Water Survey (NSW). The NSWS has been undertaken to provide high quality data for evaluating the nature and extent of acid deposition throughout the United States. Sampling protocols established for the national survey call for the use of helicopters to gain access to lakes for sampling. Helicopters have already been used in the eastern and midwestern parts of the survey. The US Forest Service (FS) and the National Park Service (NPS) will have to decide which sampling plan for wilderness areas, if any, can be approved under the Wilderness Act of 1964. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to evaluate the environmental consequences of alternative means of gaining access to wilderness areas to meet the objectives of the NSWS. Based on this evaluation, EPA has reviewed the possible sampling alternatives and reached a conclusion on the preferred alternative. This assessment is being provided to the FS and the NPS for their use in evaluating the alternatives, including EPA's preferred one. As a result of its evaluation, EPA believes that wilderness area lakes should be included in the survey and that the preferred means of access is using helicopters. 94 references, 14 figures, 18 tables.

  15. Changing patterns of materials use in the US Automobile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The material mix of a typical US passenger car has changed enormously over the last several decades, as have the total quantities of various materials used in automobile production. Over the last ten years, the dramatic increases in aluminum, plastics, and high strength steel - as well as the decline in plain carbon steel - are due largely to material substitution motivated by the desire for weight reduction, which was an important component of car-manufacturer strategies to satisfy consumer tastes and government regulations concerning fuel economy. Even though automotive material substitution has been, in effect, revolutionary over the last ten years or so, significant changes in automobile composition had been occurring much earlier, albeit at a slower pace. This earlier, slower period of change was part of an ongoing evolution of automobile design, in which materials compete with one another to provide certain physical and chemical properties at the lowest cost. As for the role of the passenger car in understanding the slowdown in western world consumption of metals since about 1974, conclusions from this paper must be limited to steel and aluminum in the United States. The total amount of plain carbon steel contained in new US cars has been much lower in the 1980s than in the middle and late 1970s, contributing significantly to stagnating steel consumption. 27 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Early Tertiary subsidence and sedimentary facies - Northern Sirte Basin, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Gumati, Y.D.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-12-01

    The subsidence curves and subsidence rate curves for the Sirte basin, constructed from the stratigraphic record, show that subsidence was continuous throughout Late Cretaceous and Tertiary times, reaching a maximum during the Paleocene and Eocene, when a major reactivation of faults occurred. Shales and carbonates were deposited during all of the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Abrupt lateral facies changes occur from the platform areas toward the deeper troughs along with steep downdip thickening. The absence of upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic sediments suggests that the area was domed, faulted, and eroded during the late Mesozoic. As a result of crustal extension during the Paleocene, a marked lithologic and structural change occurred. The Heira Shale succeeded the Kalash Limestone in the Marada trough. Reactivation of the earlier faults, accompanied by an increase in the sediment supply from the south, caused these lower Paleocene shales to cover the entire area, with the exception of the old highs where carbonate deposition continued. An intercalation of shales and carbonates provides a sensitive indicator of change of depth and sediment type. 14 figures.

  17. A beta 1-integrin receptor for fibronectin in human kidney glomeruli.

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, D.; Ojha, P. P.; Susani, M.; Horvat, R.; Binder, S.; Hovorka, A.; Hillemanns, P.; Pytela, R.

    1989-01-01

    The fibronectin receptor (FNR) is a transmembrane heterodimeric glycoprotein which shares a common beta 1-chain with several other members of the integrin family of adhesion receptors. The authors have prepared a membrane fraction of isolated human glomeruli, from which two proteins (apparent molecular weights 120 kd and 140 kd) bound to a fibronectin-column, and were selectively released by the synthetic peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser. These molecules were labeled in immune overlays by an antibody raised against the FNR from human placenta that recognizes both the FNR-specific a-chain and the group-specific beta 1-integrin chain. In sections of normal human kidneys this antibody labeled predominately the mesangia and the peripheral capillary walls of glomeruli by an immunoperoxidase procedure. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, using an indirect immunogold procedure, revealed a preferential localization along the cell membranes of mesangial, epithelial, and endothelial cells that face the mesangial matrix or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In kidney biopsies from patients with various glomerular diseases (membranous and other forms of glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease) the distribution was similar to that in normal glomeruli. These findings indicate that a beta 1-integrin-related FNR is present in normal and diseased human glomeruli. Images Figure 1-4 Figure 5 Figure 6-10 Figure 11-16 PMID:2521774

  18. Measurements of heavy quark and lepton lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    The PEP/PETRA energy range has proved to be well-suited for the study of the lifetimes of hadrons containing the b and c quarks and the tau lepton for several reasons. First, these states comprise a large fraction of the total interaction rate in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation and can be cleanly identified. Second, the storage rings have operated at high luminosity and so produced these exotic states copiously. And finally, thanks to the interplay of the Fermi coupling strength, the quark and lepton masses, and the beam energy, the expected decay lengths are in the 1/2 mm range and so are comparatively easy to measure. This pleasant coincidence of cleanly identified and abundant signal with potentially large effects has made possible the first measurements of two fundamental weak couplings, tau ..-->.. nu/sub tau/W and b ..-->.. cW. These measurements have provided a sharp test of the standard model and allowed, for the first time, the full determination of the magnitudes of the quark mixing matrix. This paper reviews the lifetime studies made at PEP during the past year. It begins with a brief review of the three detectors, DELCO, MAC and MARK II, which have reported lifetime measurements. Next it discusses two new measurements of the tau lifetime, and briefly reviews a measurement of the D/sup 0/ lifetime. Finally, it turns to measurements of the B lifetime, which are discussed in some detail. 18 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  19. Analysis of uranium urinalysis and in vivo measurement results from eleven participating uranium mills

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, H.B.; Simpson, J.C.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1984-05-01

    Uranium urinalysis and in vivo examination results obtained from workers at eleven uranium mills between 1978 and 1980 were evaluated. The main purpose was to determine the degree of the mills' compliance with bioassay monitoring recommendations given in the draft NRC Regulatory Guide 8.22 (USNRC 1978). The effect of anticipated changes in the draft regulatory guidance, as expressed to PNL in May 1982, was also studied. Statistical analyses of the data showed that the bioassay results did not reliably meet the limited performance criteria given in the draft regulatory guide. Furthermore, quality control measurements of uranium in urine indicated that detection limits at ..cap alpha.. = ..beta.. = 0.05 ranged from 13 ..mu..g/l to 29 ..mu..g/l, whereas the draft regulatory guidance suggests 5 ..mu..g/l as the detection limit. Recommendations for monitoring frequencies given in the draft guide were not followed consistently from mill to mill. The results of these statistical analyses indicate a need to include performance criteria for accuracy, precision, and confidence in revisions of the draft Regulatory Guide 8.22. Revised guidance should also emphasize the need for each mill to continually test the laboratory performing urinalyses by submitting quality control samples (i.e., blank and spiked urine samples as open and blind test) to insure that the performance criteria are being met. Recommendations for a bioassay audit program are also given. 25 references, 15 figures, 17 tables.

  20. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  1. Further development of a facility for channeling studies: application to lattice location

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Equipment modifications at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Rutherford backscattering facility, including the addition of a high precision goniometer, have been made to enhance the performance of channeling experiments. The angular divergence of the alpha particle beam was also reduced to <0.05/sup 0/ by improving the collimation. To demonstrate improved channeling capability angular scans were performed about the (100), (110), and (111) axial channels of a 3400 A (100) silicon membrane. Both the minimum yield, chi/sub min/, and the critical angle, psi/sub 1/2/, were consistent with accepted values. A preliminary investigation of the lattice location of cobalt on the (100) silicon surface was undertaken. Approximately 4.5 x 10/sup 15/ Co atoms/cm/sup 2/ were electron beam deposited on a 3900 A, HF etched silicon membrane in a system using oilless pumps. Preliminary channeling data taken approximately one month later indicated a preferred site for approximately 16% of the cobalt atoms. Channeling data obtained six months later with the new goniometer showed no evidence for a preferred site. Room temperature oxidation between experiments was observed and is thought to have affected the location of the cobalt atoms. 33 references, 15 figures.

  2. Burial history and thermal maturity, Rocky Mountain front ranges, foothills, and foreland, east-central British Columbia and adjacent Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkreuth, W.; McMechan, M.

    1988-11-01

    The regional pattern of maturation of Cretaceous strata in the study area was determined from vitrinite-reflectance measurements. Maturation increases from west to east across the Foothills to a maximum near the eastern limit of Foothills deformation and decreases farther east. Maturation along the eastern limit of deformation also decreases northward significantly. Reflectance measurements from Carboniferous strata exposed in the Front Ranges are much lower than values from the Lower Cretaceous near the eastern limit of deformation. Modeling using burial history curves indicates the regional maturation pattern largely reflects variations in the depth and/or duration of burial beneath Maastrichtian-Eocene foredeep deposits. However, differential vertical movements associated with the Peace River arch/embayment in the Carboniferous, Triassic, Early Cretaceous and Maastrichtian-Eocene had an important effect on the maturation pattern. Determined and estimated maturation levels for reservoir strata are consistent with the known occurrences of gas fields and oil pools, except along the relatively unexplored western margin of the study area. There, moderate maturation levels indicate a potential for wet-gas or oil preservation in shallow structures containing Triassic and Lower Carboniferous carbonates in the south. In the north, structures in the western Foothills deforming Triassic strata with lower levels of maturation are breached. 15 figures.

  3. The Clinical Physiology of Water Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, Richard E.; Kleeman, Charles R.

    1979-01-01

    Water balance is tightly regulated within a tolerance of less than 1 percent by a physiologic control system located in the hypothalamus. Body water homeostasis is achieved by balancing renal and nonrenal water losses with appropriate water intake. The major stimulus to thirst is increased osmolality of body fluids as perceived by osmoreceptors in the anteroventral hypothalamus. Hypovolemia also has an important effect on thirst which is mediated by arterial baroreceptors and by the renin-angiotensin system. Renal water loss is determined by the circulating level of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP is synthesized in specialized neurosecretory cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus and is transported in neurosecretory granules down elongated axons to the posterior pituitary. Depolarization of the neurosecretory neurons results in the exocytosis of the granules and the release of AVP and its carrier protein (neurophysin) into the circulation. AVP is secreted in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Change in body fluid osmolality is the most potent factor affecting AVP secretion, but hypovolemia, the renin-angiotensin system, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia and pain also have important effects. Many drugs have been shown to stimulate the release of AVP as well. Small changes in plasma AVP concentration of from 0.5 to 4 μU per ml have major effects on urine osmolality and renal water handling. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 12.Figure 15.Figure 16. PMID:394480

  4. Localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in conventional paraffin sections of the liver. Comparison of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and orcein staining methods with regard to their specificity and reliability as antigen marker.

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, N. C.; Sachdeva, R.

    1975-01-01

    Hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) has been demonstrated in conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue by peroxidase and fluorescent immunostaining as well as by orcein. Complete locational and morphologic identity is seen between material stained by specific immunologic methods and by orcein. The antigen is restricted to the cytoplasm and is generally observed in the hepatocyte; it is present in three morphologic forms. Certain morphologic forms can even be identified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Results of immunostaining procedures indicate that the antigen demonstrated in this study consists entirely of surface coat of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). This seems to be the only component revealed by orcein staining. The latter is considered to be a good marker of the surface antigen and to have certain advantages over immunostaining. It is suggested that suitability of conventional paraffin sections for the detection of HBAg has wide and important implications. Images Figures 1-5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:55076

  5. Volume of Impact Melt Generated by the Formation of the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah E.

    2011-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest, deepest, and oldest identified basin on the Moon and as such contains surfaces that are unique due to their age, composition, and depth of origin in the lunar crust [1-5] (Figure 1). SPA has been a target of intense interest as an area for robotic sample return in order to determine the age of the basin and the composition and origin of its interior [6-8]. In response to this interest there have been several efforts to estimate the likely provenance of regolith material within central SPA [9-12]. These model estimates suggest that, despite the formation of basins and craters following SPA, the regolith within SPA is dominated by locally derived material. An assumption of these models has been that the locally derived material is primarily SPA impact-melt as opposed to local basement material (e.g. unmelted lower crust). However, the definitive identification of SPA derived impact melt on the basin floor, either by remote sensing [5, 13] or via photogeology [2, 14] is extremely difficult due to the number of subsequent impacts and volcanic activity [4].

  6. Capillary pressure techniques: application to exploration and development geology

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.B.

    1987-10-01

    Capillary pressure can be viewed as the pressure required to drive a fluid through a pore throat and displace the pore wetting fluid, with greater pressure being required as the pore throat becomes smaller. The size and distribution of pore throats within a host rock control its capillary pressure characteristics, which in turn control fluid behavior in the pore system. Mercury-injection capillary pressure curves, which measure capillarity, are obtained by injecting mercury into sample plugs to produce a plot of injection pressure vs. mercury saturation. The resulting capillary pressure curves can provide qualitative assessments of reservoir rock using such calculated values as pore-throat sorting, reservoir grade, and oil columns required to obtain 50 and 75% oil saturations. Regional capillary pressure maps of these calculated values identify a north-south trend of favorable reservoir rock along the state line between Montana and North Dakota in the third porosity (C) zone of the Ordovician Red River Formation. Oil migration and trapping can be significantly controlled by capillary pressure. By understanding capillarity, they can obtain better insight on the nature of reservoir rock, oil accumulations, and permeability relationships. 15 figures, 1 table.

  7. ZONE - a finite element mesh generator. [2-D, for CDC 7600

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, M.J.

    1980-03-12

    The ZONE computer program is a finite element mesh generator that produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated for slide lines and to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The following points are taken up: program concept and characteristics; regions; layers; meridians (offset, circular arc, ellipse); rays; common characterstics - rays and meridians, ZONE input description; output files; examples; and program availability. Also generated is the input to the program PLOT. 15 figures. (RWR)

  8. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Effects of loading on the growth rates of deep stress-corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.

    1990-08-01

    The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on growth of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack growth. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent growth of existing cracks. The growth rate experiments showed that the slow-strain rate loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain rate loading) produced minimal crack growth and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited growth is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack growth rates. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain rate phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the growth of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.

  10. Meiotic process and aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The process of meiosis is analyzed by dissecting it into its component parts using the early oocyte of Drosophila as a model. Entrance of the oocytes into premeiotic interphase signals initiation of DNA replication which continues for 30 h. Coincidentally, extensive synaptonemal complexes appear, averaging 50 ..mu..m (132 h), peaking at 75 ..mu..m (144 h) and continuing into early vitellarial stages. Recombinational response to heat, evidenced by enhancement or induction of exchange, is limited to the S-phase with a peak at 144 h coinciding with maximal extension of the SC. Coincidence of synapsis and recombination response with S at premeiotic interphase is contrary to their conventional localization at meiotic prophase. The interrelationship between exchange and nondisjunction has been clarified by the Distributive Pairing Model of meiosis. Originally revealed through high frequencies of nonrandom assortment of nonhomologous chromosomes, distributive pairing has been shown to follow and to be noncompetitive with exchange, to be based on size-recognition, not homology, and as a raison d'etre, to provide a segregational mechanism for noncrossover homologues. Rearrangements, recombination mutants and aneuploids may contribute noncrossover chromosomes to the distributive pool and so promote the nonhomologous associations responsible for nondisjunction of homologues and regular segregation of nonhomologues. 38 references, 15 figures. (ACR)

  11. Late Cretaceous - Cenozoic development of outer continental margin, southwestern Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    The growth pattern for the outer continental margin of Nova Scotia during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic was studied using seismic stratigraphy and well data. Sediment accumulation was broadly controlled by temporal changes in relative sea level, but significant spatial and temporal changes in accumulation patterns were caused by changes in sediment supply rate, morphology, erosion by abyssal currents, and salt tectonics. A Jurassic-Early Cretaceous carbonate platform remained exposed until the Late Cretaceous and controlled the location and steepness of the paleoslope until the late Miocene. Local erosion of the outer shelf and slope in the late Paleocene-early Eocene produced chalky fans on the upper rise. The relationship between erosion of the shelf in the late Eocene and early Oligocene, and abyssal current erosion of the upper rise in the Oligocene, is unclear. Seaward extensions of Tertiary shelf-edge canyons are poorly defined except for the Eocene fans. In the Miocene, abyssal currents eroded a bench on the upper continental rise. Subsequently, sediments lapped onto and buried the paleoslope. The lower rise above horizon A/sup u/ (Oligocene) is composed of fans and olistostromes shed from halokinetic uplift of the upper rise. Current eroded unconformities are common in the rise sequence, but the only current deposit is a Pliocene interval (< 300 m) restricted to the lowermost rise. Pleistocene turbidity currents eroded the present canyon morphology. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Coal unit trains: operations, maintenance, and technology. Volume 4. Costs and benefits of aluminum coal cars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boghani, A.B.

    1984-11-01

    This report examines the costs and benefits to a utility of acquiring aluminum coal cars. After discussing the history of aluminum car production, the report describes in detail the characteristics of several aluminum cars now in use, and the experience of railroads and utilities with them. The effects of acquiring aluminum cars instead of steel cars on the fuel cost, crew cost, maintenance-of-way cost, and car costs (capital and maintenance) are discussed. An illustrative example is given, in which the internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period of the extra investment made to acquire aluminum cars are calculated. A parametric analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of IRR and payback period to the freight-rate discount for the aluminum car, the inflation rate, the purchase price of aluminum and steel cars, their maintenance costs, bad order ratios, car lives, salvage values, trip length, and car utilization. The study concludes that the aluminum cars can be an excellent investment, provided a reasonable freight-rate discount is obtained. The first cost of an aluminum car compared to that of a steel car, its estimated downtime, its estimated maintenance cost, and the anticipated degree of its utilization are also shown to significantly affect the attractiveness of the extra investment. In addition, the study reveals that some aluminum cars have proved more durable in service than others. Thus, the importance of a thorough evaluation of the design of the aluminum cars being offered is demonstrated. 11 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system in children with a new nonionic gadolinium contrast agent--gadoteridol injection (ProHance).

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, S. E.; Darling, C. F.; Wilczynski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the results of clinical testing in pediatric patients of a new contrast agent, gadoteridol injection (ProHance), developed by Squibb Diagnostic as a nonionic gadolinium agent for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen children (four girls and nine boys) ranging in age from 10 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. The children had MR studies of the brain and/or spine with T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and postgadoteridol injection T1-weighted sequences. Five children had primary brain or spine neoplasms, three children had metastatic disease to the central nervous system, one child had a recurrent brain neoplasm and spinal canal metastasis, one child had an arteriovenous malformation, and two children were normal on the MRI studies. No minor or major reactions to gadoteridol injection developed in the 13 patients. Gadoteridol injection provided excellent delineation and enhancement of the arteriovenous malformation and all of the primary and secondary neoplasms of the central nervous system except for one case of a grade 1 glioma of the midbrain. Gadoteridol injection is a safe and excellent contrast agent for use in MRI. Images Figures 1-5 Figures 6-10 PMID:8496990

  14. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.; LaForge, J.V.

    1993-11-09

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight. 15 figures.

  15. Effect of coal briquetting on overall plant costs for a large low-Btu gas application. Task II final topical report. Addendum. [Two-stage gasification plant with briquetting

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.L.; Cassidy, H.P.

    1983-03-02

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the technical and economic aspects of coal briquetting, when the coal briquettes are used as feed coal to a coal gasification facility. Gas from the coal gasification facility was used as the fuel source for an iron ore pelletizing facility. The gasifier for this plant was a two-stage, fixed-bed gasifier. The product gas was 20 x 10/sup 9/ Btu per day (833.3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour), HHV, to be sent to an iron ore pelletizing facility. The product gas was a clean low-Btu gas produced at approximately atmospheric pressure. The evaluations were based on installing the gasifiers at the existing Erie Mining Company iron ore pelletizing plant at Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. Thus, the designs use existing facilities where possible, and produce or purchase other needs. The briquetting/gasification design presented is technically feasible. The estimated fuel gas price is $10.00 per million Btu with a 12 percent DCF-ROR. The fuel cost is higher than the present price of natural gas at Hoyt Lakes, $3.52 per million Btu, and higher than the $7.70 per million Btu obtainable through substitution of Winkler fluidized-bed gasifiers for the two-stage fixed bed gasifiers. Not included in the study were considerations of intrinsic factors, such as the interruptible nature of natural gas supplies and future changes in the prices of natural gas and coal. 3 references, 16 figures, 16 tables.

  16. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations, fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming continued to be produced at their maximum efficient rates of production during FY 1984. All of the producing acreage on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in California continued to be leased to private operators as it has been for over 50 years, with the Government receiving a royalty share of production from the lessees. Of major importance in FY 1984 was an investigation by the Department of Energy leading to a determination by the President to extend production at NPR-1 and NPR-3 for 3 years beyond April 5, 1985. Most of the Government's share of crude oil produced at the Petroleum Reserves during FY 1984 was sold on the open market through competitive bidding, as was natural gas and associated natural gas liquids. All of the crude oil produced at NPR-3 and approximately 17% of the crude oil produced at NPR-1 were sold to the Department of Defense. Revenues from the three Naval Petroleum Reserves in FY 1984 totaled $1.4 billion in general receipts and Windfall Profit Taxes. Program expenditures totaled approximately $130 million. At NPR-1, 30 wells were drilled during FY 1984. At NPR-3, 40 wells were drilled, including one with a special rig on loan from the Department's Nevada Operations Office. Emphasis at both NPR-1 and NPR-3 is being placed on slowing declining production levels and increasing recoverable reserves through secondary and tertiary recovery techniques. At NPR-1, work continued on a steam injection project for heavy oil recovery, which was initiated in FY 1983. At NPR-3, testing and evaluation continued on the two enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects using the in-situ combustion and polymer-enhanced waterflood techniques. None of the three Naval Oil Shale Reserves has been developed on a commercial scale. 16 figures.

  17. Pollutants from coal conversion processes. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, R.M.; Ferrell, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    A devolatilized Kentucky bituminous coal, a North Carolina peat, and a New Mexico subbituminous coal have been gasified with steam and oxygen in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The reactor was operated at pressures of 570 to 840 kPa (80 to 120 psia), molar steam-to-carbon feed ratios of 0.6 to 1.9, and average bed temperatures of 795 to 1010/sup 0/C (1460 to 1850/sup 0/F). The coal feed rate ranged from 14 to 33 kg/h (30 to 73 lb/h). The reactor effluents were analyzed for major components and potentially hazardous minor components using gas chromatography; tars and wastewaters condensed from the product were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography, and high pressure liquid chromatography; and the feed coals, spent chars, and condensed phase streams were analyzed for selected trace metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experimental results were used to provide a basis for the formulation and evaluation of a mathematical model of the gasifier. The model assumes instantaneous devolatilization of coal at the top of the fluidized-bed, instantaneous combustion of carbon at the bottom of the bed, and steam/carbon gasification and water gas shift reaction in a single perfectly mixed isothermal stage. The effects of various operating parameters and phenomena on reactor performance were determined using the model. As would be expected, carbon conversion and make gas production both increase with bed temperature, steam-to-carbon feed ratio, and solid-phase space time. Both also go up with pressure, but above about 1.7 MPa the increases are negligible. At the temperatures studied, the water-gas shift reaction falls short of equilibrium for pressures lower than 2.1 MPa (confirming experimental results), but the reaction is close to equilibrium at pressures above this value. 25 references, 16 figures, 11 tables.

  18. Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

    1987-10-01

    The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, the top of the Kareem Formation (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature with an anomalous strike nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian Formation sandstone from a depth of 11,000-12,000 ft (3352-3657 m). The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and has up to 200 md in-situ permeability. Wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands to the upper two units of the Early Cretaceous have 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. Wells completed in this unit produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was formed primarily during an intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Oil migration for accumulation in the structure started in the late Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf of Suez, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of approximately 10,000 ft (3048 m). At this depth, the organic matter in the source beds had a high transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), high yields of C/sub 15+/ soluble organic matter and C/sub 15+/ saturated hydrocarbons, vitrinite reflectance (R/sub 0/) of 0.62%, and a time-temperature index (TTI) value of 15. Oil migration from mature source beds in adjoining lows into low-potential Nubian reservoirs is easily explained by fault planes that acted as conduits for oil migration. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Effects of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol on the testis of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkenfeld, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of xenobiotics on the male reproductive system have become a growing concern. During an investigation into the acute toxicity of the volatile solvent 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) following inhalation, it was noted that testicular damage was a consistent effect. Single intraperitoneal doses of TFE as low as 25 mg/kg produced damage to spermatogonia and spermatocytes, but had no effect on postmeiotic germ cells or interstitial structures. Damage to the testis was rapid, first being detectable by light microscopy 8 hours following a single i.p. dose. In order to determine the effects of subchronic inhalation exposre on male reproductive function, rats were exposed to trifluoroethanol at concentrations of 0, 100 ppM and 200 ppM, for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for two weeks. The absorption, distribution, and excretion of intraperitoneally injected trifluoroethanol (5 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg was studied using 2-/sup 14/C-TFE. Testicular and epididymal blood flow, as determined using 15 ..mu..m /sup 57/Co-microspheres, was not altered 15 minutes, 1, 3, or 6 hours following 100 mg TFE/kg. In vivo protein incorporation of /sup 14/C-leucine in the testis was not altered 6 hours after TFE. It appears that TFE-induced testicular damage is not due to decreased blood flow, as has been suggested for cadmium-induced damage. Alteration of the redox state of the testis may be suggested by the decrease in lactate concentration. 114 references, 16 figures, 25 tables.

  20. Thermal EOR process research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Moreno, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of Research and Development activities associated with thermal EOR processes in the areas of process mapping, downhole steam generator (DSG) materials performance, and insulated tubulars. Field measurements which can be used to map overall geometry and local stability of the displacement fronts would be particularly useful in the context of process control. Electromagnetic techniques which are being developed to make these measurements are currently limited to qualitative interpretations. This paper first describes lab scale physical simulations being conducted to develop a fundamental understanding of the variations in electrical properties associated with the constitutive zones of a recovery process to improve our ability to interpret field data. Field tests in 1981 to 1982 identified DSG combustor material failure as the primary technical concern in DSG development, with the presumption that the failure mode was due to mixed hot gas corrosion. Experimental results are summarized here for a variety of candidate combustor materials, chosen largely for corrosion resistance. No important differences in performance were found. More recently, analytical studies supported by a single experiment on a thin-walled combustor liner have suggested that thermally-induced stress in the thick-walled liners used is the probable cause of failure. Insulated steam injection tubulars have been observed to be less effective in reducing wellbore heat loss if operated in a wet wellbore - a typical situation. Wellbore refluxing, a process analogous to the action of a heat pipe, was proposed in 1983 to be the source of the reduced efficiency. The results of recently completed tests on insulated tubing in wet and dry wellbores are reported. 23 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Klemme, H.D.; Coury, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels); 72,337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub'al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil. 5 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Development of Detailed Kinetic Models for Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Carstensen, H; Dean, A M

    2008-10-28

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels can be synthesized from a syngas stream generated by the gasification of biomass. As such they have the potential to be a renewable hydrocarbon fuel with many desirable properties. However, both the chemical and physical properties are somewhat different from the petroleum-based hydrocarbons that they might replace, and it is important to account for such differences when considering using them as replacements for conventional fuels in devices such as diesel engines and gas turbines. FT fuels generally contain iso-alkanes with one or two substituted methyl groups to meet the pour-point specifications. Although models have been developed for smaller branched alkanes such as isooctane, additional efforts are required to properly capture the kinetics of the larger branched alkanes. Recently, Westbrook et al. developed a chemical kinetic model that can be used to represent the entire series of n-alkanes from C{sub 1} to C{sub 16} (Figure 1). In the current work, the model is extended to treat 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), a large iso-alkane. The same reaction rate rules used in the iso-octane mechanism were incorporated in the HMN mechanism. Both high and low temperature chemistry was included so that the chemical kinetic model would be applicable to advanced internal combustion engines using low temperature combustion strategies. The chemical kinetic model consists of 1114 species and 4468 reactions. Concurrently with this effort, work is underway to improve the details of specific reaction classes in the mechanism, guided by high-level electronic structure calculations. Attention is focused upon development of accurate rate rules for abstraction of the tertiary hydrogens present in branched alkanes and properly accounting for the pressure dependence of the ?-scission, isomerization, and R + O{sub 2} reactions.

  3. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-06-05

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L..cap alpha../sub 1/ /sub 2/ lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures.

  4. Re-examination of 'Einige Beitrage zur Theorie der Zahnregulierung' (Some contributions to the theory of the regulation of teeth) published in 1904-1905 by Carl Sandstedt.

    PubMed

    Bister, Dirk; Meikle, Murray C

    2013-04-01

    The original histological investigation that forms the basis of our present understanding of tooth movement was carried out on dogs by the Swedish dentist Carl Sandstedt at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. His findings were published in 1901 as a monograph in Swedish, and shortly after his death in 1904, as three articles in German entitled 'Einige Beiträge zur Theorie der Zahnregulierung'. Sandstedt observed that the bone was deposited on the alveolar wall of the tension side with both heavy and light forces, new bone spicules following the orientation of the periodontal fibres. On the pressure side, with light forces, osteoclasts resorbed the surface of the alveolar bone, but heavy forces compressed the periodontal ligament resulting in hyalinization--the formation of localized cell-free areas. At these sites, bone removal resulted from undermining resorption by osteoclasts from adjacent marrow spaces. He also observed root resorption and commented on the centre of rotation of the teeth. No English version of Sandstedt's research has ever been published, and in view of its importance, one of us (DB) has translated his three articles from the original German. The aim was to persuade an orthodontic journal to publish the articles in full--however, weighing-in at 21,000 words, the impracticality of this plan soon became clear. We concluded that excerpts from the text plus commentary would be the most practical solution. Where possible and without materially changing the intended meaning, we have translated the German text into something resembling contemporary English, accompanied by the original 16 figures. PMID:22450601

  5. Effect of DOP heterodispersion on HEPA-filter-penetration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.

    1984-08-09

    The accuracy of the standard US test method for certifying High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters has been in question since the finding by Hinds, et al. that the dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol used in the test is not monodisperse as had been assumed and that particle-size analyzers, or owls, could not distinguish between different particle-size distributions with the same owl reading. We have studied theoretically and experimentally the filter efficiency for different DOP size distributions with the same owl reading. Our studies show that the effect of varying DOP size distributions on the measured HEPA-filter penetration depends on the light-scattering-photometer response and on the HEPA-filter penetration curve, both measured as a function of particle size. HEPA-filter penetration for a heterodisperse DOP aerosol may be increased, decreased, or remain the same when compared to the filter penetration for monodisperse aerosols. Using experimental HEPA-filter penetration and photometer response curves, we show that heterodisperse DOP aerosols (D/sub cmd/ 0.19 and sigma g = 1.4) yield 24% lower penetrations than that for monodisperse DOP aerosols (D/sub cmd/ = 0.3 and sigma g = 1.0). This surprisingly small effect of the DOP heterodispersion on HEPA-filter penetration is due to the response function of the owl that is similar to the response of the photometer. Changes in the particle-size distribution are therefore seen in a similar fashion by both the photometer and the owl. We also show that replacing the owl with modern particle-size spectrometers may lead to large errors in filter penetration because the particle-size spectrometers do not provide measurements that correspond to the photometer measurements. 15 references, 16 figures.

  6. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Petrology of samples from drill holes USW H-3, H-4, and H-5, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.S.

    1984-06-01

    Hydrology drill holes USW H-3, H-4, and H-5, on the crest and eastern flank of southern Yucca Mountain, Nevada, penetrated a sequence of altered Tertiary pyroclastic rocks consisting of the Paintbrush Tuff, tuff of Calico Hills, and Crater Flat Tuff, in order of increasing age and depth. Multiple episodes of zeolitization are tentatively recognized in the upper Crater Flat Tuff and overlying units from petrologic study of drill bit cuttings and sidewall samples and from studies of samples from other drill holes. The earliest recognized episode was shallow burial diagenesis of Crater Flat Tuff and possibly tuff of Calico Hills before emplacement of the overlying Paintbrush Tuff. Heulandite-clinoptilolite and opal are the main alteration products. A second episode involved crystallization of heulandite and smectite during late-stage devitrification of vitrophyre in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. A third episode of zeolitization, perhaps in part contemporaneous with the second, occurred approximately while the Paintbrush Tuff and older units were being displaced by tilting. Alteration products from this episode of burial diagenesis are clinoptilolite and minor smectite. Mordenite is an additional alteration product in some intervals. A nonlithophysal interval in the lower Topopah Spring tuff is under consideration for placement of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Heulandite and smectite in the altered vitrophyre directly beneath this interval could be the first highly sorptive minerals encountered by contaminated fluid escaping from a repository. Therefore, sorptive properties and thermochemical stability of these specific minerals should be further investigated. 50 references, 16 figures, 1 table.

  8. Hydrogeologic consequences of the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mehran, M.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Fox, J.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study is aimed at studying the possible alteration of the groundwater regime in and around the C-a and the C-b tracts due to the proposed MIS strategies. Results suggest that mine-inflow rates will gradually increase with time and that the phreatic surface will be drawn down significantly over several square kilometers around the C-a and C-b tracts. These drawdowns could have profound effects on the shallow groundwater and surface water supplies. The expected inflow rates may vary from 0.15 to 1.4 m/sup 3//s at the C-a tract and from 0.5 to 0.9 m/sup 3//s at the C-b tract. The computations suggest that over a 30-y period of activity at the C-a tract, the water table in the vicinity of a tributary to the Yellow Creek may be drawn down by as much as 31 m. Similarly, 60 years of MIS retorting at the C-b tract may draw down the water table in the vicnity of the Piceance Creek by 100 m or more. The studies indicate that in an expanding mine, the inflows are likely to be concentrated in the neighborhood of newly excavated regions where hydraulic gradients will be highest. It has been estimated that inflow into individual retorts may vary from 0.15 x 10/sup -3/ to 0.95 x 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//s. These infow rates may or may not have significant effects on combustion efficiency, depending upon such factors as shale richness, uniformity of flow, and steam-air ratio. Higher porosities, lower residual saturations, and higher permeabilities will tend to increase mine inflows. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Canine GM1-gangliosidosis. A clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical comparison of two different models.

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, J.; Orgad, U.; DeGasperi, R.; Richard, R.; Warren, C. D.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Raghavan, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical features of GM1-gangliosidosis in two canine models, English Springer Spaniel (ESS) and Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), have been compared. The disease onset, its clinical course, and survival period of the affected dogs were similar in both models. Skeletal dysplasia was noted radiographically at 2 months of age, whereas at 4 1/2 months of age there was progressive neurologic impairment. However, dwarfism and coarse facial features were seen only in ESS. Both models had similar deficiency in activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase, but possessed a normal protein activator for GM1-beta-galactosidase. Both models stored GM1-ganglioside, asialo-GM1, and oligosaccharides in brain. Furthermore, only the PWD stored glycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycans in visceral organs, and neither model stored them in the brain. Morphologically, both models demonstrated similar storage material in multiple tissues and cell types. The ultrastructure of the storage material was cell-type specific and identical in both models. However, some differences in the lectin staining pattern were noted. Our clinical, biochemical, and histochemical findings indicate that PWD and ESS may represent two different mutations of the beta-galactosidase gene. Moreover, the authors conclude that it is difficult, and inappropriate, to apply the human classification of GM1-gangliosidosis (i.e. infantile, juvenile, and adult forms) to these canine models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1546746

  10. Studies on the regeneration of sulfided iron oxide sorbent with steam-air mixtures. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tamhankar, S.S.

    1982-10-01

    The work reported here was performed as a continuation of studies conducted previously at West Virginia University (WVU), Department of Chemical Engineering on a hot-fuel-gas desulfurization process using a regenerable iron oxide-silica sorbent. The overall process consists of two stages: the absorption or the H/sub 2/S removal stage and the sorbent regeneration stage. In the absorption stage the iron oxide reacts with H/sub 2/S to form iron sulfide. For regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, various schemes have been proposed. Studies at WVU have been aimed at identifying the important reactions involved in absorption and regeneration stages, elucidating their mechanisms and investigating detailed kinetics. In the first two phases of the study, reactions in H/sub 2/S absorption and in sorbent regeneration by air/SO/sub 2/ were investigated. This report addresses regeneration of the sulfided sorbent using steam-air mixtures. Experiments were conducted in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) apparatus. The weight changes were recorded as a function of time during the reactions of iron sulfide (in the presulfided sorbent) with nitrogen-stream and air-steam mixtures. In addition, several solid samples at different conversion levels were anlayzed by LECO sulfur anlaysis technique and by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism has been postulated. Additional work is necessary to investigate the gas-phase reactions which may be taking place simultaneously in a fixed - or a fluidized-bed reactor, and to formulate the overall reaction scheme. 14 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Analysis of potential groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.Y.; Peterson, J.M.; Winters, M.C.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of the analysis of contaminant migration beneath the raffinate pits at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site indicate that during a 10,000-year time period, the maximum concentrations in the water immediately beneath the pit bottoms would be about 4600 pCi/L of radium-226 (Pit 3) and about 12,000 pCi/L of uranium-238 (Pit 1); these concentrations would occur at the centers of the pit bottoms. Based on the assumptions used in this study, the radioactive contaminants in the pits would migrate no more than 2 m (7 ft) below the pit bottoms. Because 6 to 12 m (20 to 40 ft) of silty clays underlie the raffinate pits, the radioactive contaminants would take several tens of thousands of years to reach nearby groundwater supplies. Although the results of these analyses indicate that a high degree of confinement is provided by the four raffinate pits, it should be noted that the validity of such analyses rests on the quality of the parameter values utilized. Due to a lack of current site-specific data for some physical parameters, it has been necessary to use historical and regional data for these values. The values cited are at times inconsistent and contradictory, e.g., the wide range of values indicated for the permeability of clays underlying the pits. However, these were the only data available. The analysis reported herein indicates that within the limitations of the available data, use of the Raffinate Pits site for long-term management of radioactive materials such as those currently being stored in the four pits appears to be feasible. 24 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    -infected subjects with cognitive and motor dysfunction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8780406

  13. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia: an ammonia fog model

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.; Rodean, H.C.; Chan, S.T.; Ermak, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A simplification to the two-phase ammonia vapor-droplet fog problem has been implemented to study the dispersion of a spill of 40 tons of ammonia. We have circumvented the necessity of adding the partial differential equations for mass, momentum, and energy for the ammonia in the liquid phase by certain assumptions. It is assumed that the ammonia fog behaves as an ideal gas including the droplets. A temperature-dependent molecular weight was introduced to simulate the transition from a vapor-droplet cloud to a pure vapor cloud of ammonia. Likewise, the vaporization of ammonia was spread out over a temperature range. Mass, momentum, energy, and total ammonia is conserved rigorously. The observed features of the ammonia spill simulation have pointed out phenomena that could not be predicted in simpler calculations. Perhaps the most obvious feature is the cloud bifurcation due to the strength of the gravity current relative to the ambient wind. The gravity spreading of the denser ammonia fog significantly perturbs the unidirectional windfield in the vicinity of the spill, setting up complex eddy patterns in the cloud which are enhanced by ground heating and warm dry air entrainment. The lower concentrations appear to lift off by a buoyancy-induced flow. The ammonia cloud, rather than being cigar shaped as assumed in simpler models, ranges from pancake shaped to pear shaped, depending upon the ambient windfield. The fact that the ammonia cloud remains cold, very low, and wide is in qualitative agreement with some of the large-scale ammonia spill accidents. 14 figures.

  15. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748

  16. Existing technology transfer report: second-stage support. [SRC hydrotreating catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, D.

    1984-06-01

    Since the economics of SRC hydrotreating depends greatly on both catalyst life and the type of reactor system, an extensive research program was initiated to address several issues pertaining to the design and operation of a large-scale SRC hydrotreater, including catalyst activity and aging, reactor design, and catalyst replacement rate. The objectives of this program were to (1) study the hydrotreating of SRC in an upflow fixed-bed reactor, (2) study the hydrotreating of SRC in a downflow fixed-bed reactor, (3) compare the performances of upflow and downflow fixed-bed reactors, (4) study the fluid dynamics of upflow and downflow fixed-bed reactors, and (5) study the activity, selectivity, and aging of a specially prepared monolithic catalyst for hydroprocessing SRC. APCI focused its work on the fixed-bed reactor, since it was conventionally used in hydrotreating petroleum products. The active materials used to prepare the catalysts were metals selected from Groups VI and VIII of the periodic table. Catalysts such as cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum, and nickel-tungsten supported on alumina were tested. These catalysts are usually poisoned by the ash present in coal-derived materials. Therefore, another aspect of the internally funded program was to develop an ash-tolerant catalyst to successfully hydrotreat SRC. An ash-tolerant catalyst was prepared by supporting the catalytic metals on a honeycomb (monolithic) structure. The honeycomb structure was thought to be extremely ash resistant because of its high geometric surface area per unit volume and large open cross-sectional area. Furthermore, liquid flow in the channels of the honeycomb was expected to be laminar, with little or no induced turbulence due to form friction. Activity of the so-called ash-tolerant honeycomb (monolithic) catalyst was measured for SRC hydrotreating in a catalytic fixed-bed reactor, using both upflow and downflow operating modes. 2 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Late Triassic-Jurassic paleogeography and origin of Gulf of Mexico basin

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, A.

    1987-04-01

    The basic structural and stratigraphic framework of the Gulf of Mexico Basin was established during the Late Triassic and the Jurassic. During the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, as the North American plate started to separate from the South American and African plates, the area of the future basin was part of an extensive landmass broken by tensional grabens that were filled by red beds and volcanics. Marine deposition was restricted to embayments of the Pacific Ocean in northwestern and central Mexico. These marine embayments persisted during the early Middle Jurassic, but seawater did not reach the future Gulf of Mexico Basin until the Callovian. Widespread salt deposits known today from two separate areas of the basin resulted from this initial flooding. During the Late Jurassic, marine conditions progressively extended over increasingly larger parts of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. However, the basin was not connected to the Atlantic Ocean until late in the Jurassic. This paleogeographic reconstruction suggests that the Gulf of Mexico Basin formed as a result of the southward drift of the Yucatan continental block away from the remainder of the North American plate. The separation began in the Late Triassic, continued slowly and sporadically during the Early and Middle Jurassic, and quickened after the Middle Jurassic salt formed. As a result, the salt deposits were split into the two segments known today, and oceanic crust formed in the center of the basin. Early in the Late Jurassic, the Yucatan platform reached its present position and the Gulf of Mexico Basin was born. 14 figures.

  18. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Development of peatlands in northern Minnesota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.E. Jr.; Glaser, P.H.; Janssens, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Boreal peatlands are widely distributed across northern Minnesota, where they cover more than 20% of the regional landscape. A regional survey of these peatlands reveals a remarkable degree of uniformity among the vegetation assemblages and an exceptionally close relationship among the vegetation, water chemistry, water level, and presumed hydrology. These relationships are best integrated by the striking landform patterns that, from the air, resemble fluvial landforms such as islands, rivers, and ripple marks. The patterns instead indicate a sensitive adjustment of peat growth to local hydrology and water quality, making the landform patterns an exceptionally important tool for discerning the potential directions and controls on peatland development. A detailed investigation of the Red Lake peatland was undertaken to test a hypothesis on landform development based on an analysis of variations in the present-day landforms, vegetation, water chemistry, and inferred direction of water movement. The peat stratigraphy, based largely on an analysis of fossil bryophytes, indicates that the west-central watershed at Red Lake was overrum by an ombrotrophic bog forest approximately 2000 years ago, but that the forest was subsequently replaced by non-forested Sphagnum communities similar to the vegetation in the present-day bog drains and Sphagnum lawns. These results agree with the initial hypothesis. The stratigraphy indicates that the forested bog islands have expanded over the last 400 years, which indicates a more sensitive adjustment of the patterns to hydrological variations than predicted by the hypothesis. These results may be applicable to a much wider area because of the broad regional uniformity of the peatland patterns. 57 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Precambrian to Jurassic rocks of Arabian Gulf and adjacent areas: their facies, depositional setting, and hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Kendal, C.G.S.C.

    1986-08-01

    The first sediments to onlap the metamorphosed Precambrian Arabian shield were Infracambrian (Proterozoic) to Middle Cambrian carbonates, clastics, and evaporites. The oldest Arabian reservoir rocks occur in the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic Era Salt of the Huqf Group, which forms the Birba field of Oman. The Middle Cambrian sequence was followed by Late Cambrian through Early Permian marine sandstones and continental to littoral siltstones and variegated shales. The first commercial oil discovered in the Arabian Gulf region occurs in fluvial sands of the Ordovician to Permian Haima and Haushi Groups of the Marmul field in south Oman. These strata are also productive in other fields and are sealed by unconformable contact with the Al Khlata Formation or beneath shale of the Albian Nahr Umr Formation. The deeply buried kerogen sediments of the Huqf Group to the southeast are believed to be the source rocks for these fields of south Oman. The Late Permian to Triassic deposits of the Arabian Peninsula are mainly widespread carbonates and evaporites that were deposited during a period of relative tectonic stability. Their deposition on an epeiric shelf was punctuated by a series of transgressions and regressions. Significant gas reserves have been proven in deep wells in the Arabian Gulf. These wells penetrate large deep structures in the Permian Khuff shelf carbonates. These carbonates have developed secondary porosity and lie beneath interbedded shale and dolomites of the Sudair or Suwei Formation. The source of gas in the Khuff is unknown but could lie in more deeply buried formations. The large deep structures of the Khuff are considered to be among the most attractive for gas potential in the region today. 14 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Supermolecular structure of cellulose: stepwise decrease in LODP and particle size of cellulose hydrolyzed after chemical treatment. [Leveling-off degree of polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Yachi, T.; Hayashi, J.; Takai, M.; Shimizu, Y.

    1983-01-01

    It was observed by electron microscopy that rayons hydrolyzed with 2.4 N HCl at 100/sup 0/C for 2 h, followed by ultrasonic treatment were split into homogeneous particles having a size of about 200 A(2000A). In the previous work with rayons, crystallite length, long period, and chain length calculated from their LODP were all about 200 A(2000A), regardless of the type of rayon. The agreement between particle size and length suggested strongly that a rayon microfibril has a periodic structure along its axis at intervals of about A(2000A). Celluloses II, III, and IV and cellulose regenerated from its esters were derived both from native cellulose and rayons in the fibrous state. After hydrolysis, all the modifications derived from native cellulose showed an LODP of about 80 and rod-like fragments which showed a maximum at 400 A(2000A) in the frequency distribution of their lengths. All of the modifications, except mercerized native cellulose, showed a meridional small-angle reflection corresponding to 400 A(2000A). All the modifications from rayons showed an LODP of about 40. The esters derived from native cellulose were recrystallized by heat treatment and then saponified into cellulose II. After hydrolysis, they showed an LODP of about 40 (200 A(2000A) in chain length), a meridional reflection showing a long period of about 200 A(2000A), and a particle-like fragment having a size of about 200 A(2000A). For native cellulose, after chemical and physical treatments, the LODP, the long period, and the fragment length all decreased stepwise and by the same amounts. The steps were an integral multiple of 200 A(2000A), which is the value of the crystallite length obtained for the native and all other celluloses. The results suggest that native cellulose has a periodic structure at intervals of 200 A(2000A) in length. 40 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Vimentin metaplasia in renal cortical tubules of preneoplastic, neoplastic, aging, and regenerative lesions of rats and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; Stevens, J. L.; Konishi, N.; Kurata, Y.; Uno, H.; Diwan, B. A.; Ohmori, T.

    1992-01-01

    Vimentin expression was studied immunohistochemically in renal cortical tubules of untreated male rats of various ages, rats exposed to toxins (barbital sodium, folic acid) and carcinogens (streptozotocin, N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, barbital sodium, and in humans of various ages with or without renal epithelial tumors. Fetal, neonatal, and young adult rats did not express vimentin in renal cortical tubules. Regenerative renal tubular lesions from rats with aging nephropathy and from rats with toxic nephropathy both expressed vimentin. Mitogenic lesions induced by folic acid at 24 hours, however, were not immunoreactive for vimentin. Carcinogen-induced preneoplastic renal cortical tubular lesions in rats were most often focally immunoreactive whereas strong vimentin expression was found in almost all induced renal tumors. In kidneys of three children (younger than 2 years of age), vimentin was not found in renal cortical tubular cells except in rare individual cells in one case. Vimentin was abundant in basophilic regenerative tubules in kidneys of aged individuals, however. Most (7/10) human renal carcinomas and latent preneoplastic or neoplastic renal tubular lesions found incidentally at autopsy (2/4) showed vimentin expression. The authors suggest that the switching to vimentin expression in phenotypically normal renal cortical tubular cells in rats and humans, which do not usually express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, should be considered vimentin metaplasia. Vimentin expression is dissociated from increased cell proliferation in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions, however. Instead the degree of dedifferentiation of the tubule cells and changes in phenotype were associated with vimentin expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1415487

  3. Tropic Responses of Funaria Spores to Red Light

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Lionel; Etzold, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The tropic responses of Funaria hygrometrica spores to continuous illumination with red light (610 to 690 mμ) have been studied over the intensity range from 10-5 through 10+6 erg/cm2 second, using both plane polarized light and partial illumination with unpolarized light. From the relative frequency of outgrowth origin in different directions, the following is inferred. (1). The germination direction of chloronemal filaments is directly influenced by red light over this whole intensity range, while that of rhizoids tends to be opposite the chloronema. (2) Three photoreceptor systems direct chloronemal primordia: (a) A low intensity system acting from 10-5 to 10-0.5 erg/cm2 second. It favors their growth from a cell's brightest part(s). Its photoreceptors are disoriented, excited by the electric vector, and probably are dispersed phytochrome molecules. (b) A medium intensity system which acts largely alone only at 100.5 erg/cm2 second but is influential from 100 to 105 erg/cm2 second. It likewise favors growth from a cell's brightest part(s); its receptor molecules are also excited electrically, but they are tangentially oriented. (c) A high intensity system which acts alone from 105 to 106 erg/cm2 second and is influential down to 101 erg/cm2 second. It favors growth of the chloronemas from a cell's darkest part. Its receptors probably are magnetically excited and tangentially oriented. The polarotropic responses of the chloronemas resemble those directing their origins. One new feature is that under intense (106 erg/cm2 second) plane polarized and vertically directed light, many soon grow to form tight helices. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:5863438

  4. Alteration of tissue disposition of cadmium by chelating agents. [Mice; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, C.D.; Waalkes, M.P.; Cantilena, L.R. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of several chelating agents (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, DDC; nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL; d,l-penicillamine, PEN; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion of cadmium (Cd) was determined in mice. When chelators were administered immediately after Cd, significant increases in survival were noted after treatment with DMSA, EDTA, and DTPA. DTPA, followed by EDTA and then DMSA, were consistently the most effective in decreasing the tissue concentrations of Cd and increasing the excretion of Cd. NTA, BAL, DDC and PEN had no beneficial effects. To determine the role of MT in the acute decrease in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected IV with Cd followed by DTPA at various times after Cd. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D failed to eliminate this decreased DTPA effectiveness. Therefore, it appears that MT does not play an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The effect of repeated daily administration of chelators on the distribution and excretion of Cd was studied by administering chelators daily for 5 days starting 48 hr after Cd. DTPA, EDTA, DMSA and BAL significantly increased the urinary elimination of Cd. Thus, mobilization of Cd into urine occurs with repeated chelation therapy, which may decrease tissue concentrations of Cd and reduce the toxicity of the metal. 4 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Empirical characterization of oil-shale cratering experiments. [RDX, ANFO, PETN, TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.L.; Craig, J.L.; Lombardo, K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous small- and intermediate-size cratering experiments have been conducted in Piceance Creek Basin oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points oil shale mines near Rifle, Colorado. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate scaling as a tool to infer the behavior of large-scale tests from small-scale experiments, to calibrate the hydrodynamic computer codes used to model explosive fragmentation of oil shale, and to investigate the influence of bedding plane orientation, natural joints, fractures, and the grade of oil shale on rock fragmentation. The small tests were made using PETN and RDX explosive with charge sizes of a few grams. The intermediate-sized tests used ANFO or TNT explosives with charge sizes of 5 to 100 kg. Crater dimensions were measured on all experiments. Crater volumes were calculated from screened rubble volumes on the intermediate-scale experiments and measured directly on the small-scale experiments. Fragment size distributions were measured on most of the intermediate-sized tests and on several of the small-scale experiments. The analyses of these cratering data show: (1) small-scale cratering tests can be used to qualitatively predict the kinds of geologic interactions that will influence a larger-scale experiment; (2) the site specific geology plays a dominant role in the formation of the crater; (3) small flaws and fractures influence crater development and particle size distributions in small-scale craters in the same manner that joint and fracture systems influence intermediate-scale experiments; (4) complex site geology causes increases in the critical and optimum depths of burial and changes the symmetry of the crater; and (5) small- and intermediate-scale cratering experiments can be used to calibrate hydrodynamic computer codes if great care is used to identify the effect of site specific geology. 15 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Evaluation of the Malvern optical particle monitor. [Volumetric size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. J.; Johnson, E.

    1983-07-01

    The Malvern 2200/3300 Particle Sizer is a laser-based optical particle sizing device which utilizes the principle of Fraunhofer Diffraction as the means of particle size measurement. The instrument is designed to analyze particle sizes in the range of 1 to 1800 microns diameter through a selection of lenses for the receiving optics. It is not a single-particle counter but rather an ensemble averager over the distribution of particles present in the measuring volume. Through appropriate measurement techniques, the instrument can measure the volumetric size distribution of: solids in gas or liquid suspension; liquid droplets in gas or other immiscible liquids; and, gas bubbles in liquid. (Malvern Handbook, Version 1.5). This report details a limited laboratory evaluation of the Malvern system to determine its operational characteristics, limitations, and accuracy. This investigation focused on relatively small particles in the range of 5 to 150 microns. Primarily, well characterized particles of coal in a coal and water mixture were utilized, but a selection of naturally occurring, industrially generated, and standard samples (i.e., glass beads) wer also tested. The characteristic size parameter from the Malvern system for each of these samples was compared with the results of a Coulter particle counter (Model TA II) analysis to determine the size measurement accuracy. Most of the particulate samples were suspended in a liquid media (water or isoton, plus a dispersant) for the size characterization. Specifically, the investigations contained in this report fall into four categories: (a) Sample-to-lense distance and sample concentration studies, (b) studies testing the applicability to aerosols, (c) tests of the manufacturer supplied software, and (d) size measurement comparisons with the results of Coulter analysis. 5 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Oligocene volcanism and multiple caldera formation in the Chinati Mountains, Presidio County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cepeda, J.C.; Henry, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Chinati Mountains caldera, which lies in Trans-Pecos Texas in the southern Basin and Range Province, was formed by eruption of the Mitchell Mesa Rhyolite. Volcanism in the Chinati Mountains area began several million years before formation of the Chinati Mountains caldera. Rocks of the Morita Ranch Formation, Infiernito caldera, and Shely Group ring the caldera on the south, east, and north. After its collapse, the caldera was filled by rhyolitic to trachytic lava flows and an ash-flow tuff of the Chinati Mountains Group. These include, from oldest to youngest, the lower trachyte, middle trachyte, lower rhyolite, upper trachyte, and upper rhyolite (ash-flow tuff). The Chinati Mountains Group was then intruded by the West Chinati Stock, the resurgent dome of the caldera. Three cycles of rhyolitic to trachytic magmatism, all derived from a zoned magma chamber, are represented by (1) Mitchell Mesa Rhyolite to lower and middle trachytes, (2) lower rhyolite to upper trachyte, and (3) upper rhyolite to West Chinati Stock. Dominant caldera collapse followed eruption of the Mitchell Mesa Rhyolite, but collapse is also associated with rhyolitic eruptions in the second and third cycles. The entire sequence erupted between 32 and 33 mya. The Chinati Mountains area is the site of one major, inactive silver mine and numerous prospects for silver, lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, uranium, and fluorite. The Shafter silver district produced 31 million ounces of silver from Permian dolomitic limestones just south of the southern boundary of the caldera. Major prospects are associated with a quartz-monzonite porphyry intrusion (copper-molybdenum) just west of Shafter and with the West Chinati Stock (silver, lead, zinc, copper, and fluorite). All mineralization is probably genetically related to the caldera. 74 references, 15 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth in the brain. Suppression of endothelial cell turnover by penicillamine and the depletion of copper, an angiogenic cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-depleted by diet and penicillamine treatment (CDPT). The CDPT rabbits showed a significant decrease in serum copper, copper staining of tumor cell nuclei, microvascular density, the tumor volume, endothelial cell turnover, and an increase in the vascular permeability (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier), as well as peritumoral brain edema. In non-tumor-bearing animals, CDPT did not alter the vascular permeability or the brain water content. CDPT also inhibited the intracerebral growth of the 9L gliosarcoma in F-344 rats, with a similar increase of the peritumoral vascular permeability and the brain water content. CDPT failed to inhibit tumor growth and the vascularization of the VX2 carcinoma in the thigh muscle or the metastases to the lung, findings that may reflect regional differences in the responsiveness of the endothelium, the distribution of copper, or the activity of cuproenzymes. Metabolic and pharmacologic withdrawal of copper suppresses intracerebral tumor angiogenesis; angiosuppression is a novel biologic response modifier for the in situ control of tumor growth in the brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1700617

  9. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part V. Pyrite size/form/microlithotype distribution in western Kentucky prepared coals and in channel samples from western Kentucky and western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, K.A.; Hower, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Pyrite and marcasite distribution has been characterized in several western Kentucky coals, western Pennsylvania coals, and coals from western Kentucky preparation plants using three parameters of size, morphology, and microlithotype association. A classification system was developed to provide a consistent method for recording different pyrite/marcasite types. Sulfides were microscopically measured and placed in one of six size divisions (<5, 5 to 10, 10 to 40, 40 to 75, 75 to 100, or >150..mu..m) rather than absolute size. Five categories (euhedral, framboidal, dendritic, massive, or cleat) describe pyrite/marcasite morphology. The third parameter identifies the microlithotype (vitrite, clarite, inertite, liptite, durite, vitrinertite, trimacerite, or carbominerite) in which the pyrite occurs (not including the measured sulfide). Carbominerite is a mineral/organic association dominated by mineral matter. The percentage of each variable represents the total number of counts per sample and not the volume of pyrite. Throughout the studies, both sulfides are collectively referred to as pyrite unless otherwise specified. This paper describes the different studies which were undertaken to test the usefulness of this pyrite classification system. Systematic trends in pyrite variability were determined for the Springfield coal and Herrin of western Kentucky. Pyrite characterization of the Lower Kittanning coal from western Pennsylvania shows that certain pyrite morphologies can be an expression of the environments deposition of coal bodies. Studies of western Kentucky prepared coals demonstrate that pyrite characterization apparently can provide a method for predicting pyrite behavior and the extent of pyrite removal for specific coals. 77 references, 15 figures, 19 tables.

  10. Direct liquefaction of peat and lignite to BTX-type liquid fuel. Final technical report, June 1, 1981-August 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, R.J.; Heneghan, E.P.; Houmere, D.M.; Trantolo, D.J.

    1984-10-26

    This report relates the work on the experimental research and development program for the direct liquefaction of peat and lignite to a BTX-type liquid fuel. Both the BTX-type and alcohol fuel processes have as their major feature an alkaline hydrolysis pretreatment of the peat and lignite. It was proposed to investigate the susceptibility of these organics to further chemical and biological treatment for production of BTX-type and alcohol fuels, respectively. The work directed toward the production of BTX-type fuel is detailed in this report. The experimental program involved laboratory scale work in two process steps: (1) alkaline hydrolysis for pretreatment; and (2) catalytic decarboxylation for conversion of pretreatment products to BTX-type fuel. Both of these areas were approached independently to establish the technical feasibility and to determine process operating conditions and yields. The pretreatment experiments called for reaction of lignite, water, and sodium carbonate under batch conditions. The optimal conditions for breakdown of the lignite are listed. Decarboxylation experiments were carried out using benzoic acid and pretreated lignite. Two procedures for chemical decarboxylation were investigated: (1) the copper/quinoline method; and (2) the persulfate/silver ion method. The former method showed some conversion of benzoic acid to benzene, but quantitation was difficult with the complexity of the product mixture. The latter method showed an identifiable 41% yield of benzene. The decarboxylation work is detailed in Section 4. Preliminary engineering designs for pilot and full-scale facilities are presented. 17 references, 15 figures, 11 tables.

  11. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  12. The ophthalmic implications of the correction of late enophthalmos following severe midfacial trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, N T

    1991-01-01

    enophthalmos for which measurements were available produced an improvement; in 1 case the enophthalmos was thought to be worse postoperatively. Dystopia operations resulted in improvement in 40 of 48 operations; in 2 instances dystopia was worse postoperatively. Diplopia was unchanged by 33 operations, improved by 11 procedures, and worsened by 6. If patients are considered before and after their total reconstruction course, diplopia was improved in 9 of the 29 patients. In seven of these nine, diplopia was eliminated. There was no change in or production of diplopia in 19 patients, and 5 patients had worsening of their double vision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE20 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:1808816

  13. Role of oxygen free radicals in retinal damage associated with experimental uveitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, N A

    1990-01-01

    FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 2 D FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 3 D FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 C FIGURE 6 D FIGURE 16 FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B PMID:1965620

  14. The origins and insertions of the extraocular muscles: development, histologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Sevel, D

    1986-01-01

    for muscle adjustments should be assessed from the limbus rather than from the sites of insertion of these tendons. In the series of patients with esotropia, no mechanical abnormalities were noted in relationship to the insertions of the medial or lateral recti muscles. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the site of insertion of the medial rectus muscle and the degree of esotropia. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:3590478

  15. Low-energy nuclear fusion data and their relation to magnetic and laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jarmie, N.

    1980-04-01

    The accuracy of the basic fusion data for the T(d,n)/sup 4/He, /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He, T(t,2n)/sup 4/He, D(d,n)/sup 3/He, and D(d,p)T reactions was investigated in the 10- to 100-keV bombarding energy region, and the effects of inaccuracies on the design of fusion reactors were assessed. The data base for these reactions (particularly, the most critical T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction) rests on 25-year-old experiments the accuracy (often assumed to be +- 5%) of which has rarely been questioned: yet, in all except the d + d reactions, there are significant differences among data sets. The errors in the basic data sets may be considerably larger than previously expected, and the effect on design calculations should be significant. Much of the trouble apparently lies in the accuracy of the energy measurements, which are difficult at low energies. Systematic errors of up to 50% are possible in the reactivity values of the present T(d,n)/sup 4/He data base. The errors in the reactivity will propagate proportionately into the errors in fusion probabilities in reactor calculations. /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He reaction cross sections could be in error by as much as 50% in the low-energy region. The D(d,n)/sup 3/He and D(d,p)T cross sections appear to be well known and consistent. The T(t,2n)/sup 4/He cross section is poorly known and may be subject to large systematic errors. Improved absolute measurements for all the reactions in the low bombarding energy region (10 to 100 keV) are needed, but until they are done, the data sets should be left as they are (except for T(t,2n)/sup 4/He data, which could be lowered by about 50%). The apparent uncertainties of these data sets should be kept in mind. 14 figures.

  16. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  17. A 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics trajectory for B-DNA: analysis of structure, motions, and solvation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, M A; Ravishanker, G; Beveridge, D L

    1997-01-01

    , and may have important implications for understanding the functional energetics and specificity of the interactions of DNA and RNA with regulatory proteins, pharmaceutical agents, and other ligands. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:9370428

  18. Wound healing anomalies after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: correlation of clinical outcomes, corneal topography, and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, R F

    1997-01-01

    anomalies persist. Central islands appear to consist of persistent dense subepithelial extracellular deposits. Local scars are caused by new collagen deposition. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 9C FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 11C FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B FIGURE 13C FIGURE 14A FIGURE 14B FIGURE 14C FIGURE 14D FIGURE 14E FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 15C FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18A FIGURE 18B FIGURE 21A FIGURE 21B FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:9440190

  19. Adverse external ocular effects of topical ophthalmic therapy: an epidemiologic, laboratory, and clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, F M

    1983-01-01

    probable ones. Factors relating to the development of papillary contact-lens reactions were daily wear, number of days of wear, and, especially, the preservatives to which the patients were exposed. Reactions occurred more often with soft lenses than with hard ones. Of patients with drug reactions, 5.22% had two different ones simultaneously. Coexisting reactions to pharmacologically active agents were also present in 15% of patients who reacted to preservatives in contact lens solutions. The ocular tissues that were affected by each kind of drug reaction were tabulated, and the relative degrees and sequences of involvement were discussed. The frequencies with which particular drugs, physical ag Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 D FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 6 C FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 10 D FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B FIGURE 21 A FIGURE 21 B FIGURE 22 A FIGURE 22 B FIGURE 22 C FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 23 C FIGURE 23 D PMID:6676985

  20. The Pajarito Plateau: a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Allen, Craig D.; Steen, Charlie R.

    1993-01-01

    Pajarito Plateau is described as the high tableland that lies between the Jemez Mountains on the west and the Rio Grande on the east. From north to south, it extends from the Chama Valley to La Cañada de Cochiti (Hewett 1906:14)(Figure 1). Because human activity rarely stops at such definite boundaries, major ethnographic studies of Tewa (San Ildefonso and Santa Clara) and Keres (Cochiti) linguistic groups are included. (Even though most of the historic pueblos occupied by the Tewa and Keres are not located on the Pajarito Plateau, oral traditions and archaeological data suggest that these groups once occupied sites on the plateau.) Towa studies are not included because Steen believed Towa ancestors were not involved in major cultural developments of the Pajarito Plateau. In addition, a bibliography of the Jemez area (home of Towa people) has been prepared by Michael Elliott (1982) and included with his nomination of large Pueblo sites near Jemez Springs to the National Register of Historic Places that is on file at the Museum of New Mexico, Laboratory of Anthropology, in Santa Fe. Both Steen and Mathien included references to geographically and historically related material that does not focus on the Pajarito Plateau but, nonetheless, is important to understanding the area's archaeology and physical environment, for example, lithic resources available from Cerro Pedernal or in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  1. Epithelial transplantation for the management of severe ocular surface disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, E J

    1996-01-01

    with unilateral cicatrizing conjunctival disease, the first option should be CAU. For patients with unilateral limbal deficiency, CLAU is the procedure of choice. For patients with bilateral disease Ir-CLAL should be considered first. If this procedure is not available, then consideration of KLAL is warranted. CONCLUSIONS: Classification of the various epithelial transplantation procedures based on anatomy is useful for an accurate comparison and discussion of the procedures. KLAL is a useful technique in the management of severe ocular surface disease due to limbal deficiency. However, patients with preoperative conjunctival keratinization have a poor prognosis. Consideration of a CLAU or a Ir-CLAL should be made for ocular surface disease on the basis of whether the disease is unilateral or bilateral. The importance of HLA and ABO typing, as well as the protocol for immunosuppression in the allograft procedures for limbal deficiency, needs further study. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 3C FIGURE 3D FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 5D FIGURE 6A FIGURE 6B FIGURE 6C FIGURE 6D FIGURE 6E FIGURE 6F FIGURE 6G FIGURE 6H FIGURE 7A FIGURE 7B FIGURE 7C FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 9C FIGURE 9D FIGURE 9E FIGURE 9F FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 10C FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 12C FIGURE 12D FIGURE 12E FIGURE 12F FIGURE 12G FIGURE 12H FIGURE 12I FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B FIGURE 13C FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:8981714

  2. FOREWORD: Heterogenous nucleation and microstructure formation—a scale- and system-bridging approach Heterogenous nucleation and microstructure formation—a scale- and system-bridging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerich, H.

    2009-11-01

    in [8]. Furthermore, the honorable invitation to publish a special issue in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter dedicated to the Priority Program's topic allows the obtained results to be communicated to relevant international colleagues, which stimulates further interest and encourages future collaborations. The issue comprises the research results of the participants during the first two year period of the Priority Program as well as that of the international referees of the program. Now, what precisely is the research concept of the Priority Program and thus, what are the articles in this special issue dedicated to? Ever since the pioneering work of Volmer and Weber [9], Becker and Döring [10] as well as Turnbull and Fisher [11] nucleation has been modelled more or less phenomenologically. These traditional models describe nucleation by stochastic processes of single atoms, respectively, molecules, which attach at primary droplets. Those thereby growing droplets become stable by reaching a critical size. This concept has largely been employed to model thermal activated first-order phase transformations. However it contains basic weak points, which raises the question of its physical justification. For instance, the dependence of the interfacial free energy on the critical size of a nucleus is—from the point of view of recent experiments—not considered adequately. In the past years, several advances have been performed to put the modelling of nucleation and microstructure formation on a wider base [12-15]. Figure 1 Figure 1. Illustration of the interdisciplinary approach in the Research Priority Program 'Nucleation and Growth Kinetics in Colloids and Metals—Steps towards a Scale- and System-Bridging Understanding' [8]: to advance towards a system- and scale-bridging detailed understanding of the energetics and kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation and micro-structure formation, two different experimental (binary colloids and binary metallic alloys) model