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Sample records for 14th australasian fluid

  1. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  2. Staphylococcus aureus infections in Australasian neonatal nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, D; Fraser, S; Hogg, G; Li, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence and outcome of systemic infections with methicillin sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Australasian neonatal nurseries. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of systemic infections (clinical sepsis plus positive cultures of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid) in 17 Australasian neonatal nurseries. Results: The incidence of early onset sepsis with S aureus, mainly MSSA, was 19 cases per 244 718 live births or 0.08 per 1000. From 1992 to 1994, MRSA infections caused only 8% of staphylococcal infections. From 1995 to 1998, there was an outbreak of MRSA infection, in two Melbourne hospitals. The outbreak resolved, after the use of topical mupirocin and improved handwashing. Babies with MRSA sepsis were significantly smaller than babies with MSSA sepsis (mean birth weight 1093 v 1617 g) and more preterm (mean gestation 27.5 v 30.3 weeks). The mortality of MRSA sepsis was 24.6% compared with 9.9% for MSSA infections. The mortality of early onset MSSA sepsis, however, was 39% (seven of 18) compared with 7.3% of late onset MSSA infection presenting more than two days after birth. Conclusions: S aureus is a rare but important cause of early onset sepsis. Late onset MRSA infections carried a higher mortality than late onset MSSA infections, but babies with early onset MSSA sepsis had a particularly high mortality. PMID:15210669

  3. English Transported: Essays on Australasian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramson, W. S., Ed.

    This collection of essays on Australasian English deals with various aspects of the language as it is spoken in the areas of Australian, New Zealand, and Papua-New Guinea. Although the bulk of the essays are concerned with Australian and New Zealand English, the editor expresses the hope that the integrated study of these two major dialects will…

  4. Viruses in a 14th-century coprolite.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected.

  5. The Moon in the 14th Century Frescoes in Padova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinati, Claudio

    Padova, already in the 14th century a great cultural center of international reputation, struggled with the problems posed by the Moon with Pietro d'Abano, physician and astronomer. But it was with the great painters of that time, namely Giotto and Giusto de'Menabuoi, that its most intimate connections with the contemporary popular culture and theology were illustrated. Giotto depicts the Moon in the Giudizio Universale of the Scrovegni Chapel (1305). The Moon appears on the upper part of the painting, to the left of Christ the Judge, to crown together with the Sun, His presence. The Moon is a heavenly body similar to those appearing on Roman coins of emperors, to signify the Judge is an immortal creature. The color is pale, witeish, almost veiled. More important, the Moon has a face that by popular belief was that of Cain, condemned to amass `mucchi di rovi spinosi' for the fire of the damned (Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno XX, 126). Giusto de' Menabuoi on the other hand expounds, in the Crucifixion of the Duomo (1375 ca), a theological interpretation. The day of God's justice, following the death of the Savior, the Moon will burn and the Sun will pale (Isaiah, 24, 23). And indeed the Moon has a dark reddish colour. Therefore, while in Giotto the Moon is seen as in the popular beliefs, Giusto underlines the theological visions of his times with the words of the prophets.

  6. PREFACE: 14th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Fulvio

    2010-04-01

    The 14th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW-14) is the last of a long series of annual meetings dedicated to the GW data analysis. This time the workshop was held at the Department of Physics of the University of Rome "Sapienza" and its scientic focus was on strengthening the connection among the gravitational wave and other astrophysical communities. Thus, a significant fraction of the workshop was dedicated to explore the potentialities of the multimessanger astronomy and in particular on the emerging neutrino observatories in conjunction with the GW observations. Moreover, several contributions were devoted to technical details of the analysis of real data from interferometric detectors, aimed at the improvement of the data quality for increasing the confidence in the detection of the first GW event. On the base of these techniques new GW upper limits on the strength of continuous signals from neutron stars and on stochastic background as the event rates of burst and inspiral signals have been set. As chairman of this workshop, I would like to thank the members of the organizing and scientic committees and all the participants which have been the crucial actors of the workshop success. Some of the talks presented during the conference appear in the special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity, while remaining talks from the symposium are published in this companion volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The ensemble of all these contributions represents the most up-to-date papers on the topics covered by the meeting and, it provides valuable details about current work. Finally , I would also like to thank the institutions and the sponsor that made this meeting possible: University of Rome La Sapienza Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics - INFN Italian National Institute of Astrophyiscs - INAF University of Rome Tor Vergata University of Sannio E4-Computing Engineering s.p.a. Fulvio Ricci University of La Sapienza and INFN

  7. Host and parasite genomics, an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Peacock, C

    2010-08-01

    The last decade has seen rapid advances in the genetic technology that is allowing researchers to examine host-pathogen interactions at a whole organism level. The advent of 'affordable' post-genomic technology has opened up a world of proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic methodologies that have been utilized by research groups in the Australasian region to examine the hosts' response to parasitic infections. Significant contributions have been made to many areas of parasitic infections with particular strengths being in malaria vaccine development, genetic susceptibility to leishmaniasis, genomic and proteomic analysis of schistosomiasis and genetic determination of resistance to helminthes in domestic animals. This review highlights some of these studies that have made significant contributions to our knowledge of the pathogenesis of parasitic diseases with a particular emphasis placed on studies reported in the last couple of years.

  8. Helminth parasites of Australasian monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-06-15

    This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded. Most records pertain to free-living and wild animals; where they do not, they have been annotated appropriately. Unpublished information known to the authors has been included in annotations to entries, where appropriate. Parasites are arranged as follows: Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and their systematic position is indicated by abbreviations placed before the name. The authority for each parasite record is given after the author's name, as a number in parentheses, and this refers to the numbered (1-664) list of references.        A parasite-host list is presented alphabetically, irrespective of taxonomic affiliation together with the host species in which they are known to occur. Hosts are arranged initially by family and alphabetically within each family.

  9. Biodiversity and parasites of wildlife: helminths of Australasian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Ian; Spratt, David M

    2015-04-01

    Despite current attempts to document the extent of biodiversity on Earth, significant problems exist in fully documenting the helminth parasites of wildlife. Using the Australasian marsupials as an example, we examine some of these difficulties, including challenges in collecting uncommon host species, the ongoing description of new species of marsupials, the presence of cryptic species, and the decline in taxonomic expertise in Australia. Although optimistic global predictions have been made concerning the rate of discovery and description of new species of animals, these predictions may not apply in the case of specific groups of animals such as the Australasian marsupials.

  10. Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-08-01

    The Fe oxidation state along few profile across dark/light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite sample have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

  11. Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Fe oxidation state along profiles across dark and light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite samples have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

  12. Development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    Student learning and development are the core business of the academy, yet until recently Australian and New Zealand universities lacked data on students' engagement in effective educational practices. This paper reports the foundations and development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)--the largest educationally focused…

  13. Setting the pace: the 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Australasian Podiatry Council conference was held from April 26 to 29 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This commentary provides a brief overview of the conference, including the speakers and topic areas covered, selected original research highlights, and award winning presentations. PMID:21762520

  14. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef; Pineda-Vargas, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015") that was held in Somerset West (South Africa) from 25th February to 3rd March 2015.

  15. Medieval Armenian Costumes: A History of the Armenians from the 7th-14th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soghikian, Juanita Will

    The booklet contains illustrations of 40 medieval Armenian costumes based upon statues and paintings of the 7th through the 14th centuries. Part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans, the booklet also provides a discussion of Armenian history and detailed descriptions of each…

  16. DC66812 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-12 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ABOVE EAST POTOMAC PARK TOWARD THE MALL AND BEYOND - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. The 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Raman Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy was the main topic of the 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium, which was held in March 2003 at Pittcon. The development of the enabling technologies that have made Raman spectroscopy a routine analysis tool in many laboratories worldwide is discussed.

  18. Mitral valve endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a 14th week pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Botta, Luca; Merati, Roberto; Vignati, Gabriele; Orcese, Carlo Andrea; De Chiara, Benedetta; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis during pregnancy carries a high mortality risk, both for the mother and for the foetus and requires a multidisciplinary team in the management of complicated cases. We report our experience with a 39-year old patient, affected by an acute active mitral endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva at the 14th gestational week, strongly motivated to continue the pregnancy. Our patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement with a normothermic high-flow cardiopulmonary bypass under continuous intraoperative foetal monitoring. Caesarean section occurred at the 38th gestational week. The delivery was uneventful and both the mother and child are doing well at the 16-month follow-up.

  19. 14th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society 28 - 29 May 2007, Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Braddock, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Association for Neurophyschopharmacology hosted a satellite meeting as part of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. The meeting was entitled 'Cytokines and Depression III: Identification and Treatment of Symptoms Associated with Inflammation in Diseases with Inflammation in Medically Ill Patients' and was held in Bordeaux, France on 28 - 29 May, 2007. The meeting comprised approximately 40 participants from many leading laboratories and hospitals from around the world looking to understand some of the clinical issues associated with depression and behavioural changes, with the aims of exploring better ways of clinical monitoring and marshalling drug discovery efforts from bespoke and alternate indications in providing new therapeutic approaches.

  20. Business of biosimilars - 14th annual conference (October 15-17, 2013 - Boston, Massachusetts, USA).

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, A

    2013-12-01

    Competition in the biological market offers a new set of opportunities and challenges within the healthcare industry. Biosimilars, like generic small-molecule drugs, can provide cost savings and increase patient access, while also promoting innovation. While large molecule manufacturers face many challenges unique to complex therapeutics, it is becoming clear that the commercialization of biosimilars shares many of the same hurdles as the generics market. The 14th Annual Business of Biosimilars Conference provided quality presentations from industry leaders regarding many commercial considerations for stakeholders interested in entering the biosimilars market. Opportunities to network with industry experts were offered, with over 120 attendees.

  1. Building an Australasian paramedicine research agenda: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Peter; Maguire, Brian; Jennings, Paul; Simpson, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The need for paramedicine research has been recognised internationally through efforts to develop out-of-hospital research agendas in several developed countries. Australasia has a substantial paramedicine research capacity compared to the discipline internationally and is well positioned as a potential leader in the drive towards evidence-based policy and practice in paramedicine. Our objective was to draw on international experiences to identify and recommend the best methodological approach that should be employed to develop an Australasian paramedicine research agenda. A search and critical appraisal process was employed to produce an overview of the literature related to the development of paramedicine research agendas throughout the world. Based on these international experiences, and our own analysis of the Australasian context, we recommend that a mixed methods approach be used to develop an inclusive Australasian Paramedicine Research Agenda. This approach will capture the views and interests of a wide range of expert stakeholders through multiple data collection strategies, including interviews, roundtable discussions and an online Delphi consensus survey. Paramedic researchers and industry leaders have the opportunity to use this multidisciplinary process of inquiry to develop a paramedicine research agenda that will provide a framework for the development of a culture of open evaluation, innovation and improvement. This research agenda would assess the progress of paramedicine research in Australia and New Zealand, map the research capacity of the paramedicine discipline, paramedic services, universities and professional organisations, identify current strengths and opportunities, make recommendations to capitalize on opportunities, and identify research priorities. Success will depend on ensuring the participation of a representative sample of expert stakeholders, fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and adhering to a predefined

  2. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  3. EDITORIAL: The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14 The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-06-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14) was held in Daegu, Korea, on 21-24 June 2010. There were 304 participants from 17 countries. The state of the art in many aspects of flow visualization was presented and discussed, and a total of 243 papers from 19 countries were presented. Two special lectures and four invited lectures, 48 paper sessions and one poster session were held in five session rooms and in a lobby over four days. Among the paper sessions, those on 'biological flows', 'micro/nano fluidics', 'PIV/PTV' and 'compressible and sonic flows' received great attention from the participants of ISFV14. Special events included presentations of 'The Asanuma Award' and 'The Leonardo Da Vinci Award' to prominent contributors. Awards for photos and movies were given to three scientists for their excellence in flow visualizations. Sixteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of ISFV14. After the standard peer review process of this journal, six papers were finally accepted for publication. We wish to thank the editors of MST for making it possible to publish this special feature from ISFV14. We also thank the authors for their careful and insightful work and cooperation in the preparation of revised papers. It will be our pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in flow visualization research as a result of this special feature. We also hope that the progress in flow visualization will create new research fields. The 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization will be held in Minsk, Belarus in 2012. We would like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOP Publishing for their kind support.

  4. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Melanie R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change. PMID:27305927

  5. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melanie R; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-07-15

    Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change.

  6. Australasian tektites: source parameters and crater location reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecher, O.; Storey, M.; Hopper, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Tektites of the Australasian strewn field cover an area from SE-Asia, through the Southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean and parts of the Indian Ocean, down to Australia. The impact crater has until now not been positively located, but it is generally assumed to be located somewhere in Indochina, where tektites also are more abundant and larger. 40Ar/39Ar dated Australasian tektites consistently give ages around 800 ka (1,2), and our new laser step-heating determinations on a Thailand tektite are in agreement. Australasian tektites show a marked coherence in physical, chemical and isotopic parameters. Refractive indices of tektite fragments, numbers of vesicles, abundance of relict minerals, tektite mass/m2, major elements compositions from tektites covering the whole strewn field can be contoured with more or less elliptical curves with slightly varying center positions, located within a few 100 km of the Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam junction. Isotope data suggest that sediments of the impact area consisted of ~1500 Ma old denudation material (Nd-isotope data (3,4)) and that this material was eroded within the last 170 Ma (Sr-isotope data (3,4)). Fine-grained minerals and particularly soils are effective scavengers of cosmogenic 10Be, and the high values reported for Australasian tektites (5) suggest that clay minerals are a significant and variable component in the target material. The highest 10Be-values are from tektites found furthest from the impact site. In the impact process, the top layer of the target - with its young sedimentation ages and higher 10Be values - will be projected the furthest away from the impact site. The next layer down consists of slightly older material with lower 10Be, and the impact process will propel these tektites to areas closer to the impact site. The 10Be distribution in tektites shows this variation and defines a broad center (~17°N, ~107°E) off the coast of Vietnam (5). La-ICPMS Pb/Pb-isotope data from tektites show small

  7. 14th Annual international meeting of wind turbine test stations: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    These proceedings are of the 14th Annual International Meeting of Test Stations. As the original charter states these meetings are intended to be an international forum for sharing wind turbine testing experiences. By sharing their experiences they can improve testing skills and techniques. As with all new industries the quality of the products is marked by how well they learn from their experiences and incorporate this learning into the next generation of products. The test station`s role in this process is to provide accurate information to the companies they serve. This information is used by designers to conform and improve their designs. It is also used by certification agencies for confirming the quality of these designs. By sharing of experiences they are able to accomplished these goals, serve these customers better and ultimately improve the international wind energy industry.

  8. [A medieval herbal from the 14th century, a new version of the Latin Macer?].

    PubMed

    Mauch, Ute

    2006-01-01

    A medical compendium of "Melleus liquorphysicae artis" has survived under the name Alexander Hispanus; it is in codex Ms. 8769 of the Biblioteca nacional in Madrid. Therein a herbal from the 14th century is integrated. However, today people must think that we have one herbal and two authors: Alexander Hispanus and Henrik Harpestraeng (died 1244), a physician from Scandinavia. First of all, the parts of the medical compendium are presented. We do not know which parts originally belong to the medical compendium. The examination of many handwritings suggested that the discourses about consumption and dropsy were not originally included in the compendium; that seems certain. Further it was shown that probably Alexander Hispanus did not live after all and we must see him as a fictional person. Nevertheless we should not automatically regard Henrik Harpestraeng as the author of the herbal although it contains typical plants of the North like Angelica. The oldest codex of the herbal was probably written in Bavaria or Austria because it contains old Bavarian words. This handwriting can be seen as a piece of evidence that the knowledge about Angelica was spreading from the South. We should explore the connection with handwritings of the Macer, too. The herbal could be a Latin version of the Macer, in which the original verses are abandoned. An analysis of the medical plants made it clear that the herbal is probably directed to a male readership. Especially the chapter on Galganum elucidates that. In the 14th century Galganum was thought to have a contraceptive effect, but this was kept secret from women! All in all the structure of the herbal suggests a use as a kind of reference book that was not used daily though.

  9. Hypothetical Source Crater for Australasian Tektites: Moving from Indochina to Northwest China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Kameník, J.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2016-08-01

    We argue against the generally accepted hypothetical location of the unknown source crater for Australasian tektites to Indochina, and present a hypothesis of a possible location of the AAT source crater in deserts of NW China.

  10. Dispersal has inhibited avian diversification in Australasian archipelagoes

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Brian C.; Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Different models of speciation predict contrasting patterns in the relationship between the dispersal ability of lineages and their diversification rates. This relationship is expected to be negative in isolation-limited models and positive in founder-event models. In addition, the combination of negative and positive effects of dispersal on speciation can result in higher diversification rates at intermediate levels of dispersal ability. Using molecular phylogenies to estimate diversification rates, and wing morphology to estimate dispersal ability, we analysed the influence of dispersal on diversification in the avifauna of Australasian archipelagoes. Contrary to expectations given the fragmented nature of island systems, the relationship between dispersal ability and diversification rate was monotonically negative. While multiple mechanisms could generate this pattern, they all share a phase of range expansion that is decoupled from speciation. PMID:25100701

  11. "May the force be with you": 14th Samuel Haughton lecture.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, P J

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the 14th Samuel Haughton lecture delivered on the 26th of January 2008. The lecture began by describing Haughton's research on animal mechanics. Haughton opposed Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection using the argument that the skeleton obeys the 'principle of least action' and therefore must have been designed with that principle in mind. In the course of his research he dissected many animals, including albatrosses, cassowaries, llamas, tigers, jackals and jaguars. He took anatomical measurements and did calculations to prove that muscle attachment sites were optimally located. The relationship between optimality and evolution continues to be studied. Computer simulations show optimality is difficult to achieve. This is because, even if optimality could be defined, the gene recombinations required to evolve an optimal phenotype may not exist. The drive towards optimality occurs under gravitational forces. Simulations to predict mechano-regulation of tissue differentiation and remodelling have been developed and tested. They have been used to design biomechanically optimized scaffolds for regenerative medicine and to identify the mechanoregularory mechanisms in osteoporosis. It is proposed that an important development in bioengineering will be the discovery of algorithms that can be used for the prediction of mechano-responsiveness in biological tissues.

  12. Multielemental analysis of tissues from Cangrande della Scala, Prince of Verona, in the 14th century.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Catalani, Simona; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Cangrande della Scala, Prince of Verona (Italy), died suddenly shortly after his triumph in the battle of Treviso (July 18, 1329). Thus, in the frame of a multidisciplinary paleo-pathological study, we carried out a multielemental analysis on the Prince's tissue specimens, including hair, liver, muscle, and bone, in order to characterize a multitissue profile of metallic elements in a nobleman of the 14th century. Biological specimens were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We were able to rule out arsenic poisoning as the primary cause of death. High levels of gold and silver in both hair and liver samples were probably due to prolonged contact of the mummy with precious metals in the funeral garments. High lead concentrations in both liver and bone tissue can be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated food and alcoholic beverages. Most of the essential elements were in the normal range of values for contemporary living people. The low arsenic and chromium levels in the Prince's tissues as compared to modern people would be suggestive of raised concentrations of both the elements in the present era, which are likely due to industrial pollution.

  13. The solar flare of the 14th of July 2000 (L3+C detector results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achard, P.; Adrian, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; van den Akker, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bähr, J.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Ding, L. K.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Duran, I.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Faber, G.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Groenstege, H.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; Guo, Y. N.; Gupta, S. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Haller, Ch.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z. X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, A.; Hou, S. R.; Huo, A. X.; Ito, N.; Jin, B. N.; Jindal, P.; Jing, C. L.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Kantserov, V.; Kaur, M.; Kawakami, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kok, E.; Korn, A.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kuang, H. H.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, Z. C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Ma, X. H.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Meng, X. W.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Monteleoni, B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumov, V. A.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Qing, C. R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ravindran, K. C.; Razis, P.; Rembeczki, S.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Rewiersma, P.; Riemann, S.; Rojkov, A.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shen, C. Q.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Unger, M.; Valente, E.; Verkooijen, H.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. W.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnen, T. A. M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Y. P.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yang, X. F.; Yao, Z. G.; Yeh, S. C.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, S. J.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zöller, M.; Zwart, A. N. M.; L3 Collaboration

    2006-09-01

    Aims.Several experiments have reported observations on possible correlations between the flux of high energy muons and intense solar flares. If confirmed, these observations would have significant implications for acceleration processes in the heliosphere able to accelerate protons and other ions to energies of at least tens of GeV. Methods: The solar flare of the 14 of July 2000 offered a unique opportunity for the L3+C experiment to search for a correlated enhancement in the flux of muons using the L3 precision muon spectrometer. Its capabilities for observing a directional excess in the flux of muons above 15 GeV (corresponding to primary proton energies above 40 GeV) are presented along with observations made on the 14th of July 2000. Results: We report an excess which appeared at a time coincident with the peak increase of solar protons observed at lower energies. The probability that the excess is a background fluctuation is estimated to be 1%. No similar excess of the muon flux was observed up to 1.5 h after the solar flare time.

  14. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies: task force report on antiphospholipid syndrome treatment trends.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Doruk; Aguiar, Cassyanne L; Andrade, Danieli; Cohen, Hannah; Cuadrado, Maria J; Danowski, Adriana; Levy, Roger A; Ortel, Thomas L; Rahman, Anisur; Salmon, Jane E; Tektonidou, Maria G; Willis, Rohan; Lockshin, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity occurring in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The primary objective of the APS Treatment Trends Task Force, created as part of the 14th International Congress on aPL, was to systematically review the potential future treatment strategies for aPL-positive patients. The task force chose as future clinical research directions: a) determining the necessity for controlled clinical trials in venous thromboembolism with the new oral direct thrombin or anti-factor Xa inhibitors pending the results of the ongoing rivaroxaban in APS (RAPS) trial, and designing controlled clinical trials in other forms of thrombotic APS; b) systematically analyzing the literature as well as aPL/APS registries, and creating specific registries for non-warfarin/heparin anticoagulants; c) increasing recruitment for an ongoing primary thrombosis prevention trial, and designing secondary thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity prevention trials with hydroxychloroquine; d) determining surrogate markers to select patients for statin trials; e) designing controlled studies with rituximab and other anti-B-cell agents; f) designing mechanistic and clinical studies with eculizumab and other complement inhibitors; and g) chemically modifying peptide therapy to improve the half-life and minimize immunogenicity. The report also includes recommendations for clinicians who consider using these agents in difficult-to-manage aPL-positive patients.

  15. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuyang; Zhu, Xianmin; Li, Hong; Hu, Youtian; Zhou, Jinping; He, Di; Feng, Yun; Lu, Lina; Du, Guizhen; Hu, Youjin; Liu, Tiancheng; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jiayu; Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Fang; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Yixue; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    LEPTIN (LEP) is a circulating hormone released primarily from white adipocytes and is crucial for regulating satiety and energy homeostasis in humans and animals. Using the CRISPR technology, we created a set of Lep mutant rats that carry either null mutations or a deletion of the 14th Ile (LEP∆I14) in the mature LEP protein. We examined the potential off-target sites (OTS) by whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and/or Sanger-sequencing analysis and found no OTS in mutant rats. Mature LEP∆I14 is incessantly produced and released to blood at a much elevated level due to the feedback loop. Structure modeling of binding conformation between mutant LEP∆I14 and LEPTIN receptor (LEPR) suggests that the conformation of LEP∆I14 impairs its binding with LEPR, consistent with its inability to activate STAT3-binding element in the luciferase reporter assay. Phenotypic study demonstrated that Lep∆I14 rats recapitulate phenotypes of Lep-null mutant rats including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, nephropathy, and infertility. Compared to the existing ob/ob mouse models, this Lep∆I14/∆I14 rat strain provides a robust tool for further dissecting the roles of LEP in the diabetes related kidney disease and reproduction problem, beyond its well established function in regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:27378381

  16. [A manuscript with illustrations and equipment of alchemy in the 14th century].

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Manuscript 1122 Trinity College Cambridge was written in Latin in England in the late 13th century. Page 120verso shows drawings with descriptions of alchemistic vessels and apparatus. These descriptions have been deciphered, translated into German and commented on. Unlike many comments in literature relating to these drawings they neither go back to Artefius or Alphidius nor are they part of the paper "clavis sapientiae". They were drawn up by an unknown hand in the late 14th century on the empty page 120verso of the older manuscript 1122. The drawings show a great variety of vessels and apparatus of highly sophisticated design. It is clear that they are based on older, professional sources. The descriptions in many cases go back to Arab designations, which were later lost. In many cases, archaeological finds confirm the actual existence of the vessels shown in the manuscript, so that we can assume that the drawings represent reality. Thus the drawings can help to interpret finds in storerooms of museums which up to now have not been identified, or recently excavated parts or fragments.

  17. Report of the 14th Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Oxford, UK, September 17-21, 2012.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Barker, Katharine; Bicak, Mesude; Bourlat, Sarah; Coddington, Jonathan; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Gilbert, Jack A.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo; Meyer, Chris; Morrison, Norman; Obst, Matthias; Robbins, Robert; Schriml, Lynn; Sterk, Peter; Stones-Havas, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 14th workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) held at the University of Oxford in September 2012. The primary goal of the workshop was to work towards the launch of the Genomic Observatories (GOs) Network under the GSC. For the first time, it brought together potential GOs sites, GSC members, and a range of interested partner organizations. It thus represented the first meeting of the GOs Network (GOs1). Key outcomes include the formation of a core group of “champions” ready to take the GOs Network forward, as well as the formation of working groups. The workshop also served as the first meeting of a wide range of participants in the Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) initiative, a first GOs action. Three projects with complementary interests – COST Action ES1103, MG4U and Micro B3 – organized joint sessions at the workshop. A two-day GSC Hackathon followed the main three days of meetings.

  18. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  19. 76 FR 68399 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of the 14th Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of the 14th Antidumping... Turkey (pasta).\\1\\ The review covers one exporter: Marsan Gida Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S. (Marsan). The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Pasta From Turkey:...

  20. Reading and Reality. Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference (14th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.; Waterman, David C., Comp.

    Intended for reading teachers, this pamphlet contains the presentations of the 14th annual reading conference at Indiana State University, beginning with opening remarks by David C. Waterman and welcoming comments by J. Stephen Hazlett. In the opening address, "What Good is Comprehension without Composition?" by Sharon and David Moore, the role of…

  1. 76 FR 19373 - The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational Conference in Irvine, California: New Regulatory Challenges AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  2. Restoring the Trust in Native Education. Annual NIEA Legislative Summit (14th, February 7-9, 2011). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Several briefing papers were presented during the 14th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit. This briefing book contains the following papers presented during the summit: (1) Restoring the Trust in Native Education; (2) NIEA Legislative Priorities for 2011: "Talking Points"; (3) Reauthorization of the…

  3. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  4. ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Jorge Hernández

    2017-02-01

    The 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE 14) was held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 3-7 November. 2015. The purpose of ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 was to provide a global forum for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior and senior investigators, as well as health policymakers to exchange information that can advance the fields of veterinary epidemiology and economics, and other disciplines in the health and social sciences. The main theme of ISVEE 14 was Planning Our Future. Human population growth is predicted to increase nearly 50% to 11 billion by 2050, and climate change and changing land use can have an impact on local and global food systems, interactions among humans, wildlife and domestic animals, as well as local, regional, and global public health alerts. How can we help our systems of education, research, and public policy adapt? Are new veterinary graduates and epidemiology practitioners prepared to become active protagonists in the solution of health issues that affect humans and animal populations in a changing environment? What innovative research is needed to understand and enhance the food systems of the future? What are the expected roles or contributions of veterinarians or epidemiology practitioners on future climate change, food systems, and health? Is our profession or discipline leading One Health initiatives? Are there current or new models that make national veterinary services more efficacious and efficient for disease control and eradication? To help us answer these questions, the organizing committee of ISVEE 14 invited five distinguished keynote speakers to share their vision and innovative ideas on education, technological developments, research, and public policy of our future with a concentration in the following five areas: (i) One Health (Jonna Mazet), (ii) climate change (Bernard Bett), (iii) animal health economics (Jonathan Rushton), (iv) national veterinary services

  5. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Transport in Interacting Disordered Systems (TIDS-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydman, Aviad

    2012-07-01

    The '14th Transport in interacting disordered systems - TIDS14' conference took place during 5-8 September 2011 in Acre Israel. The conference was a continuation of the biennial meeting traditionally called HRP (hopping and related phenomena) and later named TIDS (transport in interacting disordered systems). Previous conferences took place in Trieste (1985), Bratislava (1987), Chapel Hill (1989), Marburg (1991), Glasgow (1993), Jerusalem (1995), Rackeve (1997), Murcia (1999), Shefayim (2001), Trieste (2003), Egmond, aan Zee (2005), Marburg (2007) and Rackeve (2009). Central to these conferences are systems that are characterized by a large degree of disorder and hence they lack translational symmetry. In such systems interactions are usually very important. Dramatic differences in the behavior of crystalline solids and the 'disordered' systems are possible. Some examples of the latter are amorphous materials, polymer aggregates, materials whose properties are governed by impurities, granular systems and biological systems. This conference series is notable for the pleasant atmosphere and fruitful exchange of ideas between theoreticians and experimentalists in these areas. This tradition was also maintained in the conference in Israel. Specific topics of TIDS14 included: hopping, electron and Coulomb glasses, Anderson localization and many body localization, noise, magneto-transport, metal-insulator and superconductor-insulator transition, transport through low dimensional and nanostructures, quantum coherence, interference and dephasing and other related topics. Over sixty scientists from fourteen countries participated in the conference and presented papers either as oral presentations or as posters in two sessions that took place during the conference. Many of these papers are included in these proceedings. I would like to thank all the conference participants for the interesting presentations, debates and discussions that created a stimulating but pleasant

  6. Radio imaging of a type IVM radio burst on the 14th of August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-10

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} cm{sup –3}, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  7. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force report on obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Guilherme R; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Andrade, Carlos A; Andreoli, Laura; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Porter, T Flint; Salmon, Jane; Silver, Robert M; Tincani, Angela; Branch, D Ware

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy morbidity is one of the clinical manifestations used for classification criteria of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). During the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL), a Task Force with internationally-known experts was created to carry out a critical appraisal of the literature available regarding the association of aPL with obstetric manifestations present in actual classification criteria (recurrent early miscarriage, fetal death, preeclampsia and placental insufficiency) and the quality of the evidence that treatment(s) provide benefit in terms of avoiding recurrent adverse obstetric outcomes. The association of infertility with aPL and the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with infertility and positive aPL was also investigated. This report presents current knowledge and limitations of published studies regarding pregnancy morbidity, infertility and aPL, identifying areas that need better investigative efforts and proposing how critical flaws could be avoided in future studies, as suggested by participants of the Task Force. Except for fetal death, there are limitations in the quality of the data supporting the association of aPL with obstetric complications included in the current APS classification criteria. Recommended treatments for all pregnancy morbidity associated to APS also lack well-designed studies to confirm its efficacy. APL does not seem to be associated with infertility and treatment does not improve the outcomes in infertile patients with aPL. In another section of the Task Force, Dr. Jane Salmon reviewed complement-mediated inflammation in reproductive failure in APS, considering new therapeutic targets to obstetric APS (Ob APS).

  8. PREFACE: 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Liliana; Britton, David; Glover, Nigel; Heinrich, Gudrun; Lauret, Jérôme; Naumann, Axel; Speer, Thomas; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    ACAT2011 This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011) which took place on 5-7 September 2011 at Brunel University, UK. The workshop series, which began in 1990 in Lyon, France, brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields in order to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. It is a forum for the exchange of ideas among the fields, exploring and promoting cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques in fundamental physics research. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 100 participants from all over the world. 14 invited speakers presented key topics on computing ecosystems, cloud computing, multivariate data analysis, symbolic and automatic theoretical calculations as well as computing and data analysis challenges in astrophysics, bioinformatics and musicology. Over 80 other talks and posters presented state-of-the art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. Panel and round table discussions on data management and multivariate data analysis uncovered new ideas and collaboration opportunities in the respective areas. This edition of ACAT was generously sponsored by the Science and Technology Facility Council (STFC), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP) at Durham University, Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and Dell. We would like to thank all the participants of the workshop for the high level of their scientific contributions and for the enthusiastic participation in all its activities which were, ultimately, the key factors in the

  9. Comprehensive Australasian multicentre dosimetric intercomparison: issues, logistics and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ebert, M A; Harrison, K M; Cornes, D; Howlett, S J; Joseph, D J; Kron, T; Hamilton, C S; Denham, J W

    2009-02-01

    The present paper describes the logistics of the 2004-2008 Australasian Level III Dosimetry Intercomparison. Dosimetric intercomparisons (or 'audits') can be used in radiotherapy to evaluate the accuracy and quality of radiation delivery. An intercomparison was undertaken in New Zealand and Australia to evaluate the feasibility and logistics of ongoing dosimetric intercomparisons that evaluate all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, known as a 'Level III' intercomparison. The study commenced in 2002 with the establishment of a study team, definition of the study protocol, acquisition of appropriate equipment and recruitment of participating radiotherapy centres. Measurements were undertaken between October 2004 and March 2008, and included collation of data on time, costs and logistics of the study. Forty independent Australian and New Zealand radiotherapy centres agreed to participate. Measurement visits were made to 37 of these centres. Data is presented on the costs of the study and the level of support required. The study involved the participation of 16 staff at the study centre who invested over 4000 hours in the study, and of over 200 professionals at participating centres. Recommendations are provided for future phantom-based intercomparisons. It is hoped that the present paper will be of benefit to any centres or groups contemplating similar activities by identifying the processes involved in establishing the study, the potential hazards and pitfalls, and expected resource requirements.

  10. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift.

  11. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 17th-21st June, 2013 Taiwan Organized by: Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute National Taiwan University National Cheng Kung University National Taiwan University of Science and Technology National Tsing Hua University Greetings from Chairman of International Programme CommitteeTom Thomas When Professor Ken Stout and I founded this series of conferences in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago, we did not anticipate its longevity or its success. Since that first meeting at Leicester, the conference has been often held in England, but also in several other European countries: France, Poland and Sweden, as well as in the United States. Ken, sadly no longer with us, would be proud of what it has achieved and has come to represent. Generations of researchers have presented their new ideas and innovations here which are now embodied in many textbooks and international standards. But this conference in 2013 marks a new departure and perhaps a new future. For the first time it is being held in Asia, reflecting the historic rise of the economies of the Pacific Rim, adding modern technology to their long-existing traditions of ordered insight and precise craftsmanship. Many of you have travelled far to attend this meeting, and we hope you will feel your trouble has been rewarded. We have an excellent selection of papers from all over the world from many of the world's experts, embodying the consolidation of tested ideas as well as the latest advances in the subject. These will be set in context by a glittering array of keynote and invited speakers. On behalf of the International Programme Committee, I am glad to acknowledge the hard work of the members of the Local Organising Committee in putting the programme together and making all the arrangements, and to accept their

  12. Review of Australasian spider flies (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a revision of Panops Lamarck

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurum sp. n., Panops danielsi sp. n., Panops jade sp. n. and Panops schlingeri sp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included. PMID:22448114

  13. The appearance of a second genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Australasian region.

    PubMed

    Pyke, A T; Williams, D T; Nisbet, D J; van den Hurk, A F; Taylor, C T; Johansen, C A; Macdonald, J; Hall, R A; Simmons, R J; Mason, R J; Lee, J M; Ritchie, S A; Smith, G A; Mackenzie, J S

    2001-12-01

    In mid-January 2000, the reappearance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus activity in the Australasian region was first demonstrated by the isolation of JE virus from 3 sentinel pigs on Badu Island in the Torres Strait. Further evidence of JE virus activity was revealed through the isolation of JE virus from Culex gelidus mosquitoes collected on Badu Island and the detection of specific JE virus neutralizing antibodies in 3 pigs from Saint Pauls community on Moa Island. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the premembrane and envelope genes were performed which showed that both the pig and mosquito JE virus isolates (TS00 and TS4152, respectively) clustered in genotype I, along with northern Thai, Cambodian, and Korean isolates. All previous Australasian JE virus isolates belong to genotype II, along with Malaysian and Indonesian isolates. Therefore, for the first time, the appearance and transmission of a second genotype of JE virus in the Australasian region has been demonstrated.

  14. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  15. Australasian monsoon response to Dansgaard-Oeschger event 21 and teleconnections to higher latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Michael L.; Drysdale, Russell N.; Gagan, Michael K.; Hellstrom, John C.; Couchoud, Isabelle; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Vonhof, Hubert B.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.

    2013-05-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles were the most prominent, abrupt climate events of the last glacial period whose impact was most strongly felt in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic region. The climate links between the North Atlantic, the Asian and American tropics, and Antarctica during these cycles are well documented. However, the potential role of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and Australasian monsoon system in propagating climate impacts across the hemispheres is still unclear. Here, we use tandem measurements of oxygen isotopes in calcite and fluid inclusions, as well as carbon-isotope ratios, from multiple stalagmites from Liang Luar Cave, Flores (southern Indonesia) to examine the monsoon response to D-O event number 21 (~87,000-84,000 years ago), the longest and warmest event recorded in Greenland ice cores. The record shows that there was a rapid decline in monsoon rainfall in Indonesia during D-O21 warming in Greenland and cooling in Antarctica. At around the same time, the East Asian monsoon was intensified, indicating that the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifted abruptly to the north during this event. Our record also shows that there was a 2-3 °C increase in local air temperature, which would have acted to increase primary productivity and promote the generation of soil carbon for methanogenesis. Therefore, our findings indicate that ITCZ positioning in tropical Australasia—through its influence on large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation—played a key role in transmitting the abrupt climate signal between the hemispheres, thereby facilitating the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations during D-O21 that ultimately led to global warming and the demise of the MIS5b stadial.

  16. Impact Crater of the Australasian Tektites, Southern Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Herrin, J. S.; Wiwegwin, W.; Charusiri, P.; Singer, B. S.; Singsomboun, K.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Australasian strewn field, a horizon of glassy clasts formed of molten ejecta from the impact of a bolide about 770,000 years ago, covers about a tenth of the Earth - from Indochina to Australia and from the Indian to western Pacific oceans. The distribution of chemical and physical characteristics of these tektites implies a very large impact somewhere in central Indochina. A half-century of unsuccessful searching for the impact crater implies obscuration by either erosion or burial. Geomorphological and stratigraphic evidence suggests that the crater lies buried beneath lavas and cinder cones of a 100-km wide volcanic shield centered atop the Bolaven Plateau of southern Laos. One critical test of this hypothesis, using precise 40Ar/39Ar dating, is now in progress - are these highly weathered basalts younger than the tektites? Although volcanic rocks cover most of the area proximal to our purported impact site, a thick, crudely bedded, bouldery to pebbly breccia that crops out southeast of the obscured crater rim appears to be part of an ejecta blanket. The basal unit of this fining-upward sequence comprises large boulders of late-Mesozoic sandstone bedrock that display in situ shattering. This implies emplacement ballistically rather than by debris-flow. Old surfaces in the surrounding region (as others have noted) and on the Plateau have a mantle of pebbly, detrital lateritic debris that in its upper 15 cm contains angular tektite fragments. We hypothesize that this debris is a proximal fall bed produced by shock-induced comminution and ejection of a lateritic soil that covered the Plateau bedrock. Deposition was nearly complete when sparse tektite fragments ejected from nearer the center of the impact began to land. At many sites this pebbly, lateritic bed is overlain by a thick silty bed that others have associated with aeolian erosion of a barren, incinerated tropical landscape. See Herrin et al (this meeting) for more on the volcanic rocks.

  17. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Camey Andersen; Clegg, J. Aleta; Hickman, Garrett R.; Huyett, Sabrina Lynn; Jensen, Hyrum C.; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyzed all research articles in the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" from 2003 to 2012 to determine the types of research methodologies published, major contributing authors, and most frequently referenced keywords, abstract terms, and cited articles. During this decade, the majority of articles published…

  18. A Review of Australasian Investigations into Problem Solving and the Novice Programmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Raadt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This Australasian focused review compares a number of recent studies that have identified difficulties encountered by novices while learning programming and problem solving. These studies have shown that novices are not performing at expected levels and many novices have only a fragile knowledge of programming, which may prevent them from learning…

  19. Some personal thoughts on the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2017-02-01

    There were a number of highly significant events regarding ASCEP in the 1980s: a tour of China by ASCEP pharmacologists; the Sydney IUPHAR Congress; and the initiation of the Australasian Visitor to the BPS scheme. ASCEP appointed a professional secretariat, established an investment portfolio, and initiated Special Interest Groups. The Society entered the 1990s welcoming toxicologists into the new ASCEPT.

  20. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  1. Citizen Science and the Unsolved Austral-Asian Tektite Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, T. H. S.; Davias, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of mid-Pleistocene evidence suggests a 786 ka cosmic impact (MIS 20) at an oblique angle onto the North American ice sheet may have created both the Carolina Bays on the US Eastern coastal plane, as well as the 60 billion tons of Australasian (AA) tektites that cover ¼ to ⅓ of Earth. No AA impact structure has ever been identified. ~12 ka after the AA tektite event came the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal, Earth's most recent. In 1986, Richard Muller's paper "Geomagnetic Reversals from Impacts on the Earth" explained how a geologically rapid change of Earth's crustal spin rate relative to the liquid core would upset its convective cellular dynamo structure, disrupting and dismantling Earth's magnetic field. Muller proposed an impact-induced mini ice age to transport 10 meters of low- and mid-latitude sea into ice at the poles, changing the crustal polar moment of inertia and accelerating rotation relative to the core. Muller's impact ice age is a weak point, but oblique cosmic impacts deliver tangential impulse directly. The Carolina Bays are a depositional formation of high purity quartz sand, angular to subangular in grain texture, covering approximately 5% of the continental US, with an estimated volume of 1600 km3 over the east coastal plain and some of Nebraska. The bays themselves are depressions in the sand layer, expressed through depositional overburden. They range from a few hundred meters to several kilometers in scale. Carolina Bays are now characterized with LiDAR altimetry. Their alignment is systematic by latitude. They conform to 6 archetype ovoid shapes, easily derived using suborbital mechanics. This implies suborbital mechanics was a governor of their transport: the imprint is a snapshot of the emplacement process. Suborbital Analysis using co-aligned axes of 45,000 Carolina Bays indicates the ice sheet impact region was the Georgian Bay, across Lake Huron to Michigan's Saginaw Bay. The average downrange distance of the

  2. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  3. Update on the diabetic foot 2012: the 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference, May 9-11, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter; Franklyn, Kerryn; Rayman, Gerry; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-03-01

    The 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference was held in May 2012. Physicians, podiatrists, nurses, orthotists, surgeons, radiologists, and other professionals attended to reflect on the diabetic foot. The conference comprised interactive workshops, oral presentations of new research findings, and lectures from leading figures in the world of the diabetic foot. Over the 3 days, topics such as epidemiology, neuropathy, screening, vascular disease, prevention, and management among others were discussed. The conference has been an excellent platform from which to share new and ongoing research and it will without a doubt improve the treatment of the diabetic foot across the world.

  4. Real-world vehicle emissions: a summary of the 14th coordinating research council on-road Vehicle Emissions Workshop.

    PubMed

    Cadle, Steven H; Belian, Timothy C; Black, Kevin N; Minassian, Fred; Natarajan, Mani; Tierney, Eugene J; Lawson, Douglas R

    2005-02-01

    The Coordinating Research Council held its 14th Vehicle Emissions Workshop in March 2004, where results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. We summarize ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research.

  5. [The Sarqī medical school (11th-14th centuries): society and medicine in al-Andalus Levante].

    PubMed

    Franco Sanchez, F

    2001-01-01

    Most of the information about medical science in al-Andalus is associated with its leading figures and their work in the capital cities of the time: Cordoba, Seville, Granada, and the Taifal cities. This study presents the medicine of the Levantine or Sarqī al-Andalus region (10th-14th centuries). To this end, we have gathered reports on physicians that worked in the different Levantine capitals and have investigated key data in the biographical dictionaries, sources that have been little-used to study medical practice. We especially studied the Takmila by Ibn al-Abbār from Valencia.

  6. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  7. Source of the Australasian tektite strewn field - A possible off-shore impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.

  8. Major Clades of Australasian Rutoideae (Rutaceae) Based on rbcL and atpB Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, Michael J.; Holmes, Gareth D.; Forster, Paul I.; Cantrill, David J.; Ladiges, Pauline Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rutaceae subfamily Rutoideae (46 genera, c. 660 species) is diverse in both rainforests and sclerophyll vegetation of Australasia. Australia and New Caledonia are centres of endemism with a number of genera and species distributed disjunctly between the two regions. Our aim was to generate a high-level molecular phylogeny for the Australasian Rutoideae and identify major clades as a framework for assessing morphological and biogeographic patterns and taxonomy. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses were based on chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, for 108 samples (78 new here), including 38 of 46 Australasian genera. Results were integrated with those from other molecular studies to produce a supertree for Rutaceae worldwide, including 115 of 154 genera. Australasian clades are poorly matched with existing tribal classifications, and genera Philotheca and Boronia are not monophyletic. Major sclerophyll lineages in Australia belong to two separate clades, each with an early divergence between rainforest and sclerophyll taxa. Dehiscent fruits with seeds ejected at maturity (often associated with myrmecochory) are inferred as ancestral; derived states include woody capsules with winged seeds, samaras, fleshy drupes, and retention and display of seeds in dehisced fruits (the last two states adaptations to bird dispersal, with multiple origins among rainforest genera). Patterns of relationship and levels of sequence divergence in some taxa, mostly species, with bird-dispersed (Acronychia, Sarcomelicope, Halfordia and Melicope) or winged (Flindersia) seeds are consistent with recent long-distance dispersal between Australia and New Caledonia. Other deeper Australian/New Caledonian divergences, some involving ant-dispersed taxa (e.g., Neoschmidia), suggest older vicariance. Conclusions/Significance This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Australasian Rutoideae gives a broad overview of the group’s evolutionary and biogeographic history

  9. [The life and works of the Prague professor and rector Wikbold Stutte of Osnabrück (14th century)].

    PubMed

    Berger, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Wicbold Stutte of Osnabrueck, Master of Arts and of Medicine at the 14th century University of Prague and Rector there in 1375, has been known until recently only through some documents. An examination of the codex Mainz, Stadtbibliothek, Hs I 613, uncovered for the first time a literary work of Wicbold's, viz. a voluminous commentary on (part of) Aristotle's 'Parva naturalia'. A first reading of this work and further special research yielded finally a list of twelve writings done or projected by Wicbold, three of which are known at present to be extant, viz. the just mentioned philosophical work and two medicinal ones. This contribution describes Wicbold's quite impressive career, both academical and clerical (section I), gives a list of his extant and testified works together with their manuscript traditions, incipits, and explicits as far as available (section II) and gives finally a list of the known documents regarding Wicbold's life and career (section III).

  10. The 14th International Conference on Alzheimer's Drug Discovery, 9 - 10 September 2013, in Jersey City, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Glicksman, Marcie A

    2014-02-01

    The following conference was the 14th International Conference on Alzheimer's Drug Discovery held 9 - 10 September 2013, in Jersey City, NJ. The conference attracted about 140 attendees with 49% from academia, 36% from industry and private practice, 10% from nonprofit organizations and 2% from the government. The meeting had two plenary speakers that kicked off each morning of the conference and then two sessions each day to cover different aspects of Alzheimer's disease drug discovery. There were sessions on neuroprotection, mitochondrial function, biomarkers, ApoE, tau and protein clearance. The conference was organized by the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF) with all of the presenters supported by grants awarded by the ADDF. The conference had financial support from the pharmaceutical companies Merck & Co., Eli Lilly & Co. and Pfizer, Inc. Friends, exhibitors and media partners also helped financially support the conference.

  11. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force. Report on antiphospholipid syndrome laboratory diagnostics and trends.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Amengual, Olga; Andreoli, Laura; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Forastiero, Ricardo; de Groot, Philip; Lakos, Gabriella; Lambert, Marc; Meroni, Pierluigi; Ortel, Thomas L; Petri, Michelle; Rahman, Anisur; Roubey, Robert; Sciascia, Savino; Snyder, Melissa; Tebo, Anne E; Tincani, Angela; Willis, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    Current classification criteria for definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) require the use of three laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. However, several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to other proteins or their complex with phospholipids have been proposed to be relevant to APS but their clinical utility and their diagnostic value remains elusive. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the "APS Task Force 3-Laboratory Diagnostics and Trends" meeting that took place during the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2013, September 18-21, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil).

  12. Radio imaging spectroscopy of synchrotron emission associated with a CME on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Hazel; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C.

    2013-07-01

    We present Nancay Radioheliograph observations of a moving type IV solar radio burst which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the SWAP instrument onboard Proba2 and by the LASCO white light coronograph. The burst emission was found to be cospatial with the core of the CME. Using radio imaging spectroscopy we are able to characterize the underlying electron distribution and plasma parameters within the source. Fitted spectra reveal a clear power law component consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission from accelerated electrons trapped in the erupting flux rope. As is often observed in type IV bursts, polarization measurements show the source to be moderately polarized during the peak of the burst, before steadily increasing to around 70% as the brightness temperature of the burst decays.

  13. The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1–4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15–20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. PMID:19686596

  14. Archaeological Zelliges of Meknes (14th-century): Physical measurements of the colour and identification of colouring agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amara, A.; Azzou, A.; Haddad, M.; Schvoerer, M.; Ney, C.; Lyazidi, S. Ait; Molinié, P.

    2005-03-01

    Two series of Zelliges belonging to the Filalia and Bou-Inaniya Medersas (14th-century) in Meknes city have been studied in order to describe precisely the colour of the glazes and to identify the chromogen agents responsible for these colours. The glaze colours are physically studied by the determination of their chromatic coordinates using chromametry method. These coordinates are represented in the conventional Yxy and L*a*b* spaces. Furthermore the chromogen ions, responsible for the different colour shades, are identified by optical absorption spectrometry (OAS) and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. These ions are the classical ones: copper (Cu2+) for the green, cobalt (Co2+) for the blue, iron (Fe3+) for the honey colour and iron (Fe3+) in association with manganese (Mn3+) for the black.

  15. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  16. Stretching out the Australasian microtektite strewn field in Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Rochette, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of microtektites collected in newly explored summit plateaus of the Transantarctic Mountains (i.e., Schroeder Spur, Killer Nunatak, Miller Butte in the inland catchment of the Rennick Glacier, and Allan Hills, in the inland catchment of the Mackay-David Glaciers) document a regional distribution of Australasian microtektites in Victoria Land. A geochemical comparison with Australasian microtektites from deep sea sediments at lower latitudes identifies a possible projectile geochemical signature for the first time, and confirms that Transantarctic Mountains microtektites experienced higher thermal regimes. Ballistic calculations reveal that the extraordinary distance of the Transantarctic Mountains microtektites from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼11,000 km) could be more efficiently attained at relatively low ejection angles (20°-40°). Finally, the occurrence of Australasian microtektites (∼0.8 Ma old) on specific glacial surfaces of the Antarctic bedrock constrains the glacial history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Victoria Land. In particular, data from Allan Hills supports a glaciological scenario envisaging an extremely stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet over at least the last ∼1 Ma in the inland catchment of the Mackay/David glaciers. This is consistent with the large accumulation of meteorites in the adjacent blue ice fields.

  17. What were the biological and climatic effects of the Australasian impact event

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wuchang; Peleo-Alampay, A. . Scripps Inst. Oceanography); Wise, S.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Australasian microtektites, which are now generally accepted as the products of extraterrestrial impacts, occur near the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at about 0.75 Ma and have a wide distribution ([approximately]10% of the earth's surface). This impact event is the second largest in the Cenozoic, and the impact crater has been estimated to be about 17 km. In order to better understand the role of impacts in shaping life and climate on earth, the authors carried out a detailed study of nannofossils across the Australasian microtektite interval at ODP site 758 in the equatorial Indian Ocean. They also compiled high-resolution stable isotope and carbonate data from this site and others to infer paleoclimate conditions across this interval. The study indicates that there is no calcareous nannoplankton extinction associated with the impact horizon. There is also no significant change in the abundance of Florisphaera profound, an environmentally sensitive species. Carbonate content shows little variation across the impact horizon, which suggests that ocean productivity did not change significantly. Oxygen isotope data show typical Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles, which were generally caused by the Milankovitch cycles. The impact horizon is located slightly after the glacial maximum in oxygen isotope stage 20. In other words, the impact was within a warming trend from glacial stage 20 to interglacial stage 19. They conclude that, within the resolution of the geologic records ([approximately]1,000 yrs), the Australasian impact had insignificant effects on life and climate.

  18. Mitochondrial genome of Pogona vitticepes (Reptilia; Agamidae): control region duplication and the origin of Australasian agamids.

    PubMed

    Amer, Sayed A M; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2005-02-14

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence for an Australian agamid Pogona vitticepes was determined. Twenty-two tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, thirteen protein-coding genes, and two control regions were identified in this mitochondrial genome. The second control region was inserted between NADH dehydrogenase subunits 5 and 6 genes. The duplication of the control region was found in all Australasian agamids examined and was not found in other Asian or African taxa. The two control regions had nearly identical sequences within species but they were divergent among species, suggesting their concerted sequence evolution. Phylogenetic analyses including divergence time estimation without assuming the molecular clock suggested that the duplication of the control region occurred on a lineage leading to the Australasian agamids 25-45 million years ago after their divergence from a Southeast Asian Physignathus cocincinus. Our finding thus supports the recent dispersal origin of Australasian agamids in connection with plate tectonic movement of Australia to the proximity of Southeast Asia.

  19. Yeasts for Global Happiness: report of the 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) held in Awaji Island.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) was held at Awaji Yumebutai International Conference Center (Awaji, Hyogo) in Japan from 11 to 15 September 2016. The main slogan of ICY14 was 'Yeasts for Global Happiness', which enabled us to acknowledge the high-potential usefulness of yeasts contributing to the global happiness in terms of food/beverage, health/medicine and energy/environment industries, as well as to basic biosciences. In addition, two more concepts were introduced: 'from Japan to the world' and 'from senior to junior'. As it was the first ICY meeting held in Japan or other Asian countries, ICY14 provided a good opportunity to widely spread the great achievements by Japanese and Asian yeast researchers, such as those by the 2016 Nobel Laureate Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi, and also, to convey the fun and importance of yeasts to the next generation of researchers from Asia and all over the world. As a result, a total of 426 yeast lovers from 42 countries (225 overseas and 201 domestic participants) with different generations attended ICY14 to share the latest knowledge of a wide range of yeast research fields and to join active and constructive scientific discussions.

  20. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National…

  2. ED-MEDIA 2002 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications. Proceedings (14th, Denver, Colorado, June 24-29, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip, Ed.; Rebelsky, Samuel, Ed.

    This 14th annual ED-MEDIA conference serves as a multi-disciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on the research, development, and applications on all topics related to multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications/distance education. ED-MEDIA, the premiere international conference in the field, spans all disciplines and…

  3. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (14th, Phoenix, Arizona, December 4-6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    The report of the 14th annual meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools presents a seminar on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Board by Lorene I. Rogers, Lincoln E. Moses, Warren W. Willingham, and Herman A. Witkin. The task force on Biomedical Sciences report is presented by Jerold Roschwalb, Lyle V. Jones, Robert H. Grant, and Penny D.…

  5. 14th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment ICCE 2013: IEC-WTC, Barcelona, Spain, 25-28 June 2013.

    PubMed

    Luis, Santiago V; Jover, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The 14th European Association of Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS) International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment (ICCE 2013) took place on 25-28 June 2013 at the IEC and the WTC in Barcelona, Spain. The ICCE is a well-established biannual conference organized by the Division of Chemistry and the EuCheMS.

  6. The status of chondrichthyan conservation in the Indo-Australasian region.

    PubMed

    White, W T; Kyne, P M

    2010-06-01

    The status of chondrichthyan (sharks, batoids and chimaeras) conservation in the Indo-Australasian region is examined, and issues relevant to the conservation of this fauna at the subregional level [Australia, Indonesia (excluding West Papua), New Guinea (West Papua and Papua New Guinea), New Caledonia and New Zealand] are discussed. According to the 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, c. 21% of Indo-Australasian chondrichthyans are classified as threatened (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable) and c. 40% are of conservation concern (threatened and near threatened). The proportion of threatened species is highest in New Guinea (c. 39%) and Indonesia (c. 35%) and least in New Zealand (c. 11%). In New Guinea, three quarters of the species are of conservation concern; in Indonesia, nearly two thirds are of conservation concern. Within the region, the proportion of threatened batoids (c. 29%) is higher than threatened sharks (c. 17%), while there are no threatened chimaeras. Conservation status is discussed at the order (for sharks), suborder (for batoids) and family level. Issues relating to the conservation status of chondrichthyans vary greatly between each subregion, but they mostly relate to targeted or incidental capture in fisheries. A handful of sharks and batoids are protected within Australian waters, while one species is protected in New Zealand. Both Australia and New Zealand have developed National Plans of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA-Sharks), but these are lacking elsewhere. Development and implementation of NPOA-Sharks are a priority in order to drive the conservation of the regional fauna. Sustainable fisheries management (including by-catch), confronting the challenge of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, species protection where appropriate and marine protected areas (MPA) are all likely to prove vital in ensuring the long-term conservation of Indo-Australasian sharks, batoids and chimaeras.

  7. Unveiling the diversification dynamics of Australasian predaceous diving beetles in the Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Condamine, Fabien L; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Watts, Chris H; Porch, Nick; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During the Cenozoic, Australia experienced major climatic shifts that have had dramatic ecological consequences for the modern biota. Mesic tropical ecosystems were progressively restricted to the coasts and replaced by arid-adapted floral and faunal communities. Whilst the role of aridification has been investigated in a wide range of terrestrial lineages, the response of freshwater clades remains poorly investigated. To gain insights into the diversification processes underlying a freshwater radiation, we studied the evolutionary history of the Australasian predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Hydroporini (147 described species). We used an integrative approach including the latest methods in phylogenetics, divergence time estimation, ancestral character state reconstruction, and likelihood-based methods of diversification rate estimation. Phylogenies and dating analyses were reconstructed with molecular data from seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) for 117 species (plus 12 outgroups). Robust and well-resolved phylogenies indicate a late Oligocene origin of Australasian Hydroporini. Biogeographic analyses suggest an origin in the East Coast region of Australia, and a dynamic biogeographic scenario implying dispersal events. The group successfully colonized the tropical coastal regions carved by a rampant desertification, and also colonized groundwater ecosystems in Central Australia. Diversification rate analyses suggest that the ongoing aridification of Australia initiated in the Miocene contributed to a major wave of extinctions since the late Pliocene probably attributable to an increasing aridity, range contractions and seasonally disruptions resulting from Quaternary climatic changes. When comparing subterranean and epigean genera, our results show that contrasting mechanisms drove their diversification and therefore current diversity pattern. The Australasian Hydroporini radiation reflects a combination of processes that promoted both diversification

  8. The role of the Australasian Journal on Ageing in the Asia-Oceania region.

    PubMed

    Howe, Anna L

    2013-10-01

    The role of the Australasian Journal on Ageing (AJA) in the Asia-Oceania region has been developing over the 30 years of the journal's publication, and review of its current and potential future roles is timely in the context of a number of developments in the region. This review describes the regional reach of the AJA, presents an analysis of regional content published over the 5 years to 2012, discusses the regional context with reference to other journals published in the region, and proposes several strategies for advancing the AJA's regional role. Pursuing these strategies would realise the AJA's potential as a vehicle for promoting the exchange of multidisciplinary knowledge on ageing.

  9. Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for

  10. Mobility, mortality, and the middle ages: identification of migrant individuals in a 14th century black death cemetery population.

    PubMed

    Kendall, E J; Montgomery, J; Evans, J A; Stantis, C; Mueller, V

    2013-02-01

    Mobility and migration patterns of groups and individuals have long been a topic of interest to archaeologists, used for broad explanatory models of cultural change as well as illustrations of historical particularism. The 14th century AD was a tumultuous period of history in Britain, with severely erratic weather patterns, the Great Famine of 1315-1322, the Scottish Wars of Independence, and the Hundred Years' War providing additional migration pressures to the ordinary economic issues drawing individuals to their capital under more stable conditions. East Smithfield Black Death Cemetery (Royal Mint) had a documented use period of only 2 years (AD 1348-1350), providing a precise historical context (∼50 years) for data. Adults (n = 30) from the East Smithfield site were sampled for strontium and oxygen stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel. Five individuals were demonstrated to be statistical outliers through the combined strontium and oxygen isotope data. Potential origins for migrants ranged from London's surrounding hinterlands to distant portions of northern and western Britain. Historic food sourcing practices for London were found to be an important factor for consideration in a broader than expected (87) Sr/(86) Sr range reflected in a comparison of enamel samples from three London datasets. The pooled dataset demonstrated a high level of consistency between site data, divergent from the geologically predicted range. We argue that this supports the premise that isotope data in human populations must be approached as a complex interaction between behavior and environment and thus should be interpreted cautiously with the aid of alternate lines of evidence.

  11. AB117. An exploration of Australasian genetic counsellors’ attitudes towards compassion fatigue, mindfulness and genetic counselling

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Matthew; Tai, Geneieve; Martinek, Nathalie; Menezes, Melody; Delatycki, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic counselling is a caring profession. It has been known for some time that genetic counsellors are susceptible to clinical burnout and/or compassion fatigue. Recent studies have shown that mindfulness may help health care professionals with their experience of burnout. It is hypothesised that mindful awareness may be useful in ameliorating these symptoms of burnout in genetic counsellors. The present study aims to collect information about the experiences of Australasian genetic counsellors in relation to compassion fatigue and mindfulness. This study is an online questionnaire open to practicing Australasian genetic counsellors. The survey is in three parts. The first part collects demographic information about the genetic counsellor completing the questionnaire. The second part of the survey is the Professional Quality of Life Scale, Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales-Revision IV. The final part of the questionnaire is the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Both scales are validated. Descriptive analyses will generate frequency data to elicit a description of participants and the responses obtained. Analysis of categorical measures will be undertaken using χ2 (chi-squared) analysis to determine if there are any differences in responses. For continuous variables, differences in means between groups will be assessed using t-tests. Qualitative content analysis (inductive approach) will be utilised to analyse open ended responses. The results of this questionnaire will provide important data about clinical burnout and compassion fatigue among genetic counsellors and will enable recommendations about the use of mindfulness to minimise the impact of these on those in this profession.

  12. Analysis of meteorological variables in the Australasian region using ground- and space-based GPS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Choy, Suelynn; Fu, Erjiang Frank; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Liou, Yuei-An; Pavelyev, Alexander G.

    2016-07-01

    Results of analysis of meteorological variables (temperature and moisture) in the Australasian region using the global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) and GPS ground-based observations verified with in situ radiosonde (RS) data are presented. The potential of using ground-based GPS observations for retrieving column integrated precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the Australian continent has been demonstrated using the Australian ground-based GPS reference stations network. Using data from the 15 ground-based GPS stations, the state of the atmosphere over Victoria during a significant weather event, the March 2010 Melbourne storm, has been investigated, and it has been shown that the GPS observations has potential for monitoring the movement of a weather front that has sharp moisture contrast. Temperature and moisture variability in the atmosphere over various climatic regions (the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Antarctic and Australia) has been examined using satellite-based GPS RO and in situ RS observations. Investigating recent atmospheric temperature trends over Antarctica, the time series of the collocated GPS RO and RS data were examined, and strong cooling in the lower stratosphere and warming through the troposphere over Antarctica has been identified, in agreement with outputs of climate models. With further expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) system, it is expected that GNSS satellite- and ground-based measurements would be able to provide an order of magnitude larger amount of data which in turn could significantly advance weather forecasting services, climate monitoring and analysis in the Australasian region.

  13. Comparison of Methods for Detection of Erysipelothrix spp. and Their Distribution in Some Australasian Seafoods

    PubMed Central

    Fidalgo, S. G.; Wang, Q.; Riley, T. V.

    2000-01-01

    For many years, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has been known to be the causative agent of the occupationally related infection erysipeloid. A survey of the distribution of Erysipelothrix spp. in 19 Australasian seafoods was conducted, and methodologies for the detection of Erysipelothrix spp. were evaluated. Twenty-one Erysipelothrix spp. were isolated from 52 seafood parts. Primary isolation of Erysipelothrix spp. was most efficiently achieved with brain heart infusion broth enrichment followed by subculture onto a selective brain heart infusion agar containing kanamycin, neomycin, and vancomycin after 48 h of incubation. Selective tryptic soy broth, with 48 h of incubation, was the best culture method for the detection of Erysipelothrix spp. with PCR. PCR detection was 50% more sensitive than culture. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from a variety of different fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans, including a Western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus). There was no significant correlation between the origin of the seafoods tested and the distribution of E. rhusiopathiae. An organism indistinguishable from Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was isolated for the first time from an Australian oyster and a silver bream. Overall, Erysipelothrix spp. were widely distributed in Australasian seafoods, illustrating the potential for erysipeloid-like infections in fishermen. PMID:10788383

  14. Changing my perspective: How the development of emergency medicine in Sri Lanka can inform the Australasian experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    When compared to an Australasian ED, the two major differences in the emergency medicine practice at Teaching Hospital Karapitiya are which patients are selected at triage and how those selected present. These differences have caused me to reflect on emergency medicine practice in Australasia and wonder if this practice is sustainable.

  15. PREFACE: 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    The 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held at the Sheraton Tampa Riverwalk Hotel, Tampa, Florida, USA, during the week of 19-24 April 2015. The meeting drew some 75 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the energization of particles from the perspectives of theory, modelling and simulations, and observations. The theme of the meeting was "Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond." Energetic particles are ubiquitous to plasma environments, whether collisionless such as the supersonic solar wind, the magnetospheres of planets, the exospheres of nonmagnetized planets and comets, the heliospheric-local interstellar boundary regions, interstellar space and supernova remnant shocks, and stellar wind boundaries. Energetic particles are found too in more collisional regions such as in the solar corona, dense regions of the interstellar medium, accretion flows around stellar objects, to name a few. Particle acceleration occurs wherever plasma boundaries, magnetic and electric fields, and turbulence are present. The meeting addressed the linear and nonlinear physical processes underlying the variety of particle acceleration mechanisms, the role of particle acceleration in shaping different environments, and acceleration processes common to different regions. Both theory and observations were addressed with a view to encouraging crossdisciplinary fertilization of ideas, concepts, and techniques. The meeting addressed all aspects of particle acceleration in regions ranging from the Sun to the interplanetary medium to magnetospheres, exospheres, and comets, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and beyond to supernova remnant shocks, galactic jets, stellar winds, accretion flows, and more. The format of the meeting included 25-minute presentations punctuated by two 40-minute talks, one by Len Fisk that provided an historical overview of particle acceleration in the

  16. DARWIN Glass and DARWIN Crater Revisited. Multiple Impacts in the Australasian Strewn Field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Biino, G. G.; Villa, I. M.; Chambers, J. E.; McHone, J. F.

    1995-09-01

    Darwin glass, an impact glass occurring in South West Tasmania, has been found at least since human beings reached Tasmania ca. 40 k.y. ago. Darwin glass, although in the proximity of the Australasian tektites strewn field, has never been counted as part of it. Darwin Crater was recognized about 30 years ago. Still, the existence of an impact structure in Tasmania has been neglected and does not show up in most compilations of known impact craters. Age determinations on Darwin Glass from the early 70's revealed a combined K-Ar and fission track age of 0.73 +/- 0.04 m.y. [1]. The most recent and most precise estimate for Australites and Indochinites yields 0.784 +/- 0.012 m.y. [2]. The two ages are indistinguishable from each other. This contemporaneity lead to the hypothesis that impact on Earth producing australites also formed Darwin Crater as a primary and/or secondary crater (Gentner et al., 1973). If one believes that all tektites of the Australian strewn field were produced by one impact in or near Indochina, then a special case is required to also form Darwin Crater, which is at least 5000 km away. Atmospheric breakup of a planetary body is a very unlikely possibility, because the distance travelled after breakup is too small to account for the dispersion. Double craters on Earth are always close to each other (e.g., Kara and Kara Ust). A more likely scenario could be an impact of an asteroidal body with an accompanying small moon (e.g., Ida and Gaspra). If one believes in multiple impacts for the formation of Muong Nong-type or layered tektites in the Australasian strewn field, then a collision of an asteroidal body with another body shortly before impact on Earth is required. In this case, an impact on Earth a large distance away (i.e., Tasmania) is realistic. To address the problem of crater recognition and possible simultaneous impact events, a new multidisciplinary investigation is currently underway. We intend to determine the age of three Darwin

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  18. Establishing a clinical trials network in nephrology: experience of the Australasian Kidney Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Morrish, Alicia T; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Badve, Sunil V; Perkovic, Vlado; Reidlinger, Donna M; Cass, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem globally. Despite this, there are fewer high-quality, high-impact clinical trials in nephrology than other internal medicine specialties, which has led to large gaps in evidence. To address this deficiency, the Australasian Kidney Trials Network, a Collaborative Research Group, was formed in 2005. Since then, the Network has provided infrastructure and expertise to conduct patient-focused high-quality, investigator-initiated clinical trials in nephrology. The Network has not only been successful in engaging the nephrology community in Australia and New Zealand but also in forming collaborations with leading researchers from other countries. This article describes the establishment, development, and functions of the Network. The article also discusses the current and future funding strategies to ensure uninterrupted conduct of much needed clinical trials in nephrology to improve the outcomes of patients affected by kidney diseases with cost-effective interventions.

  19. What do giant titanosaur dinosaurs and modern Australasian megapodes have in common?

    PubMed Central

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Fiorelli, Lucas E.

    2015-01-01

    Titanosauria is a globally distributed clade of sometimes extremely large Mesozoic herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs. On the basis of current evidence these giant dinosaurs seem to have reproduced in specific and localized nesting sites. However, no investigations have been performed to understand the possible ecological and geological biases that acted for the selection of these nesting sites worldwide. In this study, observations were performed on the best-known Cretaceous nesting sites around the world. Our observations strongly suggest their eggs were incubated with environmental sources of heat, in burial conditions. Taking into account the clutch composition and geometry, the nature and properties of the sediments, the eggshells’ structures and conductance, it would appear that titanosaurs adopted nesting behaviors comparable to the modern Australasian megapodes, using burrow-nesting in diverse media and mound-building strategies. PMID:26623184

  20. Orbital- and Millennial-Scale Changes in the Australasian Monsoon Through the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, M. K.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Scroxton, N. G.; Krause, C. E.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Hantoro, W. S.; Drysdale, R.; Hellstrom, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Zhao, J.; Griffiths, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Speleothem 18O/16O records from China and Borneo have revealed changes in Asian monsoon rainfall over the last ~570,000 years (e.g. Wang et al. 2008, Cheng et al. 2010, Meckler et al. 2012), yet little is known about orbital- and millennial-scale climate change in the 'southern half' of the Australasian monsoon domain. To fill this gap, we aim to build speleothem 18O/16O records for the seasonal monsoon rainfall belt of south-central Indonesia. Between 2006 and 2011, we sampled speleothems in Flores and southwest Sulawesi (latitudes 5-9oS) with U-series ages extending to 92,000 yBP and ~470,000 yBP, respectively. Development of the 18O/16O records for Sulawesi is in progress, but the basal ages of the speleothems (onset of stalagmite growth) are intriguing because they cluster around glacial terminations, when the East Asian monsoon is known to have been weak (Cheng et al. 2010). There is clear antiphasing of the Flores and China speleothem 18O/16O records on precession time-scales over the last ~90,000 years. A distinct maximum in monsoon rainfall in Flores occurred ~21,000 yBP, suggesting the ITCZ moved south during the Last Glacial Maximum in response to the southern hemisphere summer insolation maximum. This finding indicates that ITCZ positioning in tropical Australasia, through its influence on large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation, could have played a key role in the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 and global warming that ultimately led to the demise of the last ice age, as summarised by Denton et al. (2010) and others. The new Flores speleothem 18O/16O records also show that climate change in the North Atlantic region and Australasian monsoon rainfall are inextricably linked on millennial timescales (Griffiths et al. 2009, Lewis et al. 2011). For example, rapid warming in the North Atlantic region during Dansgaard-Oeschger Event 21 (~86,000 yBP) was linked to a synchronous northward shift of the Australasian ITCZ, marking the final demise of MIS 5b. In

  1. Proceedings of the 2013 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karen; Howe, Peter

    2013-12-12

    The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS) held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to "AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research" for more detail of his contributions [1].

  2. A 2009 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce.

    PubMed

    Round, W Howell

    2010-06-01

    A survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce was carried out in 2009 following on from a similar survey in 2006. 621 positions (equivalent to 575 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these 330 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 45 EFT were in radiology physics, 42 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 159 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 29 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 3 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

  3. Toward a 530,000-year Hydroclimate History for the Southern Half of the Australasian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, M. K.; Scroxton, N. G.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Krause, C.; Hantoro, W. S.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Shen, C. C.; Scott-Gagan, H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Rifai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Speleothem 18O/16O records have revealed key aspects of past hydroclimates in the northern Australasian monsoon domain on orbital to millennial scales, but much less is known about the southern half of the monsoon system. We aim to develop a hydroclimate history for the southern Australasian monsoon based on speleothems from southwest Sulawesi and Flores, Indonesia (latitudes 5-9oS), which extend back to ~530 kyr BP and 90 kyr BP, respectively. To date, the 18O/16O record for Sulawesi covers glacial terminations TIV (~340 kyr BP), TIII (~245 kyr BP) and TI (~18 kyr BP). The details of each termination are different, however two important hydroclimate patterns are emerging. First, the 18O/16O record shows sharp weakening of the monsoon immediately before each termination. This surprisingly robust pattern marks a southern extension of the northern 'weak monsoon interval', and reinforces the idea that southward monsoon displacement is a fundamental feature of terminations. Second, monsoon intensification around Sulawesi lags the rise in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature by several thousand years, but parallels the 18O/16O decrease in atmospheric O2. Our finding extends that of Wang et al. (2008) and Cheng et al. (2009) who noted the influence of the low-latitude hydrological cycle on the 18O/16O of tropical transpiration, and its potential for correlating ice core and paleomonsoon records. Further south, the 90-kyr 18O/16O record for Flores shows clear precession-scale antiphasing with China, and southerly positioning of the summer monsoon rainfall belt during Heinrich stadials. Heinrich stadials 5, 4, 2 and 1 occur during wetter intervals in Flores that accompanied relatively high southern summer insolation. Intriguingly, these events are associated with abrupt atmospheric CH4 signals that may be due to increased Southern Hemisphere CH4 production related to intensification of monsoon rainfall over southern tropical land areas (Rhodes et al., 2014).

  4. Mariculture associated with oil and gas structures: A compendium. Information transfer meeting (14th), mariculture sessions. Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on November 17, 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reggio, V.C.

    1996-09-01

    Increased interest in the use of offshore oil and gas platforms for growing coastal and pelagic fish and shellfish for commercial markets led to MMS to sponsor a forum on this topic. This report encompasses the views, opinions, constraints, limitations, possibilities, and proposals from representative of the public and private sectors with interest and concern for fishery development in the Gulf of Mexico. This report provides summaries of the presentations given at the mariculture session during the 14th Annual Information transfer Meeting held in New Orleans in November 1994.

  5. An estimation of the primary proton spectrum between 10 to the 12th and 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Siohan, F.; Yodh, G. B.

    1978-01-01

    Based on measurements of unaccompanied charged hadron flux from 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 14th eV at mountain altitudes, the primary proton flux is estimated using recently determined proton-proton total cross sections from new measurements of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude at ISR, and Glauber theory to calculate proton-air inelastic cross section. The derived spectrum agrees well with extrapolation of the direct measurements below 2 times 10 to the 12th eV without change of slope.

  6. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  7. Neodymium and strontium isotopic study of Australasian tektites - New constraints on the provenance and age of target materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.

  8. Knowledge and Confidence of a Convenience Sample of Australasian Emergency Doctors in Managing Dental Emergencies: Results of a Survey

    PubMed Central

    Samaei, Hossein; Weiland, Tracey Joy; Dilley, Stuart; Jelinek, George Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians' and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees') level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011) and directly (November 2011) to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405) and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42%) had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5–67.1) passed (>50%) a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416) incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig's Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433) were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434) confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r = 0.488). Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%). Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted. PMID:25821600

  9. Microscopic analysis of "iron spot" on blue-and-white porcelain from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in early Ming dynasty (14th-15th century).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxuan; Zhu, Jian; Jiang, Jianxin; Xu, Changqing; Wu, Shurong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Menglei; Du, Jingnan

    2016-11-01

    "Sumali," as an imported cobalt ore from overseas, was a sort of precious and valuable pigment used for imperial kilns only, which produces characteristic "iron spot" to blue-and-white porcelain in early Ming Dynasty (A.D. 14th-15th century). Although there were some old studies on it, the morphology and formation of iron spot has not been fully investigated and understood. Therefore, five selected samples with typical spot from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in Ming Yongle periods (A.D. 1403-1424) were analyzed by various microscopic analysis including 3D digital microscope, SEM-EDS and EPMA. According to SEM images, samples can be divided into three groups: un-reflected "iron spot" without crystals, un-reflected "iron spot" with crystals and reflected "iron spot" with crystals. Furthermore, 3D micro-images revealed that "iron spots" separate out dendritic or snow-shaped crystals of iron only on and parallel to the surface of glaze for which "iron spot" show strong metallic luster. Combining with microscopic observation and microanalysis on crystallization and non-crystallization areas, it indicates that firing oxygen concentration is the ultimate causation of forming reflective iron spot which has a shallower distribution below the surface and limits crystals growing down. More details about characters of "iron spot" used "Sumali" were found and provided new clues to coloration, formation mechanism and porcelain producing technology of imperial kiln from 14th to 15th centuries of China.

  10. Primary Therapy of Patients with Early Breast Cancer: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus: Opinions of German Specialists to the 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 (Vienna 2015).

    PubMed

    Untch, M; Harbeck, N; Huober, J; von Minckwitz, G; Gerber, B; Kreipe, H-H; Liedtke, C; Marschner, N; Möbus, V; Scheithauer, H; Schneeweiss, A; Thomssen, C; Jackisch, C; Beckmann, M W; Blohmer, J-U; Costa, S-D; Decker, T; Diel, I; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Lück, H-J; Maass, N; Scharl, A; Loibl, S

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, this year's St. Gallen International Consensus Conference on the treatment of patients with primary breast cancer, which takes place every two years, was held not in St. Gallen (Switzerland) but - for logistical reasons - in Vienna (Austria) under its usual name. The 2015 St. Gallen International Consensus Conference was the 14th of its kind. As the international panel of the St. Gallen conference consists of experts from different countries, the consensus mirrors an international cross-section of opinions. From a German perspective, it was considered useful to translate the results of the votes of the St. Gallen conference into practical suggestions, particularly in light of the recently updated treatment guideline of the Gynecologic Oncology Group (AGO-Mamma 2015) in Germany. A German group consisting of 14 breast cancer experts, three of whom are members of the international St. Gallen panel, has therefore provided comments on the results of this year's votes at the 2015 St. Gallen Consensus Conference and their impact on clinical care in Germany. The 14th St. Gallen conference once again focused on surgery of the breast and the axilla, radio-oncologic and systemic treatment options for primary breast cancer depending on tumor biology, and the clinical use of multigene assays. The conference also considered targeted therapies for older and for younger patients, including the diagnosis/treatment of breast cancer during and after pregnancy and the preservation of fertility.

  11. Bandicoot fossils and DNA elucidate lineage antiquity amongst xeric-adapted Australasian marsupials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Aplin, Ken P.; Westerman, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bandicoots (Peramelemorphia) are a unique order of Australasian marsupials whose sparse fossil record has been used as prima facie evidence for climate change coincident faunal turnover. In particular, the hypothesized replacement of ancient rainforest-dwelling extinct lineages by antecedents of xeric-tolerant extant taxa during the late Miocene (~10 Ma) has been advocated as a broader pattern evident amongst other marsupial clades. Problematically, however, this is in persistent conflict with DNA phylogenies. We therefore determine the pattern and timing of bandicoot evolution using the first combined morphological + DNA sequence dataset of Peramelemorphia. In addition, we document a remarkably archaic new fossil peramelemorphian taxon that inhabited a latest Quaternary mosaic savannah-riparian forest ecosystem on the Aru Islands of Eastern Indonesia. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that unsuspected dental homoplasy and the detrimental effects of missing data collectively obscure stem bandicoot relationships. Nevertheless, recalibrated molecular clocks and multiple ancestral area optimizations unanimously infer an early diversification of modern xeric-adapted forms. These probably originated during the late Palaeogene (30–40 Ma) alongside progenitors of other desert marsupials, and thus occupied seasonally dry heterogenous habitats long before the onset of late Neogene aridity.

  12. The Australasian Radiation Protection Society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Higson, Donald

    2007-09-30

    Controversy continues on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The position of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society on this matter is set out in a statement adopted by the Society in 2005. Its salient features are: --There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls.--Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. --The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted.

  13. Supermatrix phylogeny and biogeography of the Australasian Meliphagides radiation (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Marki, Petter Z; Jønsson, Knud A; Irestedt, Martin; Nguyen, Jacqueline M T; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2017-02-01

    With nearly 300 species, the infraorder Meliphagides represents one of the largest and most conspicuous Australasian bird radiations. Although the group has been the focus of a number of recent phylogenetic studies, a comprehensive species-level phylogenetic hypothesis is still lacking. This has impeded the assessment of broad-scale evolutionary, biogeographic and ecological hypotheses. In the present study, we use a supermatrix approach including five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers to infer a time-calibrated phylogeny of the Meliphagides. Our phylogeny, which includes 286 of the 289 (99%) currently recognized species, is largely congruent with previous estimates. However, the addition of 60 newly sequenced species reveals some novel relationships. Our biogeographic analyses suggest an Australian origin for the group in the early Oligocene (31.3Mya, 95% HPD 25.2-38.2Mya). In addition, we find that dispersal events out of Australia have been numerous and frequent, particularly to New Guinea, which has also been the source of multiple back-colonizations to the Australian mainland. The phylogeny provides an important framework for studying a wide variety of macroecological and macroevolutionary themes, including character evolution, origin and timing of diversification, biogeographic patterns and species responses to climate change.

  14. Rapid interhemispheric climate links via the Australasian monsoon during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Linda K; Gagan, Michael K; Zhao, Jian-xin; Drysdale, Russell N; Hellstrom, John C; Hantoro, Wahyoe S; Griffiths, Michael L; Scott-Gagan, Heather; St Pierre, Emma; Cowley, Joan A; Suwargadi, Bambang W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that millennial-scale reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere circulation drives increased upwelling in the Southern Ocean, leading to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and ice age terminations. Southward migration of the global monsoon is thought to link the hemispheres during deglaciation, but vital evidence from the southern sector of the vast Australasian monsoon system is yet to emerge. Here we present a 230thorium-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record of millennial-scale changes in Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall over the last 31,000 years. The record shows that abrupt southward shifts of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon were synchronous with North Atlantic cold intervals 17,600-11,500 years ago. The most prominent southward shift occurred in lock-step with Heinrich Stadial 1 (17,600-14,600 years ago), and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Our findings show that millennial-scale climate change was transmitted rapidly across Australasia and lend support to the idea that the 3,000-year-long Heinrich 1 interval could have been critical in driving the last deglaciation.

  15. Bandicoot fossils and DNA elucidate lineage antiquity amongst xeric-adapted Australasian marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Aplin, Ken P.; Westerman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bandicoots (Peramelemorphia) are a unique order of Australasian marsupials whose sparse fossil record has been used as prima facie evidence for climate change coincident faunal turnover. In particular, the hypothesized replacement of ancient rainforest-dwelling extinct lineages by antecedents of xeric-tolerant extant taxa during the late Miocene (~10 Ma) has been advocated as a broader pattern evident amongst other marsupial clades. Problematically, however, this is in persistent conflict with DNA phylogenies. We therefore determine the pattern and timing of bandicoot evolution using the first combined morphological + DNA sequence dataset of Peramelemorphia. In addition, we document a remarkably archaic new fossil peramelemorphian taxon that inhabited a latest Quaternary mosaic savannah-riparian forest ecosystem on the Aru Islands of Eastern Indonesia. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that unsuspected dental homoplasy and the detrimental effects of missing data collectively obscure stem bandicoot relationships. Nevertheless, recalibrated molecular clocks and multiple ancestral area optimizations unanimously infer an early diversification of modern xeric-adapted forms. These probably originated during the late Palaeogene (30–40 Ma) alongside progenitors of other desert marsupials, and thus occupied seasonally dry heterogenous habitats long before the onset of late Neogene aridity. PMID:27881865

  16. Does the Australasian "Health Star Rating" Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian "Health Star Rating" front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging.

  17. Does the Australasian “Health Star Rating” Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian “Health Star Rating” front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging. PMID:27258305

  18. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal a complex evolutionary history in the Australasian robins (Passeriformes: Petroicidae).

    PubMed

    Christidis, Les; Irestedt, Martin; Rowe, Dianne; Boles, Walter E; Norman, Janette A

    2011-12-01

    The Australasian robins (Petroicidae) comprise a relatively homogeneous group of small to medium-sized insectivorous birds. Their center of diversity is Australia and New Guinea (40 species) but seven species have managed to colonize geographically distant islands such as Tanimbar, New Britain, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji and Samoa. To resolve the evolutionary relationships within the Petroicidae, we here present the results of a phylogenetic analysis of sequence data from two mitochondrial genes (ND2, CO1) and one nuclear intron (β-Fibrinogen intron 5) for all 14 genera and 40 of the 46 currently recognized species. All phylogenetic analyses identified six primary lineages, treated here as subfamilies, within the Petroicidae: (1) Eopsaltriinae comprising Eopsaltria (excluding E. flaviventris), Tregellasia, Peneothello, Melanodryas, Poecilodryas and Heteromyias; (2) Drymodinae comprising Drymodes; (3) Microecinae comprising Microeca, Monachella and Eopsaltria flaviventris; (4) Petroicinae comprising Petroica and Eugerygone; (5) Pachycephalopsinae comprising Pachycephalopsis; and (6) Amalocichlinae comprising Amalocichla. The genera Eopsaltria, Microeca, Peneothello and Poecilodryas were found to be paraphyletic. Based on assessments of phylogenetic branching patterns and/or DNA divergence it also was apparent that Eopsaltriaaustralis, Tregellasialeucops, Melanodryascucullata, Heteromyiasalbispecularis, Drymodessupercilious and Microecaflavigaster may each comprise more than one species. The Petroicidae display a complex biogeographical history involving repeated radiations both within, and across Australia and New Guinea. It appears that dispersal into smaller islands such as New Britain, Tanimbar and the South Pacific has only been undertaken by species with a "flycatcher" body form.

  19. [Learning to read Pierre Lombard's Books of Sentences at the University of Paris in the 13(th) and 14 (th) centuries].

    PubMed

    Angotti, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In the middle ages, the ability to offer an oral commentary on Pierre Lombard's Books of Sentences was seen as an essential step in the training of masters of theology (maîtres régents). This was an exercise done by bachelors. While the first university statutes say little about this exercise, later statutes, particularly in the 14(th) century, suggest that it was carried out by following very strict guidelines. This article posits that students actually followed a number of « model commentaries » because the masters applied the methodology of exegesis. Looking at the manuscripts and their critical apparatus, this article offers a better understanding of the lectio of the Books of Sentences.

  20. 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, Christian; Harbeck, Nadia; Huober, Jens; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gerber, Bernd; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Liedtke, Cornelia; Marschner, Norbert; Möbus, Volker; Scheithauer, Heike; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban-Dan; Decker, Thomas; Diel, Ingo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Maass, Nicolai; Scharl, Anton; Untch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany. PMID:26557827

  1. [Medical research travel 100 years ago: the 14th German Medical Study Trip to North America and Canada in the year 1912].

    PubMed

    Neid, T; Helm, J

    2012-12-01

    Already before the First World War the North American medicine had developed within less years so far that it had an excellent reputation and that famous scientists and medicines from Europe came in the country for extensive study trips and congressional visits. Exactly 100 years ago the delegation biggest till then of German doctors visited in the course of the 14th German Medical Study Trip the United States of America. The very amicable relation between the doctors of both nations made easier the scientific exchange during this study trip and allowed a deep insight into the medicine of the USA to the participants. Even though the German doctors were very impressed with the developement in the USA and reported partly in their native country in detail about that, it didn't succeed in keeping pace with the rapid developement of the USA into the leading research nation in the following decades.

  2. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: Constraints on the location of the source crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, P.; Aggrey, K.; Tonzola, C.; Schnabel, C.; de Nicola, P.; Herzog, G. F.; Wasson, J. T.; Glass, B. P.; Brown, L.; Tera, F.; Middleton, R.; Klein, J.

    2004-10-01

    By using accelerator mass spectrometry we have measured the 10Be concentrations of 86 Australasian tektites. Corrected to the time of tektite production ˜0.8 My ago, the 10Be concentrations (10 6 atom/g) range from 59 for a layered tektite from Huai Sai, Thailand, to 280 for an australite from New South Wales, Australia. The average value is 143 ± 50. When tektites are sorted by country, their average measured 10Be concentrations increase slowly with increasing distance from Southeast Asia, the probable location of the tektite producing event, from 59 ± 9 for 6 layered tektites from Laos to 136 ± 20 for 20 splash-form tektites from Australia. The lowest 10Be concentrations for tektites fall on or within a contour centered off the shore of Vietnam, south of the Gulf of Tonkin (107°E; 17°N), but also encompassing two other locations in the area of northeastern Thailand previously proposed for the site of a single tektite-producing impact. The 10Be concentrations of layered tektites show only a weak anticorrelation (R ˜ -0.3) with the numbers of relict crystalline inclusions. Loosely consolidated, fine-grained terrestrial sediments or recently consolidated sedimentary rocks are the most likely precursor materials. Dilution of sediments with other kinds of rock raises problems in mixing and is not supported by petrographic data. Sedimentary columns that have the right range of 10Be concentrations occur off the coasts of places where sedimentation rates are high relative to those in the deep sea. A single impact into such a region, 15 to 300 m thick, could have propelled near-surface, high- 10Be material farthest—to Australia—while keeping the deeper-lying, low- 10Be layers closer to home. We do not rule out, however, other proposed mechanisms for tektite formation.

  3. Towards Harmonisation of Critical Laboratory Result Management - Review of the Literature and Survey of Australasian Practices

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, CA; Horvath, AR

    2012-01-01

    Timely release and communication of critical test results may have significant impact on medical decisions and subsequent patient outcomes. Laboratories therefore have an important responsibility and contribution to patient safety. Certification, accreditation and regulatory bodies also require that laboratories follow procedures to ensure patient safety, but there is limited guidance on best practices. In Australasia, no specific requirements exist in this area and critical result reporting practices have been demonstrated to be heterogeneous worldwide. Recognising the need for agreed standards and critical limits, the AACB started a quality initiative to harmonise critical result management throughout Australasia. The first step toward harmonisation is to understand current laboratory practices. Fifty eight Australasian laboratories responded to a survey and 36 laboratories shared their critical limits. Findings from this survey are compared to international practices reviewed in various surveys conducted elsewhere. For the successful operation of a critical result management system, critical tests and critical limits must be defined in collaboration with clinicians. Reporting procedures must include how critical results are identified; who can report and who can receive critical results; what is an acceptable timeframe within which results must be delivered or, if reporting fails, what escalation procedures should follow; what communication channels or systems should be used; what should be recorded and how; and how critical result procedures should be maintained and evaluated to assess impact on outcomes. In this paper we review the literature of current standards and recommendations for critical result management. Key elements of critical result reporting are discussed in view of the findings of various national surveys on existing laboratory practices, including data from our own survey in Australasia. Best practice recommendations are made that laboratories

  4. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

  5. The contribution of structural-, psittacofulvin- and melanin-based colouration to sexual dichromatism in Australasian parrots.

    PubMed

    Taysom, A J; Stuart-Fox, D; Cardoso, G C

    2011-02-01

    Colour ornamentation in animals is exceptionally diverse, but some colours may provide better signals of individual quality or more efficient visual stimuli and, thus, be more often used as sexual signals. This may depend on physiological costs, which depend on the mechanism of colour production (e.g. exogenously acquired colouration in passerine birds appears to be most sexually dichromatic). We studied sexual dichromatism in a sample of 27 Australasian parrot species with pigment- (melanin and psittacofulvin) and structural-based colouration, to test whether some of these types of colouration are more prominent in sexual ornamentation. Unlike passerines, in which long wavelength colouration (yellow to red) usually involves exogenous and costly carotenoid pigments, yellow to red colouration in parrots is based on endogenously synthesized psittacofulvin pigments. This allows us to assess whether costly exogenous pigments are necessary for these plumage colours to have a prominent role in sexual signalling. Structural blue colouration showed the largest and most consistent sexual dichromatism, both in area and perceptually relevant chromatic differences, indicating that it is often ornamental in parrots. By contrast, we found little evidence for consistent sexual dichromatism in melanin-based colouration. Unlike passerines, yellow to red colouration was not strongly sexually dichromatic: although the area of colouration was generally larger in males, colour differences between the sexes were on average imperceptible to parrots. This is consistent with the idea that the prominent yellow to red sexual dichromatism in passerines is related to the use of carotenoid pigments, rather than resulting from sensory bias for these colours.

  6. A ten year, multicentre study of coagulase negative staphylococcal infections in Australasian neonatal units

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study late onset systemic infections with coagulase negative staphylococci. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of coagulase negative staphylococcal infection in 18 Australasian neonatal nurseries. Results: From 1991 to 2000 inclusive, there were 1281 cases of coagulase negative staphylococcal (CoNS) sepsis, comprising 57.1% of all late onset infections. The male/female ratio was 1.27:1 (p < 0.05). The incidence of CoNS sepsis was 3.46 episodes per 1000 live births. Most infected babies (71%) were 24–29 weeks gestation at birth (mode 26 weeks). The first positive culture was day 7–14 in 49% of babies (mode 10 days). Five cases of meningitis were reported, an incidence of 0.4% of all CoNS infections. Twenty nine babies (2.3%) had concurrent necrotising enterocolitis and CoNS septicaemia. Four babies (0.3%) died from CoNS infection, but CoNS infection possibly contributed to the death of an additional 20 babies (1.6%). The mortality directly attributable to CoNS infection was significantly lower than that from late onset infections with Staphylococcus aureus (13.1%; relative risk (RR) = 36.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0 to 100.2) or with Gram negative bacilli (14.2%; RR = 45.5 (95% CI 16.8 to 123.3)). Conclusions: CoNS are currently responsible for most late onset neonatal infections. Most infected babies are < 30 weeks gestation at birth, and usually present between 7 and 14 days of age. CoNS infections may be associated with necrotising enterocolitis, although causality is unproven. Neonatal CoNS infections are relatively benign: meningitis is rare and mortality low compared with infection from other organisms. Over-vigorous attempts to reduce the incidence of CoNS infections using prophylactic antibiotics are not advisable. PMID:12598493

  7. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.

  8. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-09-14

    During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area.

  9. 1991 AAIR Forum. Refereed Proceedings of the Conference of the Australasian Association for Institutional Research (AAIR) (2nd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, October 1-3, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinburne Inst. of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria (Australia).

    The Australasian Association for Institutional Research (AAIR) conference provided a comprehensive coverage of issues, concepts, and techniques in the areas of planning, data analysis and research, and related aspects of management support in tertiary education. Refereed papers from the conference include: (1) "Changes in Student Approaches…

  10. Research in Science Education, Volume 1990. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (21st, Perth, Western Australia, July 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains selected refereed papers from the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association. The papers are as follows: "A Learning Model for Science Education: Developing Teaching Strategies" (Appleton); "Researching Balance between Cognition and Affect in Science Teaching" (Baird et…

  11. International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (3rd, Auckland, New Zealand, November 25-27, 1992). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Gan Che, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight papers presented at the Third International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (AAIR) are published in this journal issue. They represent the diversity and richness of the field of Planning in the Public Sector" (Jack Smith); (2) "Futures Planning for Tertiary Education: Curricula for the 21st…

  12. Image Understanding, 14th Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, L. S.

    1983-06-01

    Technical and annual progress reports of principal investigators of image understanding are presented. Topics covered include: surface constraint from linear entents; computing visual correspondance; smoothing optical flow fields; viewframes; a connectionist model of form perception; use of difference fields in processing sensor motion; a facet approach to optic flow; special purpose automatic programming for 3-d model-based vision; MAPS: organization of a spatial data base system using imagery, terrain, and map data; segment-based stereo matching; software metrics for performance analysis of parallel hardware; scene analysis algorithms; and robot vehicles.

  13. Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in Australasian multiple-case breast cancer families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    applied. The majority of breast cancers arising in carriers that were available for review were high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas. Conclusions: About 1.5% (95% CI 0.6to 2.4) of Australasian multiple-case breast cancer families attending clinics are segregating protein-truncating mutations in PALB2, most being PALB2 c.3113G>A, p.Trp1038*. Given the prevalence, breast cancer risk, and tumour grade associated with this mutation, consideration of clinical PALB2 testing is warranted. PMID:23448497

  14. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered.

  15. Environmental Education, The Last Measure of Man. An Anthology of Papers for the Consideration of the 14th and 15th Conference of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Raymond F.

    An anthology of papers for consideration by delegates to the 14th and 15th conferences of the United States National Commission for UNESCO are presented in this book. As a wide-ranging collection of ideas, it is intended to serve as background materials for the conference theme - our responsibility for preserving and defending a human environment…

  16. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  17. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  18. Search for the 700,000-year-old source crater of the Australasian tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Garvin, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Many tektite investigations have hypothesized that the impact crater that was the source of the extensive Australasian strewn field lies somewhere in or near Indochina. This is due to variations in abundance and size of tektites across the strewn field, variation of thickness of microtektite layers in ocean cores, nature and ablation characteristics across the field, and, above all, the occurrence of the large, blocky, layered Muong Nong-type tektites in Indochina. A recent study of the location and chemistry of Muong Nong-type and splash-form tektites suggests that the source region can be further narrowed to a limited area in eastern Thailand and southern Loas. Satellite multispectral imagery, a digital elevation dataset, and maps showing drainage patterns were used to search within this area for possible anomalous features that may be large degraded impact craters. Four interesting structures were identified from these datasets, and they are presented.

  19. Floodplain deposits, channel changes and riverbank stratigraphy of the Mekong River area at the 14th-Century city of Chiang Saen, Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Spencer H.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Bundarnsin, Tharaporn

    2008-10-01

    edges as arcuate cuts of similar curvature into the saprolite-mantled bedrock hills These features indicate channel avulsion occurred by meander loop cutoff in the past. Brick Buddhist monuments of the 14th-16th Century were built upon the floodplain with meander features on the Thai and Laos side of the river, indicating that these meandering channel features and the broader floodplain are mostly older than 600 years.

  20. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  1. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  2. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    PubMed

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent.

  3. Androgen receptor genotyping in a large Australasian cohort with androgen insensitivity syndrome; identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Y W A; McGown, I N; Cowley, D M; Oley, C; Thomsett, M J; Choong, C S Y; Cotterill, A M

    2007-08-01

    We genotyped the androgen receptor (AR) gene in 31 Australasian patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The entire coding region of AR was examined including analysis of polymorphic CAG and GGN repeats in all patients. AR defects were found in 66.7% (6/9) of patients with complete AIS (CAIS) and 13.6% (3/22) of patients with partial AIS (PAIS). A novel deletion (N858delG) leading to a premature stop codon was found in CAIS patient P1. CAIS patient P2 has a novel deletion (N2676delGAGT) resulting in a stop at codon 787. These mutations would result in inactivation of AR protein. A novel insertion of a cysteine residue in the first zinc finger of the AR DNA-binding domain (N2045_2047dupCTG) was found in CAIS patient P3. PAIS patient P4 has a novel amino acid substitution (Arg760Ser) in the AR ligand binding domain, which may impair ligand binding. Five patients were found to have previously reported AR mutations and no mutations were identified in the remaining patients.

  4. Synanthropy of wild mammals as a determinant of emerging infectious diseases in the Asian-Australasian region.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Ro; Sleigh, Adrian; McMichael, Tony

    2012-03-01

    Humans create ecologically simplified landscapes that favour some wildlife species, but not others. Here, we explore the possibility that those species that tolerate or do well in human-modified environments, or 'synanthropic' species, are predominantly the hosts of zoonotic emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). We do this using global wildlife conservation data and wildlife host information extracted from systematically reviewed emerging infectious disease literature. The evidence for this relationship is examined with special emphasis on the Australasian, South East Asian and East Asian regions. We find that synanthropic wildlife hosts are approximately 15 times more likely than other wildlife in this region to be the source of emerging infectious diseases, and this association is essentially independent of the taxonomy of the species. A significant positive association with EIDs is also evident for those wildlife species of low conservation risk. Since the increase and spread of native and introduced species able to adapt to human-induced landscape change is at the expense of those species most vulnerable to habitat loss, our findings suggest a mechanism linking land conversion, global decline in biodiversity and a rise in EIDs of wildlife origin.

  5. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Li, Cheng; Vindum, Jens V; Brown, Rafe M; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpina, [corrected] Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpina [corrected] form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis.

  6. Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet

    PubMed Central

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Howland, Howard C.; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E.; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-01-01

    Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

  7. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Fang; JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; JIN, Jie-Qiong; SUWANNAPOOM, Chatmongkon; LI, Cheng; Jens, V. VINDUM; Rafe, M. BROWN; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpine, Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpine form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis. PMID:26828029

  8. Looking back at the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship: the most prestigious research award of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Boult, Margaret; Babidge, Wendy; Pleass, Susan; Scott, David

    2015-10-01

    The John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship is a generous endowment made to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) by the young neurosurgeon's family, following his death from a brain tumour. In this article, we examine the significance and legacy of the grant since its inception in 1979. This is the highest level of research fellowship awarded by the RACS recognizing early career excellence, as part of its significant research funding programme (over $1.7 million in 2015). John Mitchell Crouch recipients have been pioneers in various areas of medicine where they have developed new technologies, established research centres, improved patient safety and military surgery and embraced evidence-based medicine. The funds they received have directly contributed to research published in numerous highly respected peer-reviewed journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine; established new laboratories, helped fund clinical trials and allowed new directions of research to be pursued. Recipients of the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship have been recognized with many awards including 11 Australian and New Zealand Honours to date. Many other significant research funds have been subsequently bestowed, including over 120 National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants to Australian and New Zealand recipients subsequent to their Fellowship. This article also shows the range of disciplines in which the award has supported cutting-edge research leading to benefits for patients and health care.

  9. Key innovations and island colonization as engines of evolutionary diversification: a comparative test with the Australasian diplodactyloid geckos.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Porta, J; Ord, T J

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of key innovations and the invasion of new areas constitute two major processes that facilitate ecological opportunity and subsequent evolutionary diversification. Using a major lizard radiation as a model, the Australasian diplodactyloid geckos, we explored the effects of two key innovations (adhesive toepads and a snake-like phenotype) and the invasion of new environments (island colonization) in promoting the evolution of phenotypic and species diversity. We found no evidence that toepads had significantly increased evolutionary diversification, which challenges the common assumption that the evolution of toepads has been responsible for the extensive radiation of geckos. In contrast, a snakelike phenotype was associated with increased rates of body size evolution and, to a lesser extent, species diversification. However, the clearest impact on evolutionary diversification has been the colonization of New Zealand and New Caledonia, which were associated with increased rates of both body size evolution and species diversification. This highlights that colonizing new environments can drive adaptive diversification in conjunction or independently of the evolution of a key innovation. Studies wishing to confirm the putative link between a key innovation and subsequent evolutionary diversification must therefore show that it has been the acquisition of an innovation specifically, not the colonization of new areas more generally, that has prompted diversification.

  10. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  11. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Michael; Leong, Trevor; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Kneebone, Andrew; Carroll, Susan; Wiltshire, Kirsty; Ngan, Samuel; Kachnic, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  12. Micro-Raman spectroscopic study of fine-grained, shock-metamorphosed rock fragments from the Australasian microtektite layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.; Fries, M.

    2008-11-01

    Shock-metamorphosed rock fragments have been found in the Australasian microtektite layer from the South China Sea. Previous X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that the most abundant crystalline phases in the rock fragments are coesite, quartz, and a 10 Å phase (mica/clay?). In addition, the presence of numerous other phases was suggested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In the present research, ten of the rock fragments, which had previously been studied using SEM/EDX, were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The presence of K-feldspar, plagioclase, rutile, ilmenite, titanite, magnetite, calcite, and dolomite were confirmed. In addition, the high-pressure TiO2 polymorph with an α-PbO2 structure (i.e., TiO2II) was found in several rock fragments. Two grains previously thought to have been zircon, based on their compositions, were found to have Raman spectra that do not match the Raman spectra of zircon, reidite, or any of the possible decomposition products of zircon or their high-pressure polymorphs. We speculate that the ZrSiO4 phase might be a previously unknown high-pressure polymorph of zircon or one of its decomposition products (i.e., ZrO2 or SiO2). The presence of coesite and TiO2 II, and partial melting and vesiculation suggest that the rock fragments containing the unknown ZrSiO4 phase must have experienced shock pressures between 45 and 60 GPa. We conclude that micro-Raman spectroscopy, in combination with XRD and SEM/EDX, is a powerful tool for the study of small, fine-grained impact ejecta.

  13. By how much do we underestimate species diversity of liverworts using morphological evidence? An example from Australasian Plagiochila (Plagiochilaceae: Jungermanniopsida).

    PubMed

    Renner, Matt A M; Heslewood, Margaret M; Patzak, Simon D F; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2017-02-01

    As a framework for revisionary study of the leafy liverwort Plagiochila in Australia, two methods for species delimitation on molecular sequence data, General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) were applied to a dataset including 265 individuals from Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Groups returned by GMYC and ABGD were incongruent in some lineages, and ABGD tended to lump groups. This may reflect underlying heterogeneity in the history of diversification within different lineages of Plagiochila. GMYC from trees calculated using three different molecular clocks were compared, in some lineages different primary species hypotheses were returned by analyses of trees estimated under different clock models, suggesting clock model selection should be a routine component of phylogeny reconstruction for tree-based species delimitation methods, such as GMYC. Our results suggest that a minimum of 71 Plagiochilaceae species occur in Australasia, 16 more than currently accepted for the region, comprising 8 undetermined species and 8 synonyms requiring reinstatement. Despite modern taxonomic investigation over a four decade period, (1) real diversity is 29% higher than currently recognized; and (2) 12 of 33, or 36%, of currently accepted and previously untested Australasian species have circumscription issues, including polyphyly, paraphyly, internal phylogenetic structure, or combinations of two or more of these issues. These both reflect the many challenges associated with grouping decisions based solely on morphological data in morphologically simple yet polymorphic plant lineages. Our results highlight again the critical need for combined molecular-morphological datasets as a basis for resolving robust species hypotheses in species-rich bryophyte lineages.

  14. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  15. Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary…

  16. Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae).

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Cooper, Steven J B; Meusemann, Karen; Klopfstein, Seraina; Harrison, Sophie E; Harvey, Mark S; Austin, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    The formation and spread of the Australian arid zone during the Neogene was a profoundly transformative event in the biogeographic history of Australia, resulting in extinction or range contraction in lineages adapted to mesic habitats, as well as diversification and range expansion in arid-adapted taxa (most of which evolved from mesic ancestors). However, the geographic origins of the arid zone biota are still relatively poorly understood, especially among highly diverse invertebrate lineages, many of which are themselves poorly documented at the species level. Spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae) are one such lineage, having mesic 'on-the-continent' Gondwanan origins, while also having experienced major arid zone radiations in select clades. In this study, we present new orthologous nuclear markers for the phylogenetic inference of mygalomorph spiders, and use them to infer the phylogeny of Australasian Idiopidae with a 12-gene parallel tagged amplicon next-generation sequencing approach. We use these data to test the mode and timing of diversification of arid-adapted idiopid lineages across mainland Australia, and employ a continent-wide sampling of the fauna's phylogenetic and geographic diversity to facilitate ancestral area inference. We further explore the evolution of phenotypic and behavioural characters associated with both arid and mesic environments, and test an 'out of south-western Australia' hypothesis for the origin of arid zone clades. Three lineages of Idiopidae are shown to have diversified in the arid zone during the Miocene, one (genus Euoplos) exclusively in Western Australia. Arid zone Blakistonia likely had their origins in South Australia, whereas in the most widespread genus Aganippe, a more complex scenario is evident, with likely range expansion from southern Western Australia to southern South Australia, from where the bulk of the arid zone fauna then originated. In Aganippe, remarkable adaptations to phragmotic burrow

  17. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  18. Decay of Bk246* formed in similar entrance channel reactions of B11+U235 and N14+Th232 at low energies using the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Birbikram; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2008-05-01

    The decay of the Bk246* nucleus, formed in entrance channel reactions B11+U235 and N14+Th232 at different incident energies, is studied by using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) extended to include the deformations and orientations of nuclei. The main decay mode here is fission. The other (weaker) decay channels are the light particles evaporation (A⩽4) and intermediate mass fragments (5⩽A⩽20). All decay products are calculated as emissions of preformed clusters through the interaction barriers. The calculated fission cross sections σfiss, taken as a sum of the energetically favored symmetric and near symmetric fragments (ACN/2±7 and A=106-110 plus complementary fragments) show an excellent agreement with experimental data at all experimental incident c.m. energies for both reactions, except for the top three energies in the case of the B11+U235 reaction. The disagreement between the DCM calculations and data at higher incident c.m. energies for the B11+U235 entrance channel is associated with the presence of additional effects of noncompound, quasifission (qf) components, in contradiction with the measured anisotropy effects which indicate the other entrance channel N14+Th232 to contain the noncompound nucleus contribution. The prediction of two fission windows, the symmetric fission (SF) and near symmetric or heavy mass fragments (HMFs), suggests the presence of a fine structure of fission fragments, which also need an experimental verification. The only parameter of the model is the neck length parameter ▵R whose value is shown to depend strongly on limiting angular momentum, which in turn depends on the use of sticking or nonsticking moment of inertia for angular momentum effects.

  19. Further localization of the gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) in 15 Australasian families: Linkage and loss of heterozygosity

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevix-Trench, G.; Wicking, C.; Berkman, J.; Sharpe, H.; Hockey, A.; Haan, E.; Oley, C.; Ravine, D.; Turner, A.; Searle, J.

    1993-09-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS; basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome) is a cancer-predisposition syndrome characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and diverse developmental defects. The gene for NBCCS has been mapped to 9q23.1-q31 in North Americal and European families. In addition, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for genetic markers in this region has been detected in sporadic BCCs, indicating that the NBCCs gene is probably a tumor-suppressor gene. In this study the authors have determined that the NBCCS gene is also linked to this region in Australasian pedigrees and that there is no significant evidence of heterogeneity. They have defined the localization of the gene by multipoint and haplotype analysis of 15 families, using four microsatellite markers. LOH at these loci was detected in 50% of sporadic BCCs, a rate that is significantly higher than that in other skin lesions used as controls. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) oreios sp. n., formerly species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti complex, and a critical review of its biology and relation to disease.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Taai, K; Howard, T M; Cook, S; Harbach, R E

    2015-03-01

    Species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae) is described and formally named Anopheles oreios Bangs & Harbach, sp. n. Adult, pupal and fourth-instar larval specimens collected in the Baliem Valley, Papua Province, Indonesia, are characterized and compared with those of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles irenicus and Anopheles torresiensis (formerly informally denoted as species 1, 2, 7 and 3, respectively). The variable wings of adult females, the male genitalia, the pupa and the fourth-instar larva of An. oreios are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the mitochondrial COI and COII genes. The biology of An. oreios and its relation to malaria transmission are discussed in detail and contrasted with the biology and disease relations of some members of the An. farauti and Anopheles punctulatus sibling species complexes.

  1. Snakes across the Strait: trans-Torresian phylogeographic relationships in three genera of Australasian snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and Pseudechis).

    PubMed

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Dumbrell, Alex J; Hay, Chris; Pook, Catharine E; Williams, David J; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the phylogeny of three genera of Australasian elapid snakes (Acanthophis-death adders; Oxyuranus-taipans; Pseudechis-blacksnakes), using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND4 genes. In Acanthophis and Pseudechis, we find evidence of multiple trans-Torresian sister-group relationships. Analyses of the timing of cladogenic events suggest crossings of the Torres Strait on several occasions between the late Miocene and the Pleistocene. These results support a hypothesis of repeated land connections between Australia and New Guinea in the late Cenozoic. Additionally, our results reveal undocumented genetic diversity in Acanthophis and Pseudechis, supporting the existence of more species than previously believed, and provide a phylogenetic framework for a reinterpretation of the systematics of these genera. In contrast, our Oxyuranus scutellatus samples from Queensland and two localities in New Guinea share a single haplotype, suggesting very recent (late Pleistocene) genetic exchange between New Guinean and Australian populations.

  2. A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anazodo, Antoinette C; Stern, Catharyn J; McLachlan, Robert I; Gerstl, Brigitte; Agresta, Franca; Cohn, Richard J; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wakefield, Claire E; Daly, Genevieve; Chan, Daisy; Gilbert, Lorrae; Kemertzis, Matthew; Orme, Lisa M; Wand, Handan; Viney, Rosalie; Gillam, Lynn; Deans, Rebecca; Jetti, Murali; Wu, John; Chapman, Michael; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment in patients of a reproductive age have led to significant improvements in survival rates; however, a patient's fertility can be affected by both cancer and its treatment. As survival rates improve, there is an expectation by clinicians and patients that patient's reproductive potential should be considered and protected as much as possible. However, there is a lack of data about current fertility preservation (FP) uptake as well as accurate data on the acute or permanent reproductive risks of cancer treatment, complications of FP in cancer patients, and the use and success of assisted reproductive technology by cancer survivors. FP remains a major gap in acute cancer management with lifelong implications for cancer survivors. The FUTuRE Fertility research team has established the first binational multisite Australasian Oncofertility Registry, which is collecting a complete oncofertility data set from cancer and fertility centers in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from the research study will monitor referral, uptake, and complications of FP, document patient's reproductive potential after treatment, and collect data on the use of assisted reproductive technology following cancer treatment. The data will be linked to other routine health and administrative data sets to allow for other research projects to be carried out. The changes in oncofertility care will be benchmarked against the Australasian Oncofertility Charter. The data will be used to develop evidence-based guidelines and resources, including development of accurate risk projections for patients' risk of infertility, allowing clinicians to make recommendations for FP or assisted reproductive technology. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Number-12615000221550.

  3. Special 14 juillet (July 14th Special).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubreuilh, Jean-Luc; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles on France's Bastille Day and its significance to the French over the two centuries of its celebration presents the viewpoints of the historian, writer, painter, film industry, and singer and provides materials and instructional ideas for classroom use. (MSE)

  4. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  5. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  6. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  7. Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

  8. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.; Anderson, R.; Garino, T.; Halsey, T.C.; Hance, B.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1996-10-01

    An Electrorheological fluid is normally a low-viscosity colloidal suspension, but when an electric field is applied, the fluid undergoes a reversible transition to a solid, being able to support considerable stress without yield. Commercial possibilities for such fluids are enormous, including clutches, brakes, valves,shock absorbers, and stepper motors. However, performance of current fluids is inadequate for many proposed applications. Our goal was to engineer improved fluids by investigating the key technical issues underlying the solid-phase yield stress and the liquid to solid switching time. Our studies focused on field-induced interactions between colloidal particles that lead to solidification, the relation between fluid structure and performance (viscosity, yield stress), and the time evolution of structure in the fluid as the field is switched on or off.

  9. A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its Australasian relative, Lepilaena (Potamogetonaceae) - Evidence from DNA and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; García-Murillo, Pablo; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-05-01

    Althenia (Potamogetonaceae) is an aquatic plant genus disjunctly distributed in the southern- (South Africa's Cape Floristic Region: CFR) and northern- (Mediterranean Eurasia) hemispheres. This genus and its Australasian relative, Lepilaena, share similar floral characters yet have been treated as different genera or sections of Althenia sensu lato (s.l.) due to the isolated geographic distribution as well as the differences in sex expression, stamen construction, and stigma morphology. The diagnostic characters, however, need reevaluation over the boundaries between the entities. Here we tested the taxonomic delimitation between the entities, assessed synapomorphies for evolutionary lineages, and inferred biogeographic history in a phylogenetic framework. Our results indicated that Lepilaena was resolved as non-monophyletic in both plastid DNA and nuclear PhyC trees and Althenia was nested within it. As Althenia has nomenclatural priority, we propose a new delimitation to recognize Althenia s.l., which can be diagnosed by the female flowers with 3-segmented perianths and male flowers with perianths. The previously used diagnostic characters are either autapomorphies or synapomorphies for small lineages within Althenia s.l., and evolutionary transitions to sessile female flowers and narrow leaves characterize larger clades. Biogeographic analyses suggested a Miocene origin of Althenia s.l. in Australasia and indicated at least one inter- and one intra-specific inter-continental dispersal events among Australasia, Mediterranean Eurasia, and CFR need to be hypothesized to explain the current distribution patterns.

  10. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  11. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  12. Wellbore fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, D.L.; Corley, W.T.

    1983-12-27

    A clay-based or clay-free aqueous thixotropic wellbore fluid having improved fluid loss control, desirable flow characteristics and low shale sensitivity for use in drilling a well comprising water or a brine base including an effective amount of an additive comprising a crosslinked potato starch, a heteropolysaccharide derived from a carbohydrate by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas, and hydroxyethylcellulose or carboxymethylcellulose, is disclosed. This drilling fluid has been found to be nondamaging to the formations through which the well is drilled.

  13. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  14. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  15. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  16. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa boharti sp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhyncha sp. n., Acupalpa glossa sp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeos sp. n., Acupalpa miaboolya sp. n., Acupalpa minuta sp. n., Acupalpa minutoides sp. n., Acupalpa notomelas sp. n., Acupalpa novayamarna sp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralica sp. n., Acupalpa yalgoo sp. n. and Acupalpa yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallis sp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeierae sp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life

  17. Australasian sky islands act as a diversity pump facilitating peripheral speciation and complex reversal from narrow endemic to widespread ecological supertramp

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Sagata, Katayo; Surbakti, Suriani; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australasian archipelago is biologically extremely diverse as a result of a highly puzzling geological and biological evolution. Unveiling the underlying mechanisms has never been more attainable as molecular phylogenetic and geological methods improve, and has become a research priority considering increasing human-mediated loss of biodiversity. However, studies of finer scaled evolutionary patterns remain rare particularly for megadiverse Melanesian biota. While oceanic islands have received some attention in the region, likewise insular mountain blocks that serve as species pumps remain understudied, even though Australasia, for example, features some of the most spectacular tropical alpine habitats in the World. Here, we sequenced almost 2 kb of mitochondrial DNA from the widespread diving beetle Rhantus suturalis from across Australasia and the Indomalayan Archipelago, including remote New Guinean highlands. Based on expert taxonomy with a multigene phylogenetic backbone study, and combining molecular phylogenetics, phylogeography, divergence time estimation, and historical demography, we recover comparably low geographic signal, but complex phylogenetic relationships and population structure within R. suturalis. Four narrowly endemic New Guinea highland species are subordinated and two populations (New Guinea, New Zealand) seem to constitute cases of ongoing speciation. We reveal repeated colonization of remote mountain chains where haplotypes out of a core clade of very widespread haplotypes syntopically might occur with well-isolated ones. These results are corroborated by a Pleistocene origin approximately 2.4 Ma ago, followed by a sudden demographic expansion 600,000 years ago that may have been initiated through climatic adaptations. This study is a snapshot of the early stages of lineage diversification by peripatric speciation in Australasia, and supports New Guinea sky islands as cradles of evolution, in line with geological evidence suggesting

  18. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Shaun L

    2011-05-04

    Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs

  19. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  20. The Australasian Hepatology Association consensus guidelines for the provision of adherence support to patients with hepatitis C on direct acting antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Jacqueline A; Sheppard-Law, Suzanne; Mason, Susan; Warner, Sherryne L

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus primarily spread through sharing of drug-injecting equipment. Approximately 150 million people worldwide and 230,000 Australians are living with chronic hepatitis C infection. In March 2016, the Australian government began subsidizing direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C, which are highly effective (95% cure rate) and have few side effects. However, there is limited evidence to inform the provision of adherence support to people with hepatitis C on DAAs including the level of medication adherence required to achieve a cure. Methodology In February 2016, a steering committee comprising four authors convened an expert panel consisting of six hepatology nurses, a hepatologist, a pharmacist, a consumer with hepatitis C and treatment experience, and a consumer advocate. The expert panel focused on the following criteria: barriers and enablers to DAA adherence; assessment and monitoring of DAA adherence; components of a patient-centered approach to DAA adherence; patients that may require additional adherence support; and interventions to support DAA adherence. The resultant guidelines underwent three rounds of consultation with the expert panel, Australasian Hepatology Association (AHA) members (n=12), and key stakeholders (n=7) in June 2016. Feedback was considered by the steering committee and incorporated if consensus was achieved. Results Twenty-four guidelines emerged from the evidence synthesis and expert panel discussion. The guidelines focus on the pretreatment assessment and education, assessment of treatment readiness, and monitoring of medication adherence. The guidelines are embedded in a patient-centered approach which highlights that all patients are at risk of nonadherence. The guidelines recommend implementing interventions focused on identifying patients’ memory triggers and hooks; use of nonconfrontational and nonjudgmental language by health professionals; and objectively

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  2. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  3. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  4. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  6. Review of Marmasoma White with lectotype designation of M. sumptuosum White and an identification key to the Australasian/Oceanian genera of Ecliminae (Diptera, Bombyliidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paula Fernanda Motta; McAlister, Erica; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2017-02-15

    The bombyliid genus Marmasoma White is restricted to Australia. Marmasoma sumptuosum White, the only known species of the genus, is studied and a lectotype and paralectotypes are designated. Based on the type series and on additional material, a redescription of the species is presented and the main characters of the external morphology of adults are illustrated and photographed, including male and female genitalia. In addition, the remarkable aedeagus of M. sumptuosum, unique among all Ecliminae species by the presence of serrated projections on its apical portion, is described and photographed in detail for the first time. An identification key to the Australasian/Oceanian genera of Ecliminae and a distribution map with the known geographic records of Marmasoma are also included.

  7. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 9. The relations of Australasian Ypsiloncyphon species to their Asian congeners, additions, mainly to Petrocyphon and Prionocyphon, and a key to Australian genera of Scirtinae.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2016-03-02

    The endemic Australasian species of Ypsiloncyphon are the sister group of the combined Asian species groups 1, 2, and 4. The description of the type species, Y. chlorizans (Klausnitzer), is supplemented by details of male and female genitalia. New species are described and illustrated in several genera: Austrocyphon scissus n. sp., Leptocyphon abnormis n. sp., Petrocyphon bonang n. sp., P. lacteus n. sp., P. televisionarius n. sp., Prionocyphon bidentatus n. sp., P. cacatua n. sp., P. laurae n. sp., P. neboissi n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., P. uncatus n. sp., and P. urbanus n. sp. Genus Prionocyphon is distinguished from Oriental genera with similar antennal modifications. However, a synapomorphy of Prionocyphon as presently understood is not known. Supplementary information on various species in the aforementioned genera and in Pachycyphon and Calvarium is provided. A key to the genera of adult Australian Scirtidae: Scirtinae is presented.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  9. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  11. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  12. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  13. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity vv. The term “compressibility” as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci.10.1016/j.ijengsci.2012.01.006 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and

  14. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  15. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  16. Postoperative fluid management

    PubMed Central

    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction and fluid shift to extracellular compartment should be considered wisely. Fluid management must be done based on patient’s body fluid status. Patients who are responsive to fluids can benefit from fluid resuscitation, whereas patients who are not fluid responsive are more likely to suffer complications of over-hydration. Therefore, common use of central venous pressure measurement, which is proved to be inefficient to predict fluid responsiveness, should be avoided. Goal directed strategy is the most rational approach to assess the patient and maintain optimum fluid balance. However, accessible and applicable monitoring tools for determining patient’s actual fluid need should be further studied and universalized. The debate around colloids and crystalloids should also be considered with goal directed therapies. Advantages and disadvantages of each solution must be evaluated with the patient’s specific condition. PMID:26261771

  17. Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, David; Dear, Keith; Le, Thai; Barton, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Porter, David; Roos, Daniel; Pratt, Gary

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.

  18. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies Joint Committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer N; Provenzano, David; Peng, Philip; Eichenberger, Urs; Lee, Sang Chul; Nicholls, Barry; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in pain medicine for interventional axial, nonaxial, and musculoskeletal pain procedures is rapidly evolving and growing. Because of the lack of specialty-specific guidelines for ultrasonography in pain medicine, an international collaborative effort consisting of members of the Special Interest Group on Ultrasonography in Pain Medicine from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies developed the following recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures. The purpose of these recommendations is to define the required skills for performing ultrasound-guided pain procedures, the processes for appropriate education, and training and quality improvement. Training algorithms are outlined for practice- and fellowship-based pathways. The previously published American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy education and teaching recommendations for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia served as a foundation for the pain medicine recommendations. Although the decision to grant ultrasound privileges occurs at the institutional level, the committee recommends that the training guidelines outlined in this document serve as the foundation for educational training and the advancement of the practice of ultrasonography in pain medicine.

  19. Fluid sampling pump

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.V.; Nimberger, M.; Ward, R.L.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a fluid sampling pump for withdrawing pressurized sample fluid from a flow line and for pumping a preselected quantity of sample fluid with each pump driving stroke from the pump to a sample vessel, the sampling pump including a pump body defining a pump bore therein having a central axis, a piston slideably moveable within the pump bore and having a fluid inlet end and an opposing operator end, a fluid sample inlet port open to sample fluid in the flow line, a fluid sample outlet port for transmitting fluid from the pump bore to the sample vessel, and a line pressure port in fluid pressure sample fluid in the flow line, an inlet valve for selectively controlling sample fluid flow from the flow line through the fluid sample inlet port, an operator unit for periodically reciprocating the piston within the pump bore, and a controller for regulating the stroke of the piston within the pump bore, and thereby the quantity of fluid pumped with each pump driving stroke. It comprises a balanced check valve seat; a balanced check valve seal; a compression member; and a central plunger.

  20. 14TH Annual International Performance Management Association Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Being more responsive to all internal & external customers 6 Evolution of Business Planning & Execution Systems Functional View Mainframe Value Chain...integrating EVM to core business Planning , Budgeting, and Acquisition Under GPRA David Muzio Office of Federal Procurement Policy 202-395-6805 Largest

  1. History of On-orbit Satellite Fragmentations (14th Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene; Whitlock, David O.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Shoots, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in June 1961 (which instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400%) the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970s and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980s served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Continued events in all orbits in later years make definition and historical accounting of those events crucial to future research. Large, manned space stations and the growing number of operational robotic satellites demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population.

  2. Optoelectronic Workshops (14th). Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal IR chopper.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-21

    and Development Authority, Ontario Hydro , and the University of Rochester. Such support does not imply endorsement of the content by any of the above...shorter helix pitch length in G-1456 adds an additional elastic restoring torque not present in the long-pitch ZLI-4003, resulting in reduced decay...cell was a Wilks Model VR-6 variable path cell with KBr substrates. The path length of the cell was adjusted to 10 pm and the calibration checked by

  3. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Several software related topics are presented. Topics covered include studies and experiment at the Software Engineering Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, predicting project success from the Software Project Management Process, software environments, testing in a reuse environment, domain directed reuse, and classification tree analysis using the Amadeus measurement and empirical analysis.

  4. Proceedings of the 14th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Technological areas covered include aviation propulsion, aerodynamic devices, and crew safety; space vehicle propulsion, guidance and control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; spacecraft bearings, gimbals, and lubricants; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activity on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  5. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  6. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  7. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  8. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at fluid that has built up in the space in the abdomen around the internal organs. This area is called the peritoneal space. ... sample of fluid is removed from the peritoneal space using a needle and syringe. Your health care ...

  9. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  10. Electric fluid pump

    DOEpatents

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  11. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003720.htm Pericardial fluid culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pericardial fluid culture is a test performed on a sample of ...

  12. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  13. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  14. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  15. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  16. Goal directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.

  17. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  18. Perioperative Fluid Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bleier, Joshua I.S.; Aarons, Cary B.

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative fluid management of the colorectal surgical patient has evolved significantly over the last five decades. Older notions espousing aggressive hydration have been shown to be associated with increased complications. Newer data regarding fluid restriction has shown an association with improved outcomes. Management of perioperative fluid administration can be considered in three primary phases: In the preoperative phase, data suggests that avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation and avoidance of undue preoperative dehydration can improve outcomes. Although the type of intraoperative fluid given does not have a significant effect on outcome, data do suggest that a restrictive fluid regimen results in improved outcomes. Finally, in the postoperative phase of fluid management, a fluid-restrictive regimen, coupled with early enteral feeding also seems to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24436675

  19. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  20. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion-2 (AMPLE-2) trial: a multicentre randomised study of aggressive versus symptom-guided drainage via indwelling pleural catheters

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, Maree; Thomas, Rajesh; Muruganandan, Sanjeevan; Lam, David C L; Garske, Luke A; Kwan, Benjamin C H; Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S; Nguyen, Phan T; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Ritchie, Alexander J; Bint, Michael; Tobin, Claire L; Shrestha, Ranjan; Piccolo, Francesco; De Chaneet, Christian C; Creaney, Jenette; Newton, Robert U; Hendrie, Delia; Murray, Kevin; Read, Catherine A; Feller-Kopman, David; Maskell, Nick A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can complicate most cancers, causing dyspnoea and impairing quality of life (QoL). Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are a novel management approach allowing ambulatory fluid drainage and are increasingly used as an alternative to pleurodesis. IPC drainage approaches vary greatly between centres. Some advocate aggressive (usually daily) removal of fluid to provide best symptom control and chance of spontaneous pleurodesis. Daily drainages however demand considerably more resources and may increase risks of complications. Others believe that MPE care is palliative and drainage should be performed only when patients become symptomatic (often weekly to monthly). Identifying the best drainage approach will optimise patient care and healthcare resource utilisation. Methods and analysis A multicentre, open-label randomised trial. Patients with MPE will be randomised 1:1 to daily or symptom-guided drainage regimes after IPC insertion. Patient allocation to groups will be stratified for the cancer type (mesothelioma vs others), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0–1 vs ≥2), presence of trapped lung (vs not) and prior pleurodesis (vs not). The primary outcome is the mean daily dyspnoea score, measured by a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) over the first 60 days. Secondary outcomes include benefits on physical activity levels, rate of spontaneous pleurodesis, complications, hospital admission days, healthcare costs and QoL measures. Enrolment of 86 participants will detect a mean difference of VAS score of 14 mm between the treatment arms (5% significance, 90% power) assuming a common between-group SD of 18.9 mm and a 10% lost to follow-up rate. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (number 2015-043). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. Trial registration

  1. Fluid sampling pump

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.V.; Nimberger, S.M.; Ward, R.L.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a pump for pumping a preselected quantity of fluid with each pump driving stroke from a fluid inlet port to a fluid outlet port, an inlet valve for selectively controlling fluid flow through the fluid inlet port, a pump body defining a pump bore therein, a piston slidably movable within the pump bore and having a fluid inlet end and an opposing operator end, an operator unit for reciprocating the piston within the pump bore, and a manifold interconnect with the pump body. It comprises a flow path therein extending from a manifold inlet port to a manifold outlet port, flow path being in communication with the fluid outlet port in the pump body, a purge passageway extending from the flow path to the outlet passageway, a purge valve for regulating fluid flow through the purge passageway, and a filter positioned within the manifold and extending across a portion of the flow path, the filter defining a filtered zone within the flow path adjoining the inlet port in the pump body, and an unfiltered zone within the flow path extending from the manifold inlet to the manifold outlet, such that filtered fluid enters the pump bore while unfiltered fluid bypasses the filter and passes out the manifold outlet port.

  2. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  3. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  4. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  5. Applications of supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses supercritical fluids in industrial and near-to-industry applications. Supercritical fluids are flexible tools for processing materials. Supercritical fluids have been applied to mass-transfer processes, phase-transition processes, reactive systems, materials-related processes, and nanostructured materials. Some applications are already at industrial capacity, whereas others remain under development. In addition to extraction, application areas include impregnation and cleaning, multistage countercurrent separation, particle formation, coating, and reactive systems such as hydrogenation, biomass gasification, and supercritical water oxidation. Polymers are modified with supercritical fluids, and colloids and emulsions as well as nanostructured materials exhibit interesting phenomena when in contact with supercritical fluids that can be industrially exploited. For these applications to succeed, the properties of supercritical fluids in combination with the materials processed must be clearly determined and fundamental knowledge of the complex behavior must be made readily available.

  6. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  7. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid.

  8. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  9. Fluid pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, R.T.; Gerlach, C.R.

    1986-05-13

    A fluid pumping system is described for use with a natural gas dehydrating system or the like having an absorber apparatus for removing water from wet natural gas to produce dry natural gas by use of a dessicant agent such as glycol, and a glycol treater apparatus for producing a source of dry glycol from wet glycol received from the absorber apparatus. The system consists of: a fluid pump means operatively connected between dry glycol source and absorber apparatus for pumping dry glycol from the dry glycol source to the absorber apparatus; a fluid operable piston motor means operatively associated with the pump means for driving the pump means and having fluid inlet passage means for receiving wet glycol from the absorber and fluid outlet passage means for delivering wet glycol to the glycol reboiler means wherein energy derived from the flow of fluid passing through the fluid inlet passage means provides the entire motivating force for the motor means and the pump means; the fluid pump means comprising a first pair of equal diameter chamber portion of a double acting piston means having a piston rod with two oppositely positioned piston heads at terminal ends thereof received within two oppositely positioned cylinders mounted on a fixed central body which slidably supports the piston rod; the fluid operable motor means comprising a second pair of equal diameter chamber portions of the double acting piston means; the effective areas of outwardly directed faces of the piston heads being substantially greater than the effective areas of inwardly directed faces of the piston heads; and a wet glycol passage shifting means associated with the fluid motor means for automatically changing the porting of the fluid motor means at the end of a piston stroke for producing reciprocal piston motion in the fluid motor means including toggle means actuated by the piston rod.

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Perioperative Fluid Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Denise; Shih, Andre C

    2017-03-01

    Anesthesia can lead to pathophysiologic changes that dramatically alter the fluid balance of the body compartments and the intravascular space. Fluid administration can be monitored and evaluated using static and dynamic indexes. Guidelines for fluid rates during anesthesia begin with 3 mL/kg/h in cats and 5 mL/kg/h in dogs. If at all possible, patients should be stabilized and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before general anesthesia.

  12. Thermogelling magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrivar, Keshvad; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach is proposed for the formulation of kinetically stable magnetorheological (MR) fluids exhibiting an MR effect. Thermoresponsive carrier fluids are used which develop a sol-gel transition on increasing the temperature. Turbidity measurements, multiwave rheology and steady shear flow tests are carried out on model conventional MR fluids prepared by dispersion of carbonyl iron microparticles in triblock copolymer solutions of type PEOx-PPOy-PEOx with x = 100 and y = 65. Experiments demonstrate that the MR fluids remain stable against sedimentation in the gel phase and exhibit a very large (relative) MR effect (up to 1000%) in the sol phase.

  13. The Fluids RAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo

    2016-11-01

    After fifteen years of experience in rap, and ten in fluid mechanics, "I am coming here with high-Reynolds-number stamina; I can beat these rap folks whose flows are... laminar." The rap relates fluid flows to rap flows. The fluid concepts presented in the song have varying complexity and the listeners/viewers will be encouraged to read the explanations on a site dedicated to the rap. The music video will provide an opportunity to share high-quality fluid visualizations with a general audience. This talk will present the rap lyrics, the vision for the video, and the strategy for outreach. Suggestions and comments will be welcomed.

  14. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests for viruses, mycobacteria ( AFB testing in identifying tuberculosis ), and parasites Adenosine deaminase – rarely ordered for detecting tuberculosis in peritoneal fluid ^ Back to top When is ...

  15. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    DOEpatents

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  16. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  17. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  18. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert R.; Winsa, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate a wide variety of microgravity fluid physics science experiments on-board the US Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR is one of three racks comprising the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF is being designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. The unique, long-term, microgravity environment and long operational times on the ISS will offer experimenters the opportunity to modify experiment parameters based on their findings similar to what can be accomplished in ground laboratories. The FIR concept has evolved over time to provide a flexible, 'optics bench' approach to meet the wide variety of anticipated research needs. The FIR's system architecture presented is designed to meet the needs of the fluid physics community while operating within the constraints of the available ISS resources.

  19. Fluid Bubble Eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  20. Fluid bubble eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  1. Fluid delivery control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  2. Time Independent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  3. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  4. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  5. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  6. Fluid structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, K.

    A few nonflow field problems are considered, taking into account mainly fluid-shell dynamic interaction and fluid-solid impact. Fluid-shell systems are used as models for sloshing and POGO (structure-propulsion coupling oscillation) in liquid rockets, floating lids of oil tanks, large tanks containing fluid, nuclear containment vessels, and head injury studies in biomechanics. The study of structure-water impact finds applications in the problems associated with water landings of reentry vehicles, water entry of torpedoes, and slamming of ships in heavy seas. At least three different methods can be used in handling wet structures. Attention is given to the method which treats fluid by boundary elements and structure by finite elements.

  7. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOEpatents

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G [Albuquerque, NM; Todd, Steven N [Rio Rancho, NM

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  8. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  9. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  11. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  12. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern. PMID:28216569

  13. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  14. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong

    2017-02-14

    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  15. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  16. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  19. Space Station fluid resupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Al

    Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station in a gaseous state. Efficiency and flexibility are major design considerations. Subcarrier approach allows multiple manifest combinations. Growth is achieved by adding modular subcarriers.

  20. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  1. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  2. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOEpatents

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  3. Lighter fluid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lighter fluids are called hydrocarbons. They include: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane Where Found Various ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron ...

  4. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  5. Well servicing fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, A.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a well servicing fluid. It comprises an aqueous medium from about 0.2 to about 5 pounds per barrel of a partially hydrolyzed homopolymer of acrylamide having an average molecular weight greater than 1 million, and a calcium-controlling additive. It comprises from about 0.1 to about 2.5 pounds per barrel of the fluid of an alkali metal bicarbonate, from about 0.1 to about 2.5 pounds per barrel of the fluid of a water-soluble, carboxylic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 1.5 pounds per barrel of the fluid of a terpolymer containing from about 40 to about 70% by weight acrylamide, from about 20 to about 40% by weight of an acrylic acid and from about 5 to about 20% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, the terpolymer having an average molecular weight of from about 5 to about 10 million.

  6. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bacterial infection. The Gram stain method is one of the most commonly used techniques for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections. How the Test is Performed A sample of fluid will be taken from the sac ...

  7. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paciorek, K.; Nakahara, J.; Smythe, M.; Kratzer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It it found that the experimental material obtained in 66% yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6x1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  8. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  9. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF ... In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23d ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  11. Windshield washer fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation), and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests ... Methanol, the main ingredient in windshield washing fluid, is extremely ... As little as 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) can be deadly ...

  12. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this test may be used to help detect tuberculosis (TB) . Less commonly ordered tests for infectious diseases, ... fluid in a person with symptoms that suggest tuberculosis means it is likely that person has a ...

  13. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  14. Fluid management system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.

  15. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians.

  16. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  17. Fluid therapy in shock.

    PubMed

    Mandell, D C; King, L G

    1998-05-01

    The goal of treatment for all types of shock is the improvement of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The mainstay of therapy for hypovolemic and septic shock is the expansion of the intravascular volume by fluid administration, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products. Frequent physical examinations and monitoring enable the clinician to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation and thus the success of the fluid therapy.

  18. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  19. [Fluid management: estimation of fluid status].

    PubMed

    Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac filling pressures alone are not appropriate to estimate the effect of a volume challenge on the corresponding change in stroke volume. Dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness have been shown to discriminate with acceptable sensitivity and specificity between responders and non-responders to a volume challenge. However, several clinical confounders have been indentified which potentially influence the predictive power of these variables. Sound knowledge of these confounders and the acknowledgement that there is no unique threshold value for volume optimisation but a considerable "gray zone" is necessary to fully exploit the advantages of functional haemodynamic monitoring.

  20. Fluid loss control differences of crosslinked and linear fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zigrye, J.L.; Whitfill, D.L.; Sievert, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Three fracturing fluids--a crosslinked guar, a delayed hydrating guar, and a linear guar--were tested for fluid loss control at set time intervals while being conditioned in a heated, pressurized flow loop. Each fluid was tested with 3 different fluid loss additive systems: diesel, silica flour, and a combination of diesel and silica flour. The crosslinked system was tested also with 2 additional fluid loss additive systems. These fluids were diesel plus an anionic surfactant and the combination of diesel/silica flour plus the anionic surfactant. These tests show that the fluid loss of crosslinked fracturing fluids is best controlled by using diesel in combination with a surfactant or a properly sized particulate material. The fluid loss of linear fluids is controlled best with particulate additives.

  1. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  2. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Masuda, S. R.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program was to optimize and scale up the linear perfluoroalkylether stabilization process and to provide test data regarding the fluids' thermal oxidative stability in the presence of metal alloys. The stabilization of Fomblin Z-25 was scaled up to 300 g of fluid. The modified fluid was stable at 316 C in oxygen in the presence of M-50 alloy for more than 24 hrs but less than 40 hrs; the amount of volatiles produced after 24 hrs was 5.5 mg/g. In the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy, under the above conditions, following an exposure of 24 hrs, the amount of volatiles formed was 6.2 mg/g; 56 hrs exposure yielded 13.9 mg/g. The commercial fluid at 288 C (in oxygen) in the presence of M-50 after 15 hrs of exposure decomposed extensively, 342 mg/g; in the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy after only 8 hrs at 288 C, the amount of volatiles was 191 mg/g. Formulation of the commercial fluid with C2PN3 additive was not as effective as the stabilization processing. All the perfluoroalkylether fluids studied were stable in nitrogen at 343 C. The thermal oxidative stability in the absence of metal alloys varied, with Aflunox exhibiting the best behavior. All the fluids were degraded in oxygen at 316 C during 24 hrs exposure to Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy with the exception of a perfluoroalkylether substituted triazine and the modified Z-25.

  3. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  4. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  5. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  6. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  7. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  8. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  9. Fluid-loop reaction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor); Schier, J. Alan (Inventor); Iskenderian, Theodore C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved fluid actuating system for imparting motion to a body such as a spacecraft is disclosed. The fluid actuating system consists of a fluid mass that may be controllably accelerated through at least one fluid path whereby an opposite acceleration is experienced by the spacecraft. For full control of the spacecraft's orientation, the system would include a plurality of fluid paths. The fluid paths may be circular or irregular, and the fluid paths may be located on the interior or exterior of the spacecraft.

  10. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  11. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  12. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  13. Computational astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Michael L.; Clarke, David A.; Stone, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The field of astrophysical fluid dynamics (AFD) is described as an emerging discipline which derives historically from both the theory of stellar evolution and space plasma physics. The fundamental physical assumption behind AFD is that fluid equations of motion accurately describe the evolution of plasmas on scales that are large in comparison with particle interaction length scales. Particular attention is given to purely fluid models of large-scale astrophysical plasmas. The role of computer simulation in AFD research is also highlighted and a suite of general-purpose application codes for AFD research is discussed. The codes are called ZEUS-2D and ZEUS-3D and solve the equations of AFD in two and three dimensions, respectively, in several coordinate geometries for general initial and boundary conditions. The topics of bipolar outflows from protostars, galactic superbubbles and supershells, and extragalactic radio sources are addressed.

  14. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  15. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  16. Transverse axis fluid turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, B.

    1983-11-15

    A fluid turbine, the rotation axis of which is transverse to the direction of fluid flow, has at least two blade assemblies mounted for rotation about the rotation axis. Each blade assembly includes a streamlined elongated blade having a span parallel to the rotation axis. Each blade is pivotable about a pivot axis parallel to and spaced from the rotation axis. The pivot axis is located circumferentially ahead of the blade center of pressure with respect to the direction of turbine rotation. Each blade assembly is so constructed that its center of mass is located either at its pivot axis or circumferentially at its pivot axis and radially outboard of its pivot axis.

  17. On Gyroviscous Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Philip J.; Lingam, Manasvi

    2014-11-01

    Fluid models involving gyroviscous effects, whereby momentum is transported while conserving energy, are of interest for plasma, astrophysical, and condensed matter systems. Such fluids can be viewed as possessing intrinsic angular momentum. We present a systematic method for constructing such models from an action principle formalism that allows for an unambiguous means for introducing these effects, instead of ad-hoc phenomenological prescriptions. We also apply Noether's theorem to obtain the appropriate conserved quantities for these models. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FG05-80ET-53088.

  18. Triclinic Fluid Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattham, Nattaporn; Korblova, Eva; Shao, Renfan; Walba, David M.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.

    2010-02-01

    Among the condensed phases, those of lowest point group symmetry are the triclinic crystals, which have only the identity element or the identity and inversion elements. Such low symmetry is stabilized by the specificity of molecular interaction, which is weakened with increasing disorder, so that known phases with fluid degrees of freedom are more symmetric. Here we report triclinic order, appearing as a broken symmetry in a single, isolated, fluid smectic liquid crystal layer freely suspended in air, showing that none of its principal dielectric axes lies either normal or parallel to the layer plane.

  19. Triclinic fluid order.

    PubMed

    Chattham, Nattaporn; Korblova, Eva; Shao, Renfan; Walba, David M; Maclennan, Joseph E; Clark, Noel A

    2010-02-12

    Among the condensed phases, those of lowest point group symmetry are the triclinic crystals, which have only the identity element or the identity and inversion elements. Such low symmetry is stabilized by the specificity of molecular interaction, which is weakened with increasing disorder, so that known phases with fluid degrees of freedom are more symmetric. Here we report triclinic order, appearing as a broken symmetry in a single, isolated, fluid smectic liquid crystal layer freely suspended in air, showing that none of its principal dielectric axes lies either normal or parallel to the layer plane.

  20. Electrorheological Fluids: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Eftekhari, A.; Belvin, K. W.; Singh, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Electrorheological fluids (ERF) are an intriguing class of non-Newtonian industrial fluids. They consist of fine dielectric particles suspended in liquids of low dielectric constants. The objectives of this research were to select a particulate system such that: (1) its density can be varied to match that of the selected liquid, and (2) the dielectric constant of the particles and the liquids should be such that the critical fields needed for asymptotic increase in viscosity are less than or equal to 10 KV/cm. Synthetic Zeolite particles were selected as the solute/suspensions. Octoil oil was selected as the solvent. The results are summarized here.

  1. Low temperature fluid blender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  2. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  3. Turbulent scaling in fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.

  4. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  5. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  6. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  7. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  8. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  9. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  10. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  11. Gaseous species in fluid inclusions: A tracer of fluids and indicator of fluid processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, David I.; Moore, Joseph N.; Yonaka, Brad; Musgrave, John

    1996-01-24

    Quantitative bulk analysis of fluid inclusion volatiles measures the composition of trapped geothermal liquids and vapor. Fluid-inclusion gas-analyses may identify fluid boiling and mixing, and the analyses can be used as a fluid tracer. Fluid boiling is indicated by excess gaseous species. Linear arrays of data points on gas ratio diagrams indicate fluid mixing. Nitrogen-argon ratios are used to discriminate atmospheric fiom magmatic volatiles. Crustal components in geothermal fluids are best indicated by concentrations of methane and helium. Methane strongly correlates with other organic compounds, and N2-Ar-CH4 plots are similar to N2-Ar-He diagrams. Alkene to alkane ratios of C2-7 organic species indicate the oxidation state of geothermal fluids. The Geysers inclusion analyses are an example of how inclusion fluids may be used to understand the paleo hydrology of a geothermal system.

  12. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  13. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  14. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  15. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1997-05-14

    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  16. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  17. Body Fluids Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, Steven F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for determining volumes of body fluids in a subject using bioelectrical response spectroscopy. The human body is represented using an electrical circuit. Intra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with a capacitor; extra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with two parallel inductors. The parallel inductors represent the resistance due to vascular fluids. An alternating, low amperage, multifrequency signal is applied to determine a subject's impedance and resistance. From these data, statistical regression is used to determine a 1% impedance where the subject's impedance changes by no more than 1% over a 25 kHz interval. Circuit component, of the human body circuit are determined based on the 1% impedance. Equations for calculating total body water, extra-cellular water, total blood volume, and plasma volume are developed based on the circuit components.

  18. Continuous fluid level detector

    SciTech Connect

    LeVert, F.E.

    1989-02-21

    A fluid level detector is described which consists of: a junctionless thermocouple cable consisting of two thermoelectric elements enclosed in a metallic sheath wherein a negative resistance temperature coefficient insulant is interpositioned between the thermoelectric elements and the inner surface of the metallic sheath thereby providing electrical insulation and thermal energy transfer between the thermoelectric elements; a metallic sheathed resistance heater, which is used to input thermal energy to the fluid level detector; an outer metallic cylindrical tube capable of being sealed on one end, into which the juctionless thermocouple cable and resistance heater are inserted and held in place by mechanically swaging or drawing, to reduce the outer diameter of the metallic cylindrical tube; separate means for supplying electric currents to the thermoelectric elements and to the resistance heater; and electronic and computing means for measuring the loop resistance of the thermoelectric elements with a temporary junction.

  19. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  20. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  1. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOEpatents

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  2. The Mechanism of Fluid Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonkarman, T.; Rubach, H.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of fluid resistance within the limit of the square law is presented. It was concluded that the investigations should be extended and completed in two directions, namely: by an investigation of stable vortex configurations in space, and by considering the perfect fluid as the limiting case of a viscous fluid and then limiting the law of vortex of formation with the condition that only those fluid particles which were in contact with the surface of the body can receive rotation.

  3. Numerical Fluid Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Bernoulli’s friend Leonhard Euler (1707-83), in two path-breaking papers (1752, 1755). In his second paper, Euler claimed optimistically that "all the theory...the dream of Euler , Poincare, and Hilbert: of making fluid mechanics into a mathematical science, like geometry. Von Neumann, who seems to have...ORIGINATORS LAMB Chaps. KEY PHRASES 1. EULER -LAGRANCE III-VI SOLID BOUNDARIES vs. POTENTIAL FLOW VIII-IX FREE BOUNDARIES INTERFACES, SLIP- STREAMS GRAVITY

  4. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  5. The mixing of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils.

  6. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  7. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  8. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  9. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ván, P.

    2017-01-01

    Single-component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances are derived, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third-order mass-momentum-energy density-flux four-tensor. The corresponding Galilean transformation rules of the physical quantities are derived. It is proved that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame theory, including the thermostatic Gibbs relation and extensivity condition and also the entropy production, is independent of the reference frame and also the flow-frame of the fluid. The continuity-Fourier-Navier-Stokes equations are obtained almost in the traditional form if the flow of the fluid is fixed to the temperature. This choice of the flow-frame is the thermo-flow. A simple consequence of the theory is that the relation between the total, kinetic and internal energies is a Galilean transformation rule.

  10. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ván, P.

    2017-03-01

    Single-component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances are derived, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third-order mass-momentum-energy density-flux four-tensor. The corresponding Galilean transformation rules of the physical quantities are derived. It is proved that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame theory, including the thermostatic Gibbs relation and extensivity condition and also the entropy production, is independent of the reference frame and also the flow-frame of the fluid. The continuity-Fourier-Navier-Stokes equations are obtained almost in the traditional form if the flow of the fluid is fixed to the temperature. This choice of the flow-frame is the thermo-flow. A simple consequence of the theory is that the relation between the total, kinetic and internal energies is a Galilean transformation rule.

  11. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  12. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  13. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  14. Microwave Propagation in Dielectric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment designed to verify quantitatively the effect of a dielectric fluid's dielectric constant on the observed wavelength of microwave radiation propagating through the fluid. The fluid used is castor oil, and results agree with the expected behavior within 5 percent. (Author/CS)

  15. Fluid loss control differences of crosslinked and linear fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zigrye, J.L.; Sievert, J.A.; Whitfill, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    Three fracturing fluids-a cross-linked guar, a delayed hydrating guar and a linear guar-were tested for fluid loss control at set time intervals while being conditioned in a heated, pressurized flow loop. Each fluid was tested with three different fluid loss additive systems: diesel, silica flour, and a combination of diesel and silica flour. The cross-linked system was also tested with two additional fluid loss additive systems. They were diesel plus an anionic surfactant and the combination of diesel/silica flour plus the anionic surfactant. These tests show that the fluid loss of cross-linked fracturing fluids is best controlled by using diesel in combination with a surfactant or a properly sized particulate material. The fluid loss of linear fluids is controlled best with particulate additives. Therefore, it is important to take into account the type of fracturing fluid that is being used for a particular job when planning which fluid loss additives to use.

  16. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  18. Fluid-fluid versus fluid-solid demixing in mixtures of parallel hard hypercubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Luis; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

    2011-02-01

    It is well known that increase of the spatial dimensionality enhances the fluid-fluid demixing of a binary mixture of hard hyperspheres, i.e. the demixing occurs for lower mixture size asymmetry as compared to the three-dimensional case. However, according to simulations, in the latter dimension the fluid-fluid demixing is metastable with respect to the fluid-solid transition. According to the results obtained from approximations to the equation of state of hard hyperspheres in higher dimensions, the fluid-fluid demixing might become stable for high enough dimension. However, this conclusion is rather speculative since none of these works have taken into account the stability of the crystalline phase (by a minimization of a given density functional, by spinodal calculations or by MC simulations). Of course, the lack of results is justified by the difficulty of performing density functional calculations or simulations in high dimensions and, in particular, for highly asymmetric binary mixtures. In the present work, we will take advantage of a well tested theoretical tool, namely the fundamental measure density functional theory for parallel hard hypercubes (in the continuum and in the hypercubic lattice). With this, we have calculated the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid spinodals for different spatial dimensions. We have obtained, no matter what the dimensionality, the mixture size asymmetry or the polydispersity (included as a bimodal distribution function centered around the asymmetric edge lengths), that the fluid-fluid critical point is always located above the fluid-solid spinodal. In conclusion, these results point to the existence of demixing between at least one solid phase rich in large particles and one fluid phase rich in small ones, preempting a fluid-fluid demixing, independently of the spatial dimension or the polydispersity.

  19. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  20. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  1. Fluid management: the pharmacoeconomic dimension

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Cost is a key concern in fluid management. Relatively few data are available that address the comparative total costs of care between different fluid management regimens in particular clinical indications. Relevant costs of fluid-associated morbidity and mortality, including those incurred after intensive care unit or hospital discharge, also need to be considered in evaluating the cost-benefit ratios of administered fluids. Rigorously designed pharmacoeconomic studies are needed to delineate the costs and benefits of various approaches to fluid management. PMID:11255597

  2. Fluid viscosity under confined conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.

  3. Rheological properties of synovial fluids.

    PubMed

    Fam, H; Bryant, J T; Kontopoulou, M

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is the joint lubricant and shock absorber [Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 32 (2002), 10-37] as well as the source of nutrition for articular cartilage. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the rheological properties of synovial fluid as they relate to its chemical composition. Given its importance in the rheology of synovial fluid, an overview of the structure and rheology of HA (hyaluronic acid) is presented first. The rheology of synovial fluids is discussed in detail, with a focus on the possible diagnosis of joint pathology based on the observed differences in rheological parameters and trends. The deterioration of viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid in pathological states due to effects of HA concentration and molecular weight is further described. Recent findings pertaining to the composition and rheology of periprosthetic fluid, the fluid that bathes prosthetic joints in vivo are reported.

  4. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  5. Ratcheting fluid with geometric anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a mechanism that effectively transports fluids using vibrational motion imposed onto fluid boundary with anisotropy. In our experiment, two asymmetric, sawtooth-like structures are placed facing each other and form a corrugated fluid channel. This channel is then forced to open and close periodically. Under reciprocal motion, fluid fills in the gap during the expansion phase of the channel and is then forced out during contraction. Since the fluid experiences different impedances when flowing in different directions, the stagnation point that separates flows of two directions changes within each driving period. As a result, fluid is transported unidirectionally. This ratcheting effect of fluid is demonstrated through our measurements and its working principle discussed in some detail.

  6. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  7. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James; Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-11-01

    Slender structures live in fluid flows across many scales, from towed instruments to plant blades to microfluidic valves. The present work details a simple model of a flexible structure in a uniform flow. We present analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and linear drag forces. This is an extension of the classical catenaries to a five-parameter family of solutions, represented as trajectories in angle-curvature ``phase space.'' Limiting cases include neutrally buoyant towed cables and freely sedimenting flexible filaments. Now at University of California, San Diego.

  8. Rotational fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

  9. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  10. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs.

  11. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  12. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  13. Amniotic fluid assessment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C V

    1990-03-01

    The mysterious environment surrounding the fetus for much of his or her life is now being explored with increasing fervor. Assessment of amniotic fluid in the early portion of pregnancy is now possible for fetal karyotype determination. This may permit early diagnosis of abnormal fetuses, increasing the options for patients. As pregnancy progresses, high-resolution ultrasound assessment of amniotic fluid volume is integral to the management of pregnancies at risk for oligohydramnios. Such pregnancies include those who are postdate and those with suspected intrauterine growth retardation. Additional evaluation and ultrasonography are recommended for evaluation of the fetus in this clinical situation. With either hydramnios or oligohydramnios, careful ultrasound assessment of the fetus is essential to rule out significant congenital malformations. Finally, the use of ultrasound-directed amniocentesis in later pregnancy permits an assessment of fetal lung maturity and of the fetus at risk for Rhesus immunization. Attention to detail should increase chances of a successful pregnancy outcome while decreasing neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  14. Fluid injection microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-11-22

    A microvalve for extracting small volume samples into analytical devices, e.g., high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, includes: a first body having a first interior surface and two or more outlet ports at the first interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more first channels; a second body having a second interior surface and two or more inlet ports at the second interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more second channels wherein the outlet ports of the first body are coaxial with the corresponding inlet ports of the second body such that there are at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; a plate member, which has a substantially planar first mating surface and a substantially planar second mating surface, that is slidably positioned between the first interior surface and the second interior surface wherein the plate member has at least one aperture that traverses the height of the plate member, and wherein the aperture can be positioned to be coaxial with any of the at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; and means for securing the first surface of the first body against the first mating surface and for securing the second surface of the second body against the second mating surface.

  15. Entomological fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John

    2007-11-01

    The world of arthropods (insects and spiders) presents a number of novel fluid mechanics problems on a scale of interest to the microfluidics community. We address a number of such problems, giving particular attention to elucidating and rationalizing natural strategies for water-repellency and fluid transport on a small scale. The rough, hairy integument of water-walking arthropods is well known to be responsible for their water-repellency; we here consider its additional roles in underwater breathing and propulsion along the free surface. When submerged, many arthropods are able to survive by virtue of a thin air bubble trapped along their rough exteriors. The diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the water into the bubble allows it to function as an external lung, and enables certain species to remain underwater indefinitely. By coupling the bubble mechanics and chemistry, we develop criteria for this style of underwater breathing. We further demonstrate that the tilted flexible leg hairs of water-walking arthropods render the leg cuticle directionally anisotropic: contact lines advance most readily towards the leg tips. The dynamical role of the resulting unidirectional adhesion is explored, and yields new insight into the manner in which water-walking arthropods generate thrust, glide and leap from the free surface. Finally, we provide new rationale for the fundamental topological difference in the roughness on plants and insects, and suggest new directions for biomimetic design.

  16. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    PubMed

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  17. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

  18. Squirming through shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Charu; Zhu, Lailai; Elfring, Gwynn J.; Pak, On Shun

    2015-11-01

    Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.

  19. Pump for delivering heated fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermomechanical pump particularly suited for use in pumping a warming fluid obtained from an RTG (Radioisotope Thermal Generator) through science and flight instrumentation aboard operative spacecraft is described. The invention is characterized by a pair of operatively related cylinders, each including a reciprocating piston head dividing the cylinder into a pressure chamber confining therein a vaporizable fluid, and a pumping chamber for propelling the warming fluid, and a fluid delivery circuit for alternately delivering the warming fluid from the RTG through the pressure chamber of one cylinder to the pumping chamber of the other cylinder, whereby the vaporizable fluid within the pair of pressure chambers alternately is vaporized and condensed for driving the associated pistons in pumping and intake strokes.

  20. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Boeyen, Roger W. (Inventor); Reeh, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Kesmez, Mehmet (Inventor); Heselmeyer, Eric A. (Inventor); Parkey, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemically actuated pump and an electrochemical actuator for use with a pump. The pump includes one of various stroke volume multiplier configurations with the pressure of a pumping fluid assisting actuation of a driving fluid bellows. The electrochemical actuator has at least one electrode fluidically coupled to the driving fluid chamber of the first pump housing and at least one electrode fluidically coupled to the driving fluid chamber of the second pump housing. Accordingly, the electrochemical actuator selectively pressurizes hydrogen gas within a driving fluid chamber. The actuator may include a membrane electrode assembly including an ion exchange membrane with first and second catalyzed electrodes in contact with opposing sides of the membrane, and first and second hydrogen gas chambers in fluid communication with the first and second electrodes, respectively. A controller may reverse the polarity of a voltage source electrically coupled to the current collectors.

  1. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  2. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.

  3. Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.

  4. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  5. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  6. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  7. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  8. Fluid Therapy in Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Elizabeth; Lynch, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Fluid therapy is the cornerstone of supportive care in veterinary medicine. In dogs and cats with preexisting confirmed or suspected pulmonary disease, concerns may exist that the fluid therapy may impair gas exchange, either through increases in hydrostatic pressures or extravasation. Colloidal therapy is more likely to magnify lung injury compared with isotonic crystalloids. Radiographic evidence of fluid overload is a late-stage finding, whereas point-of-care ultrasound may provide earlier information that can also be assessed periodically at the patient side. Cases should be evaluated individually, but generally a conservative fluid therapy plan is preferred with close monitoring of its tolerance.

  9. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  10. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  11. Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Loflin, Rob; Winters, Michael E

    2017-02-01

    Since its original description in 1832, fluid resuscitation has become the cornerstone of early and aggressive treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. However, questions remain about optimal fluid composition, dose, and rate of administration for critically ill patients. This article reviews pertinent physiology of the circulatory system, pathogenesis of septic shock, and phases of sepsis resuscitation, and then focuses on the type, rate, and amount of fluid administration for severe sepsis and septic shock, so providers can choose the right fluid, for the right patient, at the right time.

  12. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  13. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.

    In the past 8 years, since Pedlosky's book was first published, it has found a well established place in the literature of dynamical meteorology and physical oceanography. Geophysicists less familiar with these fields may need to be reminded that the subject of geophysical fluid dynamics, in the narrow definition used in the title of the book, refers to the theory of the large-scale motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. Topics such as thermal convection in the atmosphere or in Earth's mantle and core are not treated in this book, and the reader will search in vain for a discussion of atmospheric or oceanic tides. The theory of quasi-geostrophic flow is described comprehensively, however, and its major applications to problems of atmospheric and oceanic circulations are considered in detail.

  14. Synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Scott R; Jerrard, David A

    2006-04-01

    AsA prompt and accurate diagnosis of a painful, swollen joint is imperative, primarily in the case of a septic joint, as delayed therapy may result in progression of disease or permanent loss of function. Procurement and analysis of synovial fluid (SF) are paramount in helping the clinician to determine a patient's clinical condition and further course of treatment. Measurement of white blood cell (WBC) counts, crystal analysis by polarized microscopy, and microbiologic studies including Gram stain and culture are the SF parameters that are collectively most important in the ultimate determination by a clinician of the presence or absence of an infectious or inflammatory joint. It is important for the clinician to understand and recognize the limitations of various SF parameters to minimize under-treating patients with potentially serious joint pathology.

  15. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-01-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from “capillary-elastic instabilities,” as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the “oscillating butter knife;” liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg–Borgas–Gaver shock. PMID:21403768

  16. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.

  17. Fluid Flow of Vitrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Juan, Tingting; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Pirouz Kavehpour, H.

    2011-11-01

    Vitrectomy is a microsurgical technique to remove the vitreous gel from the vitreous cavity. Due to the viscoelastic nature of the vitreous gel, its complex fluidic behavior during vitrectomy affects the outcome of the procedure. Therefore, the knowledge of such behavior is essential for better designing the vitrectomy devices, such as vitreous cutters, and tuning the system settings such as port and shaft diameters, infusion, vacuum, and cutting rate. We studied the viscoelastic properties of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer and obtained its relaxation time, retardation time, and shear-zero viscosity. We performed a computational study of the flow in a vitreous cutter using the viscoelastic parameters obtained from the rheology experiments. We found significant differences between the modeled vitreous gel and a Newtonian surrogate fluid in the flow behavior and performance of the vitreous cutter. Our results will help in understanding of the vitreous behavior during vitrectomy and providing guidelines for new vitreous cutter design.

  18. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  19. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  20. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  1. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  2. Fluid dynamics in developmental biology: moving fluids that shape ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2009-01-01

    Human conception, indeed fertilization in general, takes place in a fluid, but what role does fluid dynamics have during the subsequent development of an organism? It is becoming increasingly clear that the number of genes in the genome of a typical organism is not sufficient to specify the minutiae of all features of its ontogeny. Instead, genetics often acts as a choreographer, guiding development but leaving some aspects to be controlled by physical and chemical means. Fluids are ubiquitous in biological systems, so it is not surprising that fluid dynamics should play an important role in the physical and chemical processes shaping ontogeny. However, only in a few cases have the strands been teased apart to see exactly how fluid forces operate to guide development. Here, we review instances in which the hand of fluid dynamics in developmental biology is acknowledged, both in human development and within a wider biological context, together with some in which fluid dynamics is notable but whose workings have yet to be understood, and we provide a fluid dynamicist’s perspective on possible avenues for future research. PMID:19794816

  3. A FLUID SORBENT RECYCLING DEVICE FOR INDUSTRIAL FLUID USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roller compression Extractor® that extracts fluids from reusable sorbent pads was evaluated as a method of waste reduction. The extraction device, evaluated for industrial fluid users in New Jersey, was found to be effective in recycling unpleated sorbent pads, especially ...

  4. Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlig, Pierre

    1991-03-01

    An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low

  5. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  6. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    2000-02-01

    First published in 1967, Professor Batchelor's classic work is still one of the foremost texts on fluid dynamics. His careful presentation of the underlying theories of fluids is still timely and applicable, even in these days of almost limitless computer power. This reissue ensures that a new generation of graduate students experiences the elegance of Professor Batchelor's writing.

  7. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  8. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  9. Emerging string of fluid pearls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Jang, Minsu; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2016-09-01

    This paper is associated with a poster winner of a 2015 APS/DFD Milton van Dyke Award for work presented at the DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion. The original poster is available from the Gallery of Fluid Motion, http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/APS.DFD.2015.GFM.P0048

  10. FLUID PURIFIER AND SEALING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Swanton, W.F.

    1962-04-24

    An improved cold trap designed to condense vapors and collect foreign particles in a flowing fluid is described. In the arrangement, a valve is provided to prevent flow reversal in case of pump failure and to act as a sealing valve. Provision is made for reducing the temperature of the fluid being processed, including a pre-cooling stage. (AEC)

  11. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  12. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  13. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  14. Second Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from French, German, and Russian speakers about the microgravity research programs in their respective countries. Two keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. Fifty-eight of the sixty-two technical papers are included here.

  15. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  16. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  17. Retrograde fluids in granulites: Stable isotope evidence of fluid migration

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J. ); Valley, J.W. )

    1991-07-01

    Widespread retrograde alteration assemblages document the migration of mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluids into granulite facies rocks in the Adirondack Mountains. Fluid migration is manifest by (1) veins and patchy intergrowths of chlorite {plus minus} sericite {plus minus} calcite, (2) small veins of calcite, many only identifiable by cathodoluminescence, and (3) high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich or mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluid inclusions. The distinct and varied textural occurrences of the alteration minerals indicate that fluid-rock ratios were low and variable on a local scale. Stable isotope ratios of C, O, and S have been determined in retrograde minerals from samples of the Marcy anorthosite massif and adjacent granitic gneisses (charnockites). Retrograde calcite in the anorthosite has a relatively small range in both {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} (8.6 to 14.9% and {minus}4.1 to 0.4%, respectively), probably indicating that the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the calcite had exchanged with a variety of crustal lithologies including marbles and orthogneisses, and that calcite was precipitated over a relatively narrow temperature interval. Values of {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} that range from 2.8 to 8.3% within the anorthosite can also be interpreted to reflect exchange between orthogneisses and metasediments. The recognition of retrograde fluid migration is particularly significant in granulite facies terranes because the controversy surrounding the origin of granulites arises in part from differing interpretations of fluid inclusion data, specifically, the timing of entrapment of high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich inclusions. Results indicate that retrograde fluid migration, which in some samples may leave only cryptic petrographic evidence, is a process capable of producing high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich fluid inclusions.

  18. Fluid shifts in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 l (12.8 percent of leg volume), with 1.1 l from the nondominant leg, on Skylab 4. On landing, 65 percent of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 l which was 90-percent complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87-percent complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on orbit, with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact.

  19. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  20. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  1. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  2. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  3. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  4. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  5. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is one of two racks in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. The FIR is dedicated to the scientific investigation of space system fluids management supporting NASA s Exploration of Space Initiative. The FIR hardware was modal tested and FIR finite element model updated to satisfy the International Space Station model correlation criteria. The final cross-orthogonality results between the correlated model and test mode shapes was greater than 90 percent for all primary target modes.

  6. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Review Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models (14th) Held at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts on 11-12 June 1991,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-26

    03 CO2 CH4 NO CO N,) 02 HNO3 NO NOI NH3 Sol EXPANIDEO APPLICABILITY x ,1ODTRA1 IS BETTER SUITED THfAlf LOWTRAI FOR ATMOSPHERIC PATHS ABOVE 30 KM...0 1 0 -> HI 03 (000) 11 03 (001) ->M 03 (000) 03(001) ->03(000) 1’ h v " RATE EQUATIONS SOL VED IN STEADY STATE - SSUMES RATE EQUATIONS DEPEND L...AND FAR LINE WING PROBLEM J.-M. Hartmann Laboratoire E.M2.C., de CNRS (UPR288) et de rEcole Centrale Paris, Grand voie des vignes , 92295 Chatenay

  7. COMMITTEES: SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organizing Committee Takeshi Kodama Chair, UFRJ Jun Takahashi Co-chair, UNICAMP Ignácio Bediaga e Hickman CBPF Eduardo Fraga UFRJ Frederique Grassi USP Yogiro Hama USP Gastão Krein IFT Erasmo Madureira Ferreira UFRJ Marcelo G. Munhoz USP Fernando Navarra USP Sandra Padula IFT Alejandro Szanto de Toledo USP César Augusto Zen Vasconcellos UFRGS International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Nantes Federico Antinori Padova Tamás Biró Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger GSI Jean Cleymans Cape Town Láaszló Csernai Bergen Timothy Hallman BNL Huan Zhong Huang UCLA Takeshi Kodama Rio de Janeiro Yu-Gang Ma Shanghai Jes Madsen Aarhus Ágnes Mócsy Pratt University Berndt Müller Duke University Grazyna Odyniec LBNL Helmut Oeschler Darmstadt Johann Rafelski Arizona Hans Georg Ritter LBNL Gunther Rolland MIT Karel Šafařík CERN Ladislav Sandor Kosice University Jack Sandweiss Yale University George S F Stephans MIT Horst Stöcker Frankfurt Larry McLerranBNL Helmut Satz Universitä Bielefeld Nu Xu LBNL Fuqiang Wang Purdue University William A. Zajc Columbia University Pengfei Zhuang Tsinghua University

  8. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2006-11-01

    Fluid dynamics is fundamental to our understanding of the atmosphere and oceans. Although many of the same principles of fluid dynamics apply to both the atmosphere and oceans, textbooks tend to concentrate on the atmosphere, the ocean, or the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD). This textbook provides a comprehensive unified treatment of atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics. The book introduces the fundamentals of geophysical fluid dynamics, including rotation and stratification, vorticity and potential vorticity, and scaling and approximations. It discusses baroclinic and barotropic instabilities, wave-mean flow interactions and turbulence, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Student problems and exercises are included at the end of each chapter. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation will be an invaluable graduate textbook on advanced courses in GFD, meteorology, atmospheric science and oceanography, and an excellent review volume for researchers. Additional resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521849692. Includes end of chapter review questions to aid understanding Unified and comprehensive treatment of both atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics Covers many modern topics and provides up to date knowledge

  9. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation.

  10. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Outreach Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Schwarz, J. W.; Noguez, G.

    2012-12-01

    Here we will present high definition films of laboratory experiments demonstrating basic fluid motions similar to those occurring in atmospheres and oceans. In these experiments, we use water to simulate the fluid dynamics of both the liquid (oceans) and gaseous (atmospheric) envelopes. To simulate the spinning of the earth, we carry out the experiments on a rotating table. For each experiment, we begin by looking at our system first without the effects of rotation. Then, we include rotation to see how the behavior of the fluid changes due to the Coriolis accelerations. Our hope is that by viewing these experiments one will develop a sense for how fluids behave both in rotating and non-rotating systems. By noting the differences between the experiments, it should then be possible to establish a basis to think about large-scale fluid motions that exist in Earth's oceans and atmospheres as well as on planets other than Earth.Plan view image of vortices in a rotating tank of fluid. Movies of such flows make accessible the often difficult to comprehend fluid dynamical processes that occur in planetary atmospheres and oceans.

  11. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  12. Diamond growth in mantle fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Hélène; Frost, Daniel J.; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Leroy, Clémence; Esteve, Imène; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    In the upper mantle, diamonds can potentially grow from various forms of media (solid, gas, fluid) with a range of compositions (e.g. graphite, C-O-H fluids, silicate or carbonate melts). Inclusions trapped in diamonds are one of the few diagnostic tools that can constrain diamond growth conditions in the Earth's mantle. In this study, inclusion-bearing diamonds have been synthesized to understand the growth conditions of natural diamonds in the upper mantle. Diamonds containing syngenetic inclusions were synthesized in multi-anvil presses employing starting mixtures of carbonates, and silicate compositions in the presence of pure water and saline fluids (H2O-NaCl). Experiments were performed at conditions compatible with the Earth's geotherm (7 GPa, 1300-1400 °C). Results show that within the timescale of the experiments (6 to 30 h) diamond growth occurs if water and carbonates are present in the fluid phase. Water promotes faster diamond growth (up to 14 mm/year at 1400 °C, 7 GPa, 10 g/l NaCl), which is favorable to the inclusion trapping process. At 7 GPa, temperature and fluid composition are the main factors controlling diamond growth. In these experiments, diamonds grew in the presence of two fluids: an aqueous fluid and a hydrous silicate melt. The carbon source for diamond growth must be carbonate (CO32) dissolved in the melt or carbon dioxide species in the aqueous fluid (CO2aq). The presence of NaCl affects the growth kinetics but is not a prerequisite for inclusion-bearing diamond formation. The presence of small discrete or isolated volumes of water-rich fluids is necessary to grow inclusion-bearing peridotitic, eclogitic, fibrous, cloudy and coated diamonds, and may also be involved in the growth of ultradeep, ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic diamonds.

  13. Detachment energies of spheroidal particles from fluid-fluid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gary B.; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V.; Harting, Jens

    2014-10-01

    The energy required to detach a single particle from a fluid-fluid interface is an important parameter for designing certain soft materials, for example, emulsions stabilised by colloidal particles, colloidosomes designed for targeted drug delivery, and bio-sensors composed of magnetic particles adsorbed at interfaces. For a fixed particle volume, prolate and oblate spheroids attach more strongly to interfaces because they have larger particle-interface areas. Calculating the detachment energy of spheroids necessitates the difficult measurement of particle-liquid surface tensions, in contrast with spheres, where the contact angle suffices. We develop a simplified detachment energy model for spheroids which depends only on the particle aspect ratio and the height of the particle centre of mass above the fluid-fluid interface. We use lattice Boltzmann simulations to validate the model and provide quantitative evidence that the approach can be applied to simulate particle-stabilized emulsions, and highlight the experimental implications of this validation.

  14. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    PubMed

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  15. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  16. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  17. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  18. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  19. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  20. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  1. Fluid Instabilities inside Astrophysical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Zheng, Weiqun

    2014-11-01

    We present our results from the simulations of fluid instabilities inside supernovae with a new radiation-hydrodynamic code, CASTRO. Massive stars are ten times more massive than Sun. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that these massive stars tend to end their lives with energetic explosions, so-called supernovae. Many fluid instabilities occur during the supernova explosions. The fluid instabilities can be driven by hydrodynamics, nuclear burning, or radiation. In this talk, we discuss about the possible physics of fluid instabilities found in our simulations and how the resulting mixing affects the observational signatures of supernovae. This work was supported by the DOE HEP Program under contract DE-SC0010676; the National Science Foundation (AST 0909129) and the NASA Theory Program (NNX14AH34G).

  2. FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluid transport through porous media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through porous earth m...

  3. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  4. Improved perfluoroalkyl ether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Smythe, Mark E.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It is found that the experimental material obtained in 66 percent yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6 x 1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  5. The handbook of fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1998-07-01

    This book provides professionals in the field of fluid dynamics with a comprehensive guide and resource. The book balances three traditional areas of fluid mechanics--theoretical, computational, and experimental--and expounds on basic science and engineering techniques. Each chapter introduces a topic, discusses the primary issues related to this subject, outlines approaches taken by experts, and supplies references for further information. Topics discussed include: (1) basic engineering fluid dynamics; (2) classical fluid dynamics; (3) turbulence modeling; (4) reacting flows; (5) multiphase flows; (6) flow and porous media; (7) high Reynolds number asymptotic theories; (8) finite difference method; (9) finite volume method; (10) finite element methods; (11) spectral element methods for incompressible flows; (12) experimental methods, such as hot-wire anemometry, laser-Doppler velocimetry, and flow visualization; and (13) applications, such as axial-flow compressor and fan aerodynamics, turbomachinery, airfoils and wings, atmospheric flows, and mesoscale oceanic flows.

  6. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  7. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  8. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  9. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  10. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  11. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D.B.; Lauzon, R.V.

    1981-11-17

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  12. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D. B.; Lauzon, R. V.

    1984-12-04

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  13. Fracturing fluid characterization facility (FFCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Roegiers, J.C.; Fagan, J.

    1993-12-31

    The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility project has as its main focus the design, fabrication, and construction of a high pressure simulator (HPS) and a low pressure simulator (LPS) to be used to experimentally investigate the rheological properties and transport characteristics of proppant laden fracturing fluids. A discussion of each apparatus is provided as well as the auxiliary equipment, and data acquisition and control systems associated with the simulators.

  14. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-12-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by the effective bimetric fluid.

  15. A Kinetic-fluid Model

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson

    1998-07-10

    A nonlinear kinetic-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important kinetic effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the kinetic-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The kinetic effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., kinetic/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).

  16. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  17. Fluid pathways in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; van Keken, P. E.; Hacker, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    A large amount of water captured in the oceanic crust and mantle is recycled in subduction zones. Upon compaction and heating most fluids are expelled, but a significant amount of water can be carried in hydrated mineral phases and point defects. While the qualitative role of volatiles and dehydration reactions is well appreciated in the mechanisms for intermediate depth seismicity, mantle wedge melting and arc volcanism, the quantitative details of the metamorphic reactions and the pathways of fluids and melts in the slab are poorly understood. We provide finite element models, combined with thermodynamic and mineralogical constraints, to estimate the water release and migration from the subducting slab to overlying arc. We use models from a selection of warm (e.g., Cascadia), cold (Central Honshu) and intermediate (Nicaragua) subduction zones, using slab geometries constrained from seismological observations. The fluid release is predicted from the breakdown of hydrated phases in sediments, oceanic crust and slab mantle. We use newly developed high resolution models for the flow of these released fluids that take into account permeability and compaction pressures. While the detailed structure depends on the chosen rheology and permeability, we find that for reasonable assumptions of permeability, a significant amount of fluids can travel through the wedge along nearly vertical pathways at rates and paths, consistent with geochronological and geochemical constraints. For models considered to date, we find that the principal source of fluids that feed the wedge come from the hydrated oceanic crust and particularly the hydrated slab mantle. Fluids released from the sediments and shallow crust, tend to travel along high permeability zones in the subducting slab before being released to hydrate the cold corner of subduction zones, suggesting that the cold and hydrated forearc region that is imaged in many subduction zones is maintained by an active hydrological cycle

  18. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  19. Complex fluid-fluid interfaces: rheology and structure.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Gerald G; Vermant, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Complex fluid-fluid interfaces are common to living systems, foods, personal products, and the environment. They occur wherever surface-active molecules and particles collect at fluid interfaces and render them nonlinear in their response to flow and deformation. When this occurs, the interfaces acquire a complex microstructure that must be interrogated. Interfacial rheological material properties must be measured to appreciate their role in such varied processes as lung function, cell division, and foam and emulsion stability. This review presents the methods that have been devised to determine the microstructure of complex fluid-fluid interfaces. Complex interfacial microstructure leads to rheological complexity. This behavior is often responsible for stabilizing interfacial systems such as foams and emulsions, and it can also have a profound influence on wetting/dewetting dynamics. Interfacial rheological characterization relies on the development of tools with the sensitivity to respond to small surface stresses in a way that isolates them from bulk stresses. This development is relatively recent, and reviews of methods for both shear and dilatational measurements are offered here.

  20. Dynamics of particle clusters at fluid/fluid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Srinath; Minev, Peter; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy

    2009-11-01

    This talk is oriented toward research that describes the hydrodynamics of dense (relative to the lower fluid in a gravitational field) rigid particles at fluid-fluid interfaces through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Understanding the factors that control the formation and stability of the complex rag layer (typically encountered during oil-water separation) is a motivation for the current study. The fundamental aspects of the problem at hand bear a connection with the formation of tight clusters of floating particles. Strong capillary forces are thought to promote this behavior. One of the challenges toward realizing the same in a numerical simulation is the implementation of a physically realistic boundary condition for the three phase moving contact line (MCL). To this end, we implement the recently proposed continuum form of the Generalized Navier Boundary Condition (Gerbeau and Lelievre, 2009) in a levelset and fictitious-domain based finite-element scheme and demonstrate its usefulness and accuracy through case studies.

  1. Fluid Behavior and Fluid-Solid Interactions in Nanoporous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although shale oil/gas production in the US has increased exponentially, the low energy recovery is a daunting problem needed to be solved for its sustainability and continued growth, especially in light of the recent oil/gas price decline. This is apparently related to the small porosity (a few to a few hundred nm) and low permeability (10-16-10-20 m2) of tight shale formations. The fundamental question lies in the anomalous behavior of fluids in nanopores due to confinement effects, which, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined experimental characterization and observations, particularly using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with pore-scale modeling using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to examine the fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions in nanopores at reservoir conditions. Experimentally, we characterized the compositions and microstructures of a shale sample from Wolfcamp, Texas, using a variety of analytical techniques. Our analyses reveal that the shale sample is made of organic-matter (OM)-lean and OM-rich layers that exhibit different chemical and mineral compositions, and microstructural characteristics. Using the hydrostatic pressure system and gas-mixing setup we developed, in-situ SANS measurements were conducted at pressures up to 20 kpsi on shale samples imbibed with water or water-methane solutions. The obtained results indicate that capillary effect plays a significant role in fluid-nanopore interactions and the associated changes in nanopore structures vary with pore size and pressure. Computationally, we performed LBM modeling to simulate the flow behavior of methane in kerogen nanoporous structure. The correction factor, which is the ratio of apparent permeability to intrinsic permeability, was calculated. Our results show that the correction factor is always greater than one (non-continuum/non-Darcy effects) and increases with decreasing nanopore size, intrinsic permeability and pressure. Hence, the

  2. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in

  3. Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    scientific disciplines that deal with the dynamics of stratified fluids, rotating fluids, fluid with phase changes and non-Newtonian fluids. To formulate...clearing-house for the mathematical, experimental and computational techniques which serve astrophysics, climate science, geodynamics, meteorology and... Zika , Physical Oceanography, University of New South Wales, “The stability of cascading flows”. RESULTS The Principal Lectures and Fellows

  4. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  5. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  6. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for which... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide...

  7. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  8. Third Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program, present and future areas of emphasis, information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities-especially use of the International Space Station, and the process by which future investigators enter the program. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from Russian speakers about their microgravity research programs. Three keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on the history and future development of the moon and on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. One keynote paper and an extended abstract are included in the proceedings. One hundred and thirty-two technical papers were presented in 28 sessions. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. One hundred and twenty-two papers are included here.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  10. Ultracentrifuge for separating fluid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Lowry, Ralph A.

    1976-01-01

    1. A centrifuge for the separation of fluid mixtures having light and heavy fractions comprising a cylindrical rotor, disc type end-plugs closing the ends of the rotor, means for mounting said rotor for rotation about its cylindrical axis, a housing member enclosing the rotor, a vacuum chamber in said housing about the central portion of the rotor, a collection chamber at each end of the housing, the innermost side of which is substantially formed by the outer face of the end-plug, means for preventing flow of the fluid from the collection chambers to said vacuum chamber, at least one of said end-plugs having a plurality of holes therethrough communicating between the collection chamber adjacent thereto and the inside of the rotor to induce countercurrent flow of the fluid in the centrifuge, means for feeding fluid to be processed into the centrifuge, means communicating with the collection chambers to extract the light and heavy separated fractions of the fluid, and means for rotating the rotor.

  11. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  12. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration.

  13. Working fluids for electrical generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, R.G.

    1984-08-28

    Halides of tungsten and molybdenum are described for use as working fluids in power plants. Specifically, tungsten pentachloride, tungsten hexachloride, molybdenum hexafluoride and molybdenum hexachloride are used as working fluids in power plants. These working fluids can be used alone in a single cycle. However, they are preferably used in one or two loops of a binary system. The working fluids can be used in combination with other known working fluids in a binary system. Specifically useful, working fluids would include water-Hg, aluminum iodide, water, and nitrogen tetroxide. The use of the novel boiler fluids of the present invention provide numerous advantages, particularly, improved efficiency.

  14. Multiple fluid-filled bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Javier, Rose-Marie; Eichler, Francoise; Zollner, Goerg; Sibilia, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Bone metastases are usually seen on imaging studies as lytic lesions and less often as sclerotic or mixed lesions. We report an exceedingly unusual case of breast cancer identified after magnetic resonance imaging showed bone metastases with fluid-fluid levels in the spine and sacrum. Bone images containing fluid-fluid levels are usually solitary abnormalities produced by aneurismal bone cysts. The fluid-fluid level is due to bleeding within the tumor followed by layering of the blood components based on density differences. Only two other cases of bone metastases with multiple fluid-fluid levels have been reported. Although fluid-fluid levels are exceedingly rare, clinicians should be aware that they might indicate a malignancy, particularly when they are multiple.

  15. Theoretical prediction of multiple fluid-fluid transitions in monocomponent fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, L. A.; Benavides, A. L.; del Río, F.

    2007-02-01

    The authors use the analytical equation of state obtained by the discrete perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides and A. Gil-Villegas, Mol. Phys. 97, 1225 (1999)] to study the phase diagram of fluids with discrete spherical potentials formed by a repulsive square-shoulder plus an attractive square-well interaction (SS+SW). This interaction is characterized by the usual energy and size parameters plus three dimensionless parameters: two of them measuring the widths of the SS and the SW and the third the relative height of the SS. The matter of interest is that, for certain values of the interaction parameters, the SS +SW systems exhibit more than one first-order fluid-fluid transition. The evidence that several real substances (such as water, phosphorus, carbon, and silica, among others) exhibit an extra liquid-liquid transition has drawn interest into the study of interactions responsible for this behavior. The simple SS +SW fluid is one of the systems that, in spite of being spherically symmetric, shows multiple fluid-fluid transitions. In this work the authors investigate systematically the effect on the phase diagram of varying the interaction parameters. The use of an analytical free-energy equation gives a clear thermodynamic picture of the emergence of different types of critical points, throwing new light on the phase behavior of these fluids and thus clarifying previous results obtained by other techniques. The interplay of attractive and repulsive forces with several scale lengths produces very rich phase diagrams, including cases with three critical points. The region of the interaction-parameter space where multiple critical points appear is mapped for various families of interactions.

  16. Fluid dynamics of bacterial turbulence.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Wensink, Henricus H; Bär, Markus; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-05-31

    Self-sustained turbulent structures have been observed in a wide range of living fluids, yet no quantitative theory exists to explain their properties. We report experiments on active turbulence in highly concentrated 3D suspensions of Bacillus subtilis and compare them with a minimal fourth-order vector-field theory for incompressible bacterial dynamics. Velocimetry of bacteria and surrounding fluid, determined by imaging cells and tracking colloidal tracers, yields consistent results for velocity statistics and correlations over 2 orders of magnitude in kinetic energy, revealing a decrease of fluid memory with increasing swimming activity and linear scaling between kinetic energy and enstrophy. The best-fit model allows for quantitative agreement with experimental data.

  17. RRM3 Fluid Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfknecht, P.; Benson, D.; Boyle, R.; DeLee, C.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Whitehouse, P.

    2015-01-01

    The current development progress of the fluid management device (FMD) for the Robotic Resupply Mission 3 (RRM3) cryogen source Dewar is described. RRM3 is an on-orbit cryogenic transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. The fluid management device is a key component of the source Dewar to ensure the ullage bubble is located away from the outlet during transfer. The FMD also facilitates demonstration of radio frequency mass gauging within the source Dewar. The preliminary design of the RRM3 FMD is a number of concentric cones of Mylar which maximizes the volume of liquid in contact with the FMD in the source Dewar. This paper describes the design of the fluid management device and progress of hardware development

  18. Vitamin D in Tear Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowen; Elizondo, Rodolfo A.; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I.; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Watsky, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the source(s) of vitamin D in tear fluid and examine the expression of the endocytic proteins and putative vitamin D transporters megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and Harderian glands. Methods Wild-type, heterozygous, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout C57BL/6 mice were used, with a subset of knockout mice fed a replenishment diet for some studies. Mouse lacrimal and Harderian glands from each group were used to measure megalin and cubilin by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. New Zealand white rabbits were used to collect lacrimal and accessory gland fluid for vitamin D mass spectroscopy measurements. Results Ten-week-old knockout mice were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than wild-type mice. Real-time PCR and Western blot showed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin in select VDR knockout mouse groups. Immunohistochemistry showed apical duct cell megalin staining and weaker megalin staining in VDR knockout mice compared with controls. Vitamin D2 was more prevalent in rabbit lacrimal and accessory gland fluid than vitamin D3, and greater amounts of Vitamin D2 were found in in tear fluid obtained directly from lacrimal and accessory glands as compared with plasma concentrations. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and accessory glands responsible for producing tear fluid. The results strengthen the hypothesis that megalin and cubilin are likely involved in the secretory pathway of vitamin D into tear fluid by the duct cells. PMID:26348637

  19. Kinetic Theory and Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Yoshio

    This monograph gives a comprehensive description of the relationship and connections between kinetic theory and fluid dynamics, mainly for a time-independent problem in a general domain. Ambiguities in this relationship are clarified, and the incompleteness of classical fluid dynamics in describing the behavior of a gas in the continuum limit—recently reported as the ghost effect—is also discussed. The approach used in this work engages an audience of theoretical physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers. By a systematic asymptotic analysis, fluid-dynamic-type equations and their associated boundary conditions that take into account the weak effect of gas rarefaction are derived from the Boltzmann system. Comprehensive information on the Knudsen-layer correction is also obtained. Equations and their boundary conditions are carefully classified depending on the physical context of problems. Applications are presented to various physically interesting phenomena, including flows induced by temperature fields, evaporation and condensation problems, examples of the ghost effect, and bifurcation of flows. Key features: * many applications and physical models of practical interest * experimental works such as the Knudsen compressor are examined to supplement theory * engineers will not be overwhelmed by sophisticated mathematical techniques * mathematicians will benefit from clarity of definitions and precise physical descriptions given in mathematical terms * appendices collect key derivations and formulas, important to the practitioner, but not easily found in the literature Kinetic Theory and Fluid Dynamics serves as a bridge for those working in different communities where kinetic theory or fluid dynamics is important: graduate students, researchers and practitioners in theoretical physics, applied mathematics, and various branches of engineering. The work can be used in graduate-level courses in fluid dynamics, gas dynamics, and kinetic theory; some parts

  20. Fluid control in microfluidic devices using a fluid conveyance extension and an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2013-05-07

    This article presents a simple method for controlling fluid in microfluidic devices without the need for valves or pumps. A fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled to the enclosed outlet chamber of a microfluidic device. After a fluid is introduced into the microfluidic device and saturates the fluid conveyance extension, a fluid flow in the microfluidic device is generated by contacting an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator with the fluid conveyance extension to absorb the fluid from the fluid conveyance extension through capillary action. Since the fluid in the microfluidic device is fluidly coupled with the fluid conveyance extension and the fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled with the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, which is the rate at which the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator absorbs fluid, matches the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device. Thus, the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is set by the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator. Sheath flow and fluid switching applications are demonstrated using this simple fluid control method without the need for valves or pumps. Also, the ability to control the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is demonstrated using absorbent microfluidic flow modulators with various absorbent characteristics and dimensions.

  1. CT findings of a unicameral calcaneal bone cyst containing a fluid-fluid level.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Thomas A; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer E; Vade, Aruna

    2007-03-01

    Calcaneal unicameral bone cysts often contain fluid, but rarely contain fluid-fluid levels. We present a case focusing on the CT findings of a large calcaneal bone cyst with a fluid-fluid level and a review of the literature.

  2. Unsteady fluid flow in smart material actuated fluid pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Shaju; Cadou, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Smart materials' ability to deliver large block forces in a small package while operating at high frequencies makes them extremely attractive for converting electrical to mechanical power. This has led to the development of hybrid actuators consisting of co-located smart material actuated pumps and hydraulic cylinders that are connected by a set of fast-acting valves. The overall success of the hybrid concept hinges on the effectiveness of the coupling between the smart material and the fluid. This, in turn, is strongly dependent on the resistance to fluid flow in the device. This paper presents results from three-dimensional unsteady simulations of fluid flow in the pumping chamber of a prototype hybrid actuator powered by a piezo-electric stack. The results show that the forces associated with moving the fluid into and out of the pumping chamber already exceed 10% of the piezo stack blocked force at relatively low frequencies ~120 Hz and approach 40% of the blocked force at 800 Hz. This reduces the amplitude of the piston motion in such a way that the volume flow rate remains approximately constant above operating frequencies of 500 Hz while the efficiency of the pump decreases rapidly.

  3. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  4. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  5. Sideload vanes for fluid pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erler, Scott R. (Inventor); Dills, Michael H. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Jose L. (Inventor); Tepool, John Eric (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A fluid pump assembly includes a rotatable component that can be rotated about an axis and a static vane assembly located adjacent to the rotatable component. The static vane assembly includes a circumferential surface axially spaced from the rotatable component, and one or more vanes extending from the circumferential surface toward the rotatable component. The one or more vanes are configured to produce a radial load on the rotatable component when the rotatable component is rotating about the axis and a fluid is present between the static vane assembly and the rotatable component.

  6. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  7. Magnetocaloric pump. [for cryogenic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A vessel having inlet and outlet valves is disposed in a container with a fluid to be pumped which may be evolved from a liquid in the container below the vessel. A magnetocaloric substance is disposed in the vessel and causes fluid vapor in the vessel to expand and be expelled through the outlet valve. Vapor is drawn in through the inlet valve as the substance cools. The inlet valves may be one-way check valves or may be solenoid valves energized at appropriate times by timing circutis. A timer controlled heating element may also be disposed in the vessel to operate in conjunction with the magnetic field.

  8. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  9. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  10. Fluid turbulence - Deterministic or statistical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sin-I.

    The deterministic view of turbulence suggests that the classical theory of fluid turbulence may be treating the wrong entity. The paper explores the physical implications of such an abstract mathematical result, and provides a constructive computational demonstration of the deterministic and the wave nature of fluid turbulence. The associated pressure disturbance for restoring solenoidal velocity is the primary agent, and its reflection from solid surface(s) the dominant mechanism of turbulence production. Statistical properties and their modeling must address to the statistics of the uncertainties of initial boundary data of the ensemble.

  11. Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could

  12. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  13. Flow sensor for biomedical fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Electronic sensor accurately measures and controls flow of plasma, whole blood, or drugs in solution. Since sensor does not directly contact fluid, it does not have to be sterilized. It is compatible with disposable bottles, tubes, and hypodermic needles widely used in hospitals. Only modification necessary is in tube, which must contain two small metal inserts, spaced to fit in curved thermistor plates.

  14. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  15. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  16. Cryogenic fluid management in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1988-01-01

    Many future space based vehicles and satellites will require on orbit refuelling procedures. Cryogenic fluid management technology is being developed to assess the requirements of such procedures as well as to aid in the design and development of these vehicles. Cryogenic fluid management technology for this application could be divided into two areas of study, one is concerned with fluid transfer process and the other with cryogenic liquid storage. This division is based upon the needed technology for the development of each area. In the first, the interaction of fluid dynamics with thermodynamics is essential, while in the second only thermodynamic analyses are sufficient to define the problem. The following specific process related to the liquid transfer area are discussed: tank chilldown and fill; tank pressurization; liquid positioning; and slosh dynamics and control. These specific issues are discussed in relation with the required technology for their development in the low gravity application area. In each process the relevant physics controlling the technology is identified and methods for resolving some of the basic questions are discussed.

  17. Brake Fluid Compatibility with Hardware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-19

    had two servo valves for each wheel. One of the wheel servo valves controlled pressurized fluid to the brake calipers , while the second servo valve...was responsible for anti-lock or brake release action by relieving caliper circuit pressure back to the reservoir. Brake circuit action was initiated...

  18. Fluid-powered subsurface pump

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, T.C.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a fluid-powered pump for attachment to small diametered coiled tubing for pumping subsurface liquid from a well production tube. It comprises: a pump housing having an upper end and a lower end, the upper end releasably attachable to a downhole end of the coiled tubing, the inside of the upper end of the housing in fluid communication with the inside of the coiled tubing; a cross head seal member dividing the pump into an upper chamber and a lower chamber, the upper chamber in fluid communication with the inside of the coiled tubing; a pump actuator extending between the upper and lower chambers, the actuator having an upper piston head sealingly fitted to reciprocate in the upper chamber and a lower piston head sealingly fitted to reciprocate in the lower chamber, the upper piston head and the lower piston head connected to each other by a connector rod sealing slidable in the cross head seal member, the actuator having a conduit for fluid communication between the upper chamber and the lower chamber, the conduit extending from an orifice in the top surface of the upper piston head, through the connector rod to a port above the top surface of the lower piston head.

  19. Cosmological mesonic viscous fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, G.; Pradhan, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    A class of exact nonstatic solutions is obtained for Einstein field equations in a closed elliptic Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with viscous perfect fluid in the presence of attractive scalar fields. The solutions characterize strong interaction of elementary particles. It is also shown that the massive graviton possesses zero spin.

  20. Microfilaria in hydrocele fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Patricia Ann; Jayaram, Gita; Mahmud, Rohela; Anuar, A Khairul

    2004-12-01

    Filariasis, a parasitic infection endemic in parts of India, Myanmar, islands of the South Pacific, West and East Africa and Saudi Arabia can be diagnosed from various types of cytopathological specimens. This case documents the detection of filarial infection from hydrocele fluid cytology in a 30-year-old Myanmar migrant worker in Malaysia.

  1. Fluid Power, Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of hydraulics and pneumatics are presented in this manual, prepared for regular navy and naval reserve personnel who are seeking advancement to Petty Officer Third Class. The history of applications of compressed fluids is described in connection with physical principles. Selection of types of liquids and gases is discussed with a…

  2. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  3. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  4. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Amsden, A. A.; Ruppel, H. M.; Hirt, C. W.

    1992-03-12

    SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.

  5. Fluid Mechanics in Sommerfeld's School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sommerfeld's affiliation with fluid mechanics started when he began his career as an assistant of the mathematician Felix Klein at Göttingen. He always regarded fluid mechanics as a particular challenge. In 1904, he published a theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. Four years later, he conceived an approach for the analysis of flow instability (the Orr-Sommerfeld approach) as an attempt to account for the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The onset of turbulence also became a major challenge for some of his pupils, in particular Ludwig Hopf and Fritz Noether. Both contributed considerably to elaborate the Orr-Sommerfeld theory. Heisenberg's doctoral work was another attempt in this quest. When Sommerfeld published his lectures on theoretical physics during World War II, he dedicated one of the six volumes to the mechanics of continuous media. With chapters on boundary layer theory and turbulence, it exceeded the scope of contemporary theoretical physics—revealing Sommerfeld's persistent appreciation of fluid mechanics. He resorted to Prandtl's Göttingen school of fluid mechanics in order to stay abreast of the rapid development of these specialties.

  6. Fluid Dynamics Lagrangian Simulation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    Virginia 22102 (703) 821-43"K Oth~er SAIC Offices Albuquerque. Boston. Colorado Springs . Dayton, Huntsville. Las Vegas, Los AngeLes. Oak Ridge, Orlando...of a Cylinder Wake Subjected to Localized Surface Ex- Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 191. pp. 197-223. citation."Jogrialof -jdd Mecanics , Vol. 234

  7. Fluid mechanics of heart valves.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, Ajit P; He, Zhaoming; Casey Jones, S

    2004-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is a life-threatening disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide and leads to approximately 250,000 valve repairs and/or replacements each year. Malfunction of a native valve impairs its efficient fluid mechanic/hemodynamic performance. Artificial heart valves have been used since 1960 to replace diseased native valves and have saved millions of lives. Unfortunately, despite four decades of use, these devices are less than ideal and lead to many complications. Many of these complications/problems are directly related to the fluid mechanics associated with the various mechanical and bioprosthetic valve designs. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art experimental and computational fluid mechanics of native and prosthetic heart valves in current clinical use. The fluid dynamic performance characteristics of caged-ball, tilting-disc, bileaflet mechanical valves and porcine and pericardial stented and nonstented bioprostheic valves are reviewed. Other issues related to heart valve performance, such as biomaterials, solid mechanics, tissue mechanics, and durability, are not addressed in this review.

  8. Fluid diffusion in porous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Lowell I.

    Fluid motion in porous media has received a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention due to its importance in systems as diverse as ground water aquifers, catalytic processes, and size separation schemes. Often, the motion of interest is the random thermal motion of molecules in a fluid undergoing no net flow. This diffusive motion is particularly important when the size of the pores is nearly the same as the size of the molecules. In this study, fluid diffusion is measured in several varieties of porous silica whose pore structure is determined by the process by which it is made. The samples in this study have porosities (φ, the ratio of the pore volume to the total sample volume) that vary from 0.3 to 0.75 and average pore radii that range from approximately 15 to 120 A. Determining the effect of the pore structure on the diffusion of a liquid in a porous material is complicated by the chemical interactions between the diffusing molecules and the pore surface. In this study, ions in a hydrophilic fluid are used to block the adsorption of the diffusing dye molecules to the hydroxyl groups covering the silica surface. This technique is unlike typical surface treatments of silica in that it does not permanently alter the pore geometry. In this work, fluid diffusion is measured with a transient holographic grating technique where interfering laser beams create a periodic refractive index modulation in the fluid. The diffraction of a third laser off this grating is monitored to determine how quickly the grating relaxes, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the fluid. Varying the grating periodicity controls the length scale of the diffusion measurement from 1.2 to 100 μm which is much larger than the average pore sizes of the samples. Therefore, over these large scales, we measure 'normal' diffusion, where the mean squared displacement of a diffusing particle varies linearly with time. In one particular type of porous silica

  9. Progress in geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Allan R.

    Geophysical fluid dynamics deals with the motions and physics of the atmosphere, oceans and interior of the earth and other planets: the winds, the swirls, the currents that occur on myriads of scales from millimeter to climatological. Explanations of natural phenomena, basic processes and abstractions are sought. The rotation of the earth, the buoyancy of its fluids and the tendency towards large-scale turbulence characterize these flows. But geophysical fluid dynamics is importantly a part of modern fluid dynamics which is contributing to the development of nonlinear mechanics generally. Some general insights are emerging for nonlinear systems which must be regarded as partly deterministic and partly random or which are complex and aperiodic. Contributions from geophysical fluid dynamics come from its methodology, from the experience of examples, and from the perspective provided by its unique scale. Contributions have been made to turbulent, chaotic and coherently structured nonlinear process research. Turbulent vortices larger than man himself naturally invite detailed investigation and deterministic physical studies. Examples are storms in the atmosphere and large ring vortices spun off by the Gulf Stream current in mid-ocean. The statistics of these events determine critical aspects of the general circulations. Fluid dynamicists generally now know that it is often relevant or necessary to study local dynamical processes of typical eddies even though only the average properties of the flow are of interest; progress in understanding the turbulent boundary layer in pipes involves the study of millimeter-scale vortices. Weather-related studies were seminal to the construction of the new scientific field of chaos. Coherent vortices abound of which the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a spectacular example. Geophysical fluid dynamicists have been among forefront researchers in exploiting the steadily increasing speed and capacity of modern computers. Supercomputers

  10. Curious Fluid Flows: From Complex Fluid Breakup to Helium Wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Fawn Mitsu

    This work encompasses three projects; pinch-off dynamics in non-Newtonian fluids; helium wetting on alkali metals; and the investigation of quartz tuning forks as cryogenic pressure transducers. Chapter 1 discusses the breakup of a non-Newtonian yield stress fluid bridge. We measured the minimum neck radius, hmin, as a function of time and fit it to a power law with exponent n 1. We then compare n1 to exponent n2, obtained from a rotational rheometer using a Herschel-Bulkley model. We confirm n1=n2 for the widest variety of non-Newtonian fluids to date. When these fluids are diluted with a Newtonian fluid n1 does not equal n2. No current models predict that behavior, identifying a new class of fluid breakup. Chapter 2 presents the first chemical potential-temperature phase diagram of helium on lithium, sodium and gold, using a novel pressure measurement system. The growth and superfluid transition of a helium film on these substrates is measured via an oscillator for isotherms (fixed temperature, varying amount of helium gas), and quenches (fixed amount of helium gas, varying temperature). The chemical potential-temperature plot is similar for gold, lithium and sodium despite the large difference in the substrate binding energies. No signs of a 2-D liquid-vapor transition were seen. Chapter 3 discusses the creation of a 32.768 kHz quartz tuning fork in situ pressure transducer. Tuning forks are used to measure pressure at room temperature, but no work addresses their potential as cryogenic pressure transducers. We mapped out the behavior of a tuning fork as a function of pressure at 298, 7.0, 2.5, 1.6, 1.0 and 0.7 K by measuring the quality factor. The fork is sensitive to pressures above 0.1 mTorr, limiting its use as a pressure gauge at 0.6 K and below. The experimental curves were compared to a theoretical Q(P, T) function that was refined using the 298 K data. At cryogenic temperatures the formula breaks down in the viscous region and becomes inaccurate. The

  11. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian

  12. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOEpatents

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  13. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  14. Experimental and analytical study on fluid whirl and fluid whip modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, Agnes

    1994-01-01

    Fluid whirl and fluid whip are rotor self-excited, lateral vibrations which occur due to rotor interactions with the surrounding fluid. There exist various modes of fluid whirl and fluid whip. These modes are close to rotor modes corresponding to free vibrations (based on the linear model). Small differences are due to nonlinearities in the system. This paper presents experimental and analytical results on the lowest modes of fluid whirls and fluid whip. Examples of rotors supported in fluid lubricated bearings show the variations of rotor deflection amplitudes and phases in the whirl and whip modes with changes of rotative speeds and/or changes in lumped mass locations along the shaft.

  15. Bose Fluids Above Tc: Incompressible Vortex Fluids and ``Supersolidity''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    This Letter emphasizes that nonlinear rotational or diamagnetic susceptibility is characteristic of Bose fluids above their superfluid TC’s. For sufficiently slow rotation or, for superconductors, weak B fields, this amounts to an incompressible response to vorticity. The cause is that there are terms missing in the conventionally accepted model Hamiltonian for quantized vortices in the Bose fluid. The resulting susceptibility can account for recent observations of Chan et al. [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 427, 225 (2004); 10.1038/nature02220ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 305, 1941 (2004)10.1126/science.1101501] on solid He and Ong et al. [Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-5075 72, 451 (2005)10.1209/epl/i2005-10254-4] on cuprate superconductors.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics uses in fluid dynamics/aerodynamics education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has advanced to the point where it can now be used for the purpose of fluid dynamics physics education. Because of the tremendous wealth of information available from numerical simulation, certain fundamental concepts can be efficiently communicated using an interactive graphical interrogation of the appropriate numerical simulation data base. In other situations, a large amount of aerodynamic information can be communicated to the student by interactive use of simple CFD tools on a workstation or even in a personal computer environment. The emphasis in this presentation is to discuss ideas for how this process might be implemented. Specific examples, taken from previous publications, will be used to highlight the presentation.

  17. Crossover critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrowicka Wyczalkowska, Anna Judyta

    In fluids the effects of critical density fluctuations remain significant over a large range of temperatures and densities. The nonanalytical behavior observed in real fluids in the vicinity of the critical point is well described by renormalization-group theory. This theory accounts properly for the influence of the critical fluctuations in density which are entirely neglected by the classical equations. Specifically, fluids asymptotically close to the critical point belong to the universality class of the 3-dimensional Ising model and their behavior near the critical point is governed by scaling laws with critical exponents appropriate for this universality class. The validity of the asymptotic power laws is, however, restricted to a very small region near the critical point. An approach to deal with the nonasymptotic behavior of fluids including the crossover from Ising behavior in the immediate vicinity of the critical point to classical behavior far away from the critical point has been developed by Chen and coworkers and is further improved in this thesis. This approach is based on earlier work of Nicoll and coworkers and it leads to a transformation of a classical Landau expansion to incorporate the effects of critical fluctuations. Here we show how this transformation applies to real fluids: water and sulfurhexafluoride. Nevertheless, even such a crossover Landau expansion still fails to make a connection with the behavior of the fluid very far away from the critical point like the ideal-gas limit at low densities. We demonstrate how a procedure, earlier developed to include the effects of critical fluctuations into a classical Landau expansion of the Helmholtz-energy density, can also be applied to a closed-form classical equation of state like the equation of van der Waals. One of the consequences of accounting for the presence of the critical fluctuations is a shift in the location of the critical point. The resulting equation incorporates the

  18. Statistical mechanics of associating fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touba, Hassan

    Two approaches have been considered in the study of thermodynamics of associating fluids. The first approach is related to submitting equations of state based on analytic chain association theory (ACAT). An associating fluid has been assumed to be a mixture of monomer, dimer, trimer, etc., and the composition distribution of the associating species has been obtained. The second view is to develop analytical expressions for the radial distribution functions (RDF). Initially, the molecular structure of simpler fluids is taken into account and an expression for the first shell of the RDF of such fluids is proposed. This expression satisfies all the limiting cases of the hard-sphere RDF at high temperatures, the ideal gas RDF at zero density, and the dilute-gas RDF at low densities. The only requirement is the introduction of a potential function into the model. This theory has been applied to the Lennard-Jones, Kihara and square-well pair intermolecular potential energy functions, and is also tested versus the experimental results for the argon RDF. Good agreement was obtained in most of the cases studied over a broad range of density and temperature. The expression for RDF is then incorporated with an effective Kihara pair potential for water which is a good example of an associating fluid. In this model, the ACAT is applied to the parameters of the potential function. These parameters are obtained in such a way that the experimental first shell RDF data of water can be reproduced at various temperatures. Comparisons of the predicted results for water at sub- and super-critical conditions with the simulation and diffraction data show an overall good agreement. One of the distinct properties of fluids is the molar refraction. It is shown here that the use of molar refraction as a measure of asymmetry of various compounds is inherently simple and yields more precise results than other available methods. The application of molar refraction is discussed for predicting

  19. National Conference on Campus Safety (14th, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, June 26-28, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jack N. Ed.

    Presentations made at the fourteenth National Conference on Campus Safety. The topics dealt with include--(1) Provisions for Safety in Design of Campus Buildings, (2) Disposal of Chemical And Radioactive Waste, (3) Fire Prevention, (4) The Human Factor in Accidents, (5) Public Liability through Design, (6) A Professor's Views on Safety, (7)…

  20. 76 FR 48130 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 14th (2009) Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ...'') and Pastificio Antonio Pallante S.r.L. (``Pallante'') received countervailable subsidies and that F... certificate issued by Bioagricert S.r.l. are also excluded from the order. See Memorandum from Eric B. Greynolds to Melissa G. Skinner, dated August 4, 2004, which is on file in the Department's CRU. In...