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Sample records for 14th australasian fluid

  1. 14th International Conference 'Laser Optics 2010'

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Artur A

    2010-10-15

    The 14th International Conference 'Laser Optics 2010' in which more than 800 scientists and experts from 35 countries took part, was held from June 28 to July 2, 2010, in St. Petersburg. (information)

  2. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  3. Viruses in a 14th-century coprolite.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

  4. The Moon in the 14th Century Frescoes in Padova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinati, Claudio

    Padova, already in the 14th century a great cultural center of international reputation, struggled with the problems posed by the Moon with Pietro d'Abano, physician and astronomer. But it was with the great painters of that time, namely Giotto and Giusto de'Menabuoi, that its most intimate connections with the contemporary popular culture and theology were illustrated. Giotto depicts the Moon in the Giudizio Universale of the Scrovegni Chapel (1305). The Moon appears on the upper part of the painting, to the left of Christ the Judge, to crown together with the Sun, His presence. The Moon is a heavenly body similar to those appearing on Roman coins of emperors, to signify the Judge is an immortal creature. The color is pale, witeish, almost veiled. More important, the Moon has a face that by popular belief was that of Cain, condemned to amass `mucchi di rovi spinosi' for the fire of the damned (Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno XX, 126). Giusto de' Menabuoi on the other hand expounds, in the Crucifixion of the Duomo (1375 ca), a theological interpretation. The day of God's justice, following the death of the Savior, the Moon will burn and the Sun will pale (Isaiah, 24, 23). And indeed the Moon has a dark reddish colour. Therefore, while in Giotto the Moon is seen as in the popular beliefs, Giusto underlines the theological visions of his times with the words of the prophets.

  5. English Transported: Essays on Australasian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramson, W. S., Ed.

    This collection of essays on Australasian English deals with various aspects of the language as it is spoken in the areas of Australian, New Zealand, and Papua-New Guinea. Although the bulk of the essays are concerned with Australian and New Zealand English, the editor expresses the hope that the integrated study of these two major dialects will…

  6. Photocopy of Photograph, 14th ND PHOG No. N.H.82816 U.S. Navy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of Photograph, 14th ND PHOG No. N.H.82816 U.S. Navy photograph, circa 1945. AERIAL OF MAKALAPA ADMINISTRATION ARE IN WORLD WAR II, from National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Makalapa Support Facilities, Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Physician assistants in Australasian emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Close, Benjamin; Zolcinski, Robert

    2016-08-01

    A physician assistant (PA) is a university qualified health professional who's primary role is to provide medical care under the direction and supervision of medical staff. This is a new profession in Australasia. The PA is well suited to working in both rural, regional and urban settings that deliver emergency medical care. A perspective is presented on their role and scope of practice within the Australasian emergency care system supported by some early findings from their use in a tertiary ED.

  8. DC66812 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-12 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ABOVE EAST POTOMAC PARK TOWARD THE MALL AND BEYOND - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. The 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Raman Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy was the main topic of the 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium, which was held in March 2003 at Pittcon. The development of the enabling technologies that have made Raman spectroscopy a routine analysis tool in many laboratories worldwide is discussed.

  10. 76 FR 19373 - The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County... announcing the following conference: 14th Annual Educational Conference co-sponsored with the Orange County...: 949-608-4417; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group, Attention to Detail,...

  11. Helminth parasites of Australasian monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-06-15

    This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded. Most records pertain to free-living and wild animals; where they do not, they have been annotated appropriately. Unpublished information known to the authors has been included in annotations to entries, where appropriate. Parasites are arranged as follows: Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and their systematic position is indicated by abbreviations placed before the name. The authority for each parasite record is given after the author's name, as a number in parentheses, and this refers to the numbered (1-664) list of references.        A parasite-host list is presented alphabetically, irrespective of taxonomic affiliation together with the host species in which they are known to occur. Hosts are arranged initially by family and alphabetically within each family.

  12. Helminth parasites of Australasian monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded. Most records pertain to free-living and wild animals; where they do not, they have been annotated appropriately. Unpublished information known to the authors has been included in annotations to entries, where appropriate. Parasites are arranged as follows: Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and their systematic position is indicated by abbreviations placed before the name. The authority for each parasite record is given after the author's name, as a number in parentheses, and this refers to the numbered (1-664) list of references.        A parasite-host list is presented alphabetically, irrespective of taxonomic affiliation together with the host species in which they are known to occur. Hosts are arranged initially by family and alphabetically within each family. PMID:27395568

  13. Biodiversity and parasites of wildlife: helminths of Australasian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Ian; Spratt, David M

    2015-04-01

    Despite current attempts to document the extent of biodiversity on Earth, significant problems exist in fully documenting the helminth parasites of wildlife. Using the Australasian marsupials as an example, we examine some of these difficulties, including challenges in collecting uncommon host species, the ongoing description of new species of marsupials, the presence of cryptic species, and the decline in taxonomic expertise in Australia. Although optimistic global predictions have been made concerning the rate of discovery and description of new species of animals, these predictions may not apply in the case of specific groups of animals such as the Australasian marsupials.

  14. Business of biosimilars - 14th annual conference (October 15-17, 2013 - Boston, Massachusetts, USA).

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, A

    2013-12-01

    Competition in the biological market offers a new set of opportunities and challenges within the healthcare industry. Biosimilars, like generic small-molecule drugs, can provide cost savings and increase patient access, while also promoting innovation. While large molecule manufacturers face many challenges unique to complex therapeutics, it is becoming clear that the commercialization of biosimilars shares many of the same hurdles as the generics market. The 14th Annual Business of Biosimilars Conference provided quality presentations from industry leaders regarding many commercial considerations for stakeholders interested in entering the biosimilars market. Opportunities to network with industry experts were offered, with over 120 attendees. PMID:24524098

  15. Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-08-01

    The Fe oxidation state along few profile across dark/light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite sample have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

  16. Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Fe oxidation state along profiles across dark and light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite samples have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

  17. Development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    Student learning and development are the core business of the academy, yet until recently Australian and New Zealand universities lacked data on students' engagement in effective educational practices. This paper reports the foundations and development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)--the largest educationally focused…

  18. Knowledge Creation from Australasian LIS Journals: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Daniel G.

    This paper reports on a study of the content of library and information science (LIS) journals published in Australasia (e.g., Australian Library Journal, Fiji Library Journal, New Zealand Libraries, and Singapore Libraries). The study's purpose was to analyze how the content of Australasian LIS journals is affecting knowledge creation among the…

  19. EDITORIAL: The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14 The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-06-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14) was held in Daegu, Korea, on 21-24 June 2010. There were 304 participants from 17 countries. The state of the art in many aspects of flow visualization was presented and discussed, and a total of 243 papers from 19 countries were presented. Two special lectures and four invited lectures, 48 paper sessions and one poster session were held in five session rooms and in a lobby over four days. Among the paper sessions, those on 'biological flows', 'micro/nano fluidics', 'PIV/PTV' and 'compressible and sonic flows' received great attention from the participants of ISFV14. Special events included presentations of 'The Asanuma Award' and 'The Leonardo Da Vinci Award' to prominent contributors. Awards for photos and movies were given to three scientists for their excellence in flow visualizations. Sixteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of ISFV14. After the standard peer review process of this journal, six papers were finally accepted for publication. We wish to thank the editors of MST for making it possible to publish this special feature from ISFV14. We also thank the authors for their careful and insightful work and cooperation in the preparation of revised papers. It will be our pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in flow visualization research as a result of this special feature. We also hope that the progress in flow visualization will create new research fields. The 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization will be held in Minsk, Belarus in 2012. We would like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOP Publishing for their kind support.

  20. Age of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izokh, E. P.

    1993-07-01

    As Fig. 1 shows, the widespread belief that the age of the Australasian tektite strewn field (AATSF) is ~0.7 m.y. appeared to be conventional. Tektites of different fission-track ages were found within the AATSF: 0.83 m.y. [1], 3.54-4.25 m.y. [2], and ~11 m.y. [3]. The first systematic investigation of the tektites, which were collected from a single stratigraphic layer in Vietnam, revealed three statistically discrete tektite age groups: 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m.y. [4]. Similar tektites 0.75 m.y. and 1.1 m.y. in age are typical of the Zhamanshin impact crater, which represents an eminent part of the AATSF [5]. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows radiogenic dating: 1-2: AATSF; 3-4: Zhamanshin; 1,3: data with known annealing correction. Compiled after Zahringer, 1963; Fleischer and Price, 1964; Gentner et al., 1969; McDougal and Lovering, 1969; Fleischer et al., 1969; Storzer and Wagner, 1979, 1980; Watanabe et al., 1985; Virk, 1985; Shukolukov et al., 1986; Kashkarov et al, 1986, 1987; Kolesnikov et al., 1987; Storzer and Muller-Sonhius, 1986; Arakelyants et al., 1988; etc. The very young geological age of the AATSF was established in Australia, and was confirmed by the author in Vietnam and in the Zhamanshin impact crater. This well-known tektite age paradox strongly supports an extraterrestrial origin of tektites. The paradox is fatal to the currently dominating Earth- impact theory of tektite origin, and we are not surprised that there are no continued attempts to either silence or disavow its significance. As a matter of fact, the formation of the gigantic AATSF can be considered as the main reason for the abrupt catastrophic climatic global changes and mass extinction of species on the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary 10,000 years ago [5,6]. The age-paradox scope dictates that tektites have been periodically formed and accumulated somewhere on an as-yet-unknown planetary body and then delivered to the Earth. The extraterrestrial volcanic eruptions seem

  1. 14th Annual international meeting of wind turbine test stations: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    These proceedings are of the 14th Annual International Meeting of Test Stations. As the original charter states these meetings are intended to be an international forum for sharing wind turbine testing experiences. By sharing their experiences they can improve testing skills and techniques. As with all new industries the quality of the products is marked by how well they learn from their experiences and incorporate this learning into the next generation of products. The test station`s role in this process is to provide accurate information to the companies they serve. This information is used by designers to conform and improve their designs. It is also used by certification agencies for confirming the quality of these designs. By sharing of experiences they are able to accomplished these goals, serve these customers better and ultimately improve the international wind energy industry.

  2. [A medieval herbal from the 14th century, a new version of the Latin Macer?].

    PubMed

    Mauch, Ute

    2006-01-01

    A medical compendium of "Melleus liquorphysicae artis" has survived under the name Alexander Hispanus; it is in codex Ms. 8769 of the Biblioteca nacional in Madrid. Therein a herbal from the 14th century is integrated. However, today people must think that we have one herbal and two authors: Alexander Hispanus and Henrik Harpestraeng (died 1244), a physician from Scandinavia. First of all, the parts of the medical compendium are presented. We do not know which parts originally belong to the medical compendium. The examination of many handwritings suggested that the discourses about consumption and dropsy were not originally included in the compendium; that seems certain. Further it was shown that probably Alexander Hispanus did not live after all and we must see him as a fictional person. Nevertheless we should not automatically regard Henrik Harpestraeng as the author of the herbal although it contains typical plants of the North like Angelica. The oldest codex of the herbal was probably written in Bavaria or Austria because it contains old Bavarian words. This handwriting can be seen as a piece of evidence that the knowledge about Angelica was spreading from the South. We should explore the connection with handwritings of the Macer, too. The herbal could be a Latin version of the Macer, in which the original verses are abandoned. An analysis of the medical plants made it clear that the herbal is probably directed to a male readership. Especially the chapter on Galganum elucidates that. In the 14th century Galganum was thought to have a contraceptive effect, but this was kept secret from women! All in all the structure of the herbal suggests a use as a kind of reference book that was not used daily though.

  3. "May the force be with you": 14th Samuel Haughton lecture.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, P J

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the 14th Samuel Haughton lecture delivered on the 26th of January 2008. The lecture began by describing Haughton's research on animal mechanics. Haughton opposed Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection using the argument that the skeleton obeys the 'principle of least action' and therefore must have been designed with that principle in mind. In the course of his research he dissected many animals, including albatrosses, cassowaries, llamas, tigers, jackals and jaguars. He took anatomical measurements and did calculations to prove that muscle attachment sites were optimally located. The relationship between optimality and evolution continues to be studied. Computer simulations show optimality is difficult to achieve. This is because, even if optimality could be defined, the gene recombinations required to evolve an optimal phenotype may not exist. The drive towards optimality occurs under gravitational forces. Simulations to predict mechano-regulation of tissue differentiation and remodelling have been developed and tested. They have been used to design biomechanically optimized scaffolds for regenerative medicine and to identify the mechanoregularory mechanisms in osteoporosis. It is proposed that an important development in bioengineering will be the discovery of algorithms that can be used for the prediction of mechano-responsiveness in biological tissues. PMID:18641919

  4. Report of the 14th Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Oxford, UK, September 17-21, 2012.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Barker, Katharine; Bicak, Mesude; Bourlat, Sarah; Coddington, Jonathan; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Gilbert, Jack A.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo; Meyer, Chris; Morrison, Norman; Obst, Matthias; Robbins, Robert; Schriml, Lynn; Sterk, Peter; Stones-Havas, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 14th workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) held at the University of Oxford in September 2012. The primary goal of the workshop was to work towards the launch of the Genomic Observatories (GOs) Network under the GSC. For the first time, it brought together potential GOs sites, GSC members, and a range of interested partner organizations. It thus represented the first meeting of the GOs Network (GOs1). Key outcomes include the formation of a core group of “champions” ready to take the GOs Network forward, as well as the formation of working groups. The workshop also served as the first meeting of a wide range of participants in the Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) initiative, a first GOs action. Three projects with complementary interests – COST Action ES1103, MG4U and Micro B3 – organized joint sessions at the workshop. A two-day GSC Hackathon followed the main three days of meetings.

  5. 14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells& Modules: Materials and Processes; Summary of Discussion Sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Sinton, R.; Swanson, D.

    2004-10-01

    The 14th Workshop discussion sessions addressed funding needs for Si research and for R&D to enhance U.S. PV manufacturing. The wrap-up session specifically addressed topics for the new university silicon program. The theme of the workshop, Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Leapfrogging the Barriers, was selected to reflect the astounding progress in Si PV technology during last three decades, despite a host of barriers and bottlenecks. A combination of oral, poster, and discussion sessions addressed recent advances in crystal growth technology, new cell structures and doping methods, silicon feedstock issues, hydrogen passivation and fire through metallization, and module issues/reliability. The following oral/discussion sessions were conducted: (1) Technology Update; (2) Defects and Impurities in Si/Discussion; (3) Rump Session; (4) Module Issues and Reliability/Discussion; (5) Silicon Feedstock/Discussion; (6) Novel Doping, Cells, and Hetero-Structure Designs/Discussion; (7) Metallization/Silicon Nitride Processing/Discussion; (8) Hydrogen Passivation/Discussion; (9) Characterization/Discussion; and (10) Wrap-Up. This year's workshop lasted three and a half days and, for the first time, included a session on Si modules. A rump session was held on the evening of August 8, which addressed efficiency expectations and challenges of c Si solar cells/modules. Richard King of DOE and Daren Dance of Wright Williams& Kelly (formerly of Sematech) spoke at two of the luncheon sessions. Eleven students received Graduate Student Awards from funds contributed by the PV industry.

  6. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuyang; Zhu, Xianmin; Li, Hong; Hu, Youtian; Zhou, Jinping; He, Di; Feng, Yun; Lu, Lina; Du, Guizhen; Hu, Youjin; Liu, Tiancheng; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jiayu; Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Fang; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Yixue; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    LEPTIN (LEP) is a circulating hormone released primarily from white adipocytes and is crucial for regulating satiety and energy homeostasis in humans and animals. Using the CRISPR technology, we created a set of Lep mutant rats that carry either null mutations or a deletion of the 14(th) Ile (LEP(∆I14)) in the mature LEP protein. We examined the potential off-target sites (OTS) by whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and/or Sanger-sequencing analysis and found no OTS in mutant rats. Mature LEP(∆I14) is incessantly produced and released to blood at a much elevated level due to the feedback loop. Structure modeling of binding conformation between mutant LEP(∆I14) and LEPTIN receptor (LEPR) suggests that the conformation of LEP(∆I14) impairs its binding with LEPR, consistent with its inability to activate STAT3-binding element in the luciferase reporter assay. Phenotypic study demonstrated that Lep(∆I14) rats recapitulate phenotypes of Lep-null mutant rats including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, nephropathy, and infertility. Compared to the existing ob/ob mouse models, this Lep(∆I14/∆I14) rat strain provides a robust tool for further dissecting the roles of LEP in the diabetes related kidney disease and reproduction problem, beyond its well established function in regulating energy homeostasis.

  7. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuyang; Zhu, Xianmin; Li, Hong; Hu, Youtian; Zhou, Jinping; He, Di; Feng, Yun; Lu, Lina; Du, Guizhen; Hu, Youjin; Liu, Tiancheng; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jiayu; Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Fang; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Yixue; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    LEPTIN (LEP) is a circulating hormone released primarily from white adipocytes and is crucial for regulating satiety and energy homeostasis in humans and animals. Using the CRISPR technology, we created a set of Lep mutant rats that carry either null mutations or a deletion of the 14th Ile (LEP∆I14) in the mature LEP protein. We examined the potential off-target sites (OTS) by whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and/or Sanger-sequencing analysis and found no OTS in mutant rats. Mature LEP∆I14 is incessantly produced and released to blood at a much elevated level due to the feedback loop. Structure modeling of binding conformation between mutant LEP∆I14 and LEPTIN receptor (LEPR) suggests that the conformation of LEP∆I14 impairs its binding with LEPR, consistent with its inability to activate STAT3-binding element in the luciferase reporter assay. Phenotypic study demonstrated that Lep∆I14 rats recapitulate phenotypes of Lep-null mutant rats including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, nephropathy, and infertility. Compared to the existing ob/ob mouse models, this Lep∆I14/∆I14 rat strain provides a robust tool for further dissecting the roles of LEP in the diabetes related kidney disease and reproduction problem, beyond its well established function in regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:27378381

  8. Military Librarians Workshop; Department of Defense Libraries in Transition (14th, 30 November - 2 December 1970). Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Coll. of the Armed Forces (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The theme of the 14th Annual Military Librarians Workshop is: "Department of Defense Libraries in Transition." The National War College and the Industrial College libraries seek to see what support they can give each other. The ten workshops are: (1) Standardization of Bibliographic Data, (2) Evolution of Technical Reports, (3) DOD Coordination of…

  9. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  10. Restoring the Trust in Native Education. Annual NIEA Legislative Summit (14th, February 7-9, 2011). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Several briefing papers were presented during the 14th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit. This briefing book contains the following papers presented during the summit: (1) Restoring the Trust in Native Education; (2) NIEA Legislative Priorities for 2011: "Talking Points"; (3) Reauthorization of the Elementary…

  11. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  12. Building an Australasian paramedicine research agenda: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Peter; Maguire, Brian; Jennings, Paul; Simpson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The need for paramedicine research has been recognised internationally through efforts to develop out-of-hospital research agendas in several developed countries. Australasia has a substantial paramedicine research capacity compared to the discipline internationally and is well positioned as a potential leader in the drive towards evidence-based policy and practice in paramedicine. Our objective was to draw on international experiences to identify and recommend the best methodological approach that should be employed to develop an Australasian paramedicine research agenda. A search and critical appraisal process was employed to produce an overview of the literature related to the development of paramedicine research agendas throughout the world. Based on these international experiences, and our own analysis of the Australasian context, we recommend that a mixed methods approach be used to develop an inclusive Australasian Paramedicine Research Agenda. This approach will capture the views and interests of a wide range of expert stakeholders through multiple data collection strategies, including interviews, roundtable discussions and an online Delphi consensus survey. Paramedic researchers and industry leaders have the opportunity to use this multidisciplinary process of inquiry to develop a paramedicine research agenda that will provide a framework for the development of a culture of open evaluation, innovation and improvement. This research agenda would assess the progress of paramedicine research in Australia and New Zealand, map the research capacity of the paramedicine discipline, paramedic services, universities and professional organisations, identify current strengths and opportunities, make recommendations to capitalize on opportunities, and identify research priorities. Success will depend on ensuring the participation of a representative sample of expert stakeholders, fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and adhering to a predefined

  13. Radio Imaging of a Type IVM Radio Burst on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 100-102 cm-3, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  14. Effect of the bubonic plague epidemic on inbreeding in 14th century Britain.

    PubMed

    Pattison, John E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to further investigate a new method of estimating inbreeding in large, relatively isolated populations over historic times, as reported by Pattison (1999, 2001). The method is based on modeling the genealogical "paradox" and produces values of Pearl's coefficients of inbreeding as a function of time for any given population curve. In particular, this study demonstrates that the new method of estimating inbreeding may be used to examine the effect of unusual features in population curves on levels of inbreeding in that population. As an example, the medieval population "bump" that spans the 13th and 14th centuries in the population of Britain, which terminated abruptly with the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1348 AD, is examined. It is first assumed that the whole population was the adult (breeding) population, corresponding to minimum inbreeding. For this case it is found that, for distant generations, about 90% of the whole population occurs in any present-day British pedigree. This value compares favorably with the values of 85% and 80% reported by Wachter (1980) and Derrida et al. (1999, 2000), respectively. The population bump causes the curves for Pearl's coefficient, for minimum inbreeding, to have a plateau of about 96% over the period from about 1220 AD to 1380 AD. The effect of introducing a single known estimate of inbreeding into the model is to produce a more realistic situation where the adult (breeding) population is considerably less than the whole population. It is found that the maximum number of different ancestors in any generation, in the average British pedigree, is about 22900 individuals and occurs about 1220 AD. More importantly, and possibly contrary to expectation, it is now found that the population bump had virtually no effect on the level of inbreeding. PMID:12552584

  15. Radio imaging of a type IVM radio burst on the 14th of August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-10

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} cm{sup –3}, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  16. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Transport in Interacting Disordered Systems (TIDS-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydman, Aviad

    2012-07-01

    The '14th Transport in interacting disordered systems - TIDS14' conference took place during 5-8 September 2011 in Acre Israel. The conference was a continuation of the biennial meeting traditionally called HRP (hopping and related phenomena) and later named TIDS (transport in interacting disordered systems). Previous conferences took place in Trieste (1985), Bratislava (1987), Chapel Hill (1989), Marburg (1991), Glasgow (1993), Jerusalem (1995), Rackeve (1997), Murcia (1999), Shefayim (2001), Trieste (2003), Egmond, aan Zee (2005), Marburg (2007) and Rackeve (2009). Central to these conferences are systems that are characterized by a large degree of disorder and hence they lack translational symmetry. In such systems interactions are usually very important. Dramatic differences in the behavior of crystalline solids and the 'disordered' systems are possible. Some examples of the latter are amorphous materials, polymer aggregates, materials whose properties are governed by impurities, granular systems and biological systems. This conference series is notable for the pleasant atmosphere and fruitful exchange of ideas between theoreticians and experimentalists in these areas. This tradition was also maintained in the conference in Israel. Specific topics of TIDS14 included: hopping, electron and Coulomb glasses, Anderson localization and many body localization, noise, magneto-transport, metal-insulator and superconductor-insulator transition, transport through low dimensional and nanostructures, quantum coherence, interference and dephasing and other related topics. Over sixty scientists from fourteen countries participated in the conference and presented papers either as oral presentations or as posters in two sessions that took place during the conference. Many of these papers are included in these proceedings. I would like to thank all the conference participants for the interesting presentations, debates and discussions that created a stimulating but pleasant

  17. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force report on obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Guilherme R; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Andrade, Carlos A; Andreoli, Laura; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Porter, T Flint; Salmon, Jane; Silver, Robert M; Tincani, Angela; Branch, D Ware

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy morbidity is one of the clinical manifestations used for classification criteria of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). During the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL), a Task Force with internationally-known experts was created to carry out a critical appraisal of the literature available regarding the association of aPL with obstetric manifestations present in actual classification criteria (recurrent early miscarriage, fetal death, preeclampsia and placental insufficiency) and the quality of the evidence that treatment(s) provide benefit in terms of avoiding recurrent adverse obstetric outcomes. The association of infertility with aPL and the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with infertility and positive aPL was also investigated. This report presents current knowledge and limitations of published studies regarding pregnancy morbidity, infertility and aPL, identifying areas that need better investigative efforts and proposing how critical flaws could be avoided in future studies, as suggested by participants of the Task Force. Except for fetal death, there are limitations in the quality of the data supporting the association of aPL with obstetric complications included in the current APS classification criteria. Recommended treatments for all pregnancy morbidity associated to APS also lack well-designed studies to confirm its efficacy. APL does not seem to be associated with infertility and treatment does not improve the outcomes in infertile patients with aPL. In another section of the Task Force, Dr. Jane Salmon reviewed complement-mediated inflammation in reproductive failure in APS, considering new therapeutic targets to obstetric APS (Ob APS). PMID:24650941

  18. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 17th-21st June, 2013 Taiwan Organized by: Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute National Taiwan University National Cheng Kung University National Taiwan University of Science and Technology National Tsing Hua University Greetings from Chairman of International Programme CommitteeTom Thomas When Professor Ken Stout and I founded this series of conferences in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago, we did not anticipate its longevity or its success. Since that first meeting at Leicester, the conference has been often held in England, but also in several other European countries: France, Poland and Sweden, as well as in the United States. Ken, sadly no longer with us, would be proud of what it has achieved and has come to represent. Generations of researchers have presented their new ideas and innovations here which are now embodied in many textbooks and international standards. But this conference in 2013 marks a new departure and perhaps a new future. For the first time it is being held in Asia, reflecting the historic rise of the economies of the Pacific Rim, adding modern technology to their long-existing traditions of ordered insight and precise craftsmanship. Many of you have travelled far to attend this meeting, and we hope you will feel your trouble has been rewarded. We have an excellent selection of papers from all over the world from many of the world's experts, embodying the consolidation of tested ideas as well as the latest advances in the subject. These will be set in context by a glittering array of keynote and invited speakers. On behalf of the International Programme Committee, I am glad to acknowledge the hard work of the members of the Local Organising Committee in putting the programme together and making all the arrangements, and to accept their

  19. Layered tektites - A multiple impact origin for the Australasian tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    1991-02-01

    The mechanisms proposed for the origin of tektites from the Australasian field are examined using neutron activation data for twenty layered tektites and six splash tektites of known and widely separated sites of a field greater than 1140 km in length. Evidence is presented indicating that the layered tektites formed as sheets or pools of melt. It is argued that their distribution across a field greater than 1140 km in length is inconsistent with their formation in a single crater, and that many impact craters are required to account for their distribution across such a large field.

  20. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  1. Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  2. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  3. Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

  4. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melanie R; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change. PMID:27305927

  5. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melanie R; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-07-15

    Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change.

  6. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Melanie R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change. PMID:27305927

  7. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 17th-21st June, 2013 Taiwan Organized by: Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute National Taiwan University National Cheng Kung University National Taiwan University of Science and Technology National Tsing Hua University Greetings from Chairman of International Programme CommitteeTom Thomas When Professor Ken Stout and I founded this series of conferences in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago, we did not anticipate its longevity or its success. Since that first meeting at Leicester, the conference has been often held in England, but also in several other European countries: France, Poland and Sweden, as well as in the United States. Ken, sadly no longer with us, would be proud of what it has achieved and has come to represent. Generations of researchers have presented their new ideas and innovations here which are now embodied in many textbooks and international standards. But this conference in 2013 marks a new departure and perhaps a new future. For the first time it is being held in Asia, reflecting the historic rise of the economies of the Pacific Rim, adding modern technology to their long-existing traditions of ordered insight and precise craftsmanship. Many of you have travelled far to attend this meeting, and we hope you will feel your trouble has been rewarded. We have an excellent selection of papers from all over the world from many of the world's experts, embodying the consolidation of tested ideas as well as the latest advances in the subject. These will be set in context by a glittering array of keynote and invited speakers. On behalf of the International Programme Committee, I am glad to acknowledge the hard work of the members of the Local Organising Committee in putting the programme together and making all the arrangements, and to accept their

  8. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  9. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  10. Hypothetical Source Crater for Australasian Tektites: Moving from Indochina to Northwest China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Kameník, J.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2016-08-01

    We argue against the generally accepted hypothetical location of the unknown source crater for Australasian tektites to Indochina, and present a hypothesis of a possible location of the AAT source crater in deserts of NW China.

  11. Australasian microtektites from Antarctica: XAS determination of the Fe oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, Gabriele; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Eeckhout, Sigrid Griet; Pratesi, Giovanni; Paris, Eleonora; Folco, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    The Fe oxidation state and coordination number of 29 impact glass spherules recently recovered from the Transantarctic Mountains (Antarctica) have been determined by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Based on geochemical, isotopic, and fission track data, these spherules are considered as microtektites from the Australasian tektite/microtektite strewn field. Their find location is the farthest so far discovered from the possible source crater region, and their alkali content is the lowest compared with other published data on Australasian microtektite glasses. The Fe3+/(Fe2++Fe3+) ratio, determined from the analysis of the pre-edge peak energy position and integrated intensity, is below 0.1 (±0.04) for all the samples, and is comparable to that of most tektites and microtektites from the Australasian strewn field. Also, the pre-edge peak integrated intensity, which is sensitive to the average Fe coordination geometry, is comparable to that of other Australasian microtektites reported in the literature. The agreement of the Fe oxidation state and coordination number, between the Transantarctic Mountain microtektites (TAM) and the Australasian tektites and microtektites, further confirms the impact origin of these glass spherules and provides an independent suggestion that they represent a major extension southeastward of the Australasian strewn field. The fact that similar redox conditions are observed in tektites and microtektites within the Australasian strewn field regardless of the distance from the source crater area (up to approximately 11000 km) could be an important constraint for better understanding the different processes affecting microtektite formation and transport. The fact that the Fe oxidation state of microtektites does not increase with distance, as in the case of North American microtektites, means that thermal and redox histories of Australasian and TAM microtektites could differ significantly from those of North

  12. Dispersal has inhibited avian diversification in Australasian archipelagoes.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Brian C; Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-09-22

    Different models of speciation predict contrasting patterns in the relationship between the dispersal ability of lineages and their diversification rates. This relationship is expected to be negative in isolation-limited models and positive in founder-event models. In addition, the combination of negative and positive effects of dispersal on speciation can result in higher diversification rates at intermediate levels of dispersal ability. Using molecular phylogenies to estimate diversification rates, and wing morphology to estimate dispersal ability, we analysed the influence of dispersal on diversification in the avifauna of Australasian archipelagoes. Contrary to expectations given the fragmented nature of island systems, the relationship between dispersal ability and diversification rate was monotonically negative. While multiple mechanisms could generate this pattern, they all share a phase of range expansion that is decoupled from speciation. PMID:25100701

  13. Dispersal has inhibited avian diversification in Australasian archipelagoes.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Brian C; Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-09-22

    Different models of speciation predict contrasting patterns in the relationship between the dispersal ability of lineages and their diversification rates. This relationship is expected to be negative in isolation-limited models and positive in founder-event models. In addition, the combination of negative and positive effects of dispersal on speciation can result in higher diversification rates at intermediate levels of dispersal ability. Using molecular phylogenies to estimate diversification rates, and wing morphology to estimate dispersal ability, we analysed the influence of dispersal on diversification in the avifauna of Australasian archipelagoes. Contrary to expectations given the fragmented nature of island systems, the relationship between dispersal ability and diversification rate was monotonically negative. While multiple mechanisms could generate this pattern, they all share a phase of range expansion that is decoupled from speciation.

  14. Dispersal has inhibited avian diversification in Australasian archipelagoes

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Brian C.; Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Different models of speciation predict contrasting patterns in the relationship between the dispersal ability of lineages and their diversification rates. This relationship is expected to be negative in isolation-limited models and positive in founder-event models. In addition, the combination of negative and positive effects of dispersal on speciation can result in higher diversification rates at intermediate levels of dispersal ability. Using molecular phylogenies to estimate diversification rates, and wing morphology to estimate dispersal ability, we analysed the influence of dispersal on diversification in the avifauna of Australasian archipelagoes. Contrary to expectations given the fragmented nature of island systems, the relationship between dispersal ability and diversification rate was monotonically negative. While multiple mechanisms could generate this pattern, they all share a phase of range expansion that is decoupled from speciation. PMID:25100701

  15. Australasian Diabetes Data Network: Building a Collaborative Resource.

    PubMed

    Clapin, Helen; Phelan, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Sinnott, Richard; Colman, Peter; Craig, Maria; Jones, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes. The initial phase of this collaboration, known as the Australasian Diabetes Data Network or ADDN, was led by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) and thus included only children and adolescents. The next phase, commenced in 2016, will see adult sites added through collaboration with the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS). As most of the initial centers had longitudinal data collection in place the model employed was to establish the transfer and collation of data already collected into a central database. This required the definition of a common data dictionary, ethics and governance procedures and the employment of technology to enable efficient and accurate information transfer and accessibility. The ADDN project received widespread support from the diabetes research community with study investigators representing 20 pediatric centers across the region. The first phase focused on the 5 largest centers and at the end of 2015 these centers were uploading patient data to the ADDN database on a quarterly basis resulting in 5271 patients with 83 506 diabetes visits.

  16. Australasian Diabetes Data Network: Building a Collaborative Resource.

    PubMed

    Clapin, Helen; Phelan, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Sinnott, Richard; Colman, Peter; Craig, Maria; Jones, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes. The initial phase of this collaboration, known as the Australasian Diabetes Data Network or ADDN, was led by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) and thus included only children and adolescents. The next phase, commenced in 2016, will see adult sites added through collaboration with the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS). As most of the initial centers had longitudinal data collection in place the model employed was to establish the transfer and collation of data already collected into a central database. This required the definition of a common data dictionary, ethics and governance procedures and the employment of technology to enable efficient and accurate information transfer and accessibility. The ADDN project received widespread support from the diabetes research community with study investigators representing 20 pediatric centers across the region. The first phase focused on the 5 largest centers and at the end of 2015 these centers were uploading patient data to the ADDN database on a quarterly basis resulting in 5271 patients with 83 506 diabetes visits. PMID:27257171

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  18. The Successive CME on 13th; 14th and 15th February 2011 and Forbush decrease on 18 February 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maričić, D.; Bostasyan, N.; Dumbović, M.; Chilingarian, A.; Mailyan, B.; Rostomyan, H.; Arakelyan, K.; Vršnak, B.; Roša, D.; Hržina, D.; Romštajn, I.; Veronig, A.

    2013-02-01

    Aims. We analyze the kinematics of three interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that occurred on 13th, 14th and 15th February 2011 in the active region AR 11155 and have shown that they appeared at the Earth orbit on February, 18th and caused Forbush decrease (FD). Methods. The solar coordinates of flares are (S19W03), (S20W14) and (S21W18). The kinematic curves were obtained using STEREO (A&B) data. Additionally, we explore the possibility of the CME-CME interaction for these three events. We compare obtained estimates of ICME arrival with the in-situ measurements from WIND satellite at L1 point and with ground-based cosmic ray data obtained from SEVAN network. Results. The acceleration of each CME is highly correlated with the associated SXR flares energy release. CMEs that erupted at 13 and 14 Feb 2011 are not associated with prominence eruption; maximum velocity was vmax550 ± 50 km/s and vmax400 ± 50 km/s, respectively. However, 15 Feb 2011 CME is connected with much more violent eruption associated with a prominence, with maximum velocity of vmax 1400 ± 50 km/s. The last overtakes 13th and 14th Feb CMEs at distances of 32 and 160 Rsolar, respectively.

  19. A New Tektite Discovery in the Guangdong Province, China, and the Search for the Source Crater of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.

    2014-09-01

    A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.

  20. Positive selection in glycolysis among Australasian stick insects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The glycolytic pathway is central to cellular energy production. Selection on individual enzymes within glycolysis, particularly phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi), has been associated with metabolic performance in numerous organisms. Nonetheless, how whole energy-producing pathways evolve to allow organisms to thrive in different environments and adopt new lifestyles remains little explored. The Lanceocercata radiation of Australasian stick insects includes transitions from tropical to temperate climates, lowland to alpine habitats, and winged to wingless forms. This permits a broad investigation to determine which steps within glycolysis and what sites within enzymes are the targets of positive selection. To address these questions we obtained transcript sequences from seven core glycolysis enzymes, including two Pgi paralogues, from 29 Lanceocercata species. Results Using maximum likelihood methods a signature of positive selection was inferred in two core glycolysis enzymes. Pgi and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gaphd) genes both encode enzymes linking glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway. Positive selection among Pgi paralogues and orthologues predominately targets amino acids with residues exposed to the protein’s surface, where changes in physical properties may alter enzyme performance. Conclusion Our results suggest that, for Lancerocercata stick insects, adaptation to new stressful lifestyles requires a balance between maintaining cellular energy production, efficiently exploiting different energy storage pools and compensating for stress-induced oxidative damage. PMID:24079656

  1. Mutation analysis of 28 gaucher disease patients: The Australasian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.D.; Nelson, P.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Morris, C.P.

    1994-01-15

    Gaucher disease is the most common lysomal storage disease. It is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from a deficiency of {beta}-glucocerrebrosidase. Three clinical phenotypes have been described: non-neuronopathic, acute neuronopathic, and subacuteneuronopathic. Genomic DNA from 28 Australasian patients of diverse ethnic origin with Gaucher disease was screened for 3 common mutations (1226G, 1448C and 84GG) using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and one uncommon mutation (1504T) by restriction enzyme digestion. Thirty-eight of the 56 independent alleles in these patients were characterized, with 1448C present in 42% and 1226G in 28% of the alleles. The 1226G mutation was associated only with the nonneuronopathic phenotype and 7 of the 15 patients who carried the 1448C mutation developed neuronopathic disease. Three infants who died in the neonatal period following a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative course carried no identifiable mutations. The 84GG mutation was carried by 2 Jewish patients and 1504T was present in one patient. It is now possible to rapidly identify the common Gaucher mutations using ARMS and restriction enzyme digestion, and our findings confirm the heterogeneity of mutations in Gaucher disease. It is also possible to predict in part the phenotypic outcome when screening patients for these mutations. The authors consider mutation analysis to be of most use in prenatal diagnosis and for carrier detection within affected families. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift.

  3. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift. PMID:27048154

  4. 14th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop Prospective Chronic Rejection Project: a three-year follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, M; Terasaki, P I; Castro, R; Alberu, J; Morales-Buenrostro, L; Alvarez, I; Toledo, R; Alvez, H; Monteiro, M; Teixeira, J; Campbell, P; Ciszek, M; Charron, D; Gautreau, C; Christiansen, F; Langan, L; Conca, R; Grosse-Wilde, H; Heinemann, F; Kamoun, M; Kobayashi, T; Kupatawintu, P; LeFor, W; Mehra, N; Panigrahi, A; Norman, D; Piazza, A; Poli, F; Roy, R; Schonemann, C; Lachmann, N; Sireci, G; Tanabe, K; Ishida, H; Van den Berg-Loonen, E; Zeevi, A

    2007-01-01

    The three-year follow-up of 4,144 patients of the 14th International Workshop Prospective Chronic Rejection study has reinforced the evidence that post-transplant HLA antibodies are predictive of long-term graft loss. Three years after a single testing for HLA antibodies, 10% of kidney recipients who were antibody-positive had lost their grafts, in contrast to only 5% of antibody-negative patients (p<0.0001). The adverse effect of post-transplant antibodies on graft survival was also observed in lung, heart, and liver transplants. Donor-specific antibodies and 'strong' non-DSA had stronger association with graft loss than 'moderate' non-DSA. Periodic antibody monitoring, combined with specificity and strength analysis, would help in the early identification of allograft recipients who are at high risk of graft failure. PMID:18642456

  5. [Plague and creative art. On the influential effect on art of the 14th century by black death].

    PubMed

    Seiler, R

    1990-01-01

    The present paper tries to shed light on the influence of the plague upon art. It considers above all the period after the "Black Death", i.e. the second half of the 14th century. Some changes of art are quantitative: its production is lessened by the effects of the plague--e.g. by the death of an artist--or increased by religious donations. The influence on style is similarly contradictory. Retardation as well as acceleration of the stylistic development can be observed. A third point consists in the changes in iconography of "Post-Plague-Art", showing a different interpretation of existing themes or introducing new ones. The varied conditions of production and reception of the different artistic genres makes the examination of the interaction between plague and art extremely complex.

  6. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force. Report on antiphospholipid syndrome laboratory diagnostics and trends.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Amengual, Olga; Andreoli, Laura; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Forastiero, Ricardo; de Groot, Philip; Lakos, Gabriella; Lambert, Marc; Meroni, Pierluigi; Ortel, Thomas L; Petri, Michelle; Rahman, Anisur; Roubey, Robert; Sciascia, Savino; Snyder, Melissa; Tebo, Anne E; Tincani, Angela; Willis, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    Current classification criteria for definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) require the use of three laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. However, several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to other proteins or their complex with phospholipids have been proposed to be relevant to APS but their clinical utility and their diagnostic value remains elusive. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the "APS Task Force 3-Laboratory Diagnostics and Trends" meeting that took place during the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2013, September 18-21, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). PMID:24824074

  7. Australasian monsoon response to Dansgaard-Oeschger event 21 and teleconnections to higher latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Michael L.; Drysdale, Russell N.; Gagan, Michael K.; Hellstrom, John C.; Couchoud, Isabelle; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Vonhof, Hubert B.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.

    2013-05-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles were the most prominent, abrupt climate events of the last glacial period whose impact was most strongly felt in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic region. The climate links between the North Atlantic, the Asian and American tropics, and Antarctica during these cycles are well documented. However, the potential role of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and Australasian monsoon system in propagating climate impacts across the hemispheres is still unclear. Here, we use tandem measurements of oxygen isotopes in calcite and fluid inclusions, as well as carbon-isotope ratios, from multiple stalagmites from Liang Luar Cave, Flores (southern Indonesia) to examine the monsoon response to D-O event number 21 (~87,000-84,000 years ago), the longest and warmest event recorded in Greenland ice cores. The record shows that there was a rapid decline in monsoon rainfall in Indonesia during D-O21 warming in Greenland and cooling in Antarctica. At around the same time, the East Asian monsoon was intensified, indicating that the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifted abruptly to the north during this event. Our record also shows that there was a 2-3 °C increase in local air temperature, which would have acted to increase primary productivity and promote the generation of soil carbon for methanogenesis. Therefore, our findings indicate that ITCZ positioning in tropical Australasia—through its influence on large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation—played a key role in transmitting the abrupt climate signal between the hemispheres, thereby facilitating the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations during D-O21 that ultimately led to global warming and the demise of the MIS5b stadial.

  8. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Wells, Melanie R; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.

  9. Impact Crater of the Australasian Tektites, Southern Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Herrin, J. S.; Wiwegwin, W.; Charusiri, P.; Singer, B. S.; Singsomboun, K.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Australasian strewn field, a horizon of glassy clasts formed of molten ejecta from the impact of a bolide about 770,000 years ago, covers about a tenth of the Earth - from Indochina to Australia and from the Indian to western Pacific oceans. The distribution of chemical and physical characteristics of these tektites implies a very large impact somewhere in central Indochina. A half-century of unsuccessful searching for the impact crater implies obscuration by either erosion or burial. Geomorphological and stratigraphic evidence suggests that the crater lies buried beneath lavas and cinder cones of a 100-km wide volcanic shield centered atop the Bolaven Plateau of southern Laos. One critical test of this hypothesis, using precise 40Ar/39Ar dating, is now in progress - are these highly weathered basalts younger than the tektites? Although volcanic rocks cover most of the area proximal to our purported impact site, a thick, crudely bedded, bouldery to pebbly breccia that crops out southeast of the obscured crater rim appears to be part of an ejecta blanket. The basal unit of this fining-upward sequence comprises large boulders of late-Mesozoic sandstone bedrock that display in situ shattering. This implies emplacement ballistically rather than by debris-flow. Old surfaces in the surrounding region (as others have noted) and on the Plateau have a mantle of pebbly, detrital lateritic debris that in its upper 15 cm contains angular tektite fragments. We hypothesize that this debris is a proximal fall bed produced by shock-induced comminution and ejection of a lateritic soil that covered the Plateau bedrock. Deposition was nearly complete when sparse tektite fragments ejected from nearer the center of the impact began to land. At many sites this pebbly, lateritic bed is overlain by a thick silty bed that others have associated with aeolian erosion of a barren, incinerated tropical landscape. See Herrin et al (this meeting) for more on the volcanic rocks.

  10. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Wells, Melanie R; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  11. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Camey Andersen; Clegg, J. Aleta; Hickman, Garrett R.; Huyett, Sabrina Lynn; Jensen, Hyrum C.; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyzed all research articles in the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" from 2003 to 2012 to determine the types of research methodologies published, major contributing authors, and most frequently referenced keywords, abstract terms, and cited articles. During this decade, the majority of articles published…

  12. A Review of Australasian Investigations into Problem Solving and the Novice Programmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Raadt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This Australasian focused review compares a number of recent studies that have identified difficulties encountered by novices while learning programming and problem solving. These studies have shown that novices are not performing at expected levels and many novices have only a fragile knowledge of programming, which may prevent them from learning…

  13. Conceptualising and Measuring Student Engagement through the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE): A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagel, Pauline; Carr, Rodney; Devlin, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement has rapidly developed a central place in the quality agenda of Australian universities since the introduction of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE). The AUSSE is based on one developed in the USA. The main arguments given for adopting this survey in Australia are that it provides a valid instrument for…

  14. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle. PMID:11762404

  15. Citizen Science and the Unsolved Austral-Asian Tektite Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, T. H. S.; Davias, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of mid-Pleistocene evidence suggests a 786 ka cosmic impact (MIS 20) at an oblique angle onto the North American ice sheet may have created both the Carolina Bays on the US Eastern coastal plane, as well as the 60 billion tons of Australasian (AA) tektites that cover ¼ to ⅓ of Earth. No AA impact structure has ever been identified. ~12 ka after the AA tektite event came the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal, Earth's most recent. In 1986, Richard Muller's paper "Geomagnetic Reversals from Impacts on the Earth" explained how a geologically rapid change of Earth's crustal spin rate relative to the liquid core would upset its convective cellular dynamo structure, disrupting and dismantling Earth's magnetic field. Muller proposed an impact-induced mini ice age to transport 10 meters of low- and mid-latitude sea into ice at the poles, changing the crustal polar moment of inertia and accelerating rotation relative to the core. Muller's impact ice age is a weak point, but oblique cosmic impacts deliver tangential impulse directly. The Carolina Bays are a depositional formation of high purity quartz sand, angular to subangular in grain texture, covering approximately 5% of the continental US, with an estimated volume of 1600 km3 over the east coastal plain and some of Nebraska. The bays themselves are depressions in the sand layer, expressed through depositional overburden. They range from a few hundred meters to several kilometers in scale. Carolina Bays are now characterized with LiDAR altimetry. Their alignment is systematic by latitude. They conform to 6 archetype ovoid shapes, easily derived using suborbital mechanics. This implies suborbital mechanics was a governor of their transport: the imprint is a snapshot of the emplacement process. Suborbital Analysis using co-aligned axes of 45,000 Carolina Bays indicates the ice sheet impact region was the Georgian Bay, across Lake Huron to Michigan's Saginaw Bay. The average downrange distance of the

  16. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  17. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National Parks" (Tom…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (14th, Phoenix, Arizona, December 4-6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    The report of the 14th annual meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools presents a seminar on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Board by Lorene I. Rogers, Lincoln E. Moses, Warren W. Willingham, and Herman A. Witkin. The task force on Biomedical Sciences report is presented by Jerold Roschwalb, Lyle V. Jones, Robert H. Grant, and Penny D.…

  20. Clear Signals? Telecommunications, Convergence, and the Quality of Information. A Summary of Proceedings of the FLICC Forum on Federal Information Policies (14th, Washington, DC, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Library and Information Center Committee, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC) is to make federal library and information centers' resources more effective through professional development of employees, promotion of library and information services, and coordination of available resources. This 14th Forum concerns telecommunications and information…

  1. [Chronic disease and health condition prevention in childhood--2nd part: emphases from the 14th Symposium of Preventive Pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Batinica, Maja; Grgurić, Josip; Jadrijević-Cvrlje, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Chronically ill children nowdays in developed countries are more prevalent than before, and thanks to modern therapeutic modalities more children are surviving into adulthood. Increased survival cannot be assumed to be associated with increased quality of life. With the chronically ill child holistic approach is important, which incorporates not only realisation of the highest possible standards in diagnostics and treatment, but also special care for disease prevention. All this is very important in so called integrative approach in the care of a chronically ill child, with the aim of achieving as high as possible quality of life and complete social integration. At the 14th Preventive Pediatrics Symposium, which took place in Skrad, June 1' 2013, from preventive standpoint, the following chronic childhood illnesses were discussed: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--ADHD, migraine, thyroid gland diseases, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, chronic renal disease, chronic inflammatory liver disease, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and chronic otitis media with effusion. It is emphasized that talking about a disease prevention, there are three levels of it--primary, second- ary and tertiary prevention: how to avoid occurrence of disease, how to diagnose and treat existent disease in early stages, before it causes significant morbidity, and finally how to reduce the negative impact of existent disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications--how to improve quality of life of children with chronic diseases. Quaternary prevention describes methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions of the health system. An important process is also transition of care from child-oriented to adult-oriented care. Adults with chronic health conditions should continue to be evaluated periodically for possible late consequences of their childhood illness and previ- ous medical treatments. PMID

  2. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera. PMID:26156243

  3. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  4. Source of the Australasian tektite strewn field - A possible off-shore impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.

  5. PREFACE: 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    The 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held at the Sheraton Tampa Riverwalk Hotel, Tampa, Florida, USA, during the week of 19-24 April 2015. The meeting drew some 75 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the energization of particles from the perspectives of theory, modelling and simulations, and observations. The theme of the meeting was "Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond." Energetic particles are ubiquitous to plasma environments, whether collisionless such as the supersonic solar wind, the magnetospheres of planets, the exospheres of nonmagnetized planets and comets, the heliospheric-local interstellar boundary regions, interstellar space and supernova remnant shocks, and stellar wind boundaries. Energetic particles are found too in more collisional regions such as in the solar corona, dense regions of the interstellar medium, accretion flows around stellar objects, to name a few. Particle acceleration occurs wherever plasma boundaries, magnetic and electric fields, and turbulence are present. The meeting addressed the linear and nonlinear physical processes underlying the variety of particle acceleration mechanisms, the role of particle acceleration in shaping different environments, and acceleration processes common to different regions. Both theory and observations were addressed with a view to encouraging crossdisciplinary fertilization of ideas, concepts, and techniques. The meeting addressed all aspects of particle acceleration in regions ranging from the Sun to the interplanetary medium to magnetospheres, exospheres, and comets, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and beyond to supernova remnant shocks, galactic jets, stellar winds, accretion flows, and more. The format of the meeting included 25-minute presentations punctuated by two 40-minute talks, one by Len Fisk that provided an historical overview of particle acceleration in the

  6. Major Clades of Australasian Rutoideae (Rutaceae) Based on rbcL and atpB Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, Michael J.; Holmes, Gareth D.; Forster, Paul I.; Cantrill, David J.; Ladiges, Pauline Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rutaceae subfamily Rutoideae (46 genera, c. 660 species) is diverse in both rainforests and sclerophyll vegetation of Australasia. Australia and New Caledonia are centres of endemism with a number of genera and species distributed disjunctly between the two regions. Our aim was to generate a high-level molecular phylogeny for the Australasian Rutoideae and identify major clades as a framework for assessing morphological and biogeographic patterns and taxonomy. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses were based on chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, for 108 samples (78 new here), including 38 of 46 Australasian genera. Results were integrated with those from other molecular studies to produce a supertree for Rutaceae worldwide, including 115 of 154 genera. Australasian clades are poorly matched with existing tribal classifications, and genera Philotheca and Boronia are not monophyletic. Major sclerophyll lineages in Australia belong to two separate clades, each with an early divergence between rainforest and sclerophyll taxa. Dehiscent fruits with seeds ejected at maturity (often associated with myrmecochory) are inferred as ancestral; derived states include woody capsules with winged seeds, samaras, fleshy drupes, and retention and display of seeds in dehisced fruits (the last two states adaptations to bird dispersal, with multiple origins among rainforest genera). Patterns of relationship and levels of sequence divergence in some taxa, mostly species, with bird-dispersed (Acronychia, Sarcomelicope, Halfordia and Melicope) or winged (Flindersia) seeds are consistent with recent long-distance dispersal between Australia and New Caledonia. Other deeper Australian/New Caledonian divergences, some involving ant-dispersed taxa (e.g., Neoschmidia), suggest older vicariance. Conclusions/Significance This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Australasian Rutoideae gives a broad overview of the group’s evolutionary and biogeographic history

  7. Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H

    2014-11-01

    Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed.

  8. 14th-16th century Danube floods and long-term water-level changes reflected in archaeological-sedimentary evidence - in comparison with documentary evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Laszlovszky, József

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper an overview of published and unpublished results of archaeological and sedimentary investigations, predominantly reflect on 14th-16th-century changes, are provided and compared to documentary information on flood events and long-term changes. Long-term changes in flood behaviour and average water-level conditions had long-term detectable impacts on sedimentation and fluvio-morphological processes. Moreover, the available archaeological evidence might also provide information on the reaction of the society, in the form of changes in settlement organisation, building structures and processes. At present, information is mainly available concerning the 16th, and partly to the 14th-15th centuries. Medium and short term evidence mainly corresponds to the main flood peaks or even to single catastrophic flood events. Such processes may be identified in archaeological evidence concerning the second half of the 14th, early 15th centuries; while most of the cases listed above were connected to the flood peak (and/or generally increasing water-level conditions) of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. In other cases connections between sedimentary/archaeological evidence and the mid- and late 16th-century high flood-frequency period were presumed. Documentary evidence referring to the same period suggests that higher flood frequency and intensity periods occurred in the early and mid 16th century; a probably more prolonged flood rich period took place in the second half of the 16th century, with a peak in the late 1560s-early 1570s and maybe with another at the end of the 16th century. Earlier flood peaks in documentary evidence were detected on the Danube at the turn of the 14th-15th centuries and in the last decades of the 15th century, continuing in the early 16th century.

  9. Stretching out the Australasian microtektite strewn field in Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Rochette, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of microtektites collected in newly explored summit plateaus of the Transantarctic Mountains (i.e., Schroeder Spur, Killer Nunatak, Miller Butte in the inland catchment of the Rennick Glacier, and Allan Hills, in the inland catchment of the Mackay-David Glaciers) document a regional distribution of Australasian microtektites in Victoria Land. A geochemical comparison with Australasian microtektites from deep sea sediments at lower latitudes identifies a possible projectile geochemical signature for the first time, and confirms that Transantarctic Mountains microtektites experienced higher thermal regimes. Ballistic calculations reveal that the extraordinary distance of the Transantarctic Mountains microtektites from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼11,000 km) could be more efficiently attained at relatively low ejection angles (20°-40°). Finally, the occurrence of Australasian microtektites (∼0.8 Ma old) on specific glacial surfaces of the Antarctic bedrock constrains the glacial history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Victoria Land. In particular, data from Allan Hills supports a glaciological scenario envisaging an extremely stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet over at least the last ∼1 Ma in the inland catchment of the Mackay/David glaciers. This is consistent with the large accumulation of meteorites in the adjacent blue ice fields.

  10. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  11. What were the biological and climatic effects of the Australasian impact event

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wuchang; Peleo-Alampay, A. . Scripps Inst. Oceanography); Wise, S.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Australasian microtektites, which are now generally accepted as the products of extraterrestrial impacts, occur near the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at about 0.75 Ma and have a wide distribution ([approximately]10% of the earth's surface). This impact event is the second largest in the Cenozoic, and the impact crater has been estimated to be about 17 km. In order to better understand the role of impacts in shaping life and climate on earth, the authors carried out a detailed study of nannofossils across the Australasian microtektite interval at ODP site 758 in the equatorial Indian Ocean. They also compiled high-resolution stable isotope and carbonate data from this site and others to infer paleoclimate conditions across this interval. The study indicates that there is no calcareous nannoplankton extinction associated with the impact horizon. There is also no significant change in the abundance of Florisphaera profound, an environmentally sensitive species. Carbonate content shows little variation across the impact horizon, which suggests that ocean productivity did not change significantly. Oxygen isotope data show typical Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles, which were generally caused by the Milankovitch cycles. The impact horizon is located slightly after the glacial maximum in oxygen isotope stage 20. In other words, the impact was within a warming trend from glacial stage 20 to interglacial stage 19. They conclude that, within the resolution of the geologic records ([approximately]1,000 yrs), the Australasian impact had insignificant effects on life and climate.

  12. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  13. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The

  14. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  15. Mariculture associated with oil and gas structures: A compendium. Information transfer meeting (14th), mariculture sessions. Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on November 17, 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reggio, V.C.

    1996-09-01

    Increased interest in the use of offshore oil and gas platforms for growing coastal and pelagic fish and shellfish for commercial markets led to MMS to sponsor a forum on this topic. This report encompasses the views, opinions, constraints, limitations, possibilities, and proposals from representative of the public and private sectors with interest and concern for fishery development in the Gulf of Mexico. This report provides summaries of the presentations given at the mariculture session during the 14th Annual Information transfer Meeting held in New Orleans in November 1994.

  16. Unveiling the diversification dynamics of Australasian predaceous diving beetles in the Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Condamine, Fabien L; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Watts, Chris H; Porch, Nick; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During the Cenozoic, Australia experienced major climatic shifts that have had dramatic ecological consequences for the modern biota. Mesic tropical ecosystems were progressively restricted to the coasts and replaced by arid-adapted floral and faunal communities. Whilst the role of aridification has been investigated in a wide range of terrestrial lineages, the response of freshwater clades remains poorly investigated. To gain insights into the diversification processes underlying a freshwater radiation, we studied the evolutionary history of the Australasian predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Hydroporini (147 described species). We used an integrative approach including the latest methods in phylogenetics, divergence time estimation, ancestral character state reconstruction, and likelihood-based methods of diversification rate estimation. Phylogenies and dating analyses were reconstructed with molecular data from seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) for 117 species (plus 12 outgroups). Robust and well-resolved phylogenies indicate a late Oligocene origin of Australasian Hydroporini. Biogeographic analyses suggest an origin in the East Coast region of Australia, and a dynamic biogeographic scenario implying dispersal events. The group successfully colonized the tropical coastal regions carved by a rampant desertification, and also colonized groundwater ecosystems in Central Australia. Diversification rate analyses suggest that the ongoing aridification of Australia initiated in the Miocene contributed to a major wave of extinctions since the late Pliocene probably attributable to an increasing aridity, range contractions and seasonally disruptions resulting from Quaternary climatic changes. When comparing subterranean and epigean genera, our results show that contrasting mechanisms drove their diversification and therefore current diversity pattern. The Australasian Hydroporini radiation reflects a combination of processes that promoted both diversification

  17. The status of chondrichthyan conservation in the Indo-Australasian region.

    PubMed

    White, W T; Kyne, P M

    2010-06-01

    The status of chondrichthyan (sharks, batoids and chimaeras) conservation in the Indo-Australasian region is examined, and issues relevant to the conservation of this fauna at the subregional level [Australia, Indonesia (excluding West Papua), New Guinea (West Papua and Papua New Guinea), New Caledonia and New Zealand] are discussed. According to the 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, c. 21% of Indo-Australasian chondrichthyans are classified as threatened (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable) and c. 40% are of conservation concern (threatened and near threatened). The proportion of threatened species is highest in New Guinea (c. 39%) and Indonesia (c. 35%) and least in New Zealand (c. 11%). In New Guinea, three quarters of the species are of conservation concern; in Indonesia, nearly two thirds are of conservation concern. Within the region, the proportion of threatened batoids (c. 29%) is higher than threatened sharks (c. 17%), while there are no threatened chimaeras. Conservation status is discussed at the order (for sharks), suborder (for batoids) and family level. Issues relating to the conservation status of chondrichthyans vary greatly between each subregion, but they mostly relate to targeted or incidental capture in fisheries. A handful of sharks and batoids are protected within Australian waters, while one species is protected in New Zealand. Both Australia and New Zealand have developed National Plans of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA-Sharks), but these are lacking elsewhere. Development and implementation of NPOA-Sharks are a priority in order to drive the conservation of the regional fauna. Sustainable fisheries management (including by-catch), confronting the challenge of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, species protection where appropriate and marine protected areas (MPA) are all likely to prove vital in ensuring the long-term conservation of Indo-Australasian sharks, batoids and chimaeras.

  18. Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for

  19. Driving the Profession of Health Informatics: The Australasian College of Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Christopher; Veil, Klaus; Williams, Peter; Cording, Andrew; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Grain, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Across the world, bodies representing health informatics or promoting health informatics are either societies of common interest or universities with health informatics courses/departments. Professional colleges in Health Informatics (similar to the idea of professional colleges in other health fields) are few and far between. The Australasian College of Health Informatics has been in existence since 2001, and has an increasing membership of nearly 100 fellows and members, acting as a national focal point for the promotion of Health Informatics in Australasia. Describing the activities of the college, this article demonstrates a need for increasing professionalization of Health informatics beyond the current structures.

  20. Analysis of meteorological variables in the Australasian region using ground- and space-based GPS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Choy, Suelynn; Fu, Erjiang Frank; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Liou, Yuei-An; Pavelyev, Alexander G.

    2016-07-01

    Results of analysis of meteorological variables (temperature and moisture) in the Australasian region using the global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) and GPS ground-based observations verified with in situ radiosonde (RS) data are presented. The potential of using ground-based GPS observations for retrieving column integrated precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the Australian continent has been demonstrated using the Australian ground-based GPS reference stations network. Using data from the 15 ground-based GPS stations, the state of the atmosphere over Victoria during a significant weather event, the March 2010 Melbourne storm, has been investigated, and it has been shown that the GPS observations has potential for monitoring the movement of a weather front that has sharp moisture contrast. Temperature and moisture variability in the atmosphere over various climatic regions (the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Antarctic and Australia) has been examined using satellite-based GPS RO and in situ RS observations. Investigating recent atmospheric temperature trends over Antarctica, the time series of the collocated GPS RO and RS data were examined, and strong cooling in the lower stratosphere and warming through the troposphere over Antarctica has been identified, in agreement with outputs of climate models. With further expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) system, it is expected that GNSS satellite- and ground-based measurements would be able to provide an order of magnitude larger amount of data which in turn could significantly advance weather forecasting services, climate monitoring and analysis in the Australasian region.

  1. Changing my perspective: How the development of emergency medicine in Sri Lanka can inform the Australasian experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    When compared to an Australasian ED, the two major differences in the emergency medicine practice at Teaching Hospital Karapitiya are which patients are selected at triage and how those selected present. These differences have caused me to reflect on emergency medicine practice in Australasia and wonder if this practice is sustainable.

  2. Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases updated guidelines for the management of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Trubiano, J A; Cheng, A C; Korman, T M; Roder, C; Campbell, A; May, M L A; Blyth, C C; Ferguson, J K; Blackmore, T K; Riley, T V; Athan, E

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) continues to rise, whilst treatment remains problematic due to recurrent, refractory and potentially severe nature of disease. The treatment of C. difficile is a challenge for community and hospital-based clinicians. With the advent of an expanding therapeutic arsenal against C. difficile since the last published Australasian guidelines, an update on CDI treatment recommendations for Australasian clinicians was required. On behalf of the Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases, we present the updated guidelines for the management of CDI in adults and children.

  3. 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus - Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Christian; Harbeck, Nadia; Huober, Jens; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gerber, Bernd; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Liedtke, Cornelia; Marschner, Norbert; Möbus, Volker; Scheithauer, Heike; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Beckmann, Matthias W; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban-Dan; Decker, Thomas; Diel, Ingo; Fasching, Peter A; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Maass, Nicolai; Scharl, Anton; Untch, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany.

  4. 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, Christian; Harbeck, Nadia; Huober, Jens; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gerber, Bernd; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Liedtke, Cornelia; Marschner, Norbert; Möbus, Volker; Scheithauer, Heike; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban-Dan; Decker, Thomas; Diel, Ingo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Maass, Nicolai; Scharl, Anton; Untch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany. PMID:26557827

  5. What do giant titanosaur dinosaurs and modern Australasian megapodes have in common?

    PubMed

    Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Fiorelli, Lucas E

    2015-01-01

    Titanosauria is a globally distributed clade of sometimes extremely large Mesozoic herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs. On the basis of current evidence these giant dinosaurs seem to have reproduced in specific and localized nesting sites. However, no investigations have been performed to understand the possible ecological and geological biases that acted for the selection of these nesting sites worldwide. In this study, observations were performed on the best-known Cretaceous nesting sites around the world. Our observations strongly suggest their eggs were incubated with environmental sources of heat, in burial conditions. Taking into account the clutch composition and geometry, the nature and properties of the sediments, the eggshells' structures and conductance, it would appear that titanosaurs adopted nesting behaviors comparable to the modern Australasian megapodes, using burrow-nesting in diverse media and mound-building strategies. PMID:26623184

  6. A 2009 survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce.

    PubMed

    Round, W Howell

    2010-06-01

    A survey of the Australasian clinical medical physics and biomedical engineering workforce was carried out in 2009 following on from a similar survey in 2006. 621 positions (equivalent to 575 equivalent full time (EFT) positions) were captured by the survey. Of these 330 EFT were in radiation oncology physics, 45 EFT were in radiology physics, 42 EFT were in nuclear medicine physics, 159 EFT were in biomedical engineering and 29 EFT were attributed to other activities. The survey reviewed the experience profile, the salary levels and the number of vacant positions in the workforce for the different disciplines in each Australian state and in New Zealand. Analysis of the data shows the changes to the workforce over the preceding 3 years and identifies shortfalls in the workforce.

  7. Establishing a clinical trials network in nephrology: experience of the Australasian Kidney Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Morrish, Alicia T; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Badve, Sunil V; Perkovic, Vlado; Reidlinger, Donna M; Cass, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem globally. Despite this, there are fewer high-quality, high-impact clinical trials in nephrology than other internal medicine specialties, which has led to large gaps in evidence. To address this deficiency, the Australasian Kidney Trials Network, a Collaborative Research Group, was formed in 2005. Since then, the Network has provided infrastructure and expertise to conduct patient-focused high-quality, investigator-initiated clinical trials in nephrology. The Network has not only been successful in engaging the nephrology community in Australia and New Zealand but also in forming collaborations with leading researchers from other countries. This article describes the establishment, development, and functions of the Network. The article also discusses the current and future funding strategies to ensure uninterrupted conduct of much needed clinical trials in nephrology to improve the outcomes of patients affected by kidney diseases with cost-effective interventions. PMID:24088955

  8. What do giant titanosaur dinosaurs and modern Australasian megapodes have in common?

    PubMed Central

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Fiorelli, Lucas E.

    2015-01-01

    Titanosauria is a globally distributed clade of sometimes extremely large Mesozoic herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs. On the basis of current evidence these giant dinosaurs seem to have reproduced in specific and localized nesting sites. However, no investigations have been performed to understand the possible ecological and geological biases that acted for the selection of these nesting sites worldwide. In this study, observations were performed on the best-known Cretaceous nesting sites around the world. Our observations strongly suggest their eggs were incubated with environmental sources of heat, in burial conditions. Taking into account the clutch composition and geometry, the nature and properties of the sediments, the eggshells’ structures and conductance, it would appear that titanosaurs adopted nesting behaviors comparable to the modern Australasian megapodes, using burrow-nesting in diverse media and mound-building strategies. PMID:26623184

  9. Orbital- and Millennial-Scale Changes in the Australasian Monsoon Through the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, M. K.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Scroxton, N. G.; Krause, C. E.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Hantoro, W. S.; Drysdale, R.; Hellstrom, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Zhao, J.; Griffiths, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Speleothem 18O/16O records from China and Borneo have revealed changes in Asian monsoon rainfall over the last ~570,000 years (e.g. Wang et al. 2008, Cheng et al. 2010, Meckler et al. 2012), yet little is known about orbital- and millennial-scale climate change in the 'southern half' of the Australasian monsoon domain. To fill this gap, we aim to build speleothem 18O/16O records for the seasonal monsoon rainfall belt of south-central Indonesia. Between 2006 and 2011, we sampled speleothems in Flores and southwest Sulawesi (latitudes 5-9oS) with U-series ages extending to 92,000 yBP and ~470,000 yBP, respectively. Development of the 18O/16O records for Sulawesi is in progress, but the basal ages of the speleothems (onset of stalagmite growth) are intriguing because they cluster around glacial terminations, when the East Asian monsoon is known to have been weak (Cheng et al. 2010). There is clear antiphasing of the Flores and China speleothem 18O/16O records on precession time-scales over the last ~90,000 years. A distinct maximum in monsoon rainfall in Flores occurred ~21,000 yBP, suggesting the ITCZ moved south during the Last Glacial Maximum in response to the southern hemisphere summer insolation maximum. This finding indicates that ITCZ positioning in tropical Australasia, through its influence on large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation, could have played a key role in the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 and global warming that ultimately led to the demise of the last ice age, as summarised by Denton et al. (2010) and others. The new Flores speleothem 18O/16O records also show that climate change in the North Atlantic region and Australasian monsoon rainfall are inextricably linked on millennial timescales (Griffiths et al. 2009, Lewis et al. 2011). For example, rapid warming in the North Atlantic region during Dansgaard-Oeschger Event 21 (~86,000 yBP) was linked to a synchronous northward shift of the Australasian ITCZ, marking the final demise of MIS 5b. In

  10. Are Australasian Genetic Counselors Interested in Private Practice at the Primary Care Level of Health Service?

    PubMed

    Sane, Vrunda; Humphreys, Linda; Peterson, Madelyn

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the perceived interest in development of private genetic counseling services in collaboration with primary care physicians in the Australasian setting by online survey of members of the Australasian Society of Genetic Counselors. Four hypothetical private practice models of professional collaboration between genetic counselors and primary care physicians or clinical geneticists were proposed to gauge interest and enthusiasm of ASGC members for this type of professional development. Perceived barriers and facilitators were also evaluated. 78 completed responses were included for analysis. The majority of participants (84.6 %) showed a positive degree of interest and enthusiasm towards potential for clinical work in private practice. All proposed practice models yielded a positive degree of interest from participants. Model 4 (the only model of collaboration with a clinical geneticist rather than primary care physician) was the clearly preferred option (mean = 4.26/5), followed by Model 2 (collaboration with a single primary care practice) (mean = 4.09/5), Model 3 (collaboration with multiple primary care clinics, multidisciplinary clinic or specialty clinic) (mean = 3.77/5) and finally, Model 1 (mean = 3.61/5), which was the most independent model of practice. When participants ranked the options in the order of preference, Model 4 remained the most popular first preference (44.6 %), followed by model 2 (21.6 %), model 3 (18.9 %) and model 1 was again least popular (10.8 %). There was no significant statistical correlation between demographic characteristics (age bracket, years of work experience, current level of work autonomy) and participants' preference for private practice models. Support from clinical genetics colleagues and the professional society was highly rated as a facilitator and, conversely, lack of such support as a significant barrier.

  11. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences resolve the interrelations of the major Australasian marsupial radiations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew J; McLenachan, Patricia A; Down, Christin; Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David

    2006-02-01

    Australasian marsupials include three major radiations, the insectivorous/carnivorous Dasyuromorphia, the omnivorous bandicoots (Peramelemorphia), and the largely herbivorous diprotodontians. Morphologists have generally considered the bandicoots and diprotodontians to be closely related, most prominently because they are both syndactylous (with the 2nd and 3rd pedal digits being fused). Molecular studies have been unable to confirm or reject this Syndactyla hypothesis. Here we present new mitochondrial (mt) genomes from a spiny bandicoot (Echymipera rufescens) and two dasyurids, a fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) and a northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus). By comparing trees derived from pairwise base-frequency differences between taxa with standard (absolute, uncorrected) distance trees, we infer that composition bias among mt protein-coding and RNA sequences is sufficient to mislead tree reconstruction. This can explain incongruence between trees obtained from mt and nuclear data sets. However, after excluding major sources of compositional heterogeneity, both the "reduced-bias" mt and nuclear data sets clearly favor a bandicoot plus dasyuromorphian association, as well as a grouping of kangaroos and possums (Phalangeriformes) among diprotodontians. Notably, alternatives to these groupings could only be confidently rejected by combining the mt and nuclear data. Elsewhere on the tree, Dromiciops appears to be sister to the monophyletic Australasian marsupials, whereas the placement of the marsupial mole (Notoryctes) remains problematic. More generally, we contend that it is desirable to combine mt genome and nuclear sequences for inferring vertebrate phylogeny, but as separately modeled process partitions. This strategy depends on detecting and excluding (or accounting for) major sources of non-historical signal, such as from compositional non-stationarity. [Base composition; combined data; marsupial; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny.].

  12. Toward a 530,000-year Hydroclimate History for the Southern Half of the Australasian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, M. K.; Scroxton, N. G.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Krause, C.; Hantoro, W. S.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Shen, C. C.; Scott-Gagan, H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Rifai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Speleothem 18O/16O records have revealed key aspects of past hydroclimates in the northern Australasian monsoon domain on orbital to millennial scales, but much less is known about the southern half of the monsoon system. We aim to develop a hydroclimate history for the southern Australasian monsoon based on speleothems from southwest Sulawesi and Flores, Indonesia (latitudes 5-9oS), which extend back to ~530 kyr BP and 90 kyr BP, respectively. To date, the 18O/16O record for Sulawesi covers glacial terminations TIV (~340 kyr BP), TIII (~245 kyr BP) and TI (~18 kyr BP). The details of each termination are different, however two important hydroclimate patterns are emerging. First, the 18O/16O record shows sharp weakening of the monsoon immediately before each termination. This surprisingly robust pattern marks a southern extension of the northern 'weak monsoon interval', and reinforces the idea that southward monsoon displacement is a fundamental feature of terminations. Second, monsoon intensification around Sulawesi lags the rise in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature by several thousand years, but parallels the 18O/16O decrease in atmospheric O2. Our finding extends that of Wang et al. (2008) and Cheng et al. (2009) who noted the influence of the low-latitude hydrological cycle on the 18O/16O of tropical transpiration, and its potential for correlating ice core and paleomonsoon records. Further south, the 90-kyr 18O/16O record for Flores shows clear precession-scale antiphasing with China, and southerly positioning of the summer monsoon rainfall belt during Heinrich stadials. Heinrich stadials 5, 4, 2 and 1 occur during wetter intervals in Flores that accompanied relatively high southern summer insolation. Intriguingly, these events are associated with abrupt atmospheric CH4 signals that may be due to increased Southern Hemisphere CH4 production related to intensification of monsoon rainfall over southern tropical land areas (Rhodes et al., 2014).

  13. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences resolve the interrelations of the major Australasian marsupial radiations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew J; McLenachan, Patricia A; Down, Christin; Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David

    2006-02-01

    Australasian marsupials include three major radiations, the insectivorous/carnivorous Dasyuromorphia, the omnivorous bandicoots (Peramelemorphia), and the largely herbivorous diprotodontians. Morphologists have generally considered the bandicoots and diprotodontians to be closely related, most prominently because they are both syndactylous (with the 2nd and 3rd pedal digits being fused). Molecular studies have been unable to confirm or reject this Syndactyla hypothesis. Here we present new mitochondrial (mt) genomes from a spiny bandicoot (Echymipera rufescens) and two dasyurids, a fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) and a northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus). By comparing trees derived from pairwise base-frequency differences between taxa with standard (absolute, uncorrected) distance trees, we infer that composition bias among mt protein-coding and RNA sequences is sufficient to mislead tree reconstruction. This can explain incongruence between trees obtained from mt and nuclear data sets. However, after excluding major sources of compositional heterogeneity, both the "reduced-bias" mt and nuclear data sets clearly favor a bandicoot plus dasyuromorphian association, as well as a grouping of kangaroos and possums (Phalangeriformes) among diprotodontians. Notably, alternatives to these groupings could only be confidently rejected by combining the mt and nuclear data. Elsewhere on the tree, Dromiciops appears to be sister to the monophyletic Australasian marsupials, whereas the placement of the marsupial mole (Notoryctes) remains problematic. More generally, we contend that it is desirable to combine mt genome and nuclear sequences for inferring vertebrate phylogeny, but as separately modeled process partitions. This strategy depends on detecting and excluding (or accounting for) major sources of non-historical signal, such as from compositional non-stationarity. [Base composition; combined data; marsupial; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny.]. PMID:16507529

  14. German Society for Immunology and Australasian Society for Immunology joint Workshop 3(rd) -4(th) December 2015 - Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen.

  15. Image Understanding, 14th Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, L. S.

    1983-06-01

    Technical and annual progress reports of principal investigators of image understanding are presented. Topics covered include: surface constraint from linear entents; computing visual correspondance; smoothing optical flow fields; viewframes; a connectionist model of form perception; use of difference fields in processing sensor motion; a facet approach to optic flow; special purpose automatic programming for 3-d model-based vision; MAPS: organization of a spatial data base system using imagery, terrain, and map data; segment-based stereo matching; software metrics for performance analysis of parallel hardware; scene analysis algorithms; and robot vehicles.

  16. Knowledge and confidence of a convenience sample of australasian emergency doctors in managing dental emergencies: results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Samaei, Hossein; Weiland, Tracey Joy; Dilley, Stuart; Jelinek, George Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians' and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees') level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011) and directly (November 2011) to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405) and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42%) had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5-67.1) passed (>50%) a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416) incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig's Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433) were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434) confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r = 0.488). Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%). Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted.

  17. Neodymium and strontium isotopic study of Australasian tektites - New constraints on the provenance and age of target materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.

  18. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  19. Diffuse gamma rays with energies greater than 1 x 10 to the 14th eV observed in the Southern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, K.; Toyoda, Y.; Kamata, K.; Murakami, K.; Lapointe, M.

    1988-03-01

    The data of extensive air showers with a low content of muons and hadrons, observed in the period 1964-1966 at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia, have been reanalyzed. Arrival directions of those showers selected so as to favor small initiation depths in the atmosphere (to enhance the contribution from gamma-ray-initiated showers) reveal a 3.8 sigma peak above an expected background from the region of alpha = 180-210 deg in the band of delta = 0 to -40 deg. The integral flux of diffuse gamma-rays above 1 x 10 to the 14th eV estimated from this excess is about 6.0 x 10 to the -12th/sq cm per sec per sr. In order to explain this very high flux, the possible contribution of gamma-rays from Loop 1 as well as the inverse Compton photons produced in the 2.7 K photon background as progeny of gamma-rays from Cyg X-3-like sources. 24 references.

  20. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered.

  1. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C.; Riehm, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  2. Initial deployment of the 14th Parachutist Forward Surgical Team at the beginning of the operation Sangaris in Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Malgras, Brice; Barbier, Olivier; Pasquier, Pierre; Petit, Ludovic; Polycarpe, Aristide; Rigal, Sylvain; Pons, Francois

    2015-05-01

    As part of the operation Sangaris begun in December 2013 in the Central African Republic, the 14th Parachutist Forward Surgical Team (FST) was deployed to support French troops. The FST (role 2 in the NATO classification) is a mobile surgical-medical treatment facility. The main goal of the FST is to assure the initial damage control surgery and resuscitation for combat casualties, allowing for the early evacuation to combat support hospitals (roles 3 or 4), where further treatments are completed. During the first trimester of the operation Sangaris, 42 patients were treated at FST, of whom 29 underwent surgery. Almost 50% of patients operated on were French servicemen. All admissions were emergency admissions. Orthopedic surgery represented two-thirds of surgical interventions executed as a result of the high proportion of limb injuries. Fifty percent of injuries were specifically linked to combat. Surgery in an FST is primarily dedicated to the treatment of combat casualties with hemorrhagic injuries, but additionally plays a part in supporting general medical care of French troops. Medical aid to the general civilian population is justifiable because of the presence of medical treatment facilities, even in the initial implementation of a military operation. PMID:25939107

  3. Employment and Disability: Trends and Issues for the 1990's. A Report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 7-9, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

    This report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar addresses trends and prospects for employment of persons with disabilities. The monograph begins with an introduction by Leonard G. Perlman and Carl E. Hansen, a foreword by Richard S. Materson, a list of seminar sponsors and Switzer scholars, a statement on the legacy of Mary Elizabeth…

  4. Environmental Education, The Last Measure of Man. An Anthology of Papers for the Consideration of the 14th and 15th Conference of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Raymond F.

    An anthology of papers for consideration by delegates to the 14th and 15th conferences of the United States National Commission for UNESCO are presented in this book. As a wide-ranging collection of ideas, it is intended to serve as background materials for the conference theme - our responsibility for preserving and defending a human environment…

  5. Rapid interhemispheric climate links via the Australasian monsoon during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Linda K; Gagan, Michael K; Zhao, Jian-xin; Drysdale, Russell N; Hellstrom, John C; Hantoro, Wahyoe S; Griffiths, Michael L; Scott-Gagan, Heather; St Pierre, Emma; Cowley, Joan A; Suwargadi, Bambang W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that millennial-scale reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere circulation drives increased upwelling in the Southern Ocean, leading to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and ice age terminations. Southward migration of the global monsoon is thought to link the hemispheres during deglaciation, but vital evidence from the southern sector of the vast Australasian monsoon system is yet to emerge. Here we present a 230thorium-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record of millennial-scale changes in Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall over the last 31,000 years. The record shows that abrupt southward shifts of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon were synchronous with North Atlantic cold intervals 17,600-11,500 years ago. The most prominent southward shift occurred in lock-step with Heinrich Stadial 1 (17,600-14,600 years ago), and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Our findings show that millennial-scale climate change was transmitted rapidly across Australasia and lend support to the idea that the 3,000-year-long Heinrich 1 interval could have been critical in driving the last deglaciation.

  6. Does the Australasian "Health Star Rating" Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian "Health Star Rating" front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging. PMID:27258305

  7. Does the Australasian “Health Star Rating” Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian “Health Star Rating” front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging. PMID:27258305

  8. Does the Australasian "Health Star Rating" Front of Pack Nutritional Label System Work?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert; McNeill, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    This article describes an experiment to measure the impact of the Australasian "Health Star Rating" front of pack nutritional label system on consumer choice behaviour. This system presents a one-half to five star rating of nutritional quality via the front facings of food product packages. While this system has been recently rolled out across Australasia, no test of its impact on food choice has been conducted. A sample of 1200 consumers was recruited on exit from supermarkets in New Zealand. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with two levels of cold cereal product nutritional status (high, five star/low, two star) and two levels of the Health Star Rating label (present/absent). The dependent variable was revealed choice behaviour. The results indicated that the presence of the label had a significant depressive effect on consumer preference, but that this impact was not moderated in any way by the nutritional status expressed by the label. The result represents a significant functional failure of the Health Star Rating label in this research environment. The nature of the failure is consistent with the consumers processing the label in much the same way as the nominal brand cues that dominate the retail food packaging.

  9. Rapid interhemispheric climate links via the Australasian monsoon during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Linda K; Gagan, Michael K; Zhao, Jian-xin; Drysdale, Russell N; Hellstrom, John C; Hantoro, Wahyoe S; Griffiths, Michael L; Scott-Gagan, Heather; St Pierre, Emma; Cowley, Joan A; Suwargadi, Bambang W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that millennial-scale reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere circulation drives increased upwelling in the Southern Ocean, leading to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and ice age terminations. Southward migration of the global monsoon is thought to link the hemispheres during deglaciation, but vital evidence from the southern sector of the vast Australasian monsoon system is yet to emerge. Here we present a 230thorium-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record of millennial-scale changes in Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall over the last 31,000 years. The record shows that abrupt southward shifts of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon were synchronous with North Atlantic cold intervals 17,600-11,500 years ago. The most prominent southward shift occurred in lock-step with Heinrich Stadial 1 (17,600-14,600 years ago), and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Our findings show that millennial-scale climate change was transmitted rapidly across Australasia and lend support to the idea that the 3,000-year-long Heinrich 1 interval could have been critical in driving the last deglaciation. PMID:24309539

  10. Mechanism of Muong Nong-type tektite formation and speculation on the source of Australasian tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The source crater of the youngest and largest of the tektite strewnfields, the Australasian strewnfield, has not been located. A number of lines of evidence indicate that the Muong Nong-type tektites, primarily found in Indochina, are more primitive than the much more abundant and widespread splash-form tektites, and are proximal to the source. In this study the spatial distribution of Muong Nong-type tektite sites and chemical character have been used to indicate the approximate location of the source. The variation of Muong Nong-type tektite chemical composition appears to be caused by mixing of two silicate rock end-members and a small amount of limestone, and not by vapor fractionation. The variation in composition is not random, and does not support in situ melting or multiple impact theories. The distribution of both Muong Nong and splash-form tektite sites suggest the source is in a limited area near the southern part of the Thailand-Laos border.

  11. Rapid interhemispheric climate links via the Australasian monsoon during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayliffe, Linda K.; Gagan, Michael K.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Drysdale, Russell N.; Hellstrom, John C.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Griffiths, Michael L.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Pierre, Emma St; Cowley, Joan A.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have proposed that millennial-scale reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere circulation drives increased upwelling in the Southern Ocean, leading to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and ice age terminations. Southward migration of the global monsoon is thought to link the hemispheres during deglaciation, but vital evidence from the southern sector of the vast Australasian monsoon system is yet to emerge. Here we present a 230thorium-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record of millennial-scale changes in Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall over the last 31,000 years. The record shows that abrupt southward shifts of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon were synchronous with North Atlantic cold intervals 17,600-11,500 years ago. The most prominent southward shift occurred in lock-step with Heinrich Stadial 1 (17,600-14,600 years ago), and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Our findings show that millennial-scale climate change was transmitted rapidly across Australasia and lend support to the idea that the 3,000-year-long Heinrich 1 interval could have been critical in driving the last deglaciation.

  12. Long-distance dispersal and speciation of Australasian and American species of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius.

    PubMed

    Harrower, Emma; Bougher, Neale L; Henkel, Terry W; Horak, Egon; Matheny, P Brandon

    2015-01-01

    We present a multigene phylogeny (partial nuc rDNA and RPB2) of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius (i.e. the C. violaceus group), which reveals eight species distributed in Europe, Australasia, South America, Central America and North America. Relaxed molecular clock analyses suggested that diversification began during the Miocene, thus rejecting more ancient Gondwanan origin scenarios among the taxa currently occurring in the northern and southern hemispheres. There was strong support for an Australasian origin of the C. violaceus group with initial dispersal to the Neotropics, followed by migration into North America and Europe. A dispersal-extinction cladogenesis model that includes a parameter for founder effects was the most highly supported biogeographic model in the program BioGeoBEARS. A maximum likelihood analysis showed the most recent common ancestor of sect. Cortinarius was an angiosperm ectomycorrhizal associate. Ancestral associations at the plant family level, however, were ambiguous. Of eight recovered species-level lineages, C. violaceus is the only one that associates with Pinaceae and the only species to associate with both Pinaceae and angiosperms. This analysis showed that long-distance dispersal and founder event speciation have been important factors during evolution of the C. violaceus group.

  13. Fibroids in infertility--consensus statement from ACCEPT (Australasian CREI Consensus Expert Panel on Trial evidence).

    PubMed

    Kroon, Ben; Johnson, Neil; Chapman, Michael; Yazdani, Anusch; Hart, Roger

    2011-08-01

    Fibroid management is surrounded by considerable controversy and uncertainty. This paper summarises the consensus developed by a group of Australasian subspecialists in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (the ACCEPT group) on the evidence concerning the impact and management of fibroids in infertility. The location of a fibroid within the uterus influences its effect on fertility. Subserosal fibroids do not appear to impact on fertility outcomes. Intramural (IM) fibroids may be associated with reduced fertility and an increased miscarriage rate (MR); however, there is insufficient evidence to inform whether myomectomy for IM fibroids improves fertility outcomes. Submucosal fibroids are associated with reduced fertility and an increased MR, and myomectomy for submucosal fibroids appears likely to improve fertility outcomes. The relative effect of multiple or different sized fibroids on fertility outcomes is uncertain, as is the relative usefulness of myomectomy in these situations. It is recommended that fibroids with suspected cavity involvement are defined by magnetic resonance imaging, sonohysterography or hysteroscopy because modalities such as transvaginal ultrasound and hysterosalpingography lack appropriate sensitivity and specificity. Medical management of fibroids delays efforts to conceive and is not recommended for the management of infertility associated with fibroids. Newer treatments such as uterine artery embolisation, radiofrequency ablation, bilateral uterine artery ligation, magnetic resonance-guided focussed ultrasound surgery and fibroid myolysis require further investigation prior to their establishment in the routine management of fibroid-associated infertility.

  14. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  15. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  16. Impact of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians' clinical examination preparation on basic physician trainee assessment of jugular venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Sibbin, C P; Bihari, S; Russell, P

    2016-09-01

    Australian internal medicine trainees undergo intensive training in preparation for the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) clinical examination. Trainees preparing for the 2013 RACP clinical examination assessed the jugular venous pressure (JVP) of patients, with central venous pressure monitoring in the intensive care unit before and after the exam. RACP clinical examination preparation was associated with improvements of trainees' ability to identify JVP that were not elevated, although the JVP examination was performed marginally as a diagnostic test. Ongoing training might further improve this skill.

  17. Impact of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians' clinical examination preparation on basic physician trainee assessment of jugular venous pressure.

    PubMed

    Sibbin, C P; Bihari, S; Russell, P

    2016-09-01

    Australian internal medicine trainees undergo intensive training in preparation for the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) clinical examination. Trainees preparing for the 2013 RACP clinical examination assessed the jugular venous pressure (JVP) of patients, with central venous pressure monitoring in the intensive care unit before and after the exam. RACP clinical examination preparation was associated with improvements of trainees' ability to identify JVP that were not elevated, although the JVP examination was performed marginally as a diagnostic test. Ongoing training might further improve this skill. PMID:27633470

  18. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.

  19. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

  20. The contribution of structural-, psittacofulvin- and melanin-based colouration to sexual dichromatism in Australasian parrots.

    PubMed

    Taysom, A J; Stuart-Fox, D; Cardoso, G C

    2011-02-01

    Colour ornamentation in animals is exceptionally diverse, but some colours may provide better signals of individual quality or more efficient visual stimuli and, thus, be more often used as sexual signals. This may depend on physiological costs, which depend on the mechanism of colour production (e.g. exogenously acquired colouration in passerine birds appears to be most sexually dichromatic). We studied sexual dichromatism in a sample of 27 Australasian parrot species with pigment- (melanin and psittacofulvin) and structural-based colouration, to test whether some of these types of colouration are more prominent in sexual ornamentation. Unlike passerines, in which long wavelength colouration (yellow to red) usually involves exogenous and costly carotenoid pigments, yellow to red colouration in parrots is based on endogenously synthesized psittacofulvin pigments. This allows us to assess whether costly exogenous pigments are necessary for these plumage colours to have a prominent role in sexual signalling. Structural blue colouration showed the largest and most consistent sexual dichromatism, both in area and perceptually relevant chromatic differences, indicating that it is often ornamental in parrots. By contrast, we found little evidence for consistent sexual dichromatism in melanin-based colouration. Unlike passerines, yellow to red colouration was not strongly sexually dichromatic: although the area of colouration was generally larger in males, colour differences between the sexes were on average imperceptible to parrots. This is consistent with the idea that the prominent yellow to red sexual dichromatism in passerines is related to the use of carotenoid pigments, rather than resulting from sensory bias for these colours.

  1. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-09-14

    During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area.

  2. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

  3. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  4. International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (3rd, Auckland, New Zealand, November 25-27, 1992). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Gan Che, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight papers presented at the Third International Conference of the Australasian Association of Institutional Research (AAIR) are published in this journal issue. They represent the diversity and richness of the field of Planning in the Public Sector" (Jack Smith); (2) "Futures Planning for Tertiary Education: Curricula for the 21st Century: The…

  5. Research in Science Education, Volume 1990. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (21st, Perth, Western Australia, July 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains selected refereed papers from the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association. The papers are as follows: "A Learning Model for Science Education: Developing Teaching Strategies" (Appleton); "Researching Balance between Cognition and Affect in Science Teaching" (Baird et al.); "Toward a…

  6. 1991 AAIR Forum. Refereed Proceedings of the Conference of the Australasian Association for Institutional Research (AAIR) (2nd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, October 1-3, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinburne Inst. of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria (Australia).

    The Australasian Association for Institutional Research (AAIR) conference provided a comprehensive coverage of issues, concepts, and techniques in the areas of planning, data analysis and research, and related aspects of management support in tertiary education. Refereed papers from the conference include: (1) "Changes in Student Approaches to…

  7. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  8. Orbital- and Millennial-Scale Changes in the Australasian Monsoon over the Last 470,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, M. K.; Ayliffe, L.; Drysdale, R.; Zhao, J.; Griffiths, M. L.; Hellstrom, J.; Dunbar, G.; Hantoro, W.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Suwargadi, B.

    2011-12-01

    Speleothem 18O/16O records from China have revealed changes in East Asian monsoon rainfall over the last ~390,000 years (e.g. Wang et al. 2008, Cheng et al. 2010), yet little is known about orbital- and millennial-scale climate change in the 'southern half' of the Australasian monsoon domain. To fill this gap, we aim to build speleothem 18O/16O records for the seasonal monsoon rainfall belt of south-central Indonesia. Between 2006 and 2009, we sampled speleothems in Flores and southwest Sulawesi (latitudes 5-9 S) with U-series ages extending to ~90,000 yBP and ~470,000 yBP, respectively. Development of the 18O/16O records for Sulawesi is in progress, but the basal ages of the speleothems (onset of stalagmite growth) are intriguing because they cluster around glacial terminations, when the East Asian monsoon is known to have been weak (Cheng et al. 2010). There is clear antiphasing of the Flores and China speleothem 18O/16O records on precession time-scales over the last ~90,000 years. A distinct maximum in monsoon rainfall in Flores occurred ~21,000 yBP, suggesting the ITCZ moved south during the Last Glacial Maximum in response to the southern hemisphere summer insolation maximum. This important finding indicates that ITCZ positioning in tropical Australasia, through its influence on large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation, could have played a key role in the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 and global warming that ultimately led to the demise of the ice age, as summarised by Denton et al. (2010) and others. The new Flores speleothem 18O/16O records also show that climate change in the North Atlantic region and Australasian monsoon rainfall are inextricably linked on millennial timescales (Griffiths et al. 2009, Lewis et al. 2011). For example, rapid warming in the North Atlantic region during Dansgaard-Oeschger Event 21 (~86,000 yBP) was linked to a synchronous northward shift of the Australasian ITCZ, marking the final demise of MIS 5b. In contrast, cooling in

  9. Search for the 700,000-year-old source crater of the Australasian tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Garvin, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Many tektite investigations have hypothesized that the impact crater that was the source of the extensive Australasian strewn field lies somewhere in or near Indochina. This is due to variations in abundance and size of tektites across the strewn field, variation of thickness of microtektite layers in ocean cores, nature and ablation characteristics across the field, and, above all, the occurrence of the large, blocky, layered Muong Nong-type tektites in Indochina. A recent study of the location and chemistry of Muong Nong-type and splash-form tektites suggests that the source region can be further narrowed to a limited area in eastern Thailand and southern Loas. Satellite multispectral imagery, a digital elevation dataset, and maps showing drainage patterns were used to search within this area for possible anomalous features that may be large degraded impact craters. Four interesting structures were identified from these datasets, and they are presented.

  10. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval Art. III: the 13th and 14th Centuries, and the case of the French "Ordre de L'Étoile"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bònoli, F.; Incerti, M.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Going ahead in our long-term project of analysis of the role of transient astronomical events as inspirational sources of medieval art, we extend our interest towards the 13th and 14th centuries, epochs of strong changes either in society, art or science. It is our aim to verify if the relationship we found in the 11th century between the number of artworks where a star is represented, and astonishing transient astronomical events was, in this new situation, still valid. Moreover, in order to check the influence of astronomical events on the 14th-century social and cultural environment, we focus on the case of the Ordre de l'Étoile, a chivalrous society founded by John II of France (Jan le Bon, roi de France) at the end of 1351, looking in ancient chronicles for some relevant contemporary astronomical event as an inspiration source for the "star" in the Order's name, in the garb of its knights and in its motto.

  11. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  12. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants. PMID:26906006

  13. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  14. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Li, Cheng; Vindum, Jens V; Brown, Rafe M; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpina, [corrected] Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpina [corrected] form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis.

  15. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Li, Cheng; Vindum, Jens V; Brown, Rafe M; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpina, [corrected] Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpina [corrected] form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis. PMID:26828029

  16. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Fang; JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; JIN, Jie-Qiong; SUWANNAPOOM, Chatmongkon; LI, Cheng; Jens, V. VINDUM; Rafe, M. BROWN; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpine, Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpine form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis. PMID:26828029

  17. Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet

    PubMed Central

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Howland, Howard C.; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E.; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-01-01

    Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

  18. Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet.

    PubMed

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Howland, Howard C; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-10-22

    Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air.

  19. Chromosome microarray proficiency testing and analysis of quality metric data trends through an external quality assessment program for Australasian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wright, D C; Adayapalam, N; Bain, N; Bain, S M; Brown, A; Buzzacott, N; Carey, L; Cross, J; Dun, K; Joy, C; McCarthy, C; Moore, S; Murch, A R; O'Malley, F; Parker, E; Watt, J; Wilkin, H; Fagan, K; Pertile, M D; Peters, G B

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome microarrays are an essential tool for investigation of copy number changes in children with congenital anomalies and intellectual deficit. Attempts to standardise microarray testing have focused on establishing technical and clinical quality criteria, however external quality assessment programs are still needed. We report on a microarray proficiency testing program for Australasian laboratories. Quality metrics evaluated included analytical accuracy, result interpretation, report completeness, and laboratory performance data: sample numbers, success and abnormality rate and reporting times. Between 2009 and 2014 nine samples were dispatched with variable results for analytical accuracy (30-100%), correct interpretation (32-96%), and report completeness (30-92%). Laboratory performance data (2007-2014) showed an overall mean success rate of 99.2% and abnormality rate of 23.6%. Reporting times decreased from >90 days to <30 days for normal results and from >102 days to <35 days for abnormal results. Data trends showed a positive correlation with improvement for all these quality metrics, however only 'report completeness' and reporting times reached statistical significance. Whether the overall improvement in laboratory performance was due to participation in this program, or from accumulated laboratory experience over time, is not clear. Either way, the outcome is likely to assist referring clinicians and improve patient care.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    PubMed

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent.

  1. Looking back at the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship: the most prestigious research award of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Boult, Margaret; Babidge, Wendy; Pleass, Susan; Scott, David

    2015-10-01

    The John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship is a generous endowment made to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) by the young neurosurgeon's family, following his death from a brain tumour. In this article, we examine the significance and legacy of the grant since its inception in 1979. This is the highest level of research fellowship awarded by the RACS recognizing early career excellence, as part of its significant research funding programme (over $1.7 million in 2015). John Mitchell Crouch recipients have been pioneers in various areas of medicine where they have developed new technologies, established research centres, improved patient safety and military surgery and embraced evidence-based medicine. The funds they received have directly contributed to research published in numerous highly respected peer-reviewed journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine; established new laboratories, helped fund clinical trials and allowed new directions of research to be pursued. Recipients of the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship have been recognized with many awards including 11 Australian and New Zealand Honours to date. Many other significant research funds have been subsequently bestowed, including over 120 National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants to Australian and New Zealand recipients subsequent to their Fellowship. This article also shows the range of disciplines in which the award has supported cutting-edge research leading to benefits for patients and health care.

  2. Chromosome microarray proficiency testing and analysis of quality metric data trends through an external quality assessment program for Australasian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wright, D C; Adayapalam, N; Bain, N; Bain, S M; Brown, A; Buzzacott, N; Carey, L; Cross, J; Dun, K; Joy, C; McCarthy, C; Moore, S; Murch, A R; O'Malley, F; Parker, E; Watt, J; Wilkin, H; Fagan, K; Pertile, M D; Peters, G B

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome microarrays are an essential tool for investigation of copy number changes in children with congenital anomalies and intellectual deficit. Attempts to standardise microarray testing have focused on establishing technical and clinical quality criteria, however external quality assessment programs are still needed. We report on a microarray proficiency testing program for Australasian laboratories. Quality metrics evaluated included analytical accuracy, result interpretation, report completeness, and laboratory performance data: sample numbers, success and abnormality rate and reporting times. Between 2009 and 2014 nine samples were dispatched with variable results for analytical accuracy (30-100%), correct interpretation (32-96%), and report completeness (30-92%). Laboratory performance data (2007-2014) showed an overall mean success rate of 99.2% and abnormality rate of 23.6%. Reporting times decreased from >90 days to <30 days for normal results and from >102 days to <35 days for abnormal results. Data trends showed a positive correlation with improvement for all these quality metrics, however only 'report completeness' and reporting times reached statistical significance. Whether the overall improvement in laboratory performance was due to participation in this program, or from accumulated laboratory experience over time, is not clear. Either way, the outcome is likely to assist referring clinicians and improve patient care. PMID:27575971

  3. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  4. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  5. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Michael; Leong, Trevor; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Kneebone, Andrew; Carroll, Susan; Wiltshire, Kirsty; Ngan, Samuel; Kachnic, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  6. New sites of Australasian microtektites in the central Indian Ocean: Implications for the location and size of source crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, M. Shyam; Mahale, Vasudev P.; Kodagali, V. N.

    2007-06-01

    We have identified 15 new Australasian microtektite sites along a transect roughly N-S in the central Indian Ocean. These locations, in addition to the existing 46 sites, total to 61 microtektite sites in the oceans. We carried out regression analysis of a selected area between 12-26°N and 98-112°E, at 0.5° intervals using three microtektite data sets separately: 41 sites, 46 sites (number of sites known up to the years 1994 and 2006, respectively), and the entire data set of 61 sites. This area was chosen because, on the basis of various lines of evidence, several investigators suggested impact craters for the strewn field within this broad area. The 41 site data set defines an impact site at about 12°N and 106°E. Whereas the contours joining the highest values of the square of the correlation coefficient by using 46 site and 61 site data sets define an area located in NE Thailand-central Laos, the center of this site is at 18°N and 104°E. Therefore with progressive increase in microtektite data the location of the impact site seems to get defined more rigorously. On the basis of the equations for the concentration of the ejecta and the distance from the source region, the calculated crater size has a diameter range between 33 and 120 km. Interestingly, the lower size limit of 33 km has been found closer to ground truth by verification from the microtektite data of the Ivory Coast strewn field.

  7. The 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians' policy statement 'Circumcision of infant males' is not evidence based.

    PubMed

    Morris, B J; Wodak, A D; Mindel, A; Schrieber, L; Duggan, K A; Dilley, A; Willcourt, R J; Lowy, M; Cooper, D A

    2012-07-01

    Infant male circumcision (MC) is an important issue guided by Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) policy. Here we analytically review the RACP's 2010 policy statement 'Circumcision of infant males'. Comprehensive evaluation in the context of published research was used. We find that the Statement is not a fair and balanced representation of the literature on MC. It ignores, downplays, obfuscates or misrepresents the considerable evidence attesting to the strong protection MC affords against childhood urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections (human immunodeficiency virus, human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus type 2, trichomonas and genital ulcer disease), thrush, inferior penile hygiene, phimosis, balanoposthitis and penile cancer, and in women protection against human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus type 2, bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer. The Statement exaggerates the complication rate. Assertions that 'the foreskin has a functional role' and 'is a primary sensory part of the penis' are not supported by research, including randomised controlled trials. Instead of citing these and meta-analyses, the Statement selectively cites poor quality studies. Its claim, without support from a literature-based risk-benefit analysis, that the currently available evidence does 'not warrant routine infant circumcision in Australia and New Zealand' is misleading. The Statement fails to explain that performing MC in the neonatal period using local anaesthesia maximises benefits, safety, convenience and cost savings. Because the RACP's policy statement is not a fair and balanced representation of the current literature, it should not be used to guide policy. In the interests of public health and individual well-being, an extensive, comprehensive, balanced review of the scientific literature and a risk-benefit analysis should be conducted to formulate policy. PMID:22805686

  8. The hospital microbiome project: meeting report for the UK science and innovation network UK-USA workshop ‘beating the superbugs: hospital microbiome studies for tackling antimicrobial resistance’, October 14th 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The UK Science and Innovation Network UK-USA workshop ‘Beating the Superbugs: Hospital Microbiome Studies for tackling Antimicrobial Resistance’ was held on October 14th 2013 at the UK Department of Health, London. The workshop was designed to promote US-UK collaboration on hospital microbiome studies to add a new facet to our collective understanding of antimicrobial resistance. The assembled researchers debated the importance of the hospital microbial community in transmission of disease and as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes, and discussed methodologies, hypotheses, and priorities. A number of complementary approaches were explored, although the importance of the built environment microbiome in disease transmission was not universally accepted. Current whole genome epidemiological methods are being pioneered in the UK and the benefits of moving to community analysis are not necessarily obvious to the pioneers; however, rapid progress in other areas of microbiology suggest to some researchers that hospital microbiome studies will be exceptionally fruitful even in the short term. Collaborative studies will recombine different strengths to tackle the international problems of antimicrobial resistance and hospital and healthcare associated infections.

  9. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  10. Research in Science Education, 1994. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (25th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, July 10-13, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains 41 papers, 10 abstracts/research notes, and an after-dinner speech "The Book of Genesis and the Chronicles of the People of ASERA (Australasian Science Education Research Association). Paper titles include: "Improving students' understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in first-year Biochemistry at tertiary level"; "Students'…

  11. Meeting at the Crossroads. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE 2001) (18th, Melbourne, Australia, December 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Gregor, Ed.; Keppell, Mike, Ed.; McNaught, Carmel, Ed.; Petrovic, Tom, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 63 papers presented at ASCLITE (Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education) 2001. The focus is on the following themes related to the use of computers in higher education: (1) reflection in and on action, for reflective inquiry, for students, for teachers, for design and…

  12. The mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) oreios sp. n., formerly species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti complex, and a critical review of its biology and relation to disease.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Taai, K; Howard, T M; Cook, S; Harbach, R E

    2015-03-01

    Species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae) is described and formally named Anopheles oreios Bangs & Harbach, sp. n. Adult, pupal and fourth-instar larval specimens collected in the Baliem Valley, Papua Province, Indonesia, are characterized and compared with those of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles irenicus and Anopheles torresiensis (formerly informally denoted as species 1, 2, 7 and 3, respectively). The variable wings of adult females, the male genitalia, the pupa and the fourth-instar larva of An. oreios are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the mitochondrial COI and COII genes. The biology of An. oreios and its relation to malaria transmission are discussed in detail and contrasted with the biology and disease relations of some members of the An. farauti and Anopheles punctulatus sibling species complexes.

  13. A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anazodo, Antoinette C; Stern, Catharyn J; McLachlan, Robert I; Gerstl, Brigitte; Agresta, Franca; Cohn, Richard J; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wakefield, Claire E; Daly, Genevieve; Chan, Daisy; Gilbert, Lorrae; Kemertzis, Matthew; Orme, Lisa M; Wand, Handan; Viney, Rosalie; Gillam, Lynn; Deans, Rebecca; Jetti, Murali; Wu, John; Chapman, Michael; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment in patients of a reproductive age have led to significant improvements in survival rates; however, a patient's fertility can be affected by both cancer and its treatment. As survival rates improve, there is an expectation by clinicians and patients that patient's reproductive potential should be considered and protected as much as possible. However, there is a lack of data about current fertility preservation (FP) uptake as well as accurate data on the acute or permanent reproductive risks of cancer treatment, complications of FP in cancer patients, and the use and success of assisted reproductive technology by cancer survivors. FP remains a major gap in acute cancer management with lifelong implications for cancer survivors. The FUTuRE Fertility research team has established the first binational multisite Australasian Oncofertility Registry, which is collecting a complete oncofertility data set from cancer and fertility centers in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from the research study will monitor referral, uptake, and complications of FP, document patient's reproductive potential after treatment, and collect data on the use of assisted reproductive technology following cancer treatment. The data will be linked to other routine health and administrative data sets to allow for other research projects to be carried out. The changes in oncofertility care will be benchmarked against the Australasian Oncofertility Charter. The data will be used to develop evidence-based guidelines and resources, including development of accurate risk projections for patients' risk of infertility, allowing clinicians to make recommendations for FP or assisted reproductive technology. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Number-12615000221550.

  14. A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anazodo, Antoinette C; Stern, Catharyn J; McLachlan, Robert I; Gerstl, Brigitte; Agresta, Franca; Cohn, Richard J; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wakefield, Claire E; Daly, Genevieve; Chan, Daisy; Gilbert, Lorrae; Kemertzis, Matthew; Orme, Lisa M; Wand, Handan; Viney, Rosalie; Gillam, Lynn; Deans, Rebecca; Jetti, Murali; Wu, John; Chapman, Michael; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment in patients of a reproductive age have led to significant improvements in survival rates; however, a patient's fertility can be affected by both cancer and its treatment. As survival rates improve, there is an expectation by clinicians and patients that patient's reproductive potential should be considered and protected as much as possible. However, there is a lack of data about current fertility preservation (FP) uptake as well as accurate data on the acute or permanent reproductive risks of cancer treatment, complications of FP in cancer patients, and the use and success of assisted reproductive technology by cancer survivors. FP remains a major gap in acute cancer management with lifelong implications for cancer survivors. The FUTuRE Fertility research team has established the first binational multisite Australasian Oncofertility Registry, which is collecting a complete oncofertility data set from cancer and fertility centers in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from the research study will monitor referral, uptake, and complications of FP, document patient's reproductive potential after treatment, and collect data on the use of assisted reproductive technology following cancer treatment. The data will be linked to other routine health and administrative data sets to allow for other research projects to be carried out. The changes in oncofertility care will be benchmarked against the Australasian Oncofertility Charter. The data will be used to develop evidence-based guidelines and resources, including development of accurate risk projections for patients' risk of infertility, allowing clinicians to make recommendations for FP or assisted reproductive technology. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Number-12615000221550. PMID:26981848

  15. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  16. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  17. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  18. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is born), or gestational diabetes . Too little amniotic fluid is known as oligohydramnios. This condition may occur with late pregnancies, ruptured membranes, placental dysfunction , or fetal abnormalities. Abnormal amounts of ...

  19. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  20. Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather C.; Muglia, Louis J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to review the use of high-dimensional biology techniques, specifically transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in amniotic fluid to elucidate the mechanisms behind preterm birth or assessment of fetal development. We performed a comprehensive MEDLINE literature search on the use of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies for amniotic fluid analysis. All abstracts were reviewed for pertinence to preterm birth or fetal maturation in human subjects. Nineteen articles qualified for inclusion. Most articles described the discovery of biomarker candidates, but few larger, multicenter replication or validation studies have been done. We conclude that the use of high-dimensional systems biology techniques to analyze amniotic fluid has significant potential to elucidate the mechanisms of preterm birth and fetal maturation. However, further multicenter collaborative efforts are needed to replicate and validate candidate biomarkers before they can become useful tools for clinical practice. Ideally, amniotic fluid biomarkers should be translated to a noninvasive test performed in maternal serum or urine. PMID:23599373

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  2. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  3. Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

  4. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  5. Mawson and Mertz: a re-evaluation of their ill-fated mapping journey during the 1911-1914 Australasian Antarctic Expedition.

    PubMed

    Carrington-Smith, Denise

    During the Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1914, Douglas Mawson and two companions, Belgrave Ninnis and Xavier Mertz, undertook an ill-fated mapping journey. Ninnis died when he fell down a crevasse, together with the sledge carrying most of their food supplies, and later Mertz became ill and died. Only Mawson returned. In 1969, Cleland and Southcott proposed that Mertz died of vitamin A toxicity and Mawson suffered from the effects of hypervitaminosis A because, with little food left, they were forced to eat their surviving dogs, including the liver. This hypothesis was supported by Shearman in 1978. After re-evaluating this hypothesis, I propose that Mawson and Mertz suffered from the effects of severe food deprivation, not from hypervitaminosis A, and that Mertz died as he was unable to tolerate the change from his usual vegetarian diet to a diet of mainly dog meat. I also suggest that Mertz's condition was aggravated by the psychological stress of being forced to eat the dogs he had cared for for 18 months.

  6. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  7. A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its Australasian relative, Lepilaena (Potamogetonaceae) - Evidence from DNA and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; García-Murillo, Pablo; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-05-01

    Althenia (Potamogetonaceae) is an aquatic plant genus disjunctly distributed in the southern- (South Africa's Cape Floristic Region: CFR) and northern- (Mediterranean Eurasia) hemispheres. This genus and its Australasian relative, Lepilaena, share similar floral characters yet have been treated as different genera or sections of Althenia sensu lato (s.l.) due to the isolated geographic distribution as well as the differences in sex expression, stamen construction, and stigma morphology. The diagnostic characters, however, need reevaluation over the boundaries between the entities. Here we tested the taxonomic delimitation between the entities, assessed synapomorphies for evolutionary lineages, and inferred biogeographic history in a phylogenetic framework. Our results indicated that Lepilaena was resolved as non-monophyletic in both plastid DNA and nuclear PhyC trees and Althenia was nested within it. As Althenia has nomenclatural priority, we propose a new delimitation to recognize Althenia s.l., which can be diagnosed by the female flowers with 3-segmented perianths and male flowers with perianths. The previously used diagnostic characters are either autapomorphies or synapomorphies for small lineages within Althenia s.l., and evolutionary transitions to sessile female flowers and narrow leaves characterize larger clades. Biogeographic analyses suggested a Miocene origin of Althenia s.l. in Australasia and indicated at least one inter- and one intra-specific inter-continental dispersal events among Australasia, Mediterranean Eurasia, and CFR need to be hypothesized to explain the current distribution patterns.

  8. "NEVER REGARD YOURSELF AS ALREADY SO THOROUGHLY INFORMED": THE WITHDRAWAL OF ITS INVITATION TO RODNEY SYME TO ADDRESS ITS 2015 CONGRESS BY THE ROYAL AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 1628, William Harvey presented his revolutionary theory of the circulation to ears at the Royal College of Physicians that had been deafened by the unquestionable authority of Galen's teachings, from one and a half millennia in the past. Harvey's theory was initially rejected, despite his faith in his colleagues being eager for truth and knowledge, and never regarding themselves as so well informed that they would not welcome "further information". Recently Rodney Syme, the retired Melbourne urologist who for a long time has agitated for the legalisation of assisted dying, and also challenged the authorities to apply the current law in response to his admitted assistance to a number of individuals, was invited to address the 2015 Congress of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians. At the eleventh hour, the invitation to speak was withdrawn. In this column, we trace the course of events leading to this withdrawal of the invitation, and describe some of the correspondence to and from the College in response to the withdrawal. We draw parallels between the experiences of Harvey and Syme, and point to lessons to be learnt from the recent episode of apparent unwillingness, on the part of an institution that seeks to present itself as outward-looking, progressive and socially aware, to fulfil this promise in the increasingly important area of the end-of-life.

  9. "NEVER REGARD YOURSELF AS ALREADY SO THOROUGHLY INFORMED": THE WITHDRAWAL OF ITS INVITATION TO RODNEY SYME TO ADDRESS ITS 2015 CONGRESS BY THE ROYAL AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 1628, William Harvey presented his revolutionary theory of the circulation to ears at the Royal College of Physicians that had been deafened by the unquestionable authority of Galen's teachings, from one and a half millennia in the past. Harvey's theory was initially rejected, despite his faith in his colleagues being eager for truth and knowledge, and never regarding themselves as so well informed that they would not welcome "further information". Recently Rodney Syme, the retired Melbourne urologist who for a long time has agitated for the legalisation of assisted dying, and also challenged the authorities to apply the current law in response to his admitted assistance to a number of individuals, was invited to address the 2015 Congress of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians. At the eleventh hour, the invitation to speak was withdrawn. In this column, we trace the course of events leading to this withdrawal of the invitation, and describe some of the correspondence to and from the College in response to the withdrawal. We draw parallels between the experiences of Harvey and Syme, and point to lessons to be learnt from the recent episode of apparent unwillingness, on the part of an institution that seeks to present itself as outward-looking, progressive and socially aware, to fulfil this promise in the increasingly important area of the end-of-life. PMID:26554197

  10. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  11. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  12. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  13. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  14. Nocturama gen. nov., Nothocladus s. lat. and other taxonomic novelties resulting from the further resolution of paraphyly in Australasian members of Batrachospermum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Entwisle, Timothy J; Johnston, Emily T; Lam, Daryl W; Stewart, Sarah A; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-06-01

    The informal "Australasica Group" was established in 2009 to include several Australasian endemic Batrachospermum species, a few species of the cosmopolitan Batrachospermum section Setacea, and the South American endemic Petrohua bernabei. Although useful for communication purposes, no formal taxonomic designation was proposed due to weakly supported basal nodes. The present research took a two-pronged approach of adding more taxa (29 additional specimens) as well as more sequence data (LSU, cox1, psaA, and psbA markers added to rbcL data) to provide better resolution. The resulting tree showed improved statistical support values (Bayesian posterior probability and maximum likelihood bootstrap) for most nodes providing a framework for taxonomic revision. Based on our well-resolved phylogeny, a new genus, Nocturama, is proposed for a clade of Batrachospermum antipodites specimens. The circumscription of Nothocladus is expanded to include Batrachospermum section Setacea and four additional sections composed of at least 10 species, mostly from Australia and New Zealand. One new species added to the data set, N. diatyches, did not form a clade with the other species of section Setaceus, where it was classified previously, rendering that section paraphyletic. To resolve this, N. diatyches and the morphologically similar species N. latericius are included with N. theaquus, in the new section Theaquus within Nothocladus s. lat. A specimen from Australia unaligned to these clades was sister to the Australia-New Zealand genus Psilosiphon and the cosmopolitan B. cayennense, but lacked statistical support. This specimen has the gross morphology of Batrachospermum s. lat. and is here provisionally assigned to that genus, as B. serendipidum sp. nov.

  15. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  16. Nocturama gen. nov., Nothocladus s. lat. and other taxonomic novelties resulting from the further resolution of paraphyly in Australasian members of Batrachospermum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Entwisle, Timothy J; Johnston, Emily T; Lam, Daryl W; Stewart, Sarah A; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-06-01

    The informal "Australasica Group" was established in 2009 to include several Australasian endemic Batrachospermum species, a few species of the cosmopolitan Batrachospermum section Setacea, and the South American endemic Petrohua bernabei. Although useful for communication purposes, no formal taxonomic designation was proposed due to weakly supported basal nodes. The present research took a two-pronged approach of adding more taxa (29 additional specimens) as well as more sequence data (LSU, cox1, psaA, and psbA markers added to rbcL data) to provide better resolution. The resulting tree showed improved statistical support values (Bayesian posterior probability and maximum likelihood bootstrap) for most nodes providing a framework for taxonomic revision. Based on our well-resolved phylogeny, a new genus, Nocturama, is proposed for a clade of Batrachospermum antipodites specimens. The circumscription of Nothocladus is expanded to include Batrachospermum section Setacea and four additional sections composed of at least 10 species, mostly from Australia and New Zealand. One new species added to the data set, N. diatyches, did not form a clade with the other species of section Setaceus, where it was classified previously, rendering that section paraphyletic. To resolve this, N. diatyches and the morphologically similar species N. latericius are included with N. theaquus, in the new section Theaquus within Nothocladus s. lat. A specimen from Australia unaligned to these clades was sister to the Australia-New Zealand genus Psilosiphon and the cosmopolitan B. cayennense, but lacked statistical support. This specimen has the gross morphology of Batrachospermum s. lat. and is here provisionally assigned to that genus, as B. serendipidum sp. nov. PMID:27273531

  17. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  18. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  19. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  20. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  1. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  2. Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.

  3. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  4. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  5. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  6. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  7. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  8. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  9. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  10. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  11. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Several software related topics are presented. Topics covered include studies and experiment at the Software Engineering Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, predicting project success from the Software Project Management Process, software environments, testing in a reuse environment, domain directed reuse, and classification tree analysis using the Amadeus measurement and empirical analysis.

  12. Seven Substances Added to 14th Report on Carcinogens

    MedlinePlus

    ... through soil to make its way into underground drinking water sources. Because of its widespread use as a ... safeguard the public by identifying substances in the environment that may affect human health. For more information ...

  13. History of On-orbit Satellite Fragmentations (14th Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene; Whitlock, David O.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Shoots, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in June 1961 (which instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400%) the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970s and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980s served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Continued events in all orbits in later years make definition and historical accounting of those events crucial to future research. Large, manned space stations and the growing number of operational robotic satellites demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population.

  14. Proceedings of the 14th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Technological areas covered include aviation propulsion, aerodynamic devices, and crew safety; space vehicle propulsion, guidance and control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; spacecraft bearings, gimbals, and lubricants; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activity on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  15. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 9. The relations of Australasian Ypsiloncyphon species to their Asian congeners, additions, mainly to Petrocyphon and Prionocyphon, and a key to Australian genera of Scirtinae.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2016-03-02

    The endemic Australasian species of Ypsiloncyphon are the sister group of the combined Asian species groups 1, 2, and 4. The description of the type species, Y. chlorizans (Klausnitzer), is supplemented by details of male and female genitalia. New species are described and illustrated in several genera: Austrocyphon scissus n. sp., Leptocyphon abnormis n. sp., Petrocyphon bonang n. sp., P. lacteus n. sp., P. televisionarius n. sp., Prionocyphon bidentatus n. sp., P. cacatua n. sp., P. laurae n. sp., P. neboissi n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., P. uncatus n. sp., and P. urbanus n. sp. Genus Prionocyphon is distinguished from Oriental genera with similar antennal modifications. However, a synapomorphy of Prionocyphon as presently understood is not known. Supplementary information on various species in the aforementioned genera and in Pachycyphon and Calvarium is provided. A key to the genera of adult Australian Scirtidae: Scirtinae is presented.

  16. Aerosol-induced changes in summer rainfall and circulation in the Australasian region: a study using single-forcing climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Collier, M. A.; Dravitzki, S. M.; Hirst, A. C.; Syktus, J. I.; Wong, K. K.

    2012-02-01

    We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model (CSIRO-Mk3.6) to investigate the roles of different forcing agents as drivers of summer rainfall trends in the Australasian region. Our results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols have contributed to the observed multi-decadal rainfall increase over north-western Australia. As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we performed multiple 10-member ensembles of historical climate change, which are analysed for the period 1951-2010. The historical runs include ensembles driven by "all forcings" (HIST), all forcings except anthropogenic aerosols (NO_AA) and forcing only from long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGAS). Anthropogenic aerosol-induced effects in a warming climate are calculated from the difference of HIST minus NO_AA. We also compare a 10-member 21st century ensemble driven by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). Simulated aerosol-induced rainfall trends over the Indo-Pacific region for austral summer and boreal summer show a distinct contrast. In boreal summer, there is a southward shift of equatorial rainfall, consistent with the idea that anthropogenic aerosols have suppressed Asian monsoonal rainfall, and caused a southward shift of the local Hadley circulation. In austral summer, the aerosol-induced response more closely resembles a westward shift and strengthening of the upward branch of the Walker circulation, rather than a coherent southward shift of regional tropical rainfall. Thus the mechanism by which anthropogenic aerosols may affect Australian summer rainfall is unclear. Focusing on summer rainfall trends over north-western Australia (NWA), we find that CSIRO-Mk3.6 simulates a strong rainfall decrease in RCP4.5, whereas simulated trends in HIST are weak and insignificant during 1951-2010. The weak rainfall trends in HIST are due to compensating effects of different forcing agents: there is a significant decrease in GHGAS, offset by an aerosol

  17. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  18. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  19. Amniotic fluid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  20. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  1. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  2. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  3. The fluids in salt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid inclusions in salt, the geological processes through which these fluids evolve, and the possible problems such inclusions pose for nuclear waste disposal in salt beds or domes are reviewed.-J.A.Z.

  4. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  5. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  6. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  7. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  8. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  11. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  12. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  13. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  14. Fluid movement and creativity.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement.

  15. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  16. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  17. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

    2014-05-28

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage.

  18. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  19. Sphere based fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  20. How to Avoid Fluid Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Murphy, David J.; Martin, Greg S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review This review highlights recent evidence describing the outcomes associated with fluid overload in critically ill patients and provides an overview of fluid management strategies aimed at preventing fluid overload during the resuscitation of patients with shock. Recent findings Fluid overload is a common complication of fluid resuscitation and is associated with increased hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. Summary Fluid management goals differ during the resuscitation, optimization, stabilization and evacuation phases of fluid resuscitation. To prevent fluid overload, strategies that reduce excessive fluid infusions and emphasize the removal of accumulated fluids should be implemented. PMID:26103147

  1. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  2. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert R.; Winsa, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate a wide variety of microgravity fluid physics science experiments on-board the US Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR is one of three racks comprising the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF is being designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. The unique, long-term, microgravity environment and long operational times on the ISS will offer experimenters the opportunity to modify experiment parameters based on their findings similar to what can be accomplished in ground laboratories. The FIR concept has evolved over time to provide a flexible, 'optics bench' approach to meet the wide variety of anticipated research needs. The FIR's system architecture presented is designed to meet the needs of the fluid physics community while operating within the constraints of the available ISS resources.

  3. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.

  5. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  6. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems are reported that are compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  7. Time Independent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  8. Fluid Bubble Eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  9. Fluid bubble eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  10. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  11. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is discussed. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  12. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  13. Fluid blade disablement tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G.; Todd, Steven N.

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  14. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  15. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  16. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies Joint Committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer N; Provenzano, David; Peng, Philip; Eichenberger, Urs; Lee, Sang Chul; Nicholls, Barry; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in pain medicine for interventional axial, nonaxial, and musculoskeletal pain procedures is rapidly evolving and growing. Because of the lack of specialty-specific guidelines for ultrasonography in pain medicine, an international collaborative effort consisting of members of the Special Interest Group on Ultrasonography in Pain Medicine from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies developed the following recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures. The purpose of these recommendations is to define the required skills for performing ultrasound-guided pain procedures, the processes for appropriate education, and training and quality improvement. Training algorithms are outlined for practice- and fellowship-based pathways. The previously published American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy education and teaching recommendations for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia served as a foundation for the pain medicine recommendations. Although the decision to grant ultrasound privileges occurs at the institutional level, the committee recommends that the training guidelines outlined in this document serve as the foundation for educational training and the advancement of the practice of ultrasonography in pain medicine.

  17. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  18. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  19. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  20. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  1. Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.

    Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).

  2. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  4. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  5. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  6. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  7. Survey of geothermal completion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of oil field fluids companies indicates that there are no geothermal completion fluids on the market. It is recommended that development of a completion fluid and appropriate support testing be funded.

  8. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOEpatents

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  9. Computational fluid dynamic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu-Garcia, Alex

    1989-01-01

    A general technique is presented for modeling fluid, or gas, dynamic systems specifically for the development of control systems. The numerical methods which are generally used in computational fluid dynamics are borrowed to create either continuous-time or discrete-time models of the particular fluid system. The resulting equations can be either left in a nonlinear form, or easily linearized about an operating point. As there are typically very many states in these systems, the usual linear model reduction methods can be used on them to allow a low-order controller to be designed. A simple example is given which typifies many internal flow control problems. The resulting control is termed computational fluid dynamic control.

  10. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  11. Windshield washer fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid made of methanol, a poisonous alcohol. Sometimes small amounts of other toxic alcohols such as ethylene glycol are added to the mixture. Some young children may mistake the fluid for juice, which ...

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  13. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  14. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paciorek, K.; Nakahara, J.; Smythe, M.; Kratzer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It it found that the experimental material obtained in 66% yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6x1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  15. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  16. Lighter fluid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lighter fluids are called hydrocarbons. They include: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron ...

  17. Cellular fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Roger D.

    The coupling of fluid dynamics and biology at the level of the cell is an intensive area of investigation because of its critical role in normal physiology and disease. Microcirculatory flow has been a focus for years, owing to the complexity of cell-cell or cell-glycocalyx interactions. Noncirculating cells, particularly those that comprise the walls of the circulatory system, experience and respond biologically to fluid dynamic stresses. In this article, we review the more recent studies of circulating cells, with an emphasis on the role of the glycocalyx on red-cell motion in small capillaries and on the deformation of leukocytes passing through the microcirculation. We also discuss flows in the vicinity of noncirculating cells, the influence of fluid dynamic shear stress on cell biology, and diffusion in the lipid bi-layer, all in the context of the important fluid-dynamic phenomena.

  18. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

  19. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  20. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians.

  1. Valve for fluid control

    SciTech Connect

    Oborny, Michael C.; Paul, Phillip H.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  2. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  3. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  4. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion-2 (AMPLE-2) trial: a multicentre randomised study of aggressive versus symptom-guided drainage via indwelling pleural catheters

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, Maree; Thomas, Rajesh; Muruganandan, Sanjeevan; Lam, David C L; Garske, Luke A; Kwan, Benjamin C H; Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S; Nguyen, Phan T; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Ritchie, Alexander J; Bint, Michael; Tobin, Claire L; Shrestha, Ranjan; Piccolo, Francesco; De Chaneet, Christian C; Creaney, Jenette; Newton, Robert U; Hendrie, Delia; Murray, Kevin; Read, Catherine A; Feller-Kopman, David; Maskell, Nick A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can complicate most cancers, causing dyspnoea and impairing quality of life (QoL). Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are a novel management approach allowing ambulatory fluid drainage and are increasingly used as an alternative to pleurodesis. IPC drainage approaches vary greatly between centres. Some advocate aggressive (usually daily) removal of fluid to provide best symptom control and chance of spontaneous pleurodesis. Daily drainages however demand considerably more resources and may increase risks of complications. Others believe that MPE care is palliative and drainage should be performed only when patients become symptomatic (often weekly to monthly). Identifying the best drainage approach will optimise patient care and healthcare resource utilisation. Methods and analysis A multicentre, open-label randomised trial. Patients with MPE will be randomised 1:1 to daily or symptom-guided drainage regimes after IPC insertion. Patient allocation to groups will be stratified for the cancer type (mesothelioma vs others), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0–1 vs ≥2), presence of trapped lung (vs not) and prior pleurodesis (vs not). The primary outcome is the mean daily dyspnoea score, measured by a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) over the first 60 days. Secondary outcomes include benefits on physical activity levels, rate of spontaneous pleurodesis, complications, hospital admission days, healthcare costs and QoL measures. Enrolment of 86 participants will detect a mean difference of VAS score of 14 mm between the treatment arms (5% significance, 90% power) assuming a common between-group SD of 18.9 mm and a 10% lost to follow-up rate. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (number 2015-043). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. Trial registration

  5. [Fluid management: estimation of fluid status].

    PubMed

    Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac filling pressures alone are not appropriate to estimate the effect of a volume challenge on the corresponding change in stroke volume. Dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness have been shown to discriminate with acceptable sensitivity and specificity between responders and non-responders to a volume challenge. However, several clinical confounders have been indentified which potentially influence the predictive power of these variables. Sound knowledge of these confounders and the acknowledgement that there is no unique threshold value for volume optimisation but a considerable "gray zone" is necessary to fully exploit the advantages of functional haemodynamic monitoring.

  6. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  7. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  8. Inverse magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G

    2014-09-01

    We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results. PMID:25022363

  9. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Masuda, S. R.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program was to optimize and scale up the linear perfluoroalkylether stabilization process and to provide test data regarding the fluids' thermal oxidative stability in the presence of metal alloys. The stabilization of Fomblin Z-25 was scaled up to 300 g of fluid. The modified fluid was stable at 316 C in oxygen in the presence of M-50 alloy for more than 24 hrs but less than 40 hrs; the amount of volatiles produced after 24 hrs was 5.5 mg/g. In the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy, under the above conditions, following an exposure of 24 hrs, the amount of volatiles formed was 6.2 mg/g; 56 hrs exposure yielded 13.9 mg/g. The commercial fluid at 288 C (in oxygen) in the presence of M-50 after 15 hrs of exposure decomposed extensively, 342 mg/g; in the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy after only 8 hrs at 288 C, the amount of volatiles was 191 mg/g. Formulation of the commercial fluid with C2PN3 additive was not as effective as the stabilization processing. All the perfluoroalkylether fluids studied were stable in nitrogen at 343 C. The thermal oxidative stability in the absence of metal alloys varied, with Aflunox exhibiting the best behavior. All the fluids were degraded in oxygen at 316 C during 24 hrs exposure to Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy with the exception of a perfluoroalkylether substituted triazine and the modified Z-25.

  10. Clinical Practices and Outcomes on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Management in South Korea: Comparison with Asia-Pacific Data of the Pan Australasian Chemotherapy Induced Emesis Burden of Illness Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Ah; Cho, Eun Kyung; Oh, Sung Yong; Ahn, Joong Bae; Lee, Ji Yun; Thomas, Burke; Jung, Hun; Kim, Jong Gwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study reported patient outcomes of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) regimens and evaluated its adherence to acute-phase CINV prophylaxis in the Korean population subset of the Pan Australasian Chemotherapy Induced Emesis burden of illness (PrACTICE) study. Materials and Methods This subgroup analysis evaluated 158 Korean patients receiving HEC or MEC and compared the data (wherever possible) with that of 648 patients from the Asia-Pacific (AP) region. Study endpoints included evaluation of primary CINV prophylaxis and adherence to acute-phase CINV prophylaxis in cycle 1 (American Society of Clinical Oncology [ASCO] Quality Oncology Practice Initiative [QOPI]). Results In South Korea and the AP, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist (5HT3-RA) prophylaxis for the acute phase was administered to 79/80 patients (98.8%) for HEC and 70/71 patients (98.6%) for MEC regimens (QOPI-1). Triple regimen (corticosteroid–5HT3-RA–neurokinin 1-RA) was initiated in 46/80 patients (57.5%) for prophylaxis of acute CINV in cycle 1 of HEC (QOPI-3). Double regimen (corticosteroid–5HT3-RA, with or within NK1-RA) was initiated in 61/71 patients (83.1%) for control of acute CINV in cycle 1 of MEC a(QOPI-2). Conclusion Active management of CINV is necessary in cycle 1 of HEC in South Korea, despite higher rates than the AP region. Adherence to the international guidelines for CINV prophylaxis requires attention in the acute phase in cycle 1 of the HEC regimen. PMID:26875197

  11. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  12. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  13. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  15. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  16. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  17. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  18. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gere, D.R.

    1983-10-21

    Chromatographic separations with a supercritical fluid as the mobile phase were suggested more than 20 years ago. Availability of commercial hardware makes this technique more widely usable today. Many separations by this method are now carried out with supercritical carbon dioxide as the mobile phase and packed liquid-chromatography columns as the stationary phase. Although carbon dioxide has many practical advantages, including its near-ambient critical temperature and minimal interference with spectrometric detection, the use of other supercritical fluids or addition of modifiers to carbon dioxide may extend the applications of this technique. Some mixtures that are difficult to analyze by other chromatographic methods may be susceptible to separation by supercritical fluid chromatography. Mixtures that have been separated with supercritical carbon dioxide include resin acids with the empirical formula C/sub 20/H/sub 30/O/sub 2/ and ubiquinones from bacterial cell wall extracts of Legionella pneumophila. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Asymptotically free fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Robert D.

    1982-12-01

    I study the field theory of a scalar field ω with solely cubic interactions in three dimensions-(ω3)3. I insist that the ω field represents the density of a fluid, so ω must always be >=0. If there are long-range couplings in the fluid such that the inverse ω propagator is linear rather than quadratic in momentum, then (ω3)3 theory is asymptotically free. The asymptotic freedom of (ω3)3 theory is closely related to the existence of a nonzero, ultraviolet-stable fixed point in large-N (φ¯6)3 theory. There are also analogies between the asymptotic freedom of fluids (in three and six dimensions) and that of non-Abelian gauge fields (in four dimensions).

  20. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  1. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  2. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  3. Electrorheological Fluids: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Eftekhari, A.; Belvin, K. W.; Singh, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Electrorheological fluids (ERF) are an intriguing class of non-Newtonian industrial fluids. They consist of fine dielectric particles suspended in liquids of low dielectric constants. The objectives of this research were to select a particulate system such that: (1) its density can be varied to match that of the selected liquid, and (2) the dielectric constant of the particles and the liquids should be such that the critical fields needed for asymptotic increase in viscosity are less than or equal to 10 KV/cm. Synthetic Zeolite particles were selected as the solute/suspensions. Octoil oil was selected as the solvent. The results are summarized here.

  4. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  5. Low temperature fluid blender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  6. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body can become too low or too high. That can happen when the amount of water in your body changes, causing dehydration or overhydration. Causes include some medicines, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  7. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  8. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-15

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  9. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  10. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  11. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  12. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid to measure: Albumin Protein Red and white blood cell counts Tests will also check for bacteria and other ... be a sign of tumor or injury. High white blood cell counts may be a sign of peritonitis . Milk-colored ...

  13. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  14. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  15. Fluid Transport in Lineaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, R.

    1986-04-01

    Fluid infiltration into fault zones and their deeper level counterparts, brittle-ductile shear zones, is examined in five different tectonic environments. In the 2.7 Ga Abitibi Greenstone Belt major tectonic discontinuities have lateral extents of hundreds of kilometres. These structures, initiated as listric normal faults accommodating rift extension of the greenstone belt, acted as sites for the extrusion of komatiitic magmas, and formed submarine scarps which delimit linear belts of clastic and chemical sediments. During reverse motion on the structures, accommodating shortening of the belt, these transcrustal faults were used as a conduit for the ascent of trondhjemitic magmas from the base of the crust, alkaline magmas from the asthenosphere, and for discharge of hundreds of cubic kilometres of hydrothermal fluids. Such fluids were characterized by δ 18O = 6 ± 2, δ D = -50 ± 20, δ 13C = -4 ± 3, and temperatures of 270-450 degrees C, probably derived from devolatilization of crustal rocks undergoing prograde metamorphism. Hydrothermal fluids were more radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7010-0.7040) and possessed higher values of μ than contemporaneous mantle, komatiites or tholeiites, and thus carried a contribution from older sialic basement. Mineralized faults possess enrichments of l.i.l. elements, including K, Rb, Li, Cs, B and CO2, as well as rare elements such as Au, Ag, As, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, W. Fluids were characterized by XCO_{2}≈ 0.1, neutral to slightly acidic pH, low salinity (less than 3% by mass), and K/Na ≈ 0.1, carried minor CH4, CO and N2, and underwent transient effervescence of CO2 during decompression. At Yellowknife, a series of large-scale shear zones developed by brittle-ductile mechanisms, involving volume dilation with the migration of ca. 5% (by mass) volatiles into the shear zone from surrounding metabasalts. This early deformation involved no departures in redox state or whole-rock δ 18O from background states of Fe2+/ɛ Fe = 0.7 and

  16. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  17. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  18. Magnetic fluids and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeynaetjoki, M.

    1991-02-01

    Magnetic fluids consist of carrier fluid, magnetically active particles and surfactant on each particle preventing the agglomeration of the particles. The fluids acting in the presence of the magnetic field like the ferromagnetic materials, but remaining their fluid properties, are prepared in this way. Potential applications of these fluids are magnetic separation, ink jet printing, sealing, damping, lubrication and heat transfer. So far, the industrial applications of the magnetic fluids are in the seals and bearings of the computer hard disk drives, in the heat transfer and damping of loudspeakers and in the damping of step motors. The other applications are in laboratory and research stage.

  19. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  20. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  1. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  2. Double Helical Fluid Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In the absence of gravity or at micro-scales, helical wires can support cylindrical volumes of fluid of infinite length, making them convenient as conduits. However, fixed contact line double helical fluid volumes have the additional property that they can be drained to zero volume without loss of stability to constant pressure disturbances. Thus the two-wire support is a convenient microgravity or micro-scale container as well as conduit. For evenly spaced wires, continuous draining of a cylindrical volume to zero is possible for double helices ranging from moderate pitch to the parallel wire case. Double helices of steeper pitch are stable as cylinders and at zero volume, but are unstable for some range of intermediate volumes. This unstable zone is very strongly dependent on the offset between the helical wires, varying rapidly for offsets other than 180 degrees. Preliminary experimental results validate the theoretical predictions.

  3. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  4. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  5. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  6. Body Fluids Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, Steven F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for determining volumes of body fluids in a subject using bioelectrical response spectroscopy. The human body is represented using an electrical circuit. Intra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with a capacitor; extra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with two parallel inductors. The parallel inductors represent the resistance due to vascular fluids. An alternating, low amperage, multifrequency signal is applied to determine a subject's impedance and resistance. From these data, statistical regression is used to determine a 1% impedance where the subject's impedance changes by no more than 1% over a 25 kHz interval. Circuit component, of the human body circuit are determined based on the 1% impedance. Equations for calculating total body water, extra-cellular water, total blood volume, and plasma volume are developed based on the circuit components.

  7. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1997-05-14

    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  8. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  9. The Mechanism of Fluid Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonkarman, T.; Rubach, H.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of fluid resistance within the limit of the square law is presented. It was concluded that the investigations should be extended and completed in two directions, namely: by an investigation of stable vortex configurations in space, and by considering the perfect fluid as the limiting case of a viscous fluid and then limiting the law of vortex of formation with the condition that only those fluid particles which were in contact with the surface of the body can receive rotation.

  10. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  11. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  12. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  13. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  14. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  15. Microwave Propagation in Dielectric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment designed to verify quantitatively the effect of a dielectric fluid's dielectric constant on the observed wavelength of microwave radiation propagating through the fluid. The fluid used is castor oil, and results agree with the expected behavior within 5 percent. (Author/CS)

  16. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  17. Fluid mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Howard

    2006-10-01

    Öttinger's recent nontraditional incorporation of fluctuations into the formulation of the friction matrix appearing in the phenomenological GENERIC theory of nonequilibrium irreversible processes is shown to furnish transport equations for single-component gases and liquids undergoing heat transfer which support the view that revisions to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (N-S-F) momentum/energy equation set are necessary, as empirically proposed by the author on the basis of an experimentally supported theory of diffuse volume transport. The hypothesis that the conventional N-S-F equations prevail without modification only in the case of “incompressible” fluids, where the density ρ of the fluid is uniform throughout, serves to determine the new phenomenological parameter α‧ appearing in the GENERIC friction matrix. In the case of ideal gases the consequences of this constitutive hypothesis are shown to yield results identical to those derived theoretically by Öttinger on the basis of a “proper” coarse-graining of Boltzmann's kinetic equation. A major consequence of the present work is that the fluid's specific momentum density v is equal to its volume velocity vv, rather than to its mass velocity vm, contrary to current views dating back 250 years to Euler. In the case of rarefied gases the proposed modifications are also observed to agree with those resulting from Klimontovich's molecularly based, albeit ad hoc, self-diffusion addendum to Boltzmann's collision integral. Despite the differences in their respective physical models-molecular vs. phenomenological-the role played by Klimontovich's collisional addition to Boltzmann's equation in modifying the N-S-F equations is noted to constitute a molecular counterpart of Öttinger's phenomenological fluctuation addition to the GENERIC friction matrix. Together, these two theories collectively recognize the need to address multiple- rather than single- encounter collisions between a test molecule and its

  18. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  19. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  20. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  1. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  2. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  3. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  4. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    PubMed

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics. PMID:21327946

  5. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  6. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  7. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  8. Heat pipe with dual working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosinger, A. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A heat pipe design is offered that utilizes an auxiliary working fluid. The fluid, although being less efficient than the main working fluid, remains liquid at low heat loads when the main working fluid freezes.

  9. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  10. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  11. Rotational fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

  12. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  13. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs.

  14. Spin waves in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A working report is presented in order to document early results of research on the stability of laminar boundary layers. The report shows that constitutive equations for a structured continua may be derived by the technique of reinterpreting velocity in the conventional stress to rate-of-strain relationship so as to account for effects of particle rotation. It is demonstrated that accounting for particle structure even at a molecular level makes the fluid viscoelastic with the ability to propagate vector waves. It is shown that particle structure modifies the basic stability equation for the system, which in turn would alter values for critical Reynolds number.

  15. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, R.H.; Bartley, B.H.

    1984-05-01

    A fluid catalytic cracking process is disclosed for sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks. Sulfur contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst in the reactor is converted to sulfur oxides in the regenerator and removed from regenerator off-gases by incorporating a composite of alumina and bismuth oxides in a particulate cracking catalyst. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air in the regenerator are captured by the alumina-bismuth oxides composite and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  16. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  17. Well completion and workover fluid having low fluid loss

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.W.; Gallus, J.P.; Pye, D.S.

    1980-03-11

    A description is given of a non-damaging variable-density low fluid loss well completion and workover fluid composition which is a dispersion of finely divided slowly oil-soluble, water-insoluble solid particulate matter in a thickened aqueous salt solution. The fluid composition is a mixture of an aqueous solution of a watersoluble inorganic salt, a first high softening point resin fluid loss control additive, a microemulsion fluid loss control additive, and, optionally, a water-dispersible thickening agent and/or a ph control agent. The microemulsion contains water, an oil-soluble surface active agent, a water-dispersible surface active agent, and, as a fluid loss control additive, a mixture of a wax and a second low softening point resin. The microemulsion also optionally contains an additive to prevent phase separation and/or a bactericide. Also disclosed is a method for using this composition in various well drilling, completion and treating operations.

  18. Null fluids: A new viewpoint of Galilean fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study a Galilean fluid with a conserved U (1 ) current up to anomalies. We construct a relativistic system, which we call a null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in the derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce U (1 ) anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid.

  19. Fluid injection microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-11-22

    A microvalve for extracting small volume samples into analytical devices, e.g., high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, includes: a first body having a first interior surface and two or more outlet ports at the first interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more first channels; a second body having a second interior surface and two or more inlet ports at the second interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more second channels wherein the outlet ports of the first body are coaxial with the corresponding inlet ports of the second body such that there are at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; a plate member, which has a substantially planar first mating surface and a substantially planar second mating surface, that is slidably positioned between the first interior surface and the second interior surface wherein the plate member has at least one aperture that traverses the height of the plate member, and wherein the aperture can be positioned to be coaxial with any of the at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; and means for securing the first surface of the first body against the first mating surface and for securing the second surface of the second body against the second mating surface.

  20. A Fluid Mechanics Hypercourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant

    1996-05-01

    This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

  1. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  2. Visualization in quantum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The motion of quantized vortices, which are topological phase defects analogous to crystalline dislocations, substantially controls the dynamics of quantum fluids. Quantized vortices have been observed in superfluid 4He and AMO trapped atom systems, and have been inferred in superfluid 3He and neutron stars. Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena, including superfluidity, trapped-atom Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, anti-ferromagnetism, lasers, and the Higgs mechanism. While superfluidity in 4He is one of the first discovered of these phenomena, it is one of the least understood, given that the strongly interacting nature of helium makes theory difficult, and that development of local experimental probes is lagging. The advent of flow visualization of particles that trace quantized vortices has led to many advances. That progress was caused by repeated suggestions from Russ Donnelly, Joe Niemela, and Joe Vinen. Those suggestions led the team, including Gregory P. Bewley, K.R. Sreenivasan and myself, to venture into the quantum fluid realm. We acknowledge the support of NSF DMR/CMP 0906109 and 1407472.

  3. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    PubMed

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  4. Elastic effects in superposed fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Amey

    2014-02-01

    A non-uniform electric field of suitable gradient can make specific weights of two superposed dielectric fluids identical. If the fluids are Newtonian, this choice of electric field makes the interface resilient to small perturbations, even if the fluid on the top is heavier than the one at bottom. On the other hand, if the fluids are viscoelastic, the interface continues to remain unstable. We point out that although the right choice of electric field succeeds in overcoming the effects of gravity, the fluids' elasticity makes the interface unstable. The same effect can be achieved in the case of paramagnetic or ferro-fluids in presence of a non-uniform magnetic field.

  5. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.

  6. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  7. Squirming through shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Charu; Zhu, Lailai; Elfring, Gwynn J.; Pak, On Shun

    2015-11-01

    Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.

  8. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  9. Oil well fluid processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.R.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.

  10. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  11. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  12. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  13. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  14. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal tap; Ventricular puncture; Lumbar puncture; Cisternal puncture; Cerebrospinal fluid culture ... brain stem. It is always done with fluoroscopy. Ventricular puncture may be recommended in people with possible ...

  15. Fluid therapy in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Major surgery and critical illnesses such as sepsis and trauma all disturb normal physiological fluid handling. Intravenous fluid therapy for resuscitation and fluid maintenance is a central part of medical care during these conditions, yet the evidence base supporting practice in this area lacks answers to a number of important questions. Recent research developments include a refinement of our knowledge of the endothelial barrier structure and function and a focus on the potential harm that may be associated with intravenous fluid therapy. Here, we briefly describe the contemporary view of fluid physiology and how this may be disrupted by pathological processes. The important themes in critical illness fluid research are discussed, with a particular focus on two emerging ideas: firstly, that individualising fluid treatment to the patient, their underlying disease state and the phase of that illness may be key to improving clinical outcomes using fluid interventions and, secondly, that fluids should be considered to be drugs, with specific indications and contraindications, dose ranges and potential toxicities. PMID:25276346

  16. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  17. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  18. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  19. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  20. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-12-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  1. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  2. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  3. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  4. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  5. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.

  6. Supercritical fluid technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penninger, J.M.L.; McHugh, M.A.; Radosz, M.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in the science and technology of supercritical fluid (scf) processing. Current research as described in the book, focuses on developments in equations of state for binary and multicomponent mixtures (including polymer solutions), solubility measurements at near-critical conditions, measurements of critical properties of binary mixtures and their correlation with equations of state. Progress in thermodynamics, coupled with advances in the design and construction of high pressure equipment, has opened up a wide avenue of commercial application (e.g. decaffeination of coffee beans, extractions of flavours and spices, purification of pharmaceutical products, separations of polymeric materials, deodorization and deacidification of vegetable oils, fractionation of fatty acids, coal liquefaction, wood delignitication, etc.)

  7. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, B.H.; Petty, R.H.

    1982-08-17

    Gaseous sulfur compounds are removed from a sulfur-containing gas mixture by reacting sulfur oxides in the gas mixture with alumina in association with bismuth. The process is particularly useful in fluid catalytic cracking of sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks wherein sulfur is contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst. By the process of this invention, sulfur oxides may be removed from regenerator off-gases from a fluidized catalytic cracking unit by incorporating particulate alumina impregnated with bismuth in particulate cracking catalyst whereby sulfur oxides generated in the regeneration of the catalyst are reacted with bismuth-impregnated alumina. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air are captured and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  8. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  9. Fluid-operated piston

    SciTech Connect

    Ledermen, F.E.

    1987-01-13

    An improvement is described in a friction torque transmitting device having a piston slidably disposed in a cylinder and being selectively pressurized therein for controlling the engagement of frictional plates. The improvement comprises: a rigid piston body generally U-shaped in cross section; an elastomeric covering portion bonded on the piston body and incorporating therein a pair of lip seal portions for engaging the cylinder and cooperating therewith to form a fluid tight joint; valve means formed in the bonded portion for permitting air bleed from the cylinder; a reaction ring bonded to the elastomeric covering; and a spring portion integral with the elastomeric portion operatively disposed between the piston body and the reaction ring.

  10. A FLUID SORBENT RECYCLING DEVICE FOR INDUSTRIAL FLUID USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roller compression Extractor® that extracts fluids from reusable sorbent pads was evaluated as a method of waste reduction. The extraction device, evaluated for industrial fluid users in New Jersey, was found to be effective in recycling unpleated sorbent pads, especially ...

  11. Fluid dynamics in developmental biology: moving fluids that shape ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2009-01-01

    Human conception, indeed fertilization in general, takes place in a fluid, but what role does fluid dynamics have during the subsequent development of an organism? It is becoming increasingly clear that the number of genes in the genome of a typical organism is not sufficient to specify the minutiae of all features of its ontogeny. Instead, genetics often acts as a choreographer, guiding development but leaving some aspects to be controlled by physical and chemical means. Fluids are ubiquitous in biological systems, so it is not surprising that fluid dynamics should play an important role in the physical and chemical processes shaping ontogeny. However, only in a few cases have the strands been teased apart to see exactly how fluid forces operate to guide development. Here, we review instances in which the hand of fluid dynamics in developmental biology is acknowledged, both in human development and within a wider biological context, together with some in which fluid dynamics is notable but whose workings have yet to be understood, and we provide a fluid dynamicist’s perspective on possible avenues for future research. PMID:19794816

  12. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  13. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  14. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors, gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.

  15. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  16. COMMITTEES: SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organizing Committee Takeshi Kodama Chair, UFRJ Jun Takahashi Co-chair, UNICAMP Ignácio Bediaga e Hickman CBPF Eduardo Fraga UFRJ Frederique Grassi USP Yogiro Hama USP Gastão Krein IFT Erasmo Madureira Ferreira UFRJ Marcelo G. Munhoz USP Fernando Navarra USP Sandra Padula IFT Alejandro Szanto de Toledo USP César Augusto Zen Vasconcellos UFRGS International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Nantes Federico Antinori Padova Tamás Biró Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger GSI Jean Cleymans Cape Town Láaszló Csernai Bergen Timothy Hallman BNL Huan Zhong Huang UCLA Takeshi Kodama Rio de Janeiro Yu-Gang Ma Shanghai Jes Madsen Aarhus Ágnes Mócsy Pratt University Berndt Müller Duke University Grazyna Odyniec LBNL Helmut Oeschler Darmstadt Johann Rafelski Arizona Hans Georg Ritter LBNL Gunther Rolland MIT Karel Šafařík CERN Ladislav Sandor Kosice University Jack Sandweiss Yale University George S F Stephans MIT Horst Stöcker Frankfurt Larry McLerranBNL Helmut Satz Universitä Bielefeld Nu Xu LBNL Fuqiang Wang Purdue University William A. Zajc Columbia University Pengfei Zhuang Tsinghua University

  17. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  18. Compact fluid-flow restrictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheere, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    Fluid-flow restrictor has degree of restriction easily and accurately controlled during manufacture. Restrictor's flow channel is machined square thread around a solid slug which is shrink-fitted to cylindrical case. One end of case is closed, open end capped, and both ends tapped for tube fittings for fluid flow.

  19. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  20. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  1. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  2. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  3. Second Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from French, German, and Russian speakers about the microgravity research programs in their respective countries. Two keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. Fifty-eight of the sixty-two technical papers are included here.

  4. Squirming propulsion in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Corato, Marco; Greco, Francesco; Maffettone, Pier Luca

    2015-11-01

    The locomotion of organisms in Newtonian fluids at low-Reynolds numbers displays very different features from that at large Reynolds numbers; indeed, in this regime the viscous forces are dominant over the inertial ones and propulsion is possible only with non-time-reversible swimming strokes. In many situations of biological interest, however, small organisms are propelling themselves through non-Newtonian fluids such as mucus or biofilms, which display highly viscoelastic properties. Fluid viscoelasticity affects in a complex way both the micro-organisms' swimming velocity and dissipated power, possibly affecting their collective behavior. In our work, we employ the so called ``squirmer'' model to study the motion of spherical ciliated organisms in a viscoelastic fluid. We derive analytical formulas for the squirmer swimming velocity and dissipated power that show a complex interplay between the fluid constitutive behavior and the propulsion mechanism.

  5. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  6. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  7. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  8. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  9. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  10. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  11. Fluid shifts in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 l (12.8 percent of leg volume), with 1.1 l from the nondominant leg, on Skylab 4. On landing, 65 percent of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 l which was 90-percent complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87-percent complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on orbit, with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact.

  12. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  13. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Brato; Hanna, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite range occur on the borders between regions. Separate transitions in the tension behavior, and counterintuitive results regarding finite towing tensions for infinitely long cables, are presented. Several physically inspired boundary value problems are solved and discussed.

  14. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

    2005-03-04

    CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

  16. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  17. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  18. Fluid shifts in weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Thornton, W E; Moore, T P; Pool, S L

    1987-09-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 L (12.8% of leg volume) with 1.1 L from the non-dominant leg on Skylab 4. On landing, 65% of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 L which was 90% complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87% complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on-orbit with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact. PMID:3675511

  19. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  20. Fluid sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  1. Retrograde fluids in granulites: Stable isotope evidence of fluid migration

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J. ); Valley, J.W. )

    1991-07-01

    Widespread retrograde alteration assemblages document the migration of mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluids into granulite facies rocks in the Adirondack Mountains. Fluid migration is manifest by (1) veins and patchy intergrowths of chlorite {plus minus} sericite {plus minus} calcite, (2) small veins of calcite, many only identifiable by cathodoluminescence, and (3) high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich or mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluid inclusions. The distinct and varied textural occurrences of the alteration minerals indicate that fluid-rock ratios were low and variable on a local scale. Stable isotope ratios of C, O, and S have been determined in retrograde minerals from samples of the Marcy anorthosite massif and adjacent granitic gneisses (charnockites). Retrograde calcite in the anorthosite has a relatively small range in both {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} (8.6 to 14.9% and {minus}4.1 to 0.4%, respectively), probably indicating that the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the calcite had exchanged with a variety of crustal lithologies including marbles and orthogneisses, and that calcite was precipitated over a relatively narrow temperature interval. Values of {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} that range from 2.8 to 8.3% within the anorthosite can also be interpreted to reflect exchange between orthogneisses and metasediments. The recognition of retrograde fluid migration is particularly significant in granulite facies terranes because the controversy surrounding the origin of granulites arises in part from differing interpretations of fluid inclusion data, specifically, the timing of entrapment of high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich inclusions. Results indicate that retrograde fluid migration, which in some samples may leave only cryptic petrographic evidence, is a process capable of producing high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich fluid inclusions.

  2. Configurational temperature profile in confined fluids. II. Molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhommelle, Jerome; Evans, Denis J.

    2001-04-01

    In an earlier paper, we applied configurational expressions of the temperature to the calculation of temperature profiles within a confined atomic fluid. This paper focuses on the application of these expressions to confined molecular fluids using ethane and hexane as examples. We first give configurational expressions for the temperature for these constrained systems. The configurational temperature profiles so obtained are compared to the kinetic temperature calculated using the equipartition principle, in equilibrium systems. These expressions are then used in nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of fluids undergoing planar Poiseuille flow. We show that these configurational expressions provide a direct and accurate determination of the temperature profile for these systems.

  3. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is one of two racks in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. The FIR is dedicated to the scientific investigation of space system fluids management supporting NASA s Exploration of Space Initiative. The FIR hardware was modal tested and FIR finite element model updated to satisfy the International Space Station model correlation criteria. The final cross-orthogonality results between the correlated model and test mode shapes was greater than 90 percent for all primary target modes.

  4. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

  5. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  6. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  7. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Outreach Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Schwarz, J. W.; Noguez, G.

    2012-12-01

    Here we will present high definition films of laboratory experiments demonstrating basic fluid motions similar to those occurring in atmospheres and oceans. In these experiments, we use water to simulate the fluid dynamics of both the liquid (oceans) and gaseous (atmospheric) envelopes. To simulate the spinning of the earth, we carry out the experiments on a rotating table. For each experiment, we begin by looking at our system first without the effects of rotation. Then, we include rotation to see how the behavior of the fluid changes due to the Coriolis accelerations. Our hope is that by viewing these experiments one will develop a sense for how fluids behave both in rotating and non-rotating systems. By noting the differences between the experiments, it should then be possible to establish a basis to think about large-scale fluid motions that exist in Earth's oceans and atmospheres as well as on planets other than Earth.Plan view image of vortices in a rotating tank of fluid. Movies of such flows make accessible the often difficult to comprehend fluid dynamical processes that occur in planetary atmospheres and oceans.

  8. Artificial Heart Fluid Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussivand, Tofigh Varcaneh

    Flow characteristics within pneumatic, pulsatile, and pusher plate prosthetic hearts were studied. The blood pumps evaluated were duplicates of pumps used for in vivo calf and for clinical implantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Human dura mater bioprosthetic, caged disk, and Bjork-Shiley tilting disk valves were employed in the pumps. Dual camera video tape and synchronized still photography were used to study flow patterns. Diffused light and a planar laser source provided illumination. The laser light was fanned into a plane with a thickness of 0.2 mm to 10 mm. Magnesium oxide and Amberlite particles were used as tracers. Aqueous-glycerol, aqueous-sucrose solutions and mineral oil were used as blood analog fluids. Inflow, outflow, drive, and afterload pressures, diaphragm motion, cardiac output, and heart rate were measured and recorded. An electrical circuit was developed to synchronize pump diaphragm motion with captured images of flow trajectories. After digitizing the trajectories, velocities, global and local turbulence, and shear stresses were obtained. Disturbed and recirculating zones were identified. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using data obtained from the digitization of flow trajectories. Simultaneous turbulence and stasis were observed during most phases of the cardiac cycles in all the pumps tested. A maximum Reynold's shear stress of 2889 dynes/cm ^2 occurred at 120 beats per minute (bpm). The peak velocity was 146 cm/sec during systole. The identified regions of recirculation, low velocity and disturbed flow were shown to correlate with thrombosed areas of explanted blood pumps. The maximum calculated turbulence intensity was 106 cm/sec which occurred at 120 bpm during systole.

  9. Detachment energies of spheroidal particles from fluid-fluid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gary B.; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V.; Harting, Jens

    2014-10-01

    The energy required to detach a single particle from a fluid-fluid interface is an important parameter for designing certain soft materials, for example, emulsions stabilised by colloidal particles, colloidosomes designed for targeted drug delivery, and bio-sensors composed of magnetic particles adsorbed at interfaces. For a fixed particle volume, prolate and oblate spheroids attach more strongly to interfaces because they have larger particle-interface areas. Calculating the detachment energy of spheroids necessitates the difficult measurement of particle-liquid surface tensions, in contrast with spheres, where the contact angle suffices. We develop a simplified detachment energy model for spheroids which depends only on the particle aspect ratio and the height of the particle centre of mass above the fluid-fluid interface. We use lattice Boltzmann simulations to validate the model and provide quantitative evidence that the approach can be applied to simulate particle-stabilized emulsions, and highlight the experimental implications of this validation.

  10. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  11. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  12. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  13. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    PubMed

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  14. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  15. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  16. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  17. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  18. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  19. Updated, expanded, fluid properties handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Osugi, J. T.; Sherman, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Revised handbook presents quantitative data, in the form of graphs and charts, pertaining to thermodynamic properties of specific cryogenic fluids and several metals. References to sources of data are cited.

  20. Fluid operated quick release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Gas operated release mechanism releases load by fluid pressure to provide positive action quick release. Method can be used with large loads and is useful in repetitive cycling functions where shear pins and similar devices would be cumbersome.

  1. Liquidlike Behavior of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Scopigno, T.; Krisch, M.; Ruocco, G.

    2006-12-01

    The high frequency dynamics of fluid oxygen has been investigated by inelastic x-ray scattering, at high pressures and room temperature. In spite of the markedly supercritical conditions (T≈2Tc, P>102Pc), the sound velocity exceeds the hydrodynamic value of about 20%, a feature which is the fingerprint of liquidlike dynamics. The comparison of the present results with literature data obtained in several fluids allow us to identify the extrapolation of the liquid-vapor-coexistence line in the (P/Pc, T/Tc) plane as the relevant edge between liquidlike and gaslike dynamics. More interestingly, this extrapolation is very close to the non-metal-metal transition in hot dense fluids, at pressure and temperature values as obtained by shock wave experiments. This result points to the existence of a connection between structural modifications and transport properties in dense fluids.

  2. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  3. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  4. FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluid transport through porous media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through porous earth m...

  5. Fluid Instabilities inside Astrophysical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Zheng, Weiqun

    2014-11-01

    We present our results from the simulations of fluid instabilities inside supernovae with a new radiation-hydrodynamic code, CASTRO. Massive stars are ten times more massive than Sun. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that these massive stars tend to end their lives with energetic explosions, so-called supernovae. Many fluid instabilities occur during the supernova explosions. The fluid instabilities can be driven by hydrodynamics, nuclear burning, or radiation. In this talk, we discuss about the possible physics of fluid instabilities found in our simulations and how the resulting mixing affects the observational signatures of supernovae. This work was supported by the DOE HEP Program under contract DE-SC0010676; the National Science Foundation (AST 0909129) and the NASA Theory Program (NNX14AH34G).

  6. The handbook of fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1998-07-01

    This book provides professionals in the field of fluid dynamics with a comprehensive guide and resource. The book balances three traditional areas of fluid mechanics--theoretical, computational, and experimental--and expounds on basic science and engineering techniques. Each chapter introduces a topic, discusses the primary issues related to this subject, outlines approaches taken by experts, and supplies references for further information. Topics discussed include: (1) basic engineering fluid dynamics; (2) classical fluid dynamics; (3) turbulence modeling; (4) reacting flows; (5) multiphase flows; (6) flow and porous media; (7) high Reynolds number asymptotic theories; (8) finite difference method; (9) finite volume method; (10) finite element methods; (11) spectral element methods for incompressible flows; (12) experimental methods, such as hot-wire anemometry, laser-Doppler velocimetry, and flow visualization; and (13) applications, such as axial-flow compressor and fan aerodynamics, turbomachinery, airfoils and wings, atmospheric flows, and mesoscale oceanic flows.

  7. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  8. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G. Berryman, James

    2003-10-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery.

  9. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  10. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  11. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  12. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  13. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  14. Some Studies on Viscous Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Aibin

    In this thesis, we study several issues involving incompressible viscous fluids with the slip boundary conditions and the motions of fluid-solid interactions. In the first part, we study the issue of the inviscid limit of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the general smooth domains for completely slip boundary conditions. We verify an asymptotic expansion which involves a weak amplitude boundary layer with the same thickness as in the Prantle's theory. We improve the better regularity for the boundary layer and obtain the uniform Lp--estimates (3 < p ≤ 6) of the remainder. Then we improved these estimates to H 1--estimates. It is shown that the viscous solution converges to the solution of Euler equation in C([0, T]; H1(O)) as the viscosity tends to zero. In the second part, we consider the non-stationary problems of a class of non-Newtonian fluid which is a power law fluid with p > 3nn+2 in the half space with slip boundary conditions. We present the local pressure estimate with the Navier's slip boundary conditions. Using these estimates and an Linfinity -- truncation method, we can obtain that this system has at least one required weak solution. Finally, we investigate the motion of a general form rigid body with smooth boundary by an incompressible perfect fluid occupying R3 . Due to the domain occupied by the fluid depending on the time, this problem can be transformed into a new systems of the fluid in a fixed domain by the frame attached with the body. With the aid of Kato-Lai's theory, we construct a sequence of successive solutions to this problem in some unform time interval. Then by a fixed point argument, we have proved that the existence, uniqueness and persistence of the regularity for the solutions of original fluid-structure interaction problem.

  15. A Kinetic-fluid Model

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson

    1998-07-10

    A nonlinear kinetic-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important kinetic effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the kinetic-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The kinetic effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., kinetic/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).

  16. Wettability Control on Fluid-Fluid Displacements in Patterned Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Trojer, M.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two-phase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes like geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration in soil. While it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and the pore fluids, the effect of wettability on fluid displacement continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here we study this problem experimentally, starting with the classic experiment of two-phase flow in a capillary tube. We image the shape of the meniscus and measure the associated capillary pressure for a wide range of capillary numbers. We confirm that wettability exerts a fundamental control on meniscus deformation, and synthesize new observations on the dependence of the dynamic capillary pressure on wetting properties (contact angle) and flow conditions (viscosity contrast and capillary number). We compare our experiments to a macroscopic phase-field model of two-phase flow. We use the insights gained from the capillary tube experiments to explore the viscous fingering instability in the Hele-Shaw geometry in the partial-wetting regime. A key difference between a Hele-Shaw cell and a porous medium is the existence of micro-structures (i.e. pores and pore throats). To investigate how these micro-structrues impact fluid-fluid displacement, we conduct experiments on a planar microfluidic device patterned with vertical posts. We track the evolution of the fluid-fluid interface and elucidate the impact of wetting on the cooperative nature of fluid displacement during pore invasion events. We use the insights gained from the capillary tube and patterned microfluidics experiments to elucidate the effect of wetting properties on viscous fingering and capillary fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads, where we observe a contact-angle-dependent stabilizing behavior for the emerging flow instabilities, as the system transitions from

  17. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  18. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very early days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center for combustion, complex fluids, and fluid physics; GRC has led the successful implementation of the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion; fire detection; fire extinguishment; soot phenomena; flame liftoff and stability; and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow; magneto-rheological fluids; colloidal systems; extensional rheology; pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years.

  19. Combustion, Complex Fluids, and Fluid Physics Experiments on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Urban, David

    2012-01-01

    From the very first days of human spaceflight, NASA has been conducting experiments in space to understand the effect of weightlessness on physical and chemically reacting systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio has been at the forefront of this research looking at both fundamental studies in microgravity as well as experiments targeted at reducing the risks to long duration human missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond. In the current International Space Station (ISS) era, we now have an orbiting laboratory that provides the highly desired condition of long-duration microgravity. This allows continuous and interactive research similar to Earth-based laboratories. Because of these capabilities, the ISS is an indispensible laboratory for low gravity research. NASA GRC has been actively involved in developing and operating facilities and experiments on the ISS since the beginning of a permanent human presence on November 2, 2000. As the lead Center both Combustion, Fluid Physics, and Acceleration Measurement GRC has led the successful implementation of an Acceleration Measurement systems, the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) as well as the continued use of other facilities on the ISS. These facilities have supported combustion experiments in fundamental droplet combustion fire detection fire extinguishment soot phenomena flame liftoff and stability and material flammability. The fluids experiments have studied capillary flow magneto-rheological fluids colloidal systems extensional rheology pool and nucleate boiling phenomena. In this paper, we provide an overview of the experiments conducted on the ISS over the past 12 years. We also provide a look to the future development. Experiments presented in combustion include areas such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes. In fluid physics, experiments are discussed in

  20. Fluid Behavior and Fluid-Solid Interactions in Nanoporous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although shale oil/gas production in the US has increased exponentially, the low energy recovery is a daunting problem needed to be solved for its sustainability and continued growth, especially in light of the recent oil/gas price decline. This is apparently related to the small porosity (a few to a few hundred nm) and low permeability (10-16-10-20 m2) of tight shale formations. The fundamental question lies in the anomalous behavior of fluids in nanopores due to confinement effects, which, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined experimental characterization and observations, particularly using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with pore-scale modeling using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to examine the fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions in nanopores at reservoir conditions. Experimentally, we characterized the compositions and microstructures of a shale sample from Wolfcamp, Texas, using a variety of analytical techniques. Our analyses reveal that the shale sample is made of organic-matter (OM)-lean and OM-rich layers that exhibit different chemical and mineral compositions, and microstructural characteristics. Using the hydrostatic pressure system and gas-mixing setup we developed, in-situ SANS measurements were conducted at pressures up to 20 kpsi on shale samples imbibed with water or water-methane solutions. The obtained results indicate that capillary effect plays a significant role in fluid-nanopore interactions and the associated changes in nanopore structures vary with pore size and pressure. Computationally, we performed LBM modeling to simulate the flow behavior of methane in kerogen nanoporous structure. The correction factor, which is the ratio of apparent permeability to intrinsic permeability, was calculated. Our results show that the correction factor is always greater than one (non-continuum/non-Darcy effects) and increases with decreasing nanopore size, intrinsic permeability and pressure. Hence, the

  1. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement. PMID:21144005

  2. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  3. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  4. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  5. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to...

  9. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to...

  10. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to...

  11. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  12. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 25.1185 Section 25.1185... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1185 Flammable fluids. (a... system containing flammable fluids or gases may be in a designated fire zone unless the fluid...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4275 - Intraocular fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular fluid. 886.4275 Section 886.4275 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4275 Intraocular fluid. (a) Identification. An intraocular fluid is a device consisting of a nongaseous fluid intended to be introduced into the eye to...

  16. 14 CFR 125.153 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluids. 125.153 Section 125.153....153 Flammable fluids. (a) No tanks or reservoirs that are a part of a system containing flammable fluids or gases may be located in designated fire zones, except where the fluid contained, the design...

  17. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  18. Wave propagation in magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cissoko, Mahdy

    1987-08-01

    This paper deals within the relativistic framework with the wave propagation in magnetizable fluids, assumed to be perfect, magnetically soft, isotropic, and inhomogeneous with an arbitrary isotropic law χ=χ(T,r,||b||2) (χ,T,r,||b|| being the magnetic susceptibility, the proper temperature, the proper material density, and the strength of the magnetic field, respectively). The characteristic manifolds of the flow are determined in a very elegant and rigorous manner which avoids the extensive algebraic manipulations one usually encounters in the classical methods of characteristics. It is shown that in a magnetic medium there exists a hyperbolic region of nonsteady flows of magnetizable fluids. This implies the existence of magnetosonic waves of the same kind as in nonmagnetic fluids (χ or μ=const), that is, as in ordinary magnetohydrodynamics. However, in magnetic fluids there is the possibility of the development of instabilities similar to that which arise in nonmagnetic fluids with transverse and longitudinal pressure [M. Cissoko, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. 111, 331 (1976)].

  19. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration. PMID:17784486

  20. Third Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program, present and future areas of emphasis, information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities-especially use of the International Space Station, and the process by which future investigators enter the program. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from Russian speakers about their microgravity research programs. Three keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on the history and future development of the moon and on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. One keynote paper and an extended abstract are included in the proceedings. One hundred and thirty-two technical papers were presented in 28 sessions. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. One hundred and twenty-two papers are included here.

  1. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  2. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration.

  3. Fluid simulation with articulated bodies.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Nipun; Wojtan, Chris; Carlson, Mark; Essa, Irfan; Mucha, Peter J; Turk, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for creating realistic animations of characters that are swimming through fluids. Our approach combines dynamic simulation with data-driven kinematic motions (motion capture data) to produce realistic animation in a fluid. The interaction of the articulated body with the fluid is performed by incorporating joint constraints with rigid animation and by extending a solid/fluid coupling method to handle articulated chains. Our solver takes as input the current state of the simulation and calculates the angular and linear accelerations of the connected bodies needed to match a particular motion sequence for the articulated body. These accelerations are used to estimate the forces and torques that are then applied to each joint. Based on this approach, we demonstrate simulated swimming results for a variety of different strokes, including crawl, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. The ability to have articulated bodies interact with fluids also allows us to generate simulations of simple water creatures that are driven by simple controllers. PMID:19910662

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  5. Ultracentrifuge for separating fluid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Lowry, Ralph A.

    1976-01-01

    1. A centrifuge for the separation of fluid mixtures having light and heavy fractions comprising a cylindrical rotor, disc type end-plugs closing the ends of the rotor, means for mounting said rotor for rotation about its cylindrical axis, a housing member enclosing the rotor, a vacuum chamber in said housing about the central portion of the rotor, a collection chamber at each end of the housing, the innermost side of which is substantially formed by the outer face of the end-plug, means for preventing flow of the fluid from the collection chambers to said vacuum chamber, at least one of said end-plugs having a plurality of holes therethrough communicating between the collection chamber adjacent thereto and the inside of the rotor to induce countercurrent flow of the fluid in the centrifuge, means for feeding fluid to be processed into the centrifuge, means communicating with the collection chambers to extract the light and heavy separated fractions of the fluid, and means for rotating the rotor.

  6. RRM3 Fluid Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfknecht, P.; Benson, D.; Boyle, R.; DeLee, C.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Whitehouse, P.

    2015-01-01

    The current development progress of the fluid management device (FMD) for the Robotic Resupply Mission 3 (RRM3) cryogen source Dewar is described. RRM3 is an on-orbit cryogenic transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. The fluid management device is a key component of the source Dewar to ensure the ullage bubble is located away from the outlet during transfer. The FMD also facilitates demonstration of radio frequency mass gauging within the source Dewar. The preliminary design of the RRM3 FMD is a number of concentric cones of Mylar which maximizes the volume of liquid in contact with the FMD in the source Dewar. This paper describes the design of the fluid management device and progress of hardware development

  7. Visualization of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Hultquist, Jeff; Bryson, Steve; Kenwright, David; Lane, David; Walatka, Pamela; Clucas, Jean; Watson, Velvin; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Scientific visualization serves the dual purpose of exploration and exposition of the results of numerical simulations of fluid flow. Along with the basic visualization process which transforms source data into images, there are four additional components to a complete visualization system: Source Data Processing, User Interface and Control, Presentation, and Information Management. The requirements imposed by the desired mode of operation (i.e. real-time, interactive, or batch) and the source data have their effect on each of these visualization system components. The special requirements imposed by the wide variety and size of the source data provided by the numerical simulation of fluid flow presents an enormous challenge to the visualization system designer. We describe the visualization system components including specific visualization techniques and how the mode of operation and source data requirements effect the construction of computational fluid dynamics visualization systems.

  8. String fluid in local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.

  9. Vitamin D in Tear Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowen; Elizondo, Rodolfo A.; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I.; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Watsky, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the source(s) of vitamin D in tear fluid and examine the expression of the endocytic proteins and putative vitamin D transporters megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and Harderian glands. Methods Wild-type, heterozygous, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout C57BL/6 mice were used, with a subset of knockout mice fed a replenishment diet for some studies. Mouse lacrimal and Harderian glands from each group were used to measure megalin and cubilin by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. New Zealand white rabbits were used to collect lacrimal and accessory gland fluid for vitamin D mass spectroscopy measurements. Results Ten-week-old knockout mice were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than wild-type mice. Real-time PCR and Western blot showed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin in select VDR knockout mouse groups. Immunohistochemistry showed apical duct cell megalin staining and weaker megalin staining in VDR knockout mice compared with controls. Vitamin D2 was more prevalent in rabbit lacrimal and accessory gland fluid than vitamin D3, and greater amounts of Vitamin D2 were found in in tear fluid obtained directly from lacrimal and accessory glands as compared with plasma concentrations. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and accessory glands responsible for producing tear fluid. The results strengthen the hypothesis that megalin and cubilin are likely involved in the secretory pathway of vitamin D into tear fluid by the duct cells. PMID:26348637

  10. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  11. Impedance Spectroscopy of Magnetic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, V. I.; Zubko, D. V.; Sitsko, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the laws governing the change in the electrophysical properties of decane-, turbine oil-, and kerosene-based magnetic fluids with the electric field frequency, dispersed phase concentration, and temperature. We have determined the optimal electric field frequencies, dispersed phase concentrations, and temperatures within the limits of which the electrophysical characteristics such as the relative permittivity, specific electric resistance, and the loss tangent of a dielectric appear to be the most informative to estimate the structure, composition, and properties of magnetic fluids.

  12. Fluid behavior in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the presence of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellent transfer. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellent resettling have been carried out through the execution of a CRAY X-MP super computer to simulate fluid management in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have also been investigated.

  13. Fluid systems for RICH detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullaland, O.

    2005-11-01

    The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.

  14. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  15. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  16. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  17. Sideload vanes for fluid pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erler, Scott R. (Inventor); Dills, Michael H. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Jose L. (Inventor); Tepool, John Eric (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A fluid pump assembly includes a rotatable component that can be rotated about an axis and a static vane assembly located adjacent to the rotatable component. The static vane assembly includes a circumferential surface axially spaced from the rotatable component, and one or more vanes extending from the circumferential surface toward the rotatable component. The one or more vanes are configured to produce a radial load on the rotatable component when the rotatable component is rotating about the axis and a fluid is present between the static vane assembly and the rotatable component.

  18. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  19. Activities report in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    The research conducted at the Lille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFL) concerns four areas: flight mechanics, structural mechanics, aerodynamics and applied fluid mechanics. Within these four areas, these topics are discussed: characterization of the unsteady pressures on an airfoil in turbulence; adaptation of the Kalman-Rauch filtering-smoothing method to instrumented free spin tests; vulnerability of aircraft fuel tanks; water surface impact; influence of an oscillating spoiler on the surrounding aerodynamic field; gunfiring similarity theory and rules; flow around a cylinder at low Reynolds number by holographic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry; compressible turbulent flow computation; and the wake of wind turbine towers are discussed.

  20. Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could