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Sample records for 14th international vacuum

  1. 14TH Annual International Performance Management Association Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Being more responsive to all internal & external customers 6 Evolution of Business Planning & Execution Systems Functional View Mainframe Value Chain...integrating EVM to core business Planning , Budgeting, and Acquisition Under GPRA David Muzio Office of Federal Procurement Policy 202-395-6805 Largest

  2. 14th International Workshop on Ataxia-Telangiectasia ATW2012

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Tej K.

    2014-01-01

    The fourteenth international Ataxia-Telangiectasia Workshop 2012 (ATW2012) (www.atw2012.com) on ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and the role of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene in DNA repair, neurological disease, cancer and related topics was held from February 07 to 11, 2012 in Delhi, India. The international ATW2012 meeting reported the latest advances in ATM research as well as potential therapeutic treatments for A-T. The meeting was attended by a productive mix of scientists, ranging from those prominent in the initial characterization of the underlying genetic defect to young scientists just entering the field. In broad terms, three main themes were discussed at the meeting: first, a wealth of new details emerged on DNA damage signaling/repair mechanisms for which ATM is a critical element; secondly, important functions for ATM in previously unrelated cellular pathways were identified; and thirdly, new physiological effects and potential therapeutic treatments related to A-T were presented. This report summarizes below a sampling of the many interesting results from the meeting. PMID:22921572

  3. 14th International Workshop on Ataxia-Telangiectasia ATW2012.

    PubMed

    Pandita, Tej K

    2012-10-01

    The fourteenth international Ataxia-Telangiectasia Workshop 2012 (ATW2012) (www.atw2012.com) on ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and the role of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene in DNA repair, neurological disease, cancer and related topics was held from February 07 to 11, 2012 in Delhi, India. The international ATW2012 meeting reported the latest advances in ATM research as well as potential therapeutic treatments for A-T. The meeting was attended by a productive mix of scientists, ranging from those prominent in the initial characterization of the underlying genetic defect to young scientists just entering the field. In broad terms, three main themes were discussed at the meeting: first, a wealth of new details emerged on DNA damage signaling/repair mechanisms for which ATM is a critical element; secondly, important functions for ATM in previously unrelated cellular pathways were identified; and thirdly, new physiological effects and potential therapeutic treatments related to A-T were presented. This report summarizes below a sampling of the many interesting results from the meeting. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef; Pineda-Vargas, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015") that was held in Somerset West (South Africa) from 25th February to 3rd March 2015.

  5. Special Issue: 14th International Symposium on Novel and Nano Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Choa, Yong-Ho; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-09-01

    This Special Issue of Applied Surface Science is intended to provide a collection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 14th International Symposium on Novel Nano Materials (ISNNM) held in Budapest, Hungary as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe from July 3 to July 8, 2016. All selected papers underwent the regular peer review process as set by the journal of Applied Surface Science and its publisher (Elsevier).

  6. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force Report on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Ricard; Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Colafrancesco, Serena; Conti, Fabrizio; Valesini, Guido; Rosário, Cristina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Ferrão, Claudia; Faria, Raquel; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Signorelli, Flavio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    The 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (CAPS)' was developed on the occasion of the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies. The objectives of this Task Force were to assess the current knowledge on pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features, diagnosis and classification, precipitating factors and treatment of this condition in order to address recommendations for future research. This article summarizes the studies analyzed by the Task Force, its recommendations and the future research agenda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EDITORIAL: The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14 The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-06-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14) was held in Daegu, Korea, on 21-24 June 2010. There were 304 participants from 17 countries. The state of the art in many aspects of flow visualization was presented and discussed, and a total of 243 papers from 19 countries were presented. Two special lectures and four invited lectures, 48 paper sessions and one poster session were held in five session rooms and in a lobby over four days. Among the paper sessions, those on 'biological flows', 'micro/nano fluidics', 'PIV/PTV' and 'compressible and sonic flows' received great attention from the participants of ISFV14. Special events included presentations of 'The Asanuma Award' and 'The Leonardo Da Vinci Award' to prominent contributors. Awards for photos and movies were given to three scientists for their excellence in flow visualizations. Sixteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of ISFV14. After the standard peer review process of this journal, six papers were finally accepted for publication. We wish to thank the editors of MST for making it possible to publish this special feature from ISFV14. We also thank the authors for their careful and insightful work and cooperation in the preparation of revised papers. It will be our pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in flow visualization research as a result of this special feature. We also hope that the progress in flow visualization will create new research fields. The 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization will be held in Minsk, Belarus in 2012. We would like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOP Publishing for their kind support.

  8. 14th Annual international meeting of wind turbine test stations: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    These proceedings are of the 14th Annual International Meeting of Test Stations. As the original charter states these meetings are intended to be an international forum for sharing wind turbine testing experiences. By sharing their experiences they can improve testing skills and techniques. As with all new industries the quality of the products is marked by how well they learn from their experiences and incorporate this learning into the next generation of products. The test station`s role in this process is to provide accurate information to the companies they serve. This information is used by designers to conform and improve their designs. It is also used by certification agencies for confirming the quality of these designs. By sharing of experiences they are able to accomplished these goals, serve these customers better and ultimately improve the international wind energy industry.

  9. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies: task force report on antiphospholipid syndrome treatment trends.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Doruk; Aguiar, Cassyanne L; Andrade, Danieli; Cohen, Hannah; Cuadrado, Maria J; Danowski, Adriana; Levy, Roger A; Ortel, Thomas L; Rahman, Anisur; Salmon, Jane E; Tektonidou, Maria G; Willis, Rohan; Lockshin, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity occurring in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The primary objective of the APS Treatment Trends Task Force, created as part of the 14th International Congress on aPL, was to systematically review the potential future treatment strategies for aPL-positive patients. The task force chose as future clinical research directions: a) determining the necessity for controlled clinical trials in venous thromboembolism with the new oral direct thrombin or anti-factor Xa inhibitors pending the results of the ongoing rivaroxaban in APS (RAPS) trial, and designing controlled clinical trials in other forms of thrombotic APS; b) systematically analyzing the literature as well as aPL/APS registries, and creating specific registries for non-warfarin/heparin anticoagulants; c) increasing recruitment for an ongoing primary thrombosis prevention trial, and designing secondary thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity prevention trials with hydroxychloroquine; d) determining surrogate markers to select patients for statin trials; e) designing controlled studies with rituximab and other anti-B-cell agents; f) designing mechanistic and clinical studies with eculizumab and other complement inhibitors; and g) chemically modifying peptide therapy to improve the half-life and minimize immunogenicity. The report also includes recommendations for clinicians who consider using these agents in difficult-to-manage aPL-positive patients.

  10. 14th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop: report on the immunogenetics of aging.

    PubMed

    Naumova, E; Pawelec, G; Ivanova, M; Constantinescu, I; Bogunia-Kubik, K; Lange, A; Qguz, F; Carin, M

    2007-04-01

    The 'Immunogenetics of Aging' is a newly included component within the 14th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop. The aim of this component was to determine the contribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), cytokine genes and other major histocompatibility complex-encoded loci to successful aging and to determine an increased capacity to reach the extreme limits of life span. Two main data sets from four European populations were included in this study: unrelated healthy elderly individuals and ethnically matched young controls, and families with longevity members. Analysis was focused on HLA class I and II and cytokine gene polymorphisms. Preliminary results showed increased frequencies of DRB1*11- and DRB*16-associated haplotypes that were found to be protective for autoimmune diseases in some populations. Additionally, in families with longevity members, alleles and haplotypes positively associated with autoimmunity were not observed. Analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms showed prevalence of anti-inflammatory profiles in healthy elderly individuals. Inheritance of extended haplotypes in families with longevity members allowed the identification of immunogenetic profiles that could be predictive for longevity. These preliminary studies indicate the relevance of genes regulating immune functions in human longevity and the importance of clarifying further their impact in successful aging.

  11. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force report on obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Guilherme R; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Andrade, Carlos A; Andreoli, Laura; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Porter, T Flint; Salmon, Jane; Silver, Robert M; Tincani, Angela; Branch, D Ware

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy morbidity is one of the clinical manifestations used for classification criteria of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). During the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL), a Task Force with internationally-known experts was created to carry out a critical appraisal of the literature available regarding the association of aPL with obstetric manifestations present in actual classification criteria (recurrent early miscarriage, fetal death, preeclampsia and placental insufficiency) and the quality of the evidence that treatment(s) provide benefit in terms of avoiding recurrent adverse obstetric outcomes. The association of infertility with aPL and the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with infertility and positive aPL was also investigated. This report presents current knowledge and limitations of published studies regarding pregnancy morbidity, infertility and aPL, identifying areas that need better investigative efforts and proposing how critical flaws could be avoided in future studies, as suggested by participants of the Task Force. Except for fetal death, there are limitations in the quality of the data supporting the association of aPL with obstetric complications included in the current APS classification criteria. Recommended treatments for all pregnancy morbidity associated to APS also lack well-designed studies to confirm its efficacy. APL does not seem to be associated with infertility and treatment does not improve the outcomes in infertile patients with aPL. In another section of the Task Force, Dr. Jane Salmon reviewed complement-mediated inflammation in reproductive failure in APS, considering new therapeutic targets to obstetric APS (Ob APS).

  12. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Transport in Interacting Disordered Systems (TIDS-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydman, Aviad

    2012-07-01

    The '14th Transport in interacting disordered systems - TIDS14' conference took place during 5-8 September 2011 in Acre Israel. The conference was a continuation of the biennial meeting traditionally called HRP (hopping and related phenomena) and later named TIDS (transport in interacting disordered systems). Previous conferences took place in Trieste (1985), Bratislava (1987), Chapel Hill (1989), Marburg (1991), Glasgow (1993), Jerusalem (1995), Rackeve (1997), Murcia (1999), Shefayim (2001), Trieste (2003), Egmond, aan Zee (2005), Marburg (2007) and Rackeve (2009). Central to these conferences are systems that are characterized by a large degree of disorder and hence they lack translational symmetry. In such systems interactions are usually very important. Dramatic differences in the behavior of crystalline solids and the 'disordered' systems are possible. Some examples of the latter are amorphous materials, polymer aggregates, materials whose properties are governed by impurities, granular systems and biological systems. This conference series is notable for the pleasant atmosphere and fruitful exchange of ideas between theoreticians and experimentalists in these areas. This tradition was also maintained in the conference in Israel. Specific topics of TIDS14 included: hopping, electron and Coulomb glasses, Anderson localization and many body localization, noise, magneto-transport, metal-insulator and superconductor-insulator transition, transport through low dimensional and nanostructures, quantum coherence, interference and dephasing and other related topics. Over sixty scientists from fourteen countries participated in the conference and presented papers either as oral presentations or as posters in two sessions that took place during the conference. Many of these papers are included in these proceedings. I would like to thank all the conference participants for the interesting presentations, debates and discussions that created a stimulating but pleasant

  13. ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Jorge Hernández

    2017-02-01

    The 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE 14) was held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 3-7 November. 2015. The purpose of ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 was to provide a global forum for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior and senior investigators, as well as health policymakers to exchange information that can advance the fields of veterinary epidemiology and economics, and other disciplines in the health and social sciences. The main theme of ISVEE 14 was Planning Our Future. Human population growth is predicted to increase nearly 50% to 11 billion by 2050, and climate change and changing land use can have an impact on local and global food systems, interactions among humans, wildlife and domestic animals, as well as local, regional, and global public health alerts. How can we help our systems of education, research, and public policy adapt? Are new veterinary graduates and epidemiology practitioners prepared to become active protagonists in the solution of health issues that affect humans and animal populations in a changing environment? What innovative research is needed to understand and enhance the food systems of the future? What are the expected roles or contributions of veterinarians or epidemiology practitioners on future climate change, food systems, and health? Is our profession or discipline leading One Health initiatives? Are there current or new models that make national veterinary services more efficacious and efficient for disease control and eradication? To help us answer these questions, the organizing committee of ISVEE 14 invited five distinguished keynote speakers to share their vision and innovative ideas on education, technological developments, research, and public policy of our future with a concentration in the following five areas: (i) One Health (Jonna Mazet), (ii) climate change (Bernard Bett), (iii) animal health economics (Jonathan Rushton), (iv) national veterinary services

  14. PREFACE: 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Liliana; Britton, David; Glover, Nigel; Heinrich, Gudrun; Lauret, Jérôme; Naumann, Axel; Speer, Thomas; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    ACAT2011 This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011) which took place on 5-7 September 2011 at Brunel University, UK. The workshop series, which began in 1990 in Lyon, France, brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields in order to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. It is a forum for the exchange of ideas among the fields, exploring and promoting cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques in fundamental physics research. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 100 participants from all over the world. 14 invited speakers presented key topics on computing ecosystems, cloud computing, multivariate data analysis, symbolic and automatic theoretical calculations as well as computing and data analysis challenges in astrophysics, bioinformatics and musicology. Over 80 other talks and posters presented state-of-the art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. Panel and round table discussions on data management and multivariate data analysis uncovered new ideas and collaboration opportunities in the respective areas. This edition of ACAT was generously sponsored by the Science and Technology Facility Council (STFC), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP) at Durham University, Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and Dell. We would like to thank all the participants of the workshop for the high level of their scientific contributions and for the enthusiastic participation in all its activities which were, ultimately, the key factors in the

  15. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 17th-21st June, 2013 Taiwan Organized by: Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute National Taiwan University National Cheng Kung University National Taiwan University of Science and Technology National Tsing Hua University Greetings from Chairman of International Programme CommitteeTom Thomas When Professor Ken Stout and I founded this series of conferences in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago, we did not anticipate its longevity or its success. Since that first meeting at Leicester, the conference has been often held in England, but also in several other European countries: France, Poland and Sweden, as well as in the United States. Ken, sadly no longer with us, would be proud of what it has achieved and has come to represent. Generations of researchers have presented their new ideas and innovations here which are now embodied in many textbooks and international standards. But this conference in 2013 marks a new departure and perhaps a new future. For the first time it is being held in Asia, reflecting the historic rise of the economies of the Pacific Rim, adding modern technology to their long-existing traditions of ordered insight and precise craftsmanship. Many of you have travelled far to attend this meeting, and we hope you will feel your trouble has been rewarded. We have an excellent selection of papers from all over the world from many of the world's experts, embodying the consolidation of tested ideas as well as the latest advances in the subject. These will be set in context by a glittering array of keynote and invited speakers. On behalf of the International Programme Committee, I am glad to acknowledge the hard work of the members of the Local Organising Committee in putting the programme together and making all the arrangements, and to accept their

  16. COMMITTEES: SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organizing Committee Takeshi Kodama Chair, UFRJ Jun Takahashi Co-chair, UNICAMP Ignácio Bediaga e Hickman CBPF Eduardo Fraga UFRJ Frederique Grassi USP Yogiro Hama USP Gastão Krein IFT Erasmo Madureira Ferreira UFRJ Marcelo G. Munhoz USP Fernando Navarra USP Sandra Padula IFT Alejandro Szanto de Toledo USP César Augusto Zen Vasconcellos UFRGS International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Nantes Federico Antinori Padova Tamás Biró Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger GSI Jean Cleymans Cape Town Láaszló Csernai Bergen Timothy Hallman BNL Huan Zhong Huang UCLA Takeshi Kodama Rio de Janeiro Yu-Gang Ma Shanghai Jes Madsen Aarhus Ágnes Mócsy Pratt University Berndt Müller Duke University Grazyna Odyniec LBNL Helmut Oeschler Darmstadt Johann Rafelski Arizona Hans Georg Ritter LBNL Gunther Rolland MIT Karel Šafařík CERN Ladislav Sandor Kosice University Jack Sandweiss Yale University George S F Stephans MIT Horst Stöcker Frankfurt Larry McLerranBNL Helmut Satz Universitä Bielefeld Nu Xu LBNL Fuqiang Wang Purdue University William A. Zajc Columbia University Pengfei Zhuang Tsinghua University

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  18. The 14th international workshop on wave hindcasting and forecasting and the 5th coastal hazards symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Alves, Jose Henrique; Greenslade, Diana; Horsburgh, Kevin; Swail, Val

    2017-04-01

    Following the 14th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting and 5th Coastal Hazards Symposium in November 2014 in Key West, Florida, a topical collection has appeared in recent issues of Ocean Dynamics. Here, we give a brief overview of the 16 papers published in this topical collection as well as an overview of the widening scope of the conference in recent years. A general trend in the field has been towards closer integration between the wave and ocean modelling communities. This is also seen in this topical collection, with several papers exploring the interaction between surface waves and mixed layer dynamics and sea ice.

  19. 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Task Force. Report on antiphospholipid syndrome laboratory diagnostics and trends.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Amengual, Olga; Andreoli, Laura; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Forastiero, Ricardo; de Groot, Philip; Lakos, Gabriella; Lambert, Marc; Meroni, Pierluigi; Ortel, Thomas L; Petri, Michelle; Rahman, Anisur; Roubey, Robert; Sciascia, Savino; Snyder, Melissa; Tebo, Anne E; Tincani, Angela; Willis, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    Current classification criteria for definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) require the use of three laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. However, several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to other proteins or their complex with phospholipids have been proposed to be relevant to APS but their clinical utility and their diagnostic value remains elusive. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the "APS Task Force 3-Laboratory Diagnostics and Trends" meeting that took place during the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2013, September 18-21, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil).

  20. The 14th International Conference on Alzheimer's Drug Discovery, 9 - 10 September 2013, in Jersey City, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Glicksman, Marcie A

    2014-02-01

    The following conference was the 14th International Conference on Alzheimer's Drug Discovery held 9 - 10 September 2013, in Jersey City, NJ. The conference attracted about 140 attendees with 49% from academia, 36% from industry and private practice, 10% from nonprofit organizations and 2% from the government. The meeting had two plenary speakers that kicked off each morning of the conference and then two sessions each day to cover different aspects of Alzheimer's disease drug discovery. There were sessions on neuroprotection, mitochondrial function, biomarkers, ApoE, tau and protein clearance. The conference was organized by the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF) with all of the presenters supported by grants awarded by the ADDF. The conference had financial support from the pharmaceutical companies Merck & Co., Eli Lilly & Co. and Pfizer, Inc. Friends, exhibitors and media partners also helped financially support the conference.

  1. The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1–4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15–20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. PMID:19686596

  2. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    . We thank the International Organizing Committee for their help and advice in planning the conference, and we are grateful to the University of Birmingham Conference Service and to the Birmingham Botanical Gardens for the excellent way in which the catering and room provision was provided. David Evans School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham Simon Hands Department of Physics, Swansea University Roman Lietava School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham Rosa Romita Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool Orlando Villalobos Baillie School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham Editors

  3. Yeasts for Global Happiness: report of the 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) held in Awaji Island.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) was held at Awaji Yumebutai International Conference Center (Awaji, Hyogo) in Japan from 11 to 15 September 2016. The main slogan of ICY14 was 'Yeasts for Global Happiness', which enabled us to acknowledge the high-potential usefulness of yeasts contributing to the global happiness in terms of food/beverage, health/medicine and energy/environment industries, as well as to basic biosciences. In addition, two more concepts were introduced: 'from Japan to the world' and 'from senior to junior'. As it was the first ICY meeting held in Japan or other Asian countries, ICY14 provided a good opportunity to widely spread the great achievements by Japanese and Asian yeast researchers, such as those by the 2016 Nobel Laureate Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi, and also, to convey the fun and importance of yeasts to the next generation of researchers from Asia and all over the world. As a result, a total of 426 yeast lovers from 42 countries (225 overseas and 201 domestic participants) with different generations attended ICY14 to share the latest knowledge of a wide range of yeast research fields and to join active and constructive scientific discussions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National…

  5. 14th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment ICCE 2013: IEC-WTC, Barcelona, Spain, 25-28 June 2013.

    PubMed

    Luis, Santiago V; Jover, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The 14th European Association of Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS) International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment (ICCE 2013) took place on 25-28 June 2013 at the IEC and the WTC in Barcelona, Spain. The ICCE is a well-established biannual conference organized by the Division of Chemistry and the EuCheMS.

  6. PREFACE: 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    The 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held at the Sheraton Tampa Riverwalk Hotel, Tampa, Florida, USA, during the week of 19-24 April 2015. The meeting drew some 75 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the energization of particles from the perspectives of theory, modelling and simulations, and observations. The theme of the meeting was "Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond." Energetic particles are ubiquitous to plasma environments, whether collisionless such as the supersonic solar wind, the magnetospheres of planets, the exospheres of nonmagnetized planets and comets, the heliospheric-local interstellar boundary regions, interstellar space and supernova remnant shocks, and stellar wind boundaries. Energetic particles are found too in more collisional regions such as in the solar corona, dense regions of the interstellar medium, accretion flows around stellar objects, to name a few. Particle acceleration occurs wherever plasma boundaries, magnetic and electric fields, and turbulence are present. The meeting addressed the linear and nonlinear physical processes underlying the variety of particle acceleration mechanisms, the role of particle acceleration in shaping different environments, and acceleration processes common to different regions. Both theory and observations were addressed with a view to encouraging crossdisciplinary fertilization of ideas, concepts, and techniques. The meeting addressed all aspects of particle acceleration in regions ranging from the Sun to the interplanetary medium to magnetospheres, exospheres, and comets, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and beyond to supernova remnant shocks, galactic jets, stellar winds, accretion flows, and more. The format of the meeting included 25-minute presentations punctuated by two 40-minute talks, one by Len Fisk that provided an historical overview of particle acceleration in the

  7. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  8. Primary Therapy of Patients with Early Breast Cancer: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus: Opinions of German Specialists to the 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 (Vienna 2015).

    PubMed

    Untch, M; Harbeck, N; Huober, J; von Minckwitz, G; Gerber, B; Kreipe, H-H; Liedtke, C; Marschner, N; Möbus, V; Scheithauer, H; Schneeweiss, A; Thomssen, C; Jackisch, C; Beckmann, M W; Blohmer, J-U; Costa, S-D; Decker, T; Diel, I; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Lück, H-J; Maass, N; Scharl, A; Loibl, S

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, this year's St. Gallen International Consensus Conference on the treatment of patients with primary breast cancer, which takes place every two years, was held not in St. Gallen (Switzerland) but - for logistical reasons - in Vienna (Austria) under its usual name. The 2015 St. Gallen International Consensus Conference was the 14th of its kind. As the international panel of the St. Gallen conference consists of experts from different countries, the consensus mirrors an international cross-section of opinions. From a German perspective, it was considered useful to translate the results of the votes of the St. Gallen conference into practical suggestions, particularly in light of the recently updated treatment guideline of the Gynecologic Oncology Group (AGO-Mamma 2015) in Germany. A German group consisting of 14 breast cancer experts, three of whom are members of the international St. Gallen panel, has therefore provided comments on the results of this year's votes at the 2015 St. Gallen Consensus Conference and their impact on clinical care in Germany. The 14th St. Gallen conference once again focused on surgery of the breast and the axilla, radio-oncologic and systemic treatment options for primary breast cancer depending on tumor biology, and the clinical use of multigene assays. The conference also considered targeted therapies for older and for younger patients, including the diagnosis/treatment of breast cancer during and after pregnancy and the preservation of fertility.

  9. 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, Christian; Harbeck, Nadia; Huober, Jens; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gerber, Bernd; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Liedtke, Cornelia; Marschner, Norbert; Möbus, Volker; Scheithauer, Heike; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban-Dan; Decker, Thomas; Diel, Ingo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Maass, Nicolai; Scharl, Anton; Untch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany. PMID:26557827

  10. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  11. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part I. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Rustan, Rahman; Huang, Weidan; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) brought together nearly 220 senior representatives of governmental and non-governmental global health organizations, as well as corporate executives of emerging vaccine manufacturers, from 26 countries for a two-day tailored lectures, Q&A sessions, CEOs panel discussion and networking opportunities, followed by a vaccine-technology symposium and visit to manufacturing facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants included representatives of 38 vaccine manufacturers, as well as international partners and collaborating research institutions, with 39% female participants. The Vice-Minister of Health to Vietnam commended the speakers and participants to this Annual General Meeting, devoted to achieve our common goal of protecting people against infectious diseases with better vaccines, for a healthier life. He reminded the audience that the first vaccine produced in Vietnam was oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the early 1960s and contributed to polio eradication in Vietnam, in 2000. Through its manufacturing resources, Vietnam eliminated neonatal tetanus in 2005, and has controlled measles and hepatitis B spread. The Ministry of Health hopes that by sharing experiences, delegates at this conference will foster international cooperation and partnerships among organizations. CEOs elaborated on challenges and opportunities for emerging countries.

  12. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part II. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Tippoo, Patrick; Sivaramakrishnan, Venkatraman; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    New vaccines are required to meet the public health challenges of the next generation and many unmet global health needs can be addressed by developing countries vaccine manufacturers such as lower-cost vaccines based on single-dose, thermostable formulations, efficacious in children with compromised gastrointestinal tracts. GMP compliance is also a challenge, as sometimes innovation and clinical development focus is not accompanied by command of scale-up and quality assurance for large volume manufacturing and supply. Identifying and addressing such challenges, beyond cost and cold-chain space, including safety considerations and health worker behavior, regulatory alliances and harmonization to foster access to vaccines, will help countries to ensure sustainable immunization. There needs to be continuous and close management of the global vaccine supply both at national and international levels, requiring careful risk management, coordination and cooperation with manufacturers. Successful partnership models based on sharing a common goal, mutual respect and good communication were discussed among stakeholders.

  13. International Congress of the International Council of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (14th, Kingston, Jamaica, July 30-August 3, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Papers presented at the Fourteenth International Congress of the International Council on Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (ICHPER) are included in this document. Among the subjects discussed are suggestions for physical education in the 1970's (primary school level, research divisions for the 1970's, research needs in girls and women's…

  14. Developing Distance Education. Papers Submitted to the World Conference of the International Council for Distance Education (14th, Oslo, Norway, August 9-16, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewart, David, Ed.; Daniel, John S., Ed.

    These proceedings contain 10 keynote papers and more than 100 papers from an international conference on the theme of developing distance education. The keynote papers are: (1) "Communications Technology" (Yoshia Abe); (2) "Continuing Education. New Needs and Challenges for Distance Studies" (Urban Dahllof); (3) "Distance…

  15. Advances and challenges in electron molecule scattering physics—A Report of the 14th International Symposium on Electron Molecule Collisions and Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Lima, M. A. P.; Tennyson, J.

    2006-07-01

    A report is presented of the 13th International Symposium on Electron Molecule Collisions Physics (Instituto de Fisica, Unicamp, Campinas, Brazil, 27 30 July 2005). This workshop covered low-energy electron interactions with atoms, molecules and condensed matter systems. Several important aspects of this symposium were to bring together theory and experimental advances in this field for gaseous targets as well as showcasing the increasing diversity of electron molecule collision applications in condensed matter and biological applications. A summary session was held wherein were discussed aspects of the future of the field, including the development of new theoretical and experimental capabilities.

  16. AIAA International Communication Satellite Systems Conference and Exhibit, 14th, Washington, DC, Mar. 22-26, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on international communication satellite systems discusses GEO launch vehicle development, military Satcom systems, GEO mobile Satcom systems, advanced transponder technology, and digital network architecture. Attention is given to digital network architecture, the optical Satcom system, emerging launch alternatives, military and government Satcom systems, satellite communications developments in newly industrialized nations, launch options to nongeostationary orbits, and data relay satellite technology. Topics addressed include LEO satellite systems, earth terminal technology, personal communications, high data rate links via satellite, Italsat, antenna systems, Intelsat system and service development, new spacecraft system concepts, orbit/spectrum allocation and use, and ACTS technology. Also discussed are array antenna technology, VSAT and other small terminal systems, orbits, propagation, onboard satellite switching, reflector antenna technology, and panel small communication satellite systems.

  17. The relevance of "non-criteria" clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome: 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Technical Task Force Report on Antiphospholipid Syndrome Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mirhelen M; Danowski, Adriana; Wahl, Denis G; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Tektonidou, Maria; Pacheco, Marcelo S; Fleming, Norma; Domingues, Vinicius; Sciascia, Savino; Lyra, Julia O; Petri, Michelle; Khamashta, Munther; Levy, Roger A

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this task force was to critically analyze nine non-criteria manifestations of APS to support their inclusion as APS classification criteria. The Task Force Members selected the non-criteria clinical manifestations according to their clinical relevance, that is, the patient-important outcome from clinician perspective. They included superficial vein thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, renal microangiopathy, heart valve disease, livedo reticularis, migraine, chorea, seizures and myelitis, which were reviewed by this International Task Force collaboration, in addition to the seronegative APS (SN-APS). GRADE system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence of medical literature of each selected item. This critical appraisal exercise aimed to support the debate regarding the clinical picture of APS. We found that the overall GRADE analysis was very low for migraine and seizures, low for superficial venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, chorea, longitudinal myelitis and the so-called seronegative APS and moderate for APS nephropathy, heart valve lesions and livedo reticularis. The next step can be a critical redefinition of an APS gold standard, for instance derived from the APS ACTION registry that will include not only current APS patients but also those with antiphospholipid antibodies not meeting current classification criteria.

  18. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  19. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  20. Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David M. Hix; Robert P. Long; P. Charles, eds. Goebel

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the 14th Central Hardwood Forest conference held 16-19 March in Wooster Ohio. Includes 102 papers and abstracts dealing with silviculture, wildlife, human dimensions, harvesting and utilization, physiology, genetics, soils, nutrient cycling, and biometrics.

  1. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): an underestimated risk…still: report of the 14th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2012-06-01

    Today, the risk of getting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is still underestimated in many parts of Europe and worldwide. Therefore, the 14th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) - a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists - was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis: an underestimated risk…still". Among the discussed issues were: TBE, an underestimated risk in children, a case report in two Dutch travelers, the very emotional report of a tick victim, an overview of the epidemiological situation, investigations to detect new TBE cases in Italy, TBE virus (TBEV) strains circulation in Northern Europe, TBE Program of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), efforts to increase the TBE vaccination rate in the Czech Republic, positioning statement of the World Health Organization (WHO), and TBE in dogs. To answer the question raised above: Yes, the risk of getting TBE is underestimated in children and adults, because awareness is still too low. It is still underestimated in several areas of Europe, where, for a lack of human cases, TBEV is thought to be absent. It is underestimated in travelers, because they still do not know enough about the risk, and diagnostic awareness in non-endemic countries is still low. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  3. PREFACE: International Symposium on `Vacuum Science and Technology' (IVS 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, K. C.; Gupta, S. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (established in 1970) has organized a symposium every alternate year on various aspects of vacuum science and technology. There has been considerable participation from R & D establishments, universities and Indian industry in this event. In view of the current global scenario and emerging trends in vacuum technology, this year, the executive committee of IVS felt it appropriate to organize an international symposium at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 from 29-30 November 2007. This symposium provided a forum for exchange of information among vacuum scientists, technologists and industrialists on recent advances made in the areas of large vacuum systems, vacuum production, its measurement and applications in industry, and material processing in vacuum. Vacuum science and technology has made vital contributions in high tech areas like space, high energy particle accelerators, large plasma systems, electronics, thin films, melting and refining of metals, extraction and processing of advanced materials etc. The main areas covered in the symposium were the production and measurement of vacuums, leak detection, large vacuum systems, vacuum metallurgy, vacuum materials and processing inclusive of applications of vacuum in industry. Large vacuum systems for high energy particle accelerators, plasma devices and light sources are of special significance for this symposium. Vacuum evaporation, hard coatings, thin films, joining techniques, sintering, melting and heat treatment, furnaces and thermo dynamics are also covered in this symposium. There were eighteen invited talks from the best experts in the respective fields and more than one hundred contributed papers. This fact itself indicates the interest that has been generated amongst the scientists, technologists and industrialists in this field. In view of the industrial significance of the vacuum technology, an exhibition of vacuum and vacuum processing related

  4. Vacuum Packaging of MEMS With Multiple Internal Seal Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken; Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Bae, Youngsam; Wiberg, Dean; Peay, Chris; Challoner, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A proposed method of design and fabrication of vacuum-packaged microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and of individual microelectromechanical devices involves the use of multiple internal seal rings (MISRs) in conjunction with vias (through holes plated with metal for electrical contacts). The proposed method is compatible with mass production in a wafer-level fabrication process, in which the dozens of MEMS or individual microelectromechanical devices on a typical wafer are simultaneously vacuum packaged by bonding a capping wafer before the devices are singulated (cut apart by use of a dicing saw). In addition to being compatible with mass production, the proposed method would eliminate the need for some complex and expensive production steps and would yield more reliable vacuum seals. Conventionally, each MEMS or individual microelectromechanical device is fabricated as one of many identical units on a device wafer. Vacuum packaging is accomplished by bonding the device wafer to a capping wafer with metal seal rings (one ring surrounding each unit) that have been formed on the capping wafer. The electrical leads of each unit are laid out on what would otherwise be a flat surface of the device wafer, against which the seal ring is to be pressed for sealing. The resulting pattern of metal lines and their insulating oxide coverings presents a very rough and uneven surface, upon which it is difficult to pattern the sealing metal. Consequently, the seal is prone to leakage unless additional costly and complex planarization steps are performed before patterning the seal ring and bonding the wafers.

  5. XVIIth international symposium on discharges and electrical insulation in vacuum. Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This is the proceedings of the XVIIth International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, held in Berkeley, CA, July 21-26, 1996. Papers were presented in the following areas: vacuum breakdown and prebreakdown phenomena; vacuum arcs; switching in vacuum; surface flashover; vacuum insulation including magnetic insulation, accelerators, and others; high current diodes, intense particle beams, and vacuum arc ion sources; discharges in the space environment; arcing in controlled fusion devices; emission processes and electrode phenomena; cathodic arc deposition; pseudospark discharges; industrial applications. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  6. Prehistoric enemies within: The contribution of human endogenous retroviruses to neurological diseases. Meeting report: "Second International Workshop on Human Endogenous Retroviruses and Disease", Washington DC, March 13th and 14th 2017.

    PubMed

    Kremer, David; Glanzman, Robert; Traboulsee, Anthony; Nath, Avindra; Groc, Laurent; Horwitz, Marc; Göttle, Peter; Perron, Hervé; Gold, Julian; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    The Second International Workshop on Human Endogenous Retroviruses and Disease, Washington DC, March 13-14 2017 brought together international basic and clinical scientists investigating the involvement of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in complex human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education with the North American Chapter 12th PME-NA Conference (14th, Mexico, July 15-20, 1990), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, George, Ed.; Cobb, Paul, Ed.; de Mendicuti, Teresa N., Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following papers: "The Knowledge of Cats: Epistemological Foundations of Mathematics Education" (R.B. Davis) and "PME Algebra Research: A Working Perspective" (E. Filloy); "Some Misconceptions in Calculus: Anecdotes…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education with the North American Chapter 12th PME-NA Conference (14th, Mexico, July 15-20, 1990), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, George, Ed.; Cobb, Paul, Ed.; de Mendicuti, Teresa N.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) contains the following research papers: "The Construct Theory of Rational Numbers: Toward a Semantic Analysis" (M. Behr & G. Harel); "Reflections on Dealing: An Analysis of One Child's Interpretations" (G. Davis); "About…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education with the North American Chapter 12th PME-NA Conference (14th, Mexico, July 15-20, 1990), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, George, Ed.; Cobb, Paul, Ed.; de Mendicuti, Teresa N., Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Children's Connections among Representations of Mathematical Ideas" (A. Alston & C.A. Maher); "Algebraic Syntax Errors: A Study with Secondary School Children" (A. Avila, F. Garcia, & T.…

  10. Libraries and Electronic Publishing: Promises and Challenges for the 90's. Festschrift in Honor of Richard M. Dougherty. Proceedings of the International Essen Symposium (14th, Essen, Germany, October 14-17, 1991). Publications of Essen University Library, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The goal of the Essen symposium was to bring together internationally recognized librarians and library automation specialists to discuss new developments in electronic publishing. All 16 papers included in this collection were presented at the conference: (1) "Barriers to the Introduction of New Technology" (J. Andrew Braid); (2)…

  11. Libraries and Electronic Publishing: Promises and Challenges for the 90's. Festschrift in Honor of Richard M. Dougherty. Proceedings of the International Essen Symposium (14th, Essen, Germany, October 14-17, 1991). Publications of Essen University Library, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The goal of the Essen symposium was to bring together internationally recognized librarians and library automation specialists to discuss new developments in electronic publishing. All 16 papers included in this collection were presented at the conference: (1) "Barriers to the Introduction of New Technology" (J. Andrew Braid); (2)…

  12. The Moon in the 14th Century Frescoes in Padova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinati, Claudio

    Padova, already in the 14th century a great cultural center of international reputation, struggled with the problems posed by the Moon with Pietro d'Abano, physician and astronomer. But it was with the great painters of that time, namely Giotto and Giusto de'Menabuoi, that its most intimate connections with the contemporary popular culture and theology were illustrated. Giotto depicts the Moon in the Giudizio Universale of the Scrovegni Chapel (1305). The Moon appears on the upper part of the painting, to the left of Christ the Judge, to crown together with the Sun, His presence. The Moon is a heavenly body similar to those appearing on Roman coins of emperors, to signify the Judge is an immortal creature. The color is pale, witeish, almost veiled. More important, the Moon has a face that by popular belief was that of Cain, condemned to amass `mucchi di rovi spinosi' for the fire of the damned (Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno XX, 126). Giusto de' Menabuoi on the other hand expounds, in the Crucifixion of the Duomo (1375 ca), a theological interpretation. The day of God's justice, following the death of the Savior, the Moon will burn and the Sun will pale (Isaiah, 24, 23). And indeed the Moon has a dark reddish colour. Therefore, while in Giotto the Moon is seen as in the popular beliefs, Giusto underlines the theological visions of his times with the words of the prophets.

  13. The water outgassing rate of internal surfaces of vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, L. N.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of experimental adsorption isotherm the ratio between the real and geometrical surfaces was calculated and the amount of gas required to form a monolayer was defined. Simultaneous usage of Henry and Frendlih equations allowed to determine the dependence of the heat of adsorption on the logarithm of the absorbed gas amount A mathematical model of pumping of the vacuum systems with adsorbing walls is presented. This model uses the parameters of the vacuum system and the dependence of the adsorption heat on the amount of the adsorbed gas .The conditions of the existence of regular pumping regime are discussed. The structure database vacuum adsorption properties of materials was proposed. The experimental data on the determination of the adsorption outgassing rate were released.

  14. 76 FR 68399 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of the 14th Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of the 14th Antidumping... Turkey (pasta).\\1\\ The review covers one exporter: Marsan Gida Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S. (Marsan). The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10(8)  log10  CFU ml(-1) ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P < 0·0001) and buffered vinegar (2%; P < 0·0001) reduced surface populations of Salm. Typhimurium on inoculated beef sirloin flaps prior to vacuum marination. However, lactic acid treated sirloin flaps had greater reductions (~2 log10  CFU cm(-2) ) than buffered vinegar when compared with control prior to vacuum marination. However, the translocation of Salm. Typhimurium following vacuum marination was not influenced (P < 0·333) by the application of a surface organic acid spray prior to marination.

  16. Influence of ceramic package internal components on the performance of vacuum sealed uncooled bolometric detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Alex; Deshaies, Sébastien; Desroches, Yan; Whalin, Jeff; Topart, Patrice

    2013-03-01

    INO has developed a hermetic vacuum packaging technology for uncooled bolometric detectors based on ceramic leadless chip carriers (LCC). Cavity pressures less than 3 mTorr are obtained. Processes are performed in a state-of-the art semi-automated vacuum furnace that allows for independent activation of non-evaporable thin film getters. The getter activation temperature is limited by both the anti-reflection coated silicon or germanium window and the MEMS device built on CMOS circuits. Temperature profiles used to achieve getter activation and vacuum sealing were optimized to meet lifetime and reliability requirements of packaged devices. Internal package components were carefully selected with respect to their outgassing behavior so that a good vacuum performance was obtained. In this paper, INO's packaging process is described. The influence of various package internal components, in particular the CMOS circuits, on vacuum performance is presented. The package cavity pressure was monitored using INO's pressure microsensors and the gas composition was determined by internal vapor analysis. Lifetime was derived from accelerated testing after storage of packaged detectors at various temperatures from room temperature to 120°C. A hermeticity yield over 80% was obtained for batches of twelve devices packaged simultaneously. Packaged FPAs submitted to standard MIL-STD-810 reliability testing (vibration, shock and temperature cycling) exhibited no change in IR response. Results show that vacuum performance strongly depends on CMOS circuit chips. Detectors packaged using a thin film getter show no change in cavity pressure after storage for more than 30 days at 120°C. Moreover, INO's vacuum sealing process is such that even without a thin film getter, a base pressure of less than 10 mTorr is obtained and no pressure change is observed after 40 days at 85°C.

  17. Viruses in a 14th-century coprolite.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected.

  18. [Vacuum-assisted laparostomy in complex treatment of patient with peritonitis and internal biliary fistula].

    PubMed

    Obolenskiĭ, V N; Ermolov, A A; Oganesian, K S; Aronov, L S

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is one of the newest methods used in the treatment of wounds. It allows speeding up and optimizing the healing process and reducing the cost of treatment. Negative pressure stimulates proliferation of granulation tissue, provides a continuous evacuation of fluid and effectively cleans wound surface. The authors introduce the reader to the results of treatment of patient with peritonitis and internal duodenal fistula using a vacuum-assisted laparostomy.

  19. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970 to promote vacuum science and technology in academic, industrial and R&D institutions in India. IVS is a member society of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA). It has organized International and national symposia, short term courses and workshops on different aspects of Vacuum Science and Technology at regular intervals. So far 27 National symposia, 4 International Symposia and 47 courses have been organized at various locations in India. There has been an active participation from R&D establishments, universities and Indian industries during all these events. In view of the current global situation and emerging trends in vacuum technology, the executive committee of the IVS suggested to us that we organize an International Symposium at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata from 15-17 February 2012. At the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre we have a large number of high vacuum systems used in the K130 Cyclotron and K500 Superconducting Cyclotron. Also a large cryogenic system using LHe plant is in operation for cryopanels and a superconducting magnet for K-500 Cyclotron. The main areas covered at the symposium were the production and measurement of vacuums, leak detection, design and development of large vacuum systems, vacuum metallurgy, vacuum materials and the application of high vacuums in cyclotrons, LINACS and other accelerators. This symposium provided an opportunity for interaction between active researchers and technologists and allowed them to review the current situation, report recent experimental results, share the available expertise and consider the future R&D efforts needed in this area. Keeping the industrial significance of vacuum technology in mind, an exhibition of the vacuum related equipment, accessories, products etc by various suppliers and manufactures was organized alongside the symposium. Participation by a large number of exhibitors

  20. Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Montz, Michael; Gill, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) is a human powered cart that will aid astronauts in conducting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) maintenance on the International Space Station (ISS). There are two critical EVA tasks relevant to the successful operation of the CETA. These are the removal of the launch restraint bolts during its initial deployment from the Space Shuttle payload bay and the manual deceleration of the cart, its two onboard astronauts, and a payload. To validate the launch restraint and braking system designs, the hardware engineers needed to verify their performance in an environment similar to that in which it will be used. This environment includes the vacuum of low earth orbit and temperatures as low as -11O F and as high as +200 F. The desire for quantitative data, as opposed to subjective information which could be provided by a suited astronaut, coupled with test scheduling conflicts resulted in an unmanned testing scenario. Accommodating these test objectives in an unmanned test required a solution that would provide remotely actuated thermal vacuum compatible torque sources of up to 25 ft-lbs at four horizontally oriented and four vertically oriented bolts, a variable input force of up to 125 lbs at the four brake actuators, and thermal vacuum compatible torque and force sensors. The test objectives were successfully met in both the thermal Chamber H and the thermal vacuum Chamber B at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  1. Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Montz, Michael; Gill, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) is a human powered cart that will aid astronauts in conducting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) maintenance on the International Space Station (ISS). There are two critical EVA tasks relevant to the successful operation of the CETA. These are the removal of the launch restraint bolts during its initial deployment from the Space Shuttle payload bay and the manual deceleration of the cart, its two onboard astronauts, and a payload. To validate the launch restraint and braking system designs, the hardware engineers needed to verify their performance in an environment similar to that in which it will be used. This environment includes the vacuum of low earth orbit and temperatures as low as -11O F and as high as +200 F. The desire for quantitative data, as opposed to subjective information which could be provided by a suited astronaut, coupled with test scheduling conflicts resulted in an unmanned testing scenario. Accommodating these test objectives in an unmanned test required a solution that would provide remotely actuated thermal vacuum compatible torque sources of up to 25 ft-lbs at four horizontally oriented and four vertically oriented bolts, a variable input force of up to 125 lbs at the four brake actuators, and thermal vacuum compatible torque and force sensors. The test objectives were successfully met in both the thermal Chamber H and the thermal vacuum Chamber B at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  2. PREFACE: 14th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Fulvio

    2010-04-01

    The 14th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW-14) is the last of a long series of annual meetings dedicated to the GW data analysis. This time the workshop was held at the Department of Physics of the University of Rome "Sapienza" and its scientic focus was on strengthening the connection among the gravitational wave and other astrophysical communities. Thus, a significant fraction of the workshop was dedicated to explore the potentialities of the multimessanger astronomy and in particular on the emerging neutrino observatories in conjunction with the GW observations. Moreover, several contributions were devoted to technical details of the analysis of real data from interferometric detectors, aimed at the improvement of the data quality for increasing the confidence in the detection of the first GW event. On the base of these techniques new GW upper limits on the strength of continuous signals from neutron stars and on stochastic background as the event rates of burst and inspiral signals have been set. As chairman of this workshop, I would like to thank the members of the organizing and scientic committees and all the participants which have been the crucial actors of the workshop success. Some of the talks presented during the conference appear in the special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity, while remaining talks from the symposium are published in this companion volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The ensemble of all these contributions represents the most up-to-date papers on the topics covered by the meeting and, it provides valuable details about current work. Finally , I would also like to thank the institutions and the sponsor that made this meeting possible: University of Rome La Sapienza Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics - INFN Italian National Institute of Astrophyiscs - INAF University of Rome Tor Vergata University of Sannio E4-Computing Engineering s.p.a. Fulvio Ricci University of La Sapienza and INFN

  3. PREFACE: 14th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME'03)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

    2004-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 14th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME'03), which was held at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands on 2-4 November 2003. Papers have been selected from this workshop for presentation in this special issue. After a careful review by the MME'03 programme committee, 53 submissions were selected for poster presentation at the workshop in addition to 6 invited presentations. These covered the many aspects of our exciting field: technology, simulation, system design, fabrication and characterization in a wide range of applications. These contributions confirm a trend from technology-driven towards application-driven technological research. This trend has become possible because of the availability of mature fabrication technologies for micromechanical structures and is reflected by the presentations of some of the invited speakers. There were invited lectures about applications in the medical field, automotive and copiers, which provide evidence of the relevance of our work in society. Nevertheless, development of technologies rightfully remains a core activity of this workshop. This applies to both the introduction of new technologies, as was reflected by invited presentations on new trends in RIE and nanotechnology, and the addressing of manufacturing issues using available techniques, which will be demonstrated to be crucial in automotive applications. Out of these 59 papers 21 have been selected for presentation in this special issue. Since the scope of the workshop is somewhat wider than that of the journal, selection was based not only on the quality of the work, but also on suitability for presentation in the journal. Moreover, at the workshop, student presentation of research at an early stage was strongly encouraged, whereas publication of work in this journal requires a more advanced level. I would like to express my appreciation for the outstanding efforts

  4. Photocopy of Photograph, 14th ND PHOG No. N.H.82816 U.S. Navy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of Photograph, 14th ND PHOG No. N.H.82816 U.S. Navy photograph, circa 1945. AERIAL OF MAKALAPA ADMINISTRATION ARE IN WORLD WAR II, from National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Makalapa Support Facilities, Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Proceedings of the twenty sixth international symposium on discharges and electrical insulation in vacuum. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Vacuum science and technology has made vital contributions in high technology areas like space, high energy particle accelerators, plasma devices, pulse power, electronics, vacuum interrupters, thin films, melting and refining of metals/alloys, extraction and processing of advanced materials. Vacuum discharges, vacuum arc physics and technology and various applications towards vacuum interrupters, pulse power and particle accelerator are the main themes for this symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  6. Proceedings of the twenty sixth international symposium on discharges and electrical insulation in vacuum. V. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Vacuum science and technology has made vital contributions in high technology areas like space, high energy particle accelerators, plasma devices, pulse power, electronics, vacuum interrupters, thin films, melting and refining of metals/alloys, extraction and processing of advanced materials. Vacuum discharges, vacuum arc physics and technology and various applications towards vacuum interrupters, pulse power and particle accelerator are the main themes for this symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  7. ED-MEDIA 2002 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications. Proceedings (14th, Denver, Colorado, June 24-29, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip, Ed.; Rebelsky, Samuel, Ed.

    This 14th annual ED-MEDIA conference serves as a multi-disciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on the research, development, and applications on all topics related to multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications/distance education. ED-MEDIA, the premiere international conference in the field, spans all disciplines and…

  8. Internal thermal coupling in direct-flow coaxial vacuum tube collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Glembin, J.; Rockendorf, G.; Scheuren, J.

    2010-07-15

    This investigation covers the impact of low flow rates on the efficiency of coaxial vacuum tube collectors. Measurements show an efficiency reduction of 10% if reducing the flow rate from 78 kg/m{sup 2} h to 31 kg/m{sup 2} h for a collector group with 60 parallel vacuum tubes with a coaxial flow conduit at one-sided connection. For a more profound understanding a model of the coaxial tube was developed which defines the main energy fluxes including the internal thermal coupling. The tube simulations show a non-linear temperature profile along the tube with the maximum temperature in the outer pipe. Due to heat transfer to the entering flow this maximum is not located at the fluid outlet. The non-linearity increases with decreasing flow rates. The experimentally determined flow distribution allows simulating the measured collector array. The simulation results confirm the efficiency decrease at low flow rates. The flow distribution has a further impact on efficiency reduction, but even at an ideal uniform flow, a considerable efficiency reduction at low flow rates is to be expected. As a consequence, low flow rates should be prevented for coaxial tube collectors, thus restricting the possible operation conditions. The effect of constructional modifications like diameter or material variations is presented. Finally the additional impact of a coaxial manifold design is discussed. (author)

  9. Managing Risk for Thermal Vacuum Testing of the International Space Station Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, Jerry A.; Beach, Duane E.; Remp, Kerry L.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is designed with large deployable radiator panels that are used to reject waste heat from the habitation modules. Qualification testing of the Heat Rejection System (HRS) radiators was performed using qualification hardware only. As a result of those tests, over 30 design changes were made to the actual flight hardware. Consequently, a system level test of the flight hardware was needed to validate its performance in the final configuration. A full thermal vacuum test was performed on the flight hardware in order to demonstrate its ability to deploy on-orbit. Since there is an increased level of risk associated with testing flight hardware, because of cost and schedule limitations, special risk mitigation procedures were developed and implemented for the test program, This paper introduces the Continuous Risk Management process that was utilized for the ISS HRS test program. Testing was performed in the Space Power Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Plum Brook Station located in Sandusky, Ohio. The radiator system was installed in the 100-foot diameter by 122-foot tall vacuum chamber on a special deployment track. Radiator deployments were performed at several thermal conditions similar to those expected on-orbit using both the primary deployment mechanism and the back-up deployment mechanism. The tests were highly successful and were completed without incident.

  10. Multiple internal seal ring micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum packaging method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum packaging method that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  11. Multiple internal seal right micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum package that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  12. 14th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP 14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-04-01

    Preface The High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. This conference is open to all the international community in the world involved in plasma science and plasma technology. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have achieved a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 75 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 74, consisting of 19 invited talks and 55 poster contributions. As a HTPP tradition a poster competition has been carried out during the conference. The winner of the poster competition was Fabrice Mavier from Université de Limoges, France with his paper “Pulsed arc plasma jet synchronized with drop-on-demand dispenser” All the participants also ejoyed the social program including an “unconventional” tour of the city, the visit to the famous Hofbräuhaus and the dinner at the Blutenburg, a beautiful inner-city castle. We have received papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 18 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions and we

  13. History of On-orbit Satellite Fragmentations (14th Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene; Whitlock, David O.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Shoots, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in June 1961 (which instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400%) the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970s and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980s served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Continued events in all orbits in later years make definition and historical accounting of those events crucial to future research. Large, manned space stations and the growing number of operational robotic satellites demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population.

  14. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  15. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  16. Internal Energies of Ion-Sputtered Neutral Tryptophan and Thymine Molecules Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi3 + indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have ~;;2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi3 + ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.

  17. PREFACE: 16th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Wolfhard; Guerassimov, Nikolay; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2010-04-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977 when the series of VEIT Schools was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with the aim to act as a forum for interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. Beginning from 2001, the school has been jointly organized with the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Whereas, the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance grew issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions or exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers, Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Sixteenth VEIT school was held in the Black Sea resort Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 28 September to 2 October 2009. It was attended by close to 110 participants from 13 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including

  18. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of

  19. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  20. DC66812 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-12 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ABOVE EAST POTOMAC PARK TOWARD THE MALL AND BEYOND - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Medieval Armenian Costumes: A History of the Armenians from the 7th-14th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soghikian, Juanita Will

    The booklet contains illustrations of 40 medieval Armenian costumes based upon statues and paintings of the 7th through the 14th centuries. Part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans, the booklet also provides a discussion of Armenian history and detailed descriptions of each…

  2. The 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Raman Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy was the main topic of the 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium, which was held in March 2003 at Pittcon. The development of the enabling technologies that have made Raman spectroscopy a routine analysis tool in many laboratories worldwide is discussed.

  3. Medieval Armenian Costumes: A History of the Armenians from the 7th-14th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soghikian, Juanita Will

    The booklet contains illustrations of 40 medieval Armenian costumes based upon statues and paintings of the 7th through the 14th centuries. Part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans, the booklet also provides a discussion of Armenian history and detailed descriptions of each…

  4. The 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Raman Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy was the main topic of the 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium, which was held in March 2003 at Pittcon. The development of the enabling technologies that have made Raman spectroscopy a routine analysis tool in many laboratories worldwide is discussed.

  5. PREFACE: Fifteenth International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerassimov, Nikolay; Möller, Wolfhard; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2008-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biannually since 1977. It is a forum for the interchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion-, and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the event (since 2001) have been the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany, and the Evrika Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria. The fifteenth meeting of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sozopol, Bulgaria from 17-21 September 2007 and was attended by around 120 participants from 17 countries: Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Pakistan, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all peer reviewed to meet the originality and quality criteria of the journal. The school consisted of 11 oral and 3 poster sessions. There were 17 invited talks of general interest and 12 progress reports were presented orally. In total 86 contributed papers were presented during the three poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights covering the fundamentals of gas discharges and interaction of fast particles with solids, a wide range of conventional and novel applications such as for hard coatings and optical/protective layers, nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. Recent achievements in the modification of materials using charged particles or laser beams, thin layers deposition, properties, and characterization and novel materials, techniques, devices were highlighted. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal

  6. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE international vacuum electronics conference: book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This book includes a unique panorama of latest advances in vacuum electronic devices and applications covered in plenary talks, contributed papers and posters. High power microwaves and microwave tubes were the two themes for the pre-conference tutorials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  7. Orbit Determination and Analysis for 1970-97B at 14th-Order Resonance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    I! D-AIM60 6 ORBIT DET4RNINATION AND ANALYSIS FOR lflS-97I AT 1/1 14TH-ORDER RESONANCE(U) ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHNENT FRNDOROUGH ( ENGLAND ) A N...Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants, UK Sa. Sponsoring Agency’s Code 6a. Sponsoring Agency (Contract Authority) Name and Location N/A N/A * 7. Title

  8. [Abulcasis, Avicenna, and Galen: a forensic investigation by a 14th century Jewish physician].

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, Andrée

    2002-01-01

    Through a forensic investigation conducted by a Jewish doctor at the end of the 14th century, this paper aims to determine the quality of the training as well as the ensuing practical knowledge that the doctor possessed. Based on the "authorities" (auctoritates) quoted in his investigation, it appears that the doctor, who likely did not attend medical school, acquired the theoretical knowledge that was taught in such institutions and that was required to obtain a medical licence in Provence.

  9. Pseudoaneurysm of the Right Internal Mammary Artery Post Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy: A Rare Complication and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Datta, Subir; Manoly, Imthiaz; Karangelis, Dimos; Hasan, Ragheb

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the management of sternal wound infection post cardiac surgery has gained popularity since last decade. It is very cost effective and has survival benefit compared with conventional management. Although there are few complications associated with VAC therapy including right ventricular free wall rupture and infectious erosion to aorta, there are now isolated reports of vein graft pseudoaneurysm associated with it. We describe an extremely rare complication of right internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm post VAC therapy in a 56-year-old man which was successfully managed surgically. We also did a literature review on the possible complications of VAC therapy post cardiac surgery and its management.

  10. 14th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, Shigeru; Kajino, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Shunji; Isobe, TadaAki; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Shima, Tatsushi; Takeda, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the foremost bi-annual conference of nuclear physicists, astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others to survey the recent achievements in Nuclear Astrophysics. As an interdisciplinary meeting it promotes mutual understanding and collaboration over fields fundamental to solve a range of open questions, from the origin of the elements to stellar evolution.

  11. ITER vacuum vessel fabrication plan and cost study (D 68) for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    ITER Task No. 8, Vacuum Vessel Fabrication Plan and Cost Study (D68), was initiated to assess ITER vacuum vessel fabrication, assembly, and cost. The industrial team of Raytheon Engineers & Constructors and Chicago Bridge & Iron (Raytheon/CB&I) reviewed the current vessel basis and prepared a manufacturing plan, assembly plan, and cost estimate commensurate with the present design. The guidance for the Raytheon/CB&I assessment activities was prepared by the ITER Garching Work Site. This guidance provided in the form of work descriptions, sketches, drawings, and costing guidelines for each of the presently identified vacuum vessel Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements was compiled in ITER Garching Joint Work Site Memo (Draft No. 9 - G 15 MD 01 94-17-05 W 1). A copy of this document is provided as Appendix 1 to this report. Additional information and clarifications required for the Raytheon/CB&I assessments were coordinated through the US Home Team (USHT) and its technical representative. Design details considered essential to the Task 8 assessments but not available from the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) were generated by Raytheon/CB&I and documented accordingly.

  12. Internal vacuum-assisted closure device in the swine model of severe liver injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors present a novel approach to nonresectional therapy in major hepatic trauma utilizing intraabdominal perihepatic vacuum assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the porcine model of Grade V liver injury. Methods A Grade V injury was created in the right lobe of the liver in a healthy pig. A Pringle maneuver was applied (4.5 minutes total clamp time) and a vacuum assisted closure device was placed over the injured lobe and connected to suction. The device consisted of a perforated plastic bag placed over the liver, followed by a 15 cm by 15cm VAC sponge covered with a nonperforated plastic bag. The abdomen was closed temporarily. Blood loss, cardiopulmonary parameters and bladder pressures were measured over a one-hour period. The device was then removed and the animal was euthanized. Results Feasibility of device placement was demonstrated by maintenance of adequate vacuum suction pressures and seal. VAC placement presented no major technical challenges. Successful control of ongoing liver hemorrhage was achieved with the VAC. Total blood loss was 625 ml (20ml/kg). This corresponds to class II hemorrhagic shock in humans and compares favorably to previously reported estimated blood losses with similar grade liver injuries in the swine model. No post-injury cardiopulmonary compromise or elevated abdominal compartment pressures were encountered, while hepatic parenchymal perfusion was maintained. Conclusion These data demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a perihepatic negative pressure device for the treatment of hemorrhage from severe liver injury in the porcine model. PMID:23217091

  13. Mitral valve endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a 14th week pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Botta, Luca; Merati, Roberto; Vignati, Gabriele; Orcese, Carlo Andrea; De Chiara, Benedetta; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis during pregnancy carries a high mortality risk, both for the mother and for the foetus and requires a multidisciplinary team in the management of complicated cases. We report our experience with a 39-year old patient, affected by an acute active mitral endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva at the 14th gestational week, strongly motivated to continue the pregnancy. Our patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement with a normothermic high-flow cardiopulmonary bypass under continuous intraoperative foetal monitoring. Caesarean section occurred at the 38th gestational week. The delivery was uneventful and both the mother and child are doing well at the 16-month follow-up.

  14. Business of biosimilars - 14th annual conference (October 15-17, 2013 - Boston, Massachusetts, USA).

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, A

    2013-12-01

    Competition in the biological market offers a new set of opportunities and challenges within the healthcare industry. Biosimilars, like generic small-molecule drugs, can provide cost savings and increase patient access, while also promoting innovation. While large molecule manufacturers face many challenges unique to complex therapeutics, it is becoming clear that the commercialization of biosimilars shares many of the same hurdles as the generics market. The 14th Annual Business of Biosimilars Conference provided quality presentations from industry leaders regarding many commercial considerations for stakeholders interested in entering the biosimilars market. Opportunities to network with industry experts were offered, with over 120 attendees.

  15. 14th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society 28 - 29 May 2007, Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Braddock, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Association for Neurophyschopharmacology hosted a satellite meeting as part of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. The meeting was entitled 'Cytokines and Depression III: Identification and Treatment of Symptoms Associated with Inflammation in Diseases with Inflammation in Medically Ill Patients' and was held in Bordeaux, France on 28 - 29 May, 2007. The meeting comprised approximately 40 participants from many leading laboratories and hospitals from around the world looking to understand some of the clinical issues associated with depression and behavioural changes, with the aims of exploring better ways of clinical monitoring and marshalling drug discovery efforts from bespoke and alternate indications in providing new therapeutic approaches.

  16. Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-05

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  17. Desorption dynamics, internal energies, and imaging of organic molecules from surfaces with laser desorption and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization.

    PubMed

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-11-04

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer by using laser-desorption VUV postionization shows 5 μm feature details while using a 30 μm laser spot size and 7 ns pulse duration. Applications of laser-desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin, and humic acids are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle.

  19. [A medieval herbal from the 14th century, a new version of the Latin Macer?].

    PubMed

    Mauch, Ute

    2006-01-01

    A medical compendium of "Melleus liquorphysicae artis" has survived under the name Alexander Hispanus; it is in codex Ms. 8769 of the Biblioteca nacional in Madrid. Therein a herbal from the 14th century is integrated. However, today people must think that we have one herbal and two authors: Alexander Hispanus and Henrik Harpestraeng (died 1244), a physician from Scandinavia. First of all, the parts of the medical compendium are presented. We do not know which parts originally belong to the medical compendium. The examination of many handwritings suggested that the discourses about consumption and dropsy were not originally included in the compendium; that seems certain. Further it was shown that probably Alexander Hispanus did not live after all and we must see him as a fictional person. Nevertheless we should not automatically regard Henrik Harpestraeng as the author of the herbal although it contains typical plants of the North like Angelica. The oldest codex of the herbal was probably written in Bavaria or Austria because it contains old Bavarian words. This handwriting can be seen as a piece of evidence that the knowledge about Angelica was spreading from the South. We should explore the connection with handwritings of the Macer, too. The herbal could be a Latin version of the Macer, in which the original verses are abandoned. An analysis of the medical plants made it clear that the herbal is probably directed to a male readership. Especially the chapter on Galganum elucidates that. In the 14th century Galganum was thought to have a contraceptive effect, but this was kept secret from women! All in all the structure of the herbal suggests a use as a kind of reference book that was not used daily though.

  20. Proceedings of the International Conference on Vacuum Microelectronics (2nd) Held in Bath England on 24-26 July 1989: Vacuum Microelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-26

    the film state change. The test result teaches u that some phenomena occur in between 1113 K and 1173 K. 4. Discussion The titanium interface layer...at lower .emperatures because of the choice of a thermochemistry that establishes these optimal emissive centers before the onset the onset of...absorber, during the activation and operation of the respective cathodes in a vacuum environment. Impregnant thermochemistry associated with the Philips

  1. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-14

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  2. Schools without Fear. Proceedings of the Annual International Alliance for Invitational Education Conference (14th). International Alliance for Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Adrianna Hayes, Ed.

    Papers presented at the fourteenth Annual Conference of the Alliance for Invitational Education are (1) "Caring, Sharing, Daring: Three Tests to Help Develop More Inviting Policies, Programmes, and Procedures" (M. Ayers); (2) "Project: Gentlemen on the Move - Combating the Poor Academic and Social Performance of African American Male Youth" (D. F.…

  3. Multielemental analysis of tissues from Cangrande della Scala, Prince of Verona, in the 14th century.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Catalani, Simona; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Cangrande della Scala, Prince of Verona (Italy), died suddenly shortly after his triumph in the battle of Treviso (July 18, 1329). Thus, in the frame of a multidisciplinary paleo-pathological study, we carried out a multielemental analysis on the Prince's tissue specimens, including hair, liver, muscle, and bone, in order to characterize a multitissue profile of metallic elements in a nobleman of the 14th century. Biological specimens were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We were able to rule out arsenic poisoning as the primary cause of death. High levels of gold and silver in both hair and liver samples were probably due to prolonged contact of the mummy with precious metals in the funeral garments. High lead concentrations in both liver and bone tissue can be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated food and alcoholic beverages. Most of the essential elements were in the normal range of values for contemporary living people. The low arsenic and chromium levels in the Prince's tissues as compared to modern people would be suggestive of raised concentrations of both the elements in the present era, which are likely due to industrial pollution.

  4. [A manuscript with illustrations and equipment of alchemy in the 14th century].

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Manuscript 1122 Trinity College Cambridge was written in Latin in England in the late 13th century. Page 120verso shows drawings with descriptions of alchemistic vessels and apparatus. These descriptions have been deciphered, translated into German and commented on. Unlike many comments in literature relating to these drawings they neither go back to Artefius or Alphidius nor are they part of the paper "clavis sapientiae". They were drawn up by an unknown hand in the late 14th century on the empty page 120verso of the older manuscript 1122. The drawings show a great variety of vessels and apparatus of highly sophisticated design. It is clear that they are based on older, professional sources. The descriptions in many cases go back to Arab designations, which were later lost. In many cases, archaeological finds confirm the actual existence of the vessels shown in the manuscript, so that we can assume that the drawings represent reality. Thus the drawings can help to interpret finds in storerooms of museums which up to now have not been identified, or recently excavated parts or fragments.

  5. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuyang; Zhu, Xianmin; Li, Hong; Hu, Youtian; Zhou, Jinping; He, Di; Feng, Yun; Lu, Lina; Du, Guizhen; Hu, Youjin; Liu, Tiancheng; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jiayu; Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Fang; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Yixue; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    LEPTIN (LEP) is a circulating hormone released primarily from white adipocytes and is crucial for regulating satiety and energy homeostasis in humans and animals. Using the CRISPR technology, we created a set of Lep mutant rats that carry either null mutations or a deletion of the 14th Ile (LEP∆I14) in the mature LEP protein. We examined the potential off-target sites (OTS) by whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and/or Sanger-sequencing analysis and found no OTS in mutant rats. Mature LEP∆I14 is incessantly produced and released to blood at a much elevated level due to the feedback loop. Structure modeling of binding conformation between mutant LEP∆I14 and LEPTIN receptor (LEPR) suggests that the conformation of LEP∆I14 impairs its binding with LEPR, consistent with its inability to activate STAT3-binding element in the luciferase reporter assay. Phenotypic study demonstrated that Lep∆I14 rats recapitulate phenotypes of Lep-null mutant rats including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, nephropathy, and infertility. Compared to the existing ob/ob mouse models, this Lep∆I14/∆I14 rat strain provides a robust tool for further dissecting the roles of LEP in the diabetes related kidney disease and reproduction problem, beyond its well established function in regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:27378381

  6. Report of the 14th Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Oxford, UK, September 17-21, 2012.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Barker, Katharine; Bicak, Mesude; Bourlat, Sarah; Coddington, Jonathan; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Gilbert, Jack A.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo; Meyer, Chris; Morrison, Norman; Obst, Matthias; Robbins, Robert; Schriml, Lynn; Sterk, Peter; Stones-Havas, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 14th workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) held at the University of Oxford in September 2012. The primary goal of the workshop was to work towards the launch of the Genomic Observatories (GOs) Network under the GSC. For the first time, it brought together potential GOs sites, GSC members, and a range of interested partner organizations. It thus represented the first meeting of the GOs Network (GOs1). Key outcomes include the formation of a core group of “champions” ready to take the GOs Network forward, as well as the formation of working groups. The workshop also served as the first meeting of a wide range of participants in the Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) initiative, a first GOs action. Three projects with complementary interests – COST Action ES1103, MG4U and Micro B3 – organized joint sessions at the workshop. A two-day GSC Hackathon followed the main three days of meetings.

  7. The solar flare of the 14th of July 2000 (L3+C detector results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achard, P.; Adrian, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; van den Akker, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bähr, J.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Ding, L. K.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Duran, I.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Faber, G.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Groenstege, H.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; Guo, Y. N.; Gupta, S. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Haller, Ch.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, Y.; He, Z. X.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, A.; Hou, S. R.; Huo, A. X.; Ito, N.; Jin, B. N.; Jindal, P.; Jing, C. L.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Kantserov, V.; Kaur, M.; Kawakami, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kok, E.; Korn, A.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kuang, H. H.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Lei, Y.; Leich, H.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, Z. C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Ma, X. H.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Meng, X. W.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Monteleoni, B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumov, V. A.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Parriaud, J.-F.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Qing, C. R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ravindran, K. C.; Razis, P.; Rembeczki, S.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Rewiersma, P.; Riemann, S.; Rojkov, A.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schoeneich, B.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shen, C. Q.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Trowitzsch, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Unger, M.; Valente, E.; Verkooijen, H.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. W.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnen, T. A. M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Y. P.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yang, X. F.; Yao, Z. G.; Yeh, S. C.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, S. J.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zöller, M.; Zwart, A. N. M.; L3 Collaboration

    2006-09-01

    Aims.Several experiments have reported observations on possible correlations between the flux of high energy muons and intense solar flares. If confirmed, these observations would have significant implications for acceleration processes in the heliosphere able to accelerate protons and other ions to energies of at least tens of GeV. Methods: The solar flare of the 14 of July 2000 offered a unique opportunity for the L3+C experiment to search for a correlated enhancement in the flux of muons using the L3 precision muon spectrometer. Its capabilities for observing a directional excess in the flux of muons above 15 GeV (corresponding to primary proton energies above 40 GeV) are presented along with observations made on the 14th of July 2000. Results: We report an excess which appeared at a time coincident with the peak increase of solar protons observed at lower energies. The probability that the excess is a background fluctuation is estimated to be 1%. No similar excess of the muon flux was observed up to 1.5 h after the solar flare time.

  8. "May the force be with you": 14th Samuel Haughton lecture.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, P J

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the 14th Samuel Haughton lecture delivered on the 26th of January 2008. The lecture began by describing Haughton's research on animal mechanics. Haughton opposed Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection using the argument that the skeleton obeys the 'principle of least action' and therefore must have been designed with that principle in mind. In the course of his research he dissected many animals, including albatrosses, cassowaries, llamas, tigers, jackals and jaguars. He took anatomical measurements and did calculations to prove that muscle attachment sites were optimally located. The relationship between optimality and evolution continues to be studied. Computer simulations show optimality is difficult to achieve. This is because, even if optimality could be defined, the gene recombinations required to evolve an optimal phenotype may not exist. The drive towards optimality occurs under gravitational forces. Simulations to predict mechano-regulation of tissue differentiation and remodelling have been developed and tested. They have been used to design biomechanically optimized scaffolds for regenerative medicine and to identify the mechanoregularory mechanisms in osteoporosis. It is proposed that an important development in bioengineering will be the discovery of algorithms that can be used for the prediction of mechano-responsiveness in biological tissues.

  9. 76 FR 19373 - The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational Conference in Irvine, California: New Regulatory Challenges AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of conference. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  10. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  11. Reading and Reality. Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference (14th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.; Waterman, David C., Comp.

    Intended for reading teachers, this pamphlet contains the presentations of the 14th annual reading conference at Indiana State University, beginning with opening remarks by David C. Waterman and welcoming comments by J. Stephen Hazlett. In the opening address, "What Good is Comprehension without Composition?" by Sharon and David Moore, the role of…

  12. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  13. Restoring the Trust in Native Education. Annual NIEA Legislative Summit (14th, February 7-9, 2011). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Several briefing papers were presented during the 14th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit. This briefing book contains the following papers presented during the summit: (1) Restoring the Trust in Native Education; (2) NIEA Legislative Priorities for 2011: "Talking Points"; (3) Reauthorization of the…

  14. Radio imaging of a type IVM radio burst on the 14th of August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-10

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} cm{sup –3}, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  15. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  17. International Conference on Millimeter Wave and Far-Infrared Technology (1st) Held in Beijing, China, August 17-21, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Speci aP PUBLISHING HOUSE OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY rS Sponored By International Conference on Millimeter Wave and CIE Far-infrared Technology l August 17...support from many Industrial institutions such as Nanjing Semiconductor Research Institute,Beijing Electron Tube plant and 14th Radio Plant of Shanghai...Vacuum Technology, John Wiley & Sons, (1980)9 7. F. 3. Liao.Acta Electronica Sinica (In Chineoe)19(3)(1991)89 8. Guang-Yi Liu. 34th International Field

  18. Effects of vacuum packaging conditions on the quality, biochemical changes and the durability of ostrich meat.

    PubMed

    Brenesselová, Martina; Koréneková, Beáta; Mačanga, Ján; Marcinčák, Slavomír; Jevinová, Pavlína; Pipová, Monika; Turek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of vacuum packaging conditions on the concentrations of lactic acid, malondialdehyde, pH, microbial and sensory analysis were determined during chilled storage of ostrich meat. Meat was packed as follows: vacuum packed from 1st day (VP-1), vacuum packed from 3rd day (VP-3) and non-vacuum packed (NVP). Analysis were performed at 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st day after slaughter. Meat consisted of 74.69% water, 2.29% fats, 20.95% proteins. Package conditions had significant effect on the pH (NVP: 6.54 on the 14th day, VP-1: 6.05 and VP-3: 6.07 on the 21th day p<0.001), amount of malondialdehyde (NVP: 8.62mg/kg on the 14th day; VP-1: 1.95 and VP-3: 2.55 on the 21th day; p<0.001) and total microbial count (NVP: 7.4 log CFU/g on the 14th day; VP-1: 6.7 and VP-3: 6.8 on the 21th day p<0.01). Based on these results we can assess that vacuum packed from 1st day is necessary for the 21 days storage of ostrich meat.

  19. Update on the diabetic foot 2012: the 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference, May 9-11, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter; Franklyn, Kerryn; Rayman, Gerry; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-03-01

    The 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference was held in May 2012. Physicians, podiatrists, nurses, orthotists, surgeons, radiologists, and other professionals attended to reflect on the diabetic foot. The conference comprised interactive workshops, oral presentations of new research findings, and lectures from leading figures in the world of the diabetic foot. Over the 3 days, topics such as epidemiology, neuropathy, screening, vascular disease, prevention, and management among others were discussed. The conference has been an excellent platform from which to share new and ongoing research and it will without a doubt improve the treatment of the diabetic foot across the world.

  20. [The Sarqī medical school (11th-14th centuries): society and medicine in al-Andalus Levante].

    PubMed

    Franco Sanchez, F

    2001-01-01

    Most of the information about medical science in al-Andalus is associated with its leading figures and their work in the capital cities of the time: Cordoba, Seville, Granada, and the Taifal cities. This study presents the medicine of the Levantine or Sarqī al-Andalus region (10th-14th centuries). To this end, we have gathered reports on physicians that worked in the different Levantine capitals and have investigated key data in the biographical dictionaries, sources that have been little-used to study medical practice. We especially studied the Takmila by Ibn al-Abbār from Valencia.

  1. 77 FR 52693 - Request for Comments on U.S. Technical Participation in the 14th Conference of the International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... thermometers'' (Russian Federation); R75, ``Heat meters'' (Germany); R80, ``Road and rail tankers with level gauging'' (Germany); R84, ``Platinum, copper, and nickel resistance thermometers (for industrial and... products'' (United States); R133, ``Liquid-in-glass thermometers'' (United States); R134,...

  2. International Symposium on Molecular Beams (14th) Held in Pacific Grove, California on June 7 -12, 1992.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-09

    simulations: a) Hg(H 2 0) 8 b) HgAr 8 330 Molecular Beam Studies of Alkane Adsorption Dynamics on Clean and Adsorbate-Modified Pt(111) Mark C. McMaster...The first step in furthering this understanding is investigating the adsorption dynamics of alkanes on a platinum surface. By use of molecular beam...techniques, this area has been examined in our laboratory: 1) Dissociative adsorption dynamics of alkanes of varying molecular weight on a clean Pt( 111

  3. IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference (14th) Held in Maui, Hawaii on September 19-23, 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-23

    Gloukhian France Telecom, CNET/PAB, BP 107, Bagneux Cedex, 92225 France * CNRS, Laboratoire de Microstructures et de Micro~ lectronique , BP 107, Bagneux... Commerce Court Lompoc, CA 93436 S. W. Corzine University of California at Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA. 93106 ABSTRACT We employ a highly...California 93106, USA. t Optical Concepts Incorporated, 432A Commerce Court, Lompoc, California 93436, USA t Tele Danmark Research, Lyngso AlI’ 2, 2970

  4. Selected Papers from the International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (14th, Jacksonville, Florida, April 1-5, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "Building a Pedagogical Model for Synchronous Distance Learning Courses" (Panagiotes S. Anastasiades); "Delivery of Courseware using CD-ROM Media" (Brian Brighouse and Denis Edgar-Nevill); "Lessons Learned from Blended Biology Classes" (Arthur L. Buikema, Jr.); "Everything I Ever Needed to Know I…

  5. Selected Papers from the International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (14th, Jacksonville, Florida, April 1-5, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "Building a Pedagogical Model for Synchronous Distance Learning Courses" (Panagiotes S. Anastasiades); "Delivery of Courseware using CD-ROM Media" (Brian Brighouse and Denis Edgar-Nevill); "Lessons Learned from Blended Biology Classes" (Arthur L. Buikema, Jr.); "Everything I Ever Needed to Know I…

  6. Seeing Ourselves: Visualization in a Social Context. Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (14th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; Walker, Alice D., Ed.

    The 40 papers in this collection cover a wide variety of topics within the broad field of visual literacy. Three preliminary papers discuss visualization through film. The second section, which emphasizes visualization in a social context, contains 10 papers addressing cultural, political, social, and psychological issues, touching upon such…

  7. What Would Peggy Do? 14th Annual Peggy Glanville-Hicks Address 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael Kieran

    2012-01-01

    The New Music Network established the Peggy Glanville-Hicks Address in 1999 in honour of one of Australia's great international composers. It is an annual forum for ideas relating to the creation and performance of Australian music. In the spirit of the great Australian composer Peggy Glanville-Hicks, an outstanding advocate of Australian music…

  8. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  9. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  10. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  11. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  12. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  13. Gravitational vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, L. S.; Saakyan, G. S.

    1984-09-01

    The existence of a special gravitational vacuum is considered in this paper. A phenomenological method differing from the traditional Einsteinian formalization is utilized. Vacuum, metric and matter form a complex determined by field equations and at great distances from gravitational masses vacuum effects are small but could be large in powerful fields. Singularities and black holes justify the approach as well as the Ambartsmyan theory concerning the existence of supermassive and superdense prestallar bodies that then disintegrate. A theory for these superdense bodies is developed involving gravitational field equations that describe the vacuum by an energy momentum tensor and define the field and mass distribution. Computations based on the theory for gravitational radii with incompressible liquid models adequately reflecting real conditions indicate that a gravitational vacuum could have considerable effects on superdense stars and could have radical effects for very large masses.

  14. FOREWORD: The 4th CCM International Conference on Pressure Metrology from Ultra-High Vacuum to Very High Pressures (10-9 Pa to 109 Pa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, Jean-Claude; Jousten, Karl; Severn, Ian

    2005-12-01

    The fourth CCM (Consultative Committee for Mass and related quantities) International Conference on Pressure Metrology from Ultra-High Vacuum to Very High Pressures (10-9 Pa to 109 Pa) was held at the Institute of Physics in London from 19-21 April 2005. The event, which was organized by the Low, Medium and High Pressure working groups of the CCM, was attended by in excess of one hundred participants with representatives from five continents and every regional metrology organization. The purpose of this conference is to review all the work that is devoted to the highest quality of pressure measurement by primary standards as well as the dissemination of the pressure scale. A total of 52 papers were presented orally, and 26 as posters, in sessions that covered the following topics: Latest scientific advances in pressure and vacuum metrology Innovative transfer standards, advanced sensors and new instrument development Primary (top-level) measurement standards International and regional key comparisons New approaches to calibration It is interesting the note that since the third conference in 1999 the pressure range covered has increased by two orders of magnitude to 109 Pa, to take into account more exacting scientific and industrial demands for traceable vacuum measurement. A further feature of the conference was the increased range of instrumentation and techniques used in the realization and potential realization of pressure standards. Seton Bennett, Director of International Metrology at the National Physical Laboratory, opened the conference and Andrew Wallard, Director of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), gave the keynote address which described the implementation of the mutual recognition arrangement and the resulting removal of metrological barriers to international trade. Many experts have contributed significant amounts of their time to organize the event and to review the submitted papers. Thanks are due to all of these people

  15. The 14 TH Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent teams creating intelligent ground robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Nguyen, Dmitri

    2006-10-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 14 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the three-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participant feedback is presented.

  16. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  17. Radio imaging spectroscopy of synchrotron emission associated with a CME on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Hazel; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C.

    2013-07-01

    We present Nancay Radioheliograph observations of a moving type IV solar radio burst which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the SWAP instrument onboard Proba2 and by the LASCO white light coronograph. The burst emission was found to be cospatial with the core of the CME. Using radio imaging spectroscopy we are able to characterize the underlying electron distribution and plasma parameters within the source. Fitted spectra reveal a clear power law component consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission from accelerated electrons trapped in the erupting flux rope. As is often observed in type IV bursts, polarization measurements show the source to be moderately polarized during the peak of the burst, before steadily increasing to around 70% as the brightness temperature of the burst decays.

  18. Archaeological Zelliges of Meknes (14th-century): Physical measurements of the colour and identification of colouring agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amara, A.; Azzou, A.; Haddad, M.; Schvoerer, M.; Ney, C.; Lyazidi, S. Ait; Molinié, P.

    2005-03-01

    Two series of Zelliges belonging to the Filalia and Bou-Inaniya Medersas (14th-century) in Meknes city have been studied in order to describe precisely the colour of the glazes and to identify the chromogen agents responsible for these colours. The glaze colours are physically studied by the determination of their chromatic coordinates using chromametry method. These coordinates are represented in the conventional Yxy and L*a*b* spaces. Furthermore the chromogen ions, responsible for the different colour shades, are identified by optical absorption spectrometry (OAS) and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. These ions are the classical ones: copper (Cu2+) for the green, cobalt (Co2+) for the blue, iron (Fe3+) for the honey colour and iron (Fe3+) in association with manganese (Mn3+) for the black.

  19. [Plague and creative art. On the influential effect on art of the 14th century by black death].

    PubMed

    Seiler, R

    1990-01-01

    The present paper tries to shed light on the influence of the plague upon art. It considers above all the period after the "Black Death", i.e. the second half of the 14th century. Some changes of art are quantitative: its production is lessened by the effects of the plague--e.g. by the death of an artist--or increased by religious donations. The influence on style is similarly contradictory. Retardation as well as acceleration of the stylistic development can be observed. A third point consists in the changes in iconography of "Post-Plague-Art", showing a different interpretation of existing themes or introducing new ones. The varied conditions of production and reception of the different artistic genres makes the examination of the interaction between plague and art extremely complex.

  20. [The life and works of the Prague professor and rector Wikbold Stutte of Osnabrück (14th century)].

    PubMed

    Berger, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Wicbold Stutte of Osnabrueck, Master of Arts and of Medicine at the 14th century University of Prague and Rector there in 1375, has been known until recently only through some documents. An examination of the codex Mainz, Stadtbibliothek, Hs I 613, uncovered for the first time a literary work of Wicbold's, viz. a voluminous commentary on (part of) Aristotle's 'Parva naturalia'. A first reading of this work and further special research yielded finally a list of twelve writings done or projected by Wicbold, three of which are known at present to be extant, viz. the just mentioned philosophical work and two medicinal ones. This contribution describes Wicbold's quite impressive career, both academical and clerical (section I), gives a list of his extant and testified works together with their manuscript traditions, incipits, and explicits as far as available (section II) and gives finally a list of the known documents regarding Wicbold's life and career (section III).

  1. Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

  2. Identifying the material of original and restored parts of a 14^{th} century alabaster annunciation group through stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Leroux, Lise; Le Pogam, Pierre-Yves; Bromblet, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The origin of raw materials for sculpture is often obscure before the 17th century due to the scarcity of written sources. Identifying this origin provides hints to economic exchanges but also, potentially, allows for attributing sculptures to a specific context of creation (regional workshops, artists). Another challenge for art historians is the identification of restorations and their potential chronology. We present an example of a 14th century group of two statues, made of gypsum alabaster, representing an annunciation group, with the Virgin Mary and the angel Gabriel. Their original position was a near Troyes in the eastern Paris Basin, they are now separated being conserved at the Louvre Museum (Virgin Mary) and the Cleveland Museum of Art (Gabriel). Our multi-isotope study revealed the common origin of the material used for both sculptures, their isotope fingerprints being identical within the analytical error. These fingerprints are highly specific and point to an origin in a historical gypsum and alabaster quarry in the northern part of Provence, France, first mentioned at the end of the 13th century. We were also able to identify an unknown restoration of lower part of the Virgin Mary statue with an optically undistinguishable material, using Tuscan alabaster, most likely in the 19th century. This underlines the potential and usefulness of independent geochemical evidence to underpin stylistic hypotheses on grouping of individual artworks, historical economic relationships between regions and on past restoration activities.

  3. Intercomparison of Nine National High-vacuum Standards under the Auspices of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, G.; Jitschin, W.; Rubet, L.; Calcatelli, A.; Redgrave, F. J.; Keprt, A.; Wei-nan, Fei; Sharma, J. K. N.; Dittmann, S.; Ono, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures has initiated world-wide intercomparisons of pressure standards. The intercomparison in the regime of very low pressures, i.e. 10-4 to 1 Pa, using Ar as the test gas, has now been completed with the participation of laboratories in nine countries (in alphabetical order): Czechoslovakia, Federal Republic of Germany, France, India, Italy, Japan, People's Republic of China, UK and United States of America. In addition, five of these laboratories made measurements using H2 as the test gas. Four spinning-rotor gauges were employed as transfer standards. The achieved transfer uncertainty between the pilot laboratory (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) and a participating laboratory lies between 0.16% and 0.30% (1σ) for Ar and has allowed an intercomparison at this level of accuracy. At all investigated pressures the standards in the various laboratories lie within an interval of +/-3% around the standard of the pilot laboratory. For a brief synopsis of the intercomparison results, the calibration data of each laboratory for one gas species are reduced to a single number, i.e., the average over the pressure range 10-3 to 1 Pa, although this procedure is somewhat arbitrary and obscures scatter and pressure-dependence of some calibration results. These averages deviate from their mean by not more than about 1%. Systematic deviations between some laboratories are clearly identifiable: however, for most of the laboratories it appears that these are compatible with the estimated uncertainties of the pressure generation and the transfer uncertainty.

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (14th, Phoenix, Arizona, December 4-6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    The report of the 14th annual meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools presents a seminar on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Board by Lorene I. Rogers, Lincoln E. Moses, Warren W. Willingham, and Herman A. Witkin. The task force on Biomedical Sciences report is presented by Jerold Roschwalb, Lyle V. Jones, Robert H. Grant, and Penny D.…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States (14th, Phoenix, Arizona, December 4-6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    The report of the 14th annual meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools presents a seminar on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Board by Lorene I. Rogers, Lincoln E. Moses, Warren W. Willingham, and Herman A. Witkin. The task force on Biomedical Sciences report is presented by Jerold Roschwalb, Lyle V. Jones, Robert H. Grant, and Penny D.…

  6. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  7. Familial Aggregation between the 14th and 21st Century and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in an Isolated Dutch Population

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, Kees L.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; de Visser, Wim; te Meerman, Gerard J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of type 2 diabetes results from an interaction of hereditary factors and environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of interrelatedness to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in an isolated Dutch population. Materials and Methods A genealogical database from inhabitants living on the former island Urk between the 14th and 21st century was constructed. In a case-control study, effects of interrelatedness and the risk of type 2 diabetes were estimated with Kinship Coefficients (KCs). Relative risks in first, second, and third degree relatives and spouses of inhabitants with type 2 diabetes were compared to matched controls. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes were more interrelated, expressed by a higher KC compared to controls (7.2 vs. 5.2, p=0.001). First, second and third degree relatives had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Second degree relatives had a similar risk,1.7 (1.5-2.0) as third degree relatives,1.8 (1.5-2.2). Spouses of patients with diabetes had a 3.4 (2.7-4.4) higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Interrelatedness was higher among inhabitants with type 2 diabetes compared to controls. This differences extended beyond the nuclear family, thereby supporting the hypothesis that interrelatedness contributed to the development of type 2 diabetes on Urk. However, the size of this effect was small and the patterns of risk in first, second and third degree relatives suggested that factors other than interrelatedness were the main contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes on Urk. PMID:26193086

  8. Mobility, mortality, and the middle ages: identification of migrant individuals in a 14th century black death cemetery population.

    PubMed

    Kendall, E J; Montgomery, J; Evans, J A; Stantis, C; Mueller, V

    2013-02-01

    Mobility and migration patterns of groups and individuals have long been a topic of interest to archaeologists, used for broad explanatory models of cultural change as well as illustrations of historical particularism. The 14th century AD was a tumultuous period of history in Britain, with severely erratic weather patterns, the Great Famine of 1315-1322, the Scottish Wars of Independence, and the Hundred Years' War providing additional migration pressures to the ordinary economic issues drawing individuals to their capital under more stable conditions. East Smithfield Black Death Cemetery (Royal Mint) had a documented use period of only 2 years (AD 1348-1350), providing a precise historical context (∼50 years) for data. Adults (n = 30) from the East Smithfield site were sampled for strontium and oxygen stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel. Five individuals were demonstrated to be statistical outliers through the combined strontium and oxygen isotope data. Potential origins for migrants ranged from London's surrounding hinterlands to distant portions of northern and western Britain. Historic food sourcing practices for London were found to be an important factor for consideration in a broader than expected (87) Sr/(86) Sr range reflected in a comparison of enamel samples from three London datasets. The pooled dataset demonstrated a high level of consistency between site data, divergent from the geologically predicted range. We argue that this supports the premise that isotope data in human populations must be approached as a complex interaction between behavior and environment and thus should be interpreted cautiously with the aid of alternate lines of evidence.

  9. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  10. Electric Propulsion Laboratory Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-21

    Engineer Paul Reader and his colleagues take environmental measurements during testing of a 20-inch diameter ion engine in a vacuum tank at the Electric Propulsion Laboratory (EPL). Researchers at the Lewis Research Center were investigating the use of a permanent-magnet circuit to create the magnetic field required power electron bombardment ion engines. Typical ion engines use a solenoid coil to create this magnetic field. It was thought that the substitution of a permanent magnet would create a comparable magnetic field with a lower weight. Testing of the magnet system in the EPL vacuum tanks revealed no significant operational problems. Reader found the weight of the two systems was similar, but that the thruster’s efficiency increased with the magnet. The EPL contained a series of large vacuum tanks that could be used to simulate conditions in space. Large vacuum pumps reduced the internal air pressure, and a refrigeration system created the cryogenic temperatures found in space.

  11. Vacuum phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Ishikawa, Kouhei

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the theory of the formation of the vacuum phenomenon (VP), the detection of the VP, the different medical causes, the different locations of the presentation of the VP, and the differential diagnoses. In the human body, the cavitation effect is recognized on radiological studies; it is called the VP. The mechanism responsible for the formation of the VP is as follows: if an enclosed tissue space is allowed to expand as a rebound phenomenon after an external impact, the volume within the enclosed space will increase. In the setting of expanding volume, the pressure within the space will decrease. The solubility of the gas in the enclosed space will decrease as the pressure of the space decreases. Decreased solubility allows a gas to leave a solution. Clinically, the pathologies associated with the VP have been reported to mainly include the normal joint motion, degeneration of the intervertebral discs or joints, and trauma. The frequent use of CT for trauma patients and the high spatial resolution of CT images might produce the greatest number of chances to detect the VP in trauma patients. The VP is observed at locations that experience a traumatic impact; thus, an analysis of the VP may be useful for elucidating the mechanism of an injury. When the VP is located in the abdomen, it is important to include perforation of the digestive tract in the differential diagnosis. The presence of the VP in trauma patients does not itself influence the final outcome.

  12. Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Udupa, Kumaraswamy

    2013-08-01

    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

  13. Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Udupa, Kumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper. PMID:23905027

  14. Comparison of prognostic compatibility between seventh AJCC/TNM of the esophagus and 14th JCGC staging systems in Siewert type II adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Sakakura, Chohei; Otsuji, Eigo

    2013-08-01

    The Seventh American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/TNM classification defined that the classification for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) was included in the esophageal category. However, there still remain various classifications in AEG such as the Seventh AJCC/TNM of the esophagus and the 14th Japanese Classification of Gastric Cancer staging system (JCGC) in Japan. This study was designed to evaluate the compatibility of both the Seventh AJCC/TNM of the esophagus and the 14th JCGC staging systems in Siewert type II adenocarcinoma. Between 1999 and 2011, 47 consecutive patients with Siewert type II adenocarcinoma underwent curative surgery at our Institution. We reviewed their hospital records retrospectively. Overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 44.3% and 33.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the extent of lymph node metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor (p=0.0194, HR=12.927). In the ≤pN2 group by 14th JCGC, deeper tumor depth was significantly correlated with poor prognosis, whereas in the ≥pN3 group, deeper tumor depth did not affect prognosis, suggesting a strong effect of nodal factor on prognosis and more similar prognostic stratification to the Seventh edition of the AJCC/TNM classification of the esophagus. Nodal involvement status might be a more important prognostic factor than tumor depth in patients with Siewert type II adenocaricinoma. The Seventh classification of AJCC/TNM of the esophagus might be more compatible with Siewert type II adenocarcinoma.

  15. Proceedings of the Annual PL/DARPA Seismic Research Symposium (14th) Held in Tucson, AZ on 16-18 September 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-17

    AD-A256 711 . PL-TR-92-22 10 ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PAPERS, NO. 1106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH ANNUAL PL/DARPA SEISMIC RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM, 16-18...Annual PL/DARPA Seismic PE 61102F Research Symposium, 16-18 September 1992 PR 2309 .AUTHOR(S) TA G2WU 10 Editors: James F. Lewkowicz Jeanne M. McPhetres...DARPA Seismic Research Symposium held 16-18 September 1992, in Tucson, Arizona. PL’s Solid Earth Geophysics Branch (GPEH) manages its own Air Force

  16. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; hide

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  17. An estimation of the primary proton spectrum between 10 to the 12th and 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Siohan, F.; Yodh, G. B.

    1978-01-01

    Based on measurements of unaccompanied charged hadron flux from 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 14th eV at mountain altitudes, the primary proton flux is estimated using recently determined proton-proton total cross sections from new measurements of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude at ISR, and Glauber theory to calculate proton-air inelastic cross section. The derived spectrum agrees well with extrapolation of the direct measurements below 2 times 10 to the 12th eV without change of slope.

  18. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  19. Mariculture associated with oil and gas structures: A compendium. Information transfer meeting (14th), mariculture sessions. Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on November 17, 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reggio, V.C.

    1996-09-01

    Increased interest in the use of offshore oil and gas platforms for growing coastal and pelagic fish and shellfish for commercial markets led to MMS to sponsor a forum on this topic. This report encompasses the views, opinions, constraints, limitations, possibilities, and proposals from representative of the public and private sectors with interest and concern for fishery development in the Gulf of Mexico. This report provides summaries of the presentations given at the mariculture session during the 14th Annual Information transfer Meeting held in New Orleans in November 1994.

  20. Vacuum mechatronics. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinski, S. E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G.

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is the design and development of vacuum-compatible, computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. Vacuum mechantronics is relevant to research engineers in integrated circuit manufacturing, surface physics, food processing, biotechnology, materials handling, space sciences and manufacturing.

  1. Developing Distance Education. Report from the World Conference (14th, Oslo, Norway, August 9-16, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Distance Education.

    This report of the proceedings of the 50th anniversary year of the International Council for Distance Education (ICDE) includes: (1) the text of the address given by Kevin Smith, the outgoing president of the organization; (2) a review by the outgoing president of activities of the ICDE during its first 50 years (from 1938 to 1988); (3) the text…

  2. Proceedings of the 1990 IPMAAC Conference on Personnel Assessment (14th, San Diego, California, June 24-28, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Personnel Management Association, Washington, DC.

    Fifty-seven papers presented at the annual meeting of the International Personnel Management Association Assessment Council (IPMAAC) in 1990 are provided. Selected topics include: using the cloze technique for reading skills assessment; examining assessment techniques; job analysis; alternate strategies for assessing writing skills; assessment of…

  3. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  4. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  5. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  6. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  7. Microscopic analysis of "iron spot" on blue-and-white porcelain from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in early Ming dynasty (14th-15th century).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxuan; Zhu, Jian; Jiang, Jianxin; Xu, Changqing; Wu, Shurong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Menglei; Du, Jingnan

    2016-11-01

    "Sumali," as an imported cobalt ore from overseas, was a sort of precious and valuable pigment used for imperial kilns only, which produces characteristic "iron spot" to blue-and-white porcelain in early Ming Dynasty (A.D. 14th-15th century). Although there were some old studies on it, the morphology and formation of iron spot has not been fully investigated and understood. Therefore, five selected samples with typical spot from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in Ming Yongle periods (A.D. 1403-1424) were analyzed by various microscopic analysis including 3D digital microscope, SEM-EDS and EPMA. According to SEM images, samples can be divided into three groups: un-reflected "iron spot" without crystals, un-reflected "iron spot" with crystals and reflected "iron spot" with crystals. Furthermore, 3D micro-images revealed that "iron spots" separate out dendritic or snow-shaped crystals of iron only on and parallel to the surface of glaze for which "iron spot" show strong metallic luster. Combining with microscopic observation and microanalysis on crystallization and non-crystallization areas, it indicates that firing oxygen concentration is the ultimate causation of forming reflective iron spot which has a shallower distribution below the surface and limits crystals growing down. More details about characters of "iron spot" used "Sumali" were found and provided new clues to coloration, formation mechanism and porcelain producing technology of imperial kiln from 14th to 15th centuries of China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Vacuum Surface Flashover And High Pressure Gas Streamers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Optical Emission Characteristics of Polycrystalline Diamond During Surface Flashover in Vacuum ," 1996 IEEE 1~ International Symposium on... VACUUM SURFACE FLASHOVER AND HIGH PRESSURE GAS STREAMERS J. M. Elizondo, M. L. Krogh, D. Smith, D. Stoltz, and S. N. Wright AlliedSignal Federal...breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial

  9. The hospital microbiome project: meeting report for the UK science and innovation network UK-USA workshop ‘beating the superbugs: hospital microbiome studies for tackling antimicrobial resistance’, October 14th 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The UK Science and Innovation Network UK-USA workshop ‘Beating the Superbugs: Hospital Microbiome Studies for tackling Antimicrobial Resistance’ was held on October 14th 2013 at the UK Department of Health, London. The workshop was designed to promote US-UK collaboration on hospital microbiome studies to add a new facet to our collective understanding of antimicrobial resistance. The assembled researchers debated the importance of the hospital microbial community in transmission of disease and as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes, and discussed methodologies, hypotheses, and priorities. A number of complementary approaches were explored, although the importance of the built environment microbiome in disease transmission was not universally accepted. Current whole genome epidemiological methods are being pioneered in the UK and the benefits of moving to community analysis are not necessarily obvious to the pioneers; however, rapid progress in other areas of microbiology suggest to some researchers that hospital microbiome studies will be exceptionally fruitful even in the short term. Collaborative studies will recombine different strengths to tackle the international problems of antimicrobial resistance and hospital and healthcare associated infections.

  10. Vacuum sources in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Wiper, D W; Duchon, M A; Muise, K L

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the performance of vacuum equipment used in operative vaginal deliveries. We measured wall suction in eight Cleveland area labor-and-delivery units. Additionally, we tested samples of hand-operated and electric vacuum pumps. For each apparatus we recorded vacuum in millimeters of mercury using a calibrated, diaphragm-type gauge. We calculated mean maximal vacuum. Work required to produce 500 mm Hg of vacuum was determined for the hand-operated pumps. At increments of vacuum, we compared the vacuum displayed by the gauge head included with the device to our standard. Mean wall suction was 494 mm Hg (range, 248-655). As compared to the Mity-vac, the CMI hand-operated pump needed significantly more work to generate 500 mm Hg of vacuum. Electric pumps produced a reliable and consistent vacuum. Gauges included with the pump had an average error of 4% over 400-600 mm Hg. Wall suction was an unreliable source of vacuum. The two hand-operated pumps tested required significantly different amounts of work to achieve an adequate vacuum. Addition of a fluid trap does not affect the vacuum, and head gauges supplied with vacuum pumps are accurate.

  11. ULTRA HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Fry, W.A.

    1962-05-29

    A valve for high vacuum applications such as the CStellarator where chamber pressures as low as 2 x 10/sup -10/ mm Hg are necessary is designed with a line-of-sight path through the valve for visual inspection of the contents of reactants in such chambers. The valve comprises a turnable resilient metal ball having an aperture therethrough, means for selectively turning the ball to rotate the axis of its line-of-sight path, and soft, deformable opposing orifices that are movable relatively toward said ball to seal with opposite ball surfaces upon said movement of said axis of said line-of-sight path. The valve also includes a bellows seal connected between said orifices and internal actuating means that eliminates the requirement for gasketed turnable valve closing stems. (AEC)

  12. ENSO variability in the western tropical Pacific during the 20th and 14th centuries: preliminary results from a ~700 year coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, M. K.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Wu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability prior to anthropogenic influence is crucial to understanding natural climate variability and to informing predictions of future climate change. Coral-based climate records from ENSO-sensitive regions provide unique high-resolution archives of past ENSO variability. However, the massive coral most commonly used in climate studies, Porites spp., rarely provide climate record lengths in excess of 200 years. This presents a challenge because recent work suggests that proxy records of ENSO variability need to exceed 500 years in length in order to capture the full range of natural variability of the ENSO system. Here we present preliminary oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from a slower growing, ~700 year long Diploastrea heliopora coral from Lambumbu Bay, Vanuatu (LBV; 16.19°S, 167.39°E), located at the southern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Coral-based climate records from this region have been shown to be reliable recorders of ENSO-related variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The LBV coral was drilled live in 2010 and the bottom of the coral has a U-Th date of 1228 ± 10 CE. Our initial focus is to characterize and compare the geochemical variability recorded in the oldest (14th century) and youngest (20th century) sections of the coral. We observe a δ18O anomaly during the 14th century similar in magnitude to the δ18O anomaly associated with the 1997-1998 ENSO warm-phase event. We also observe that coral δ18O values in the 14th century are enriched by ~ 0.9‰, relative to modern coral δ18O values, which likely reflects salinity differences. Finally, 20th century coral δ18O variability agrees well with a previously published δ18O record from a Porites lutea coral (Sabine Bank, Vanuatu, ~130 km away) providing us with confidence in using Diploastrea heliopora corals for multicentury, continuous coral-based paleoclimate reconstructions.

  13. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on ... the baby through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is ...

  14. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  15. Research Symposium. Teacher Education in Reading: Worldwide Issues. International Reading Association World Congress on Reading (14th, Maui, Hawaii, July 14, 1992). Yearbook 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of Teacher Educators in Reading.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on teacher education, literacy, and literature. Papers in the collection are: "Implementing Holistic Literacy Strategies in Chinese Teacher Preparation Programs" (R. L. Baker and M. H. Shaw-Baker); "I-Searching in Teacher Education" (A. Bartlett); "Strategies for Reducing Stress and…

  16. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  17. Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Abstracts of Contributed Papers. International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and atomic Collisions (14th) Held at Palo Alto, California in 1985,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    interaction (Hdiam = 1/8 a 2B r sin 6) is the domi- V" eeg .y ( -so, UrcWng enwrgy [cm"] nating external force, of comparable strength with, or larger than...dissociation of TMS + + proceeds through ral resonances is made by measuring selective electronic decay processes (autoionization and Auger) and...distinguished : one in the discrete, /4/ Sodhi, R.N.S., Daviel, S., Brion, C.E., and de Souza, is shown to autoionize into TMS with an inner valence

  18. International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories (14th), Held in Isola d’Elba, Italy on June 18-23, 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-23

    Monte Carlo methods, or with such physical systems as quantum fluids, finite nuclei and nuclear matter, highly correlated electronic systems, and...gave a nice talk on the application of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) techniques to the Anderson model, with the incorporation of maximum entropy ideas which...8217 AFSENI INA PRIE1O C. F~5ID A.R. Universidad de Sala~anca Laboratorio de Fisica Cl.E Facultad de C. Fisicas Arlibertador 1513 (1638) 38008 SALAMANCA

  19. Cross-Culturalism in Children's Literature: Selected papers from the 1987 International Conference of the Children's Literature Association (14th, Ottawa, Canada, May 14-17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susan R., Ed.; Thompson, Ruth Anne, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains a selection of the papers and awards given at a conference held at Carleton University in Canada. After the text of an address by the president of the Children's Literature Association, the following papers are included: (1) "Lone Voices in the Crowd: The Limits of Multiculturalism" (Brian Alderson); (2) "The…

  20. Stability of reference masses: VII. Cleaning methods in air and vacuum applied to a platinum mass standard similar to the international and national kilogram prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumpson, Peter J.; Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders J.; Portoles, Jose F.

    2013-10-01

    Mercury contamination and the build-up of carbonaceous contamination are two contributing factors to the instability observed in kilogram prototype masses. The kilogram prototypes that lie at the core of the dissemination of the SI base unit were manufactured in the late 19th century, and have polished surfaces. In papers IV and V of this series we developed a method for cleaning noble metal mass standards in air to remove carbonaceous contamination. At the core of this ‘UVOPS’ protocol is the application of UV light and ozone gas generated in situ in air. The precise nature of the carbonaceous contamination that builds up on such surfaces is difficult to mimic demonstrably or quickly on new test surfaces, yet data from such tests are needed to provide the final confidence to allow UVOPS to be applied to a real 19th century kilogram prototype. Therefore, in the present work we have applied the UVOPS method to clean a platinum avoirdupois pound mass standard, ‘RS2’, manufactured in the mid-19th century. This is thought to have been polished in a similar manner to the kilogram prototypes. To our knowledge this platinum surface has not previously been cleaned by any method. We used x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify organic contamination, and weighing to quantify the mass lost at each application of the UVOPS procedure. The UVOPS procedure is shown to be very effective. It is likely that the redefinition of the kilogram will require mass comparisons in vacuum in the years to come. Therefore, in addition to UVOPS a cleaning method for use in vacuum will also be needed. We introduce and evaluate gas cluster ion-beam (GCIB) treatment as a potential method for cleaning reference masses in vacuum. Again, application of this GCIB cleaning to a real artefact, RS2, allows us to make a realistic evaluation of its performance. While it has some attractive features, we cannot recommend it for cleaning mass standards in its present form.

  1. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  2. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  3. [Medical research travel 100 years ago: the 14th German Medical Study Trip to North America and Canada in the year 1912].

    PubMed

    Neid, T; Helm, J

    2012-12-01

    Already before the First World War the North American medicine had developed within less years so far that it had an excellent reputation and that famous scientists and medicines from Europe came in the country for extensive study trips and congressional visits. Exactly 100 years ago the delegation biggest till then of German doctors visited in the course of the 14th German Medical Study Trip the United States of America. The very amicable relation between the doctors of both nations made easier the scientific exchange during this study trip and allowed a deep insight into the medicine of the USA to the participants. Even though the German doctors were very impressed with the developement in the USA and reported partly in their native country in detail about that, it didn't succeed in keeping pace with the rapid developement of the USA into the leading research nation in the following decades.

  4. The Montserrat-2000 flash-flood event: a comparison with the floods that have occurred in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula since the 14th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, María Del Carmen; Rigo, Tomeu; Barriendos, Mariano

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the flash floods that occurred in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) on 10 June 2000, in the context of the historical floods recorded since the 14th century. The study starts with pluviometric and meteorological analyses (essentially synoptic and thermodynamic) of the episode. There follows a comparison of this event with previous floods for which we have instrumental information, information from archives, or both types of information. In some cases this permitted us to make a meteorological comparison of episodes similar to that of June 2000, and the complete series was used to carry out a frequency analysis of floods that have occurred in the basin under study. The conclusions show that although catastrophic flooding in spring is not as typical a phenomenon as autumn flooding, such floods have been recorded at least once each century, and it can be stated that the synoptic meteorological situation, where recorded, showed similar characteristics in all cases.

  5. [Learning to read Pierre Lombard's Books of Sentences at the University of Paris in the 13(th) and 14 (th) centuries].

    PubMed

    Angotti, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In the middle ages, the ability to offer an oral commentary on Pierre Lombard's Books of Sentences was seen as an essential step in the training of masters of theology (maîtres régents). This was an exercise done by bachelors. While the first university statutes say little about this exercise, later statutes, particularly in the 14(th) century, suggest that it was carried out by following very strict guidelines. This article posits that students actually followed a number of « model commentaries » because the masters applied the methodology of exegesis. Looking at the manuscripts and their critical apparatus, this article offers a better understanding of the lectio of the Books of Sentences.

  6. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  7. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  8. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  9. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M

    2017-04-12

    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (<5 V) and provides a high drive current (>3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  10. A Review of Maintenance of Vacuum inside Vacuum Insulation Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun Guang; Xu, Lie

    The growing concerns over global energy crisis and the phasing out of polyurethane foams blown with CFC-11, which has high Ozone Depletion Potential(ODP), have pushed thermal insulation technology to improve its efficiency. Vacuum Insulation Panel(VIP) has been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-10 times higher than conventional thermal insulation. Appropriate vacuum in VIP is one of the most important factors contributing to the long term heat insulation performance of VIP. In this paper, the researches on three factors, which influence internal pressure inside VIP, including gas and water vapor permeation through the barrier, gas absorption by getters and desiccants and outgassing of the kernel, were reviewed respectively. Following this, the research emphasis and suggestions, which should be paid attention to, were summarized.

  11. Image Understanding, 14th Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, L. S.

    1983-06-01

    Technical and annual progress reports of principal investigators of image understanding are presented. Topics covered include: surface constraint from linear entents; computing visual correspondance; smoothing optical flow fields; viewframes; a connectionist model of form perception; use of difference fields in processing sensor motion; a facet approach to optic flow; special purpose automatic programming for 3-d model-based vision; MAPS: organization of a spatial data base system using imagery, terrain, and map data; segment-based stereo matching; software metrics for performance analysis of parallel hardware; scene analysis algorithms; and robot vehicles.

  12. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  13. Maintaining vacuum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewski, J.

    2000-04-01

    A preventive maintenance program is essential for safe and consistent vacuum furnace operation. The program should be developed in cooperation with safety, maintenance, and furnace operators, implemented as soon as the furnace is commissioned, and adhered to throughout the life of the furnace. This article serves as an introduction to the topic of vacuum furnace preventive maintenance. Basic information about installing a new vacuum furnace also is provided.

  14. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  15. Gravitation and vacuum field

    SciTech Connect

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-03-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E ..-->.. infinity. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory.

  16. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered.

  17. Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Engineers guiding the GPM Core Observatory into the thermal vacuum chamber. Credit: NASA/Goddard The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international partnership co-led by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) that will provide next-generation global observations of precipitation from space. GPM will study global rain, snow and ice to better understand our climate, weather, and hydrometeorological processes. As of Novermber 2013 the GPM Core Observatory is in the final stages of testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The satellite will be flown to Japan in the fall of 2013 and launched into orbit on an HII-A rocket in early 2014. For more on the GPM mission, visit gpm.gsfc.nasa.gov/. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  19. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  20. Environmental Education, The Last Measure of Man. An Anthology of Papers for the Consideration of the 14th and 15th Conference of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Raymond F.

    An anthology of papers for consideration by delegates to the 14th and 15th conferences of the United States National Commission for UNESCO are presented in this book. As a wide-ranging collection of ideas, it is intended to serve as background materials for the conference theme - our responsibility for preserving and defending a human environment…

  1. Employment and Disability: Trends and Issues for the 1990's. A Report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 7-9, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

    This report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar addresses trends and prospects for employment of persons with disabilities. The monograph begins with an introduction by Leonard G. Perlman and Carl E. Hansen, a foreword by Richard S. Materson, a list of seminar sponsors and Switzer scholars, a statement on the legacy of Mary Elizabeth…

  2. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  3. ELETTRA vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, M.

    1991-08-01

    A status report of the vacuum system of ELETTRA, the 2 GeV, 400 mA light source under construction in Trieste, will be described. The Vacuum project, presented at ``Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop'' at Riken (Japan 22-24 March 1990) and more recently at EVC-2, the European Vacuum Conference at Trieste (Italy 21-26 May 1990), is now in the phase of testing a prototype sector, which is 1/24 of the ring circumference. Details and some technological aspects of the fabrication will be reviewed together with the vacuum performances. Results of laboratory experiments on components, standard or not, allowed us to finalize the main choices in light of the general philosophy of the project and will be properly summarized.

  4. Cervical spine annulus vacuum.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, S P; Chen, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-eight annulus vacuums in 27 patients were analyzed with regard to location, configuration, and associated vertebral abnormalities such as degenerative changes, absent and compressed anterosuperior vertebral body corners, and annulus calcification. It is concluded that most annulus vacuums are a degenerative phenomenon at the attachment of the annulus to bone. These vacuums may be associated with other degenerative changes such as osteophytes and annulus calcification. Vacuums have a strong association with compressed anterosuperior corners. These deformed corners are thought to be early osteophytes and may be related to previous trauma, a vertebra with an absent corner, and/or normal motion. Small annulus vacuums adjacent to vertebral corners with a normal appearance are more likely to result from acute trauma.

  5. Vacuum tunneling in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.; Pak, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Topologically non-trivial vacuum structures in gravity models with Cartan variables (vielbein and contortion) are considered. We study the possibility of vacuum spacetime tunneling in Einstein gravity assuming that the vielbein may play a fundamental role in quantum gravitational phenomena. It has been shown that in the case of RP3 space topology, the tunneling between non-trivial topological vacuums can be realized by means of Eguchi-Hanson gravitational instanton. In the Riemann-Cartan geometric approach to quantum gravity, the vacuum tunneling can be provided by means of contortion quantum fluctuations. We define a double self-duality condition for the contortion and give explicit self-dual configurations which can contribute to vacuum tunneling amplitude.

  6. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  7. Housing protects laser in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canali, V. G.

    1978-01-01

    Airtight housing encloses laser for easy alinement and operation in high-vacuum chamber. Beam is transmitted through window into vacuum chamber. Flexible line runs through vacuum chamber to outside, maintaining laser enclosure at atmospheric pressure.

  8. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  9. Floods in Catalonia (NE Spain) since the 14th century. Climatological and meteorological aspects from historical documentary sources and old instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, María-Carmen; Barriendos, Mariano; Barrera, Antonio; Rigo, Tomeu

    2005-11-01

    This paper shows a first approximation towards an interdisciplinary treatment of flood events from an historical, climatic and meteorological point of view. Starting from historical document sources, early instrumental data (basically, rainfall and surface pressure) and the most recent meteorological information, the paper analyses the temporal evolution of floods in NE Spain since the 14th century. Results show than the highest number of floods have been recorded in the Ter river, with 121 flood events (1322-2000 AD), followed by the Llobregat river with 112 cases at its mouth (1315-2000 AD). Any trend has been observed for the catastrophic floods. On the contrary, extraordinary floods show a little positive trend, probably related with the human occupation of the flood prone areas. Besides this, the paper shows an initial approximation of current meteorological master-patterns to the flooding episodes recorded between 1840 and 1870, a period characterised by a higher frequency of flooding. The newness is the reconstruction of those daily charts by using early instrumental data from 11 meteorological or astronomic observatories, some of them collected by the authors in the framework of the SPHERE project. For that purpose, the conceptual models obtained on the basis of the in-depth analysis of recent flooding episodes are compared with the synoptic pattern at the surface of those flood episodes registered in historical times. Following the proposed interdisciplinary approach, the paper bases itself on the documentary collections forming the subject-matter of this study, as well as the older and latest instrumental records.

  10. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  11. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  12. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-01

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  13. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  14. The classical vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T. H.

    1985-08-01

    The history of vacuum concepts is reviewed, noting that no way is known to physically produce a true void. Even at absolute zero, a pattern of electromagnetic wave fluctuations are still present. The fluctuations are called zero-point radiation (ZPR). To be invariant to Lorentz transformation, ZPR has a spectral intensity proportional to the cube of each frequency. ZPR does not change in response to compression and produces a force between objects that is inversely proportional to the 4th power of the separation distance. The ZPR scale value has been measured to be one-half of the Planck constant, and is the measure of the energy of a harmonic oscillator, such as the electron, in a vacuum. Finally, since gravitational accelerations always occur in the physical space, a minimum thermal radiation can also be found for the vacuum, implying that a fixed relationship exists between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum.

  15. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  16. Welding space vacuum technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to assist the EH 42 Division in putting together a vacuum system that could attain the desired pressure and be large enough to accommodate the gas-metal arc (GMA) welding fixture apparatus. A major accomplishment was the design and fabrication of the controller/annunciator for the 4' by 8' system. It contains many safety features such as thermocouple set point relays that will only allow inlet and exit gas and vacuum valves to be operated at pre-selected system pressures, and a fail safe mode for power interruptions and operator mistakes. It is felt that significant progress was made in this research effort to weld in a vacuum environment. With continued efforts to increase the pump speeds for vacuum chambers and further studies on weld fixtures and gas inlet pressures, the NASA program will be successful.

  17. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  18. Metal vapor vacuum arc switching - Applications and results. [for launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, D.; Mongeau, P.

    1984-01-01

    The design of metal-vapor vacuum-arc switches (MVSs) for electromagnetic launchers is discussed, and preliminary results are presented for an experimental MVS. The general principles of triggered-vacuum-gap and vacuum-interrupter MVSs are reviewed, and the requirements of electromagnetic launchers are analyzed. High-current design problems such as electrode erosion, current sharing, magnetic effects, and thermal effects are examined. The experimental MVS employs stainless-steel flanges, a glass vacuum vessel, an adjustable electrode gap, autonomous internal magnetic-field coils, and a tungsten-pin trigger assembly. Some results from tests without magnetic augmentation are presented graphically.

  19. Vacuum self-magnetization?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Rojas, H.; Rodriguez Querts, E.

    2006-06-19

    We study vacuum properties in a strong magnetic field as the zero temperature and zero density limit of quantum statistics. For charged vector bosons (W bosons) the vacuum energy density diverges for B > B{sub c} = m{sub w}{sup 2}/e, leading to vacuum instability. A logarithmic divergence of vacuum magnetization is found for B = Bc, which suggests that if the magnetic field is large enough, it is self-consistently maintained, and this mechanism actually prevents B from reaching the critical value Bc. For virtual neutral vector bosons bearing an anomalous magnetic moment, the instability of the ground state for B > B{sub c}{sup '} = m{sub n}{sup 2}/q also leads to the vacuum energy density divergence for fields B > B{sub c}{sup '} and to the magnetization divergence for B B{sub c}{sup '}. The possibility of virtual electron-positron pairs bosonization in strong magnetic field and the applicability of the neutral bosons model to describe the virtual positronium behavior in a magnetic field are discussed. We conjecture that this could lead to vacuum self-magnetization in QED.

  20. A more perfect vacuum. [behind contamination protecting wake shield in low orbit spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Design and operational features, problems and benefits of a Space Ultravacuum Research Facility (SURF), a wake shield, are discussed. SURF is primarily targeted at providing vacuums exceeding 10 to the -14th torr for performing materials processing experiments and, eventually, commercial-scale production. The materials to be processed would be at the apex of a convex shield, with the quality of vacuum limited mainly by the backscattering toward the wake surface of atmospheric molecules which have collided with molecules leaving the SURF surface. A stainless steel skin on the SURF, cured in orbit, is proposed as a means to minimize the molecules outgassed from the surface. Applications of SURF could include coating mirrors or other optical equipment, containerless melting and solidification of materials, and ultrapurification processing.

  1. Floodplain deposits, channel changes and riverbank stratigraphy of the Mekong River area at the 14th-Century city of Chiang Saen, Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Spencer H.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Bundarnsin, Tharaporn

    2008-10-01

    edges as arcuate cuts of similar curvature into the saprolite-mantled bedrock hills These features indicate channel avulsion occurred by meander loop cutoff in the past. Brick Buddhist monuments of the 14th-16th Century were built upon the floodplain with meander features on the Thai and Laos side of the river, indicating that these meandering channel features and the broader floodplain are mostly older than 600 years.

  2. TPX vacuum vessel transient thermal and stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldshteyn, Y.; Dinkevich, S.; Feng, T.; Majumder, D.

    1995-12-31

    The TPX vacuum vessel provides the vacuum boundary for the plasma and the mechanical support for the internal components. Another function of the vacuum vessel is to contain neutron shielding water in the double wall space during normal operation. This double wall space serves as a heat reservoir for the entire vacuum vessel during bakeout. The vacuum vessel and the internal components are subjected to thermal stresses induced by a nonuniform temperature distribution within the structure during bakeout. A successful Conceptual Design Review in March 1993 has established superheated steam as the heating source of the vacuum vessel. A transient bakeout mode of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components has been analyzed to evaluate transient period duration, proper temperature level, actual thermal stresses and performance of the steam equipment. Thermally, the vacuum vessel structure may be considered as an adiabatic system because it is perfectly insulated by the strong surrounding vacuum and multiple layers of superinsulation. Important aspects of the analysis are described herein.

  3. Students Speak With Vacuum Chamber Project Manager Mary Cerimele

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From the International Space Station Flight Control Room at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Vacuum Chamber A Project Manager Mary Cerimele participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with s...

  4. Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

    2004-09-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

  5. ISABELLE vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H J

    1980-01-01

    The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

  6. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  7. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  8. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  9. Superoleophobicity under vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yongmin; Bell, Steven E. J.; Liu, Weimin; Zhou, Feng

    2011-05-01

    By using superoleophobic alumina and low vapor pressure oils we have been able to study wetting behavior at high vacuum. Here, we show that a superoleophobic state can exist for some probe liquids, even under high vacuum. However, with other liquids the surfaces are only superoloephobic because air is trapped beneath the droplet and the contact angle decreases dramatically (150°-120°) if this air is removed. These observations open up the possibility of designing materials which fully exploit the potential of physically trapped air to achieve extreme oleophobicity and/or hydrophobicity.

  10. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  11. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  12. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  13. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  14. Various unique vacuum holders

    SciTech Connect

    Gregar, J.S.

    1992-12-01

    Glassblowers use vacuum holding devices to support a flat plate in the glassflowing lathe to seal onto the end of, or inside of, a glass cylinder. Glassblowing blowhose swivels tend to leak; a rotating union from the hydraulics industry is better. Various graphite holder designs are described.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

  16. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  17. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  18. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  19. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  20. Gas bearing operates in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  1. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  2. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  3. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  4. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  5. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  6. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  7. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  8. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  9. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  11. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  14. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  15. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  16. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  17. Vacuum tool manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  18. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  19. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. ); Vaughn, G.D. ); Bridgman, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. Vacuum: From Art to Exact Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, James M.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of vacuum technology. Includes vacuum pump developments (mechanical, ion, and cyrogenic pumps), measurement techniques, the development of the American Vacuum Society, and electronics in vacuum technology. (JN)

  1. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  2. Contemporary Research in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Proceedings: Program and Abstracts for the 14th US National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Held in Blacksburg, Virginia on June 23-28, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Romesh C.; Henneke, E. G.

    2002-06-01

    A part of travel expenses of nineteen graduate students to participate in the 14th U.S. National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics were paid from the grant. The Congress was held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, June 23-26, 2002. The congress attracted over one thousand participants from 5 continents, 32 countries and 46 U.S. states. Besides presenting their research findings, participants discussed future directions of research in Mechanics. Graduate students had the opportunity to present their research work, listen to some of the leading researchers, and interact with their peers and persons more established in research.

  3. International Jerusalem Symposium on Encouraging Reading Proceedings (4th, Jerusalem, Israel, March 13-15, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futterman, Linda, Comp.; And Others

    The 14th Jerusalem International Book Fair, as an integral part of the International Jerusalem Symposium on Encouraging Reading took place for the fourth time. It addressed itself specifically to the promotion of reading habits among children and young people. The proceedings contain the following addresses: (1) "Give Us Books, Give Us Wings;…

  4. Special treatment reduces helium permeation of glass in vacuum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, P. J.; Gosselin, C. M.

    1966-01-01

    Internal surfaces of the glass component of a vacuum system are exposed to cesium in gaseous form to reduce helium permeation. The cesium gas is derived from decomposition of cesium nitrate through heating. Several minutes of exposure of the internal surfaces of the glass vessel are sufficient to complete the treatment.

  5. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval Art. III: the 13th and 14th Centuries, and the case of the French "Ordre de L'Étoile"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bònoli, F.; Incerti, M.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Going ahead in our long-term project of analysis of the role of transient astronomical events as inspirational sources of medieval art, we extend our interest towards the 13th and 14th centuries, epochs of strong changes either in society, art or science. It is our aim to verify if the relationship we found in the 11th century between the number of artworks where a star is represented, and astonishing transient astronomical events was, in this new situation, still valid. Moreover, in order to check the influence of astronomical events on the 14th-century social and cultural environment, we focus on the case of the Ordre de l'Étoile, a chivalrous society founded by John II of France (Jan le Bon, roi de France) at the end of 1351, looking in ancient chronicles for some relevant contemporary astronomical event as an inspiration source for the "star" in the Order's name, in the garb of its knights and in its motto.

  6. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Terashima, Chiaki; Ueno, Tomonaga; Sakai, Osamu; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ito, Takahiro; Yogo, Toshinobu; Inoue, Yasushi; Ohtake, Naoto; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Tosa, Masahiro; Takai, Madoka; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matsuda, Naoki; Teshima, Katsuya; Seki, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-03-01

    The International Conference on Thin Films is the most established conference for all researchers and persons interested in thin films and coatings. It is one of the tri-annual conference series endorsed and co-organized by the Thin Film Division of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA), a union of national member societies whose role is to stimulate international collaboration in the fields of vacuum science, techniques and applications and related multi-disciplinary topics including solid-vacuum and other interfaces. The 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15) is organized by The Vacuum Society of Japan (VSJ) and held at Kyoto TERRSA in Kyoto, Japan on 8-11 November 2011, following the 14th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-14), which was held in Ghent, Belgium in 2008. Thin films and coatings are daily becoming increasingly important in the fields of various industries. This International Conference provides a multi-disciplinary forum for recent advances in basic research, development and applications of thin films and coatings. This conference will present a unique opportunity for researchers, engineers and managers to acquire new knowledge of thin films and coatings. We hope that our understanding on thin films and coatings will be deepened through this conference. The conference site, 'Kyoto TERRSA' is located in the historical heart of the old capital Kyoto. Kyoto is an ancient city with a 1200-year history. It was established as Japan's capital under the name 'Heian-kyo' in the year 794. Although many transformations have taken place over the years, Kyoto has always embraced the most advanced standards of the times. It has greatly contributed to the nation's industrial, economic and cultural development. The dauntless spirit of leadership of Kyoto's past as a capital city is still felt here today. Kyoto also preserves the beloved examples of its culture as testimonials of time. This is shown

  7. Vacuum bell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sesia, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background For specific therapy to correct pectus excavatum (PE), conservative treatment with the vacuum bell (VB) was introduced more than 10 years ago in addition to surgical repair. Preliminary results using the VB were encouraging. We report on our 13-year experience with the VB treatment including the intraoperative use during the Nuss procedure and present some technical innovations. Methods A VB with a patient-activated hand pump is used to create a vacuum at the anterior chest wall. Three different sizes of vacuum bells, as well as a model fitted for young women, exist. The appropriate size is selected according to the individual patient’s age and ventral surface. The device should be used at home for a minimum of 30 minutes (twice a day), and may be used up to a maximum of several hours daily. The intensity of the applied negative pressure can be evaluated with an integrated pressure gauge during follow-up visits. A prototype of an electronic model enables us to measure the correlation between the applied negative pressure and the elevation of the anterior chest wall. Results Since 2003, approx. 450 patients between 2 to 61 years of age started the VB therapy. Age and gender specific differences, depth of PE, symmetry or asymmetry, and concomitant malformations such as scoliosis and/or kyphosis influence the clinical course and success of VB therapy. According to our experience, we see three different groups of patients. Immediate elevation of the sternum was confirmed thoracoscopically during the Nuss procedure in every patient. Conclusions The VB therapy has been established as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients suffering from PE. The initial results up to now are encouraging, but long-term results comprising more than 15 years are so far lacking, and further evaluation and follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:27747177

  8. Polymers in a Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, J. M.

    2007-12-07

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. For an ideal chain, the time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a period proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short-range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation, but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory correlations.

  9. Rolling through a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaar, Jan Pieter; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We clarify under what conditions slow-roll inflation can continue almost undisturbed, while briefly evolving through a (semi-classically) metastable false vacuum. Furthermore, we look at potential signatures in the primordial power spectrum that could point towards the existence of traversed metastable false vacua. Interestingly, the theoretical constraints for the existence of traversable metastable vacua imply that Planck should be able to detect the resulting features in the primordial power spectrum. In other words, if Planck does not see features this immediately implies the non-existence of metastable false vacua rolled through during the inflationary epoch.

  10. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

    2013-07-01

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  11. Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. I.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.; Burris, H. R.; Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Ganguly, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) is a particle acceleration scheme which uses the non-linear ponderomotive beating of two different frequency laser beams to accelerate electrons. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the VBWA is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This experiment will use the beating of a 1054 nm and 527 nm laser pulse from the NRL T-cubed laser to generate the beat wave and a 4.5 MeV RF electron gun as the electron source. Simulation results and the experimental design will be presented. The suitability of using axicon or higher order Gaussian laser beams will also be discussed.

  12. Plasmons in QED vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, E. Yu.; Kudrin, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The problem of longitudinal oscillations of an electric field and a charge polarization density in a quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum is considered. Within the framework of semiclassical analysis, we calculate time-periodic solutions of bosonized (1 +1 )-dimensional QED (massive Schwinger model). Applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition, we determine the mass spectrum of charge-zero bound states (plasmons) which correspond in quantum theory to the found classical solutions. We show that the existence of such plasmons does not contradict any fundamental physical laws and study qualitatively their excitation in a (3 +1 )-dimensional real world.

  13. Thermal Vacuum Test Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-31

    tne power has a rear terminal sensor input for this Probe, use it. Otherwiseq connect the probe to the front panel. The end of the sensor should be...outlet on the front panel of the vacuum chamber. BUS CONNECTtONS: Plug the 1/0 expander card into one of the three calculator slots. Cover the other two...mating cable. Soth connectors on the slave disk are identical, so either one can be used. This cable also locks into place at each end . Connect the other

  14. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The

  15. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  16. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  17. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  18. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  19. Accelerator Vacuum Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Pradip; Kothari, Ashok; Archunan, M.; Joshi, Rajan

    2012-11-01

    A new and elaborate automatic vacuum protection system using fast acting valve has been installed to avoid accidental venting of accelerator from experimental chamber side. To cover all the beam lines and to reduce the system cost, it has been installed at a common point from where all the seven beam lines originate. The signals are obtained by placing fast response pressure sensing gauges (HV SENSOR) near all the experimental stations. The closing time of the fast valve is 10 milli-second. The fast closing system protects only one vacuum line at a time. At IUAC, we have seven beam lines so one sensor was placed in each of the beam lines near experimental chamber and a multiplexer was incorporated into the fast closing system. At the time of experiment, the sensor of the active beam line is selected through the multiplexer and the Fast closing valve is interlocked with the selected sensor. As soon as the pressure sensor senses the pressure rise beyond a selected pressure, the signal is transferred and the fast valve closes within 10 to 12 millisecond.

  20. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  1. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  2. LIGO vacuum system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

    1988-01-01

    A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

  3. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  4. Vacuum Energy Sequestering and Graviton Loops.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  5. Vacuum Energy Sequestering and Graviton Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  6. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  7. Design of a variable-conductance vacuum insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Potter, T F; Tracy, C E

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to the design of a variable-conductance vacuum insulation. In this design, the vacuum insulation consists of a permanently sealed, thin sheet steel, evacuated envelope of whatever geometry is required for the application. The steel envelope is supported internally against the atmospheric pressure loads by an array of discrete, low-conductance, ceramic supports, and radiative heat transfer is blocked by layers of thin metal radiation shields. Thermal conductance through this insulation is controlled electronically by changing the temperature of a small metal hydride connected to the vacuum envelope. The hydride reversibly absorbs/desorbs hydrogen to produce a hydrogen pressure typically within the range from less than 10{sup {minus}6} to as much as 1 torr. Design calculations are compared with results from laboratory tests of bench scale samples, and some possible automotive applications for this variable-conductance vacuum insulation are suggested.

  8. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration.

  9. Application of porcelain enamel as an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible electrical insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, C.; Hseuh, H.; Mapes, M.

    2000-07-01

    Many accelerator vacuum system components require electrical insulation internal to the vacuum system. Some accelerator components at Brookhaven National Laboratory are installed in ultra-high-vacuum systems which require the insulation to have excellent vacuum characteristics, be radiation resistant, and be able to withstand high temperatures when used on baked systems. Porcelain enamel satisfies all these requirements. This article describes the process and application of coating metal parts with porcelain enamel to provide electrical insulation. The mechanical and vacuum testing of Marman flanges coated with porcelain and using metal Helicoflex seals to form a zero-length electrical break are detailed. The use of porcelain enameled parts is attractive since it can be done quickly, is inexpensive and environmentally safe, and most of all satisfies stringent vacuum system requirements. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.

  10. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  11. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  12. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  13. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  14. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  15. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  16. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  17. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  18. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  19. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  1. Bubbling the false vacuum away

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiser, M.; Rogers, B.; Thorarinson, J.

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubblelike inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two- and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum, as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubblelike inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay--known as resonant nucleation--is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and crossover. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

  2. Vacuum Energy and Its Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, Lionel

    2009-10-01

    Intuitively one would think that a perfect vacuum should contain no energy. However, quantum mechanics asserts that virtual particles popping in and out of existence too fast to be observed directly should produce a non-zero average energy density for empty space. This presentation discusses how quantum mechanics predicts too large a value for this energy density, how the Casimir effect correctly predicts the measured value of the vacuum energy between closely spaced objects, how time-symmetric cosmology predicts the energy density of interstellar space, how vacuum energy produces negative pressure, how vacuum energy causes the current universe to accelerate its expansion, and why vacuum energy cannot be tapped so as to produce an inexhaustible source of energy for all mankind.

  3. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Decay of Bk246* formed in similar entrance channel reactions of B11+U235 and N14+Th232 at low energies using the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Birbikram; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2008-05-01

    The decay of the Bk246* nucleus, formed in entrance channel reactions B11+U235 and N14+Th232 at different incident energies, is studied by using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) extended to include the deformations and orientations of nuclei. The main decay mode here is fission. The other (weaker) decay channels are the light particles evaporation (A⩽4) and intermediate mass fragments (5⩽A⩽20). All decay products are calculated as emissions of preformed clusters through the interaction barriers. The calculated fission cross sections σfiss, taken as a sum of the energetically favored symmetric and near symmetric fragments (ACN/2±7 and A=106-110 plus complementary fragments) show an excellent agreement with experimental data at all experimental incident c.m. energies for both reactions, except for the top three energies in the case of the B11+U235 reaction. The disagreement between the DCM calculations and data at higher incident c.m. energies for the B11+U235 entrance channel is associated with the presence of additional effects of noncompound, quasifission (qf) components, in contradiction with the measured anisotropy effects which indicate the other entrance channel N14+Th232 to contain the noncompound nucleus contribution. The prediction of two fission windows, the symmetric fission (SF) and near symmetric or heavy mass fragments (HMFs), suggests the presence of a fine structure of fission fragments, which also need an experimental verification. The only parameter of the model is the neck length parameter ▵R whose value is shown to depend strongly on limiting angular momentum, which in turn depends on the use of sticking or nonsticking moment of inertia for angular momentum effects.

  5. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  6. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  7. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  8. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  9. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  10. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  11. [Optimizing the response to epidemics of meningococcal meningitis: report of a workshop of experts at CERMES (Niamey, Niger, 12th to 14th January 1998)].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Soula, G; Campagne, G; Rey, M

    1998-01-01

    Recent meningitis epidemics in West Africa have drawn attention to shortcomings in the response of the health services. The health ministries of the countries involved have identified particular requirements. Following WHO recommendations, OCCGE organized a meeting of experts at CERMES, Niamey, in January 1998. The aim of this workshop was to consider the problems common to these countries, identify their needs and to produce concrete recommendations defining the roles of OCCGE and CERMES. Difficulties in mobilization, as no procedure had been established, and a lack of resources limited the efficiency of the response to epidemics. There was also insufficient training of personnel and laboratory facilities were often inadequate. OCCGE could draft a procedure manual specifying tasks and responsibilities for the control of an epidemic. It was suggested that a sub-regional stock of drugs, vaccines and injection equipment should be set up at CERMES. This should improve the speed of the response and complement national and international distribution systems. The group stressed the importance of improving the surveillance of meningitis epidemics. This approach depends on a structured network based around a reference laboratory. CERMES plans to support government initiatives by training and by maintaining the network. Efforts will be made to report and make best use of epidemiological information at all levels of the "health pyramid". Some OCCGE institutes (e.g. IPR and CERMES) have computer tools such as the Geographical Information System, which can be made available to governments. Analysis of sub-regional epidemics demonstrated the limitations of an alert threshold of 15 cases per 100,000 people. The sensitivity and specificity of this threshold differs between climatic zones OCCGE recommends that each country carry out its own research to determine the most appropriate alert threshold for each zone. Epidemics are currently managed by treatment with short courses of

  12. Microfabrication Techniques for Millimeter Wave Vacuum Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    versus frequency of a serpentine wave guide slow-wave circuit. WEDM/SEDM: Wire/Sinker Electrical Discharge Machining. Figure 2. UV-LIGA process...2014. 4. A. M. Cook, et al., “Development of a wideband W- band serpentine waveguide TWT,” IEEE 14th Int’l Vac. Elec. Conf., Paris, France, May 2013.

  13. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  14. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  16. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  17. Vacuum phenomenon: Clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Ishan; Vilensky, Joel A; Weber, Edward C

    2014-04-01

    Vacuum phenomenon (VP) is an anatomical entity of potential confusion in the diagnosis and evaluation of joint pathology. Observation of this phenomenon has been demonstrated on basic radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although VP is most often associated with degenerative joint disease, it is observed with other pathologies. Two problematic scenarios can occur: a false-positive diagnosis of serious pathology instead of benign VP and a false-negative diagnosis of benign VP with a more serious underlying process Despite this potential for confusion, criteria for distinguishing VP from other causes of joint pain and for evaluating a suspected case of VP have not been fully established. We reviewed the literature to determine underlying mechanism, symptomology, associated pathologies, and clinical importance of VP. The formation of VP can be explained by gas solubility, pressure-volume relationships, and human physiology. CT, GRE-MRI, and multipositional views are the best imaging studies to view VP. Although most cases of VP are benign, it can be associated with clinical signs and symptoms. VP outside the spine is an underreported finding on imaging studies. VP should be on the differential diagnosis for joint pain, especially in the elderly. We have proposed criteria for diagnosing VP and generated a basic algorithm for its workup. Underreporting of this phenomenon shows a lack of awareness of VP on the part of physicians. By identifying true anatomic VP, we can prevent harm from suboptimal treatment of patients.

  18. Vacuum still bottoms viscometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, T.V.; Wilson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A viscometer system that is capable of measuring VSB viscosity on-line has been designed, constructed, and tested. The viscometer will not only provide continuous on-line measurements for process control purposes, but will also determine viscosity as functions of temperature and shear rate. The latter results may be used to verify design-base information for direct coal liquefaction demonstration plants. The viscosities of Wilsonville samples of VSB and LSRC were determined as functions of shear rate and, in the case of LSRC, temperature. The VSB viscosity was found to be shear-rate sensitive, while the LSRC viscosity was temperature sensitive. A 24-h test run was unsuccessful, apparently because the check valves in the pump plugged; however, all other mechanical, electrical, and electronic equipment operated satisfactorily. The source of the plugging was thought to be degradation products, which should not cause difficulties in the pilot plant where fresh vacuum bottoms feed is always available. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that the viscometer system is ready to be transported to a plant such as Wilsonville and operated on-line. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Precooler Ring Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Moenich, J.

    1980-10-02

    The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

  20. Quantum Vacuum Pathway Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habegger, Eric John

    2005-02-01

    It is theorized that the quantum vacuum is a random electromagnetic field that permeates the universe. It will be shown that acceleration between a quark and a random electromagnetic energy field is an analog of the reaction between a charge moving at constant velocity with respect to an organized electromagnetic field. The difference is that with a quark any natural perpendicular deflection during that motion, as predicted by Lorentz, is contained by the strong force, which results in a change in the angular momentum of the spin of a quark. The first derivative of the equations of motion of charges in an organized electromagnetic field may be used when applied to a random electromagnetic field to invoke the same fields modeled by Maxwell's equations. Mass is intimately bound up with a quark's spin angular momentum and the energy for that increase comes directly from the local field. The underlying randomness of the local field normally remains intact through these energy exchanges but it is speculated that in a quantum entanglement, an absolute level of order is imposed on the field along a path between two particles. This causes the non local effects seen in quantum entanglement. The mechanism that may cause this effect is discussed and a simple experiment is proposed that can test the hypothesis. Also discussed are new theoretical constructs for electromagnetic radiation, mass, the skin effect, self-inductance, superposition, and gravity. The emphasis will be on an intuitive and logical approach more than a mathematical approach.

  1. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    PubMed

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM.

  2. Fume incinerator with vacuum baffle

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.

    1994-01-04

    A single unit, shell and tube fume incinerator utilizes a vacuum baffle structure proximate a combustion zone to control the flow of combustion exhaust gas. The vacuum baffle is located slightly above the hot ends of a plurality of heat exchange tubes to deflect the hot exhaust gases from the combustion zone away from the ends of the tubes, and back to the outside of the tubes, thereby controlling the time at temperature'' for contaminants in the impure gas feed. A vacuum effect is created just below the baffle to draw cleansed exhaust below the baffle back up into the combustion zone to prevent the escape of impure gas. 3 figs.

  3. (Higgs) vacuum decay during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joti, Aris; Katsis, Aris; Loupas, Dimitris; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Urbano, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    We develop the formalism for computing gravitational corrections to vacuum decay from de Sitter space as a sub-Planckian perturbative expansion. Non-minimal coupling to gravity can be encoded in an effective potential. The Coleman bounce continuously deforms into the Hawking-Moss bounce, until they coincide for a critical value of the Hubble constant. As an application, we reconsider the decay of the electroweak Higgs vacuum during inflation. Our vacuum decay computation reproduces and improves bounds on the maximal inflationary Hubble scale previously computed through statistical techniques.

  4. Simulation modelling in vacuum engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, V. V.; Averyanov, G. P.; Ulin, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the latest version of a computer part of Vacuum Engineering laboratory in which means of fragmentary pumping and receiving of fine vacuum are studied. The virtual laboratory allows to carry out a heatup and processing of preselected surface materials of the pumped-out objects in acceptable time limits by using any means of preselected pumping (from the built-in database). It is possible to retrace online dynamics of receiving fine vacuum in time by having started the procedure of pumping.

  5. Vacuum applications of metal foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Several vacuum applications of copper foams in the density range 2-5% and pore sizes of 0.5-0.7 mm are discussed, such as a foreline hydrocarbon trap in a mechanical vacuum pump, a molecular-flow resistor, a diffuser, and a water injector. Other suggested applications include the use of foam copper in the form of an externally heated plug to remove traces of oxygen from inert gases bled into a vacuum system through a stainless steel line and the use of the porous surface for minimizing release of secondary electrons from electrodes in the path of charged particle beams.

  6. Photoelectron backscattering in vacuum phototubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Vasiliev, R. V.; Vyatchin, Y. E.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.

    2006-11-01

    In this article we describe results of studies of a photoelectron backscattering effect in vacuum phototubes: classical photomultipliers (PMT) and hybrid phototubes (PH). Late pulses occurring in PMTs are attributed to the photoelectron backscattering and distinguished from pulses due to an anode glow effect. The late pulses are measured in a number of PMTs and HPs with various photocathode sizes covering 1 50 cm range and different types of the first dynode materials and construction designs. It is shown that the late pulses are a generic feature of all vacuum photodetectors—PMTs and PHs—and they do not deteriorate dramatically amplitude and timing responses of vacuum phototubes.

  7. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20μW at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  8. Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Unzila A; Norwitz, Errol R

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 5% (1 in 20) of all deliveries in the United States are operative vaginal deliveries. The past 20 years have seen a progressive shift away from the use of forceps in favor of the vacuum extractor as the instrument of choice. This article reviews in detail the indications, contraindications, patient selection criteria, choice of instrument, and technique for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. The use of vacuum extraction at the time of cesarean delivery will also be discussed. With vacuum extraction becoming increasingly popular, it is important that obstetric care providers are aware of the maternal and neonatal risks associated with such deliveries and of the options available to effect a safe and expedient delivery. PMID:19399290

  9. [Wound healing after vacuum drainage].

    PubMed

    Davydov, Iu A; Larichev, A B; Abramov, A Iu

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum therapy was applied in the management of 63 patients with postoperative ventral hernias, 101 patients with a similar pathological conditions were treated by the traditional method for wound healing. From analysis of the results of treatment and with due consideration for the results of additional methods of examination it was established that vacuum prevents accumulation of exudate and blood clots in the wound cavity and removes the risk medium for the development of pyo-inflammatory complications. Moreover, by promoting the coming together of the wound edges and liquidation of the wound cavity, vacuum therapy affects the metabolic reorganizations in the tissues and leads to stabilization of the regeneration mechanisms. The use of vacuum therapy in the postoperative period creates the possibility of regulating the reparative reactions through an active effect on the healing of the wound in the phase of inflammation, protecting in this manner the biology of the wound process and preventing infectious complications.

  10. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  11. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. IRIS Leaves Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows the transportation of the IRIS observatory from the thermal vacuum chamber back to the clean tent for final testing and preparations for delivery to the launch site at Vandenberg A...

  13. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  14. Silicon source for vacuum deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, G. W.; Rutecki, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Device using two independent silicon sources for ultra-high-vacuum deposition on large substrates can deposit P and N types of silicon simultaneously. Efficient water cooled copper shield supports and cools structure and isolates two filaments.

  15. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  16. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  17. VACUUM DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book deals with methods of obtaining and processing thin films , methods of measuring the deposition rate and thickness of thin-film layers, and...the main fields of application of thin films . Vacuum requirements and the requirements for the composition of the residual medium in thermal...evaporation and cathode sputtering are given, and modern methods of producing and measuring vacuums and the equipment used in obtaining thin films are described. (Author)

  18. Approximating Fluid Flow from Ambient to Very Low Pressures: Modeling ISS Experiments that Vent to Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Two ISS (International Space Station) experiment payloads will vent a volume of gas overboard via either the ISS Vacuum Exhaust System or the Vacuum Resource System. A system of ducts, valves and sensors, under design, will connect the experiments to the ISS systems. The following tasks are required: Create an analysis tool that will verify the rack vacuum system design with respect to design requirements, more specifically approximate pressure at given locations within the vacuum systems; Determine the vent duration required to achieve desired pressure within the experiment modules; Update the analysis as systems and operations definitions mature.

  19. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  20. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  1. Vacuum Systems Consensus Guideline for Department of Energy Accelerator Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Casey,R.; Haas, E.; Hseuh, H-C.; Kane, S.; Lessard, E.; Sharma, S.; Collins, J.; Toter, W. F.; Olis, D. R.; Pushka, D. R.; Ladd, P.; Jobe, R. K.

    2008-09-09

    Vacuum vessels, including evacuated chambers and insulated jacketed dewars, can pose a potential hazard to equipment and personnel from collapse, rupture due to back-fill pressurization, or implosion due to vacuum window failure. It is therefore important to design and operate vacuum systems in accordance with applicable and sound engineering principles. 10 CFR 851 defines requirements for pressure systems that also apply to vacuum vessels subject to back-fill pressurization. Such vacuum vessels are potentially subject to the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII (hereafter referred to as the 'Code'). However, the scope of the Code excludes vessels with internal or external operating pressure that do not exceed 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Therefore, the requirements of the Code do not apply to vacuum systems provided that adequate pressure relief assures that the maximum internal pressure within the vacuum vessel is limited to less than 15 psig from all credible pressure sources, including failure scenarios. Vacuum vessels that cannot be protected from pressurization exceeding 15 psig are subject to the requirements of the Code. 10 CFR 851, Appendix A, Part 4, Pressure Safety, Section C addresses vacuum system requirements for such cases as follows: (c) When national consensus codes are not applicable (because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc.), contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local code. Measures must include the following: (1) Design drawings, sketches, and calculations must be reviewed and approved by a qualified independent design professional (i.e., professional engineer). Documented organizational peer review is acceptable. (2) Qualified personnel must be used to perform examinations and

  2. 14th Annual School Construction Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    School construction remains high, but not as high as it has been over the last eight years. Projections for the future (projects expected to be completed and/or started in 2009) show a significant decline. Capital budgets may be in place, but the economic hard times and forced cuts in many local school programs are having an effect on construction…

  3. Special 14 juillet (July 14th Special).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubreuilh, Jean-Luc; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles on France's Bastille Day and its significance to the French over the two centuries of its celebration presents the viewpoints of the historian, writer, painter, film industry, and singer and provides materials and instructional ideas for classroom use. (MSE)

  4. 14th Annual Small Business Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-18

    will be presented on timely subjects of special interest. The agenda offers a variety of topics designed to meet the varying needs of contractors...This breakout session is designed to help Small Businesses compete more effectively under RFPs where award will be made on a Source Selection Trade...Founder & CEO, JANSON Communications This session is designed to increase the participant’s understanding of “Strategic Communications” and their

  5. 14th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-19

    USN, Deputy Commander, Military Sealift Command Wednesday, 18 November, 2009 GUEST SPEAKER · Vice Admiral Kevin McCoy, USN, Commander, Naval...Resources in Support of Expeditionary Warfare in Complex Joint Operating Environments Moderator: Rear Admiral Kevin Scott, USN, Deputy Director for...00 AM Conference Remarks 8:00 - 8:45 AM Guest Speaker Vice Admiral Kevin McCoy, USN, Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command 8:45 - 9:50 AM

  6. Section 619 Profile. 14th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan, Ed.; Kraus, Robert, Ed.; Armijo, Caroline, Ed.; Hipps, Cherie, Ed.; Cory, Steven, Ed.; Lazara, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This 2006 edition of the Section 619 Profile updates information on state policies, programs, and practices under the Preschool Grants Program (Section 619 of Part B) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It presents current and/or historical information for all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, which are…

  7. International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions (14th) Held in Palo Alto, California on 24-30 July 1985 (Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Invited Papers)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    the quantum -beat phenomenon well known in e.g. beai;>-foil spectroscopy. Since the symmetry axes stay fixed in time the plot has been made for Y=0...charges ZT , Z p and masses MT , Np of the target and projectile respectively, as well as by the initial and final bound state quantum numbers which I...ionization rates for any combination of magnetic quantum numbers, as well as off-diagonal terms, which depend on the relative phases of the scattering ampli

  8. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology (14th) Held in Marineland, Florida on March 12-14 1987. Annual Sanibel Symposia (27th). Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    fashion. All experimental experience indicates that cancer is connected with some form of damage to the genetic code and its regulatory behavior...give a rather good agreement with experiment and suggests that they can be used to predict equilibrium constants in other cases where no experimental ...established experimentally , for example, by a study of the magnetic properties of water by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. It has been

  9. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  10. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  11. Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost...high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging requirements. The program balanced the need for...near term component and wafer-level vacuum packaging with the development of advanced high density wafer-level packaging solutions. Three vacuum

  12. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  13. Impact of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration into Lettuce Tissue▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiping; Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Osburn, Bennie I.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum cooling is a common practice in the California leafy green industry. This study addressed the impact of vacuum cooling on the infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce as part of the risk assessment responding to the E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with leafy green produce from California. Vacuum cooling significantly increased the infiltration of E. coli O157:H7 into the lettuce tissue (2.65E+06 CFU/g) compared to the nonvacuumed condition (1.98E+05 CFU/g). A stringent surface sterilization and quadruple washing could not eliminate the internalized bacteria from lettuce. It appeared that vacuuming forcibly changed the structure of lettuce tissue such as the stomata, suggesting a possible mechanism of E. coli O157:H7 internalization. Vacuuming also caused a lower reduction rate of E. coli O157:H7 in stored lettuce leaves than that for the nonvacuumed condition. PMID:18344328

  14. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  15. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  16. Vacuum-assisted cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2017-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the frequency of cesarean sections, surpassing 30% of all deliveries in the US. This upsurge, coupled with a decreasing willingness to allow vaginal birth after cesarean section, has resulted in an expansion of the use of vacuum assistance to safely extract the fetal head. By avoiding the use of a delivering hand or forceps blade, the volume being delivered through the uterine incision can be decreased when the vacuum is used properly. Reducing uterine extensions with their associated complications (eg, excessive blood loss) in difficult cases is also a theoretical advantage of vacuum delivery. Maternal discomfort related to excessive fundal pressure may also be lessened. To minimize the risk of neonatal morbidity, proper cup placement over the “flexion point” remains essential to maintain vacuum integrity and reduce the chance of inadvertent detachment and uterine extensions. Based on the published literature and pragmatic clinical experience, utilization of the vacuum device is a safe and effective technique to assist delivery during cesarean section. PMID:28331371

  17. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  18. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  19. Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  20. Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.

    PubMed

    Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  1. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  2. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  3. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  5. Environmental Testing in Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Inside a thermal vacuum at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, technicians prepare NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for environmental testing.

    The Phoenix lander was encapsulated in its aeroshell -- which included both the back shell and heat shield -- as it was subjected to extreme cold and heat in a vacuum, space-like condition. The spacecraft undergoes extensive environmental testing to confirm Phoenix will perform in the extreme conditions it will experience during its trip from Earth to Mars, during its arrival and landing, and while it works on the surface of Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  7. Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Crane lifting the GPM Core Observatory into position for TVAC testing. Credit: NASA/Goddard The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international partnership co-led by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) that will provide next-generation global observations of precipitation from space. GPM will study global rain, snow and ice to better understand our climate, weather, and hydrometeorological processes. As of Novermber 2013 the GPM Core Observatory is in the final stages of testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The satellite will be flown to Japan in the fall of 2013 and launched into orbit on an HII-A rocket in early 2014. For more on the GPM mission, visit gpm.gsfc.nasa.gov/. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Vacuum-jacketed line spacer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houte, F. A.; Mckee, H. B.; Patten, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    Device has three integral, equally spaced leaf springs. Springs separate outer vacuum jacket from fluid carrying line, yet minimize conductive heat leaks and liquid boiloff. One-piece heat spring has sufficient flexibility to accommodate differential thermal expansion of inner and outer line.

  9. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  10. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  11. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  12. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  13. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  14. Vacuum mounting for piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiede, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Special housing couples piezoelectric transducers to nonporous surfaces for ultrasonic or acoustic-emission testing. Device, while providing sound isolation on flat or nonflat surfaces, can be attached and detached quickly. Vacuum sealing mechanism eliminates need for permanent or semipermanent bonds, viscous coupling liquids, weights, magnets, tape, or springs ordinarily used.

  15. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  16. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  17. Quantum gravity without vacuum dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coumbe, D. N.

    A generic prediction of quantum gravity is the vacuum dispersion of light, and hence that a photon’s speed depends on its energy. We present further numerical evidence for a scale-dependent speed of light in the causal dynamical triangulation (CDT) approach to quantum gravity. We show that the observed scale-dependent speed of light in CDT can be accounted for by a scale-dependent transformation of geodesic distance, whose specific functional form implies a discrete equidistant area spectrum. We make two nontrivial tests of the proposed scale transformation: a comparison with the leading-order quantum correction to the gravitational potential and a comparison with the generalized uncertainty principle. In both cases, we obtain the same functional form. However, contrary to the widespread prediction of vacuum dispersion in quantum gravity, numerous experiments have now definitively ruled out linear vacuum dispersion beyond Planckian energy scales EP, and have even constrained quadratic dispersion at the level ˜ 10‑8E P. Motivated by these experimental constraints, we seek to reconcile quantum gravity with the absence of vacuum dispersion. We point out that given a scale-dependent geodesic distance, a scale-dependent time interval becomes essential to maintaining an invariant speed of light. We show how a particular scale-dependent time interval allows a photon’s speed to remain independent of its energy.

  18. Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-12-05

    Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

  19. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  20. Vacuum pumping system for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    St. Onge, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

  1. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

  2. Conformal invariant vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. I.; Dolgaya, E. E.; Sokolov, V. A.; Denisova, I. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a general case of conformal invariant vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics is studied. We analyze the consistency of this electrodynamics model with fundamental principles such as causality, unitarity, and the Ellis-Hawking dominant energy condition. Certain features of the electromagnetic waves in this model are investigated.

  3. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  4. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  5. Air-vacuum transfer; establishing traceability to the new kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Stuart; Berry, James; Abbott, Patrick; Marti, Kilian; Green, Richard; Malengo, Andrea; Nielsen, Lars

    2016-10-01

    The redefinition of the kilogram, along with another three of the base units of the International System of Units (SI), is scheduled for 2018. The current definition of the SI unit of mass assigns a mass of exactly one kilogram to the International Prototype of the kilogram, which is maintained in air and from which the unit is disseminated. The new definition, which will be from the Planck constant, involves the realisation of the mass unit in vacuum by the watt balance or Avogadro experiments. Thus, for the effective dissemination of the mass unit from the primary realisation experiments to end users, traceability of mass standards transferred between vacuum and air needs to be established and the associated uncertainties well understood. This paper describes a means of achieving the link between a unit realised in vacuum and standards used in air, and the ways in which their use can be optimised. It also investigates the likely uncertainty contribution introduced by the vacuum-air transfer process.

  6. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m{sup 3}/min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years.

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  8. Phoenix Lowered into Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander was lowered into a thermal vacuum chamber at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in December 2006.

    The spacecraft was folded in its aeroshell and underwent environmental testing that simulated the extreme conditions the spacecraft will see during its nine-and-a-half-month cruse to Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  10. Phoenix Lowered into Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander was lowered into a thermal vacuum chamber at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in December 2006.

    The spacecraft was folded in its aeroshell and underwent environmental testing that simulated the extreme conditions the spacecraft will see during its nine-and-a-half-month cruse to Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  12. International Conference in Computational Cell Biology: From the Past to the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-12

    International Conference in Computational Cell Biology : from the past to the future The first International Conference on Computational Cell... Biology (ICCCB) was successfully held at Blacksburg, Virginia from August 14th to 16th, 2013. Over 100 researchers were gathered at Blacksburg to present...their latest research and discussed challenges in computational cell biology research and education. The views, opinions and/or findings contained in

  13. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  14. Ceramic-to-metal vacuum seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackerlotzky, O. H.

    1979-01-01

    Knife-edge sealing technique forms reliable, vacuum-tight bonds between materials having very different thermal-expansion characteristics. Seal is thin and flexible and absorb shear, hoop, and bonding stresses at joint so that seal remains vacuum tight.

  15. Rating of electrical wires in vacuum environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. L.; Svenson, F. C.

    1968-01-01

    Electric conductors used in vacuum environments have smaller cross sections. This report provides data on the correct size wire for a required current load in free-air, low-pressure oxygen, and vacuum environments.

  16. Materials for ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.

    1989-08-15

    This report discusses materials for use in ultrahigh vacuum systems of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} Torr or lower. The author briefly discusses alloys, solders, insulators and joining methods for vacuum systems. (JDL)

  17. Breakdown-Resistant RF Connectors for Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caro, Edward R.; Bonazza, Walter J.

    1987-01-01

    Resilient inserts compensate for insulation shrinkage. Coaxial-cable connector for radio-frequency (RF) energy resists electrical breakdown in vacuum. Used on RF equipment in vacuum chambers as well as in spaceborne radar and communication gear.

  18. Vacuum arc deposited DLC based coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

    2002-05-01

    The great interest in the use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as a coating material is justified by the superior wear resistance and hardness, chemical inertness, and very low friction coefficients of these coatings. Vacuum arc deposition is well suited to prepare superhard films with high sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratios. However, the high level of internal stresses originating during growth prevents the deposition of thick films, and their hardness makes it difficult for DLC layers to comply with substrate deformations. In order to overcome these limitations, different approaches are possible. Multilayer structures are one means to maintain the surface mechanical properties of the DLC while relieving the internal stresses. Another possibility is to dope the DLC films in order to reduce the internal stress and to stabilize the desirable sp{sup 3} bonds to higher temperatures. At higher doses of dopants, the formation of nanocrystals is possible and the properties of the coatings change drastically. All these approaches were investigated on films prepared by cathodic arc and a synthesis of the results is presented here.

  19. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  1. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  2. Drying leather with vacuum and toggling sequentially

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated a drying method that will enable leather to be dried under vacuum and stretch sequentially to improve area yield. Vacuum drying offers fast speed at a low temperature, which would be advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leather. Adding a toggle action after vacuum drying cou...

  3. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  4. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  5. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  6. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  8. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  10. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  12. The APS beamline front end vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, R.W.

    1993-10-15

    This report discusses the design of the vacuum system for the advanced photon source beamline front ends. Included in this report are discussions on: vacuum calculations, the differential pump; front end vacuum set points; cleaning methods and agents; and continuing and completed research and development.

  13. Ion pump provides increased vacuum pumping speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Multiple-cell ion pumps with increased vacuum pumping speed are used for producing ultrahigh vacuums in vacuum tubes and mass spectrometers. The pump has eight cathode-anode magnetron cells arranged in a cylinder which increase the surface area of the cathode.

  14. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  15. Gravitational vacuum polarization. II. Energy conditions in the Boulware vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1996-10-01

    Building on techniques developed in the preceding paper, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the Boulware vacuum. I work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. In contradistinction to the case of the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, wherein violations of the energy conditions were confined to the region between the event horizon and the unstable photon orbit, I show that in the Boulware vacuum (1) all standard (pointwise and averaged) energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) outside the event horizon the standard pointwise energy conditions are violated in a maximal manner: They are violated at all points and for all null or timelike vectors. (The region inside the event horizon is considerably messier and of dubious physical relevance. Nevertheless, the standard pointwise energy conditions seem to be violated even inside the event horizon.) I argue that this is highly suggestive evidence, pointing to the fact that general self-consistent solutions of semiclassical quantum gravity might {ital not} satisfy the energy conditions and may in fact for certain quantum fields and certain quantum states violate {ital all} the energy conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. A simple, high-yield, apparatus for NEG coating of vacuum beamline elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, Guy; Oort, Ron; Lee, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) materials are extremely useful in vacuum systems for achieving Ultra High Vacuum. Recently, these materials have been used to coat the inner surfaces of vacuum components, acting as an internal, passive, vacuum pump. We have constructed a low cost apparatus, which allows coating of very small diameter vacuum tubes, used as differential pumping stages. Despite the relative ease of construction, we are routinely able to achieve high coating yields. We further describe an improvement to our system, which is able to achieve the same yield, at an even lower complexity by using an easily manufactured permanent magnet arrangement. The designs described are extendible to virtually any combination of length and diameter of the components to be coated.

  17. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martin Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-15

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  18. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  19. Open vacuum tube in space.

    PubMed

    Gonfalone, A A; Arends, H J

    1979-11-01

    After having reviewed briefly the reliability of vacuum tubes on spacecraft, it is shown that the operation in space of a vacuum tube with an open structure is possible provided adequate measures are taken. The tube considered here is a multielectrode electron gun emitting electrons into space, in order to control the potential of a satellite. To avoid the failure of the most sensitive element of the gun, namely the impregnated tungsten cathode, the gun design includes such characteristics as a slow warming up of the heater element, a reactivation program used in case of cathode contamination, and a clean opening system which is not contaminant. Similarities with communication tubes are considered and the advantages of open tubes are mentioned.

  20. In-vacuum exposure shutter

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry A.; Replogle, William C.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2004-06-01

    An in-vacuum radiation exposure shutter device can be employed to regulate a large footprint light beam. The shutter device includes (a) a source of radiation that generates an energy beam; (2) a shutter that includes (i) a frame defining an aperture toward which the energy beam is directed and (ii) a plurality of blades that are secured to the frame; and (3) device that rotates the shutter to cause the plurality of blades to intercept or allow the energy beam to travel through the aperture. Each blade can have a substantially planar surface and the plurality of blades are secured to the frame such that the planar surfaces of the plurality of blades are substantially parallel to each other. The shutter device is particularly suited for operation in a vacuum environment and can achieve shuttering speeds from about 0.1 second to 0.001 second or faster.

  1. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-11-21

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

  2. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{μ ν α β }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  3. Deflated--victims of vacuum.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Roy E

    2007-04-11

    Atmospheric pressure combined with a partial vacuum within chemical plant or refinery tanks can result in some ego-deflating moments. This article will review three catastrophic vessel failures in detail and touch on several other incidents. A 4000-gal acid tank was destroyed by a siphoning action; a well maintained tank truck was destroyed during a routine delivery; and a large, brand new refinery mega-vessel collapsed as the steam within it condensed. Seasoned engineers are aware of the frail nature of tanks and provide safeguards or procedures to limit damages. The purpose of this paper is to ensure this new generation of chemical plant/refinery employees understand the problems of the past and take the necessary precautions to guard against tank damages created by partial vacuum conditions.

  4. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  5. Decoherence delays false vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.

    2013-05-01

    We show that gravitational interactions between massless thermal modes and a nucleating Coleman-de Luccia bubble may lead to efficient decoherence and strongly suppress metastable vacuum decay for bubbles that are small compared to the Hubble radius. The vacuum decay rate including gravity and thermal photon interactions has the exponential scaling \\Gamma \\sim \\Gamma _{CDL}^{2}, where ΓCDL is the Coleman-de Luccia decay rate neglecting photon interactions. For the lowest metastable initial state an efficient quantum Zeno effect occurs due to thermal radiation of temperatures as low as the de Sitter temperature. This strong decoherence effect is a consequence of gravitational interactions with light external mode. We argue that efficient decoherence does not occur for the case of Hawking-Moss decay. This observation is consistent with requirements set by Poincaré recurrence in de Sitter space.

  6. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  7. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  8. 6 MV Vacuum Voltmeter Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    reversed). The draw rod compresses o-ring seals between the insulators and rings to allow operation in vacuum. The insulator outer surfaces are coated...small-diameter ends, and have toroidal conductors attached at their large-diameter ends. The field shaper surfaces are treated to increase the...the direction to emit electrons toward the VVM insulator stack. The field magnitude is about 0.5 MV/cm, and would probably emit without the surface

  9. The solar vacuum water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ryduchowski, K.W.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper the conception of the solar vacuum water pump is presented. The working medium of the pump consists of the water vapour with temperature about 100/sup 0/C, which is produced by solar energy Fresnel-lens collector. The pressure difference between the condensing chamber /3/ and ambient atmosphere caused by the direct condensation of the water vapour at the surface of the pumped water, creates the necessary pumping force.

  10. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  11. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  12. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Chng, Brenda; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  13. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  14. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  15. Compound Walls For Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed compound-wall configuration enables construction of large high-vacuum chambers without having to use thick layers of expensive material to obtain necessary strength. Walls enclose chambers more than 1 m in diameter and several kilometers long. Compound wall made of strong outer layer of structural-steel culvert pipe welded to thin layer of high-quality, low-outgassing stainless steel.

  16. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  17. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z≈ 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8π/3)ρV]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ρV is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.

  18. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  19. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  20. Matter, spacetime and the vacuum.

    PubMed

    Overduin, J; Fahr, H J

    2001-12-01

    We distinguish three historical and scientific views of matter, spacetime, and the relationship between them: the absolute approach of Newton, the relational approach most often associated with Mach, and a third, geometrical approach which inspired Einstein and continues to drive efforts toward a unified theory of fundamental interactions today. Which is correct? We suggest that this is, to a large extent, an "ill-posed question," reminiscent of the wave/particle debate in earlier times. The boundary between matter and spacetime is no longer easy to draw, and it is likely that they are complementary aspects of the same reality. There is no clearer illustration of this than the modern view of the vacuum. We review the importance of this concept in cosmology, and explore the extent to which the old idea of an "empty" vacuum might still be maintained. If the real cosmological vacuum is far from empty, as observations now suggest, then it may be possible to achieve an even simpler goal: a Universe with a net energy of zero.

  1. Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

    We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

  2. Vacuum Technology and Standardization-An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, H. M.; Rashid, H.

    2011-06-01

    Vacuum technology has been vital for the progress in almost every field of modern industrial & scientific research and technological developments. Research in this field is therefore important for the rapid progress in other sophisticated technologies. The modern society require precise know-how of vacuum metrology for its complex and sophisticated manufacturing processes and research activities. Accuracy in vacuum measurements is therefore an essential need for every application. The required accuracy is achieved with the help of well-calibrated vacuum gauges and this is possible only, if there exist proper vacuum standards of required range and accuracy. In this paper, a brief review of recently developed different vacuum standards, namely Standard Mercury Manometer, Standard Volume Expansion System and Standard Orifice Flow System will be presented, employed for the calibration of low, medium and high vacuum gauges respectively. Our recently developed standards are simple in design, least in vibration & degassing rate with desired accuracy, ease of operation and cost effective.

  3. Compactified Vacuum in Ten Dimensions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurmser, Daniel

    1987-09-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M ^4 and a "compactified" space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum be annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. Recently, it has been proposed that gravity in more than four dimensions may involve terms of higher order in the curvature as well as the linear terms present in ordinary general relativity. I illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S^6 where S ^6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. I explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The example M^4 times S^6 is still plagued by the semi -classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a

  4. High throughput vacuum chemical epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Malocsay, E.; Sundaram, V.; Baird, R. W.; Mao, B. Y.; Lee, G. Y.

    1990-10-01

    We have developed a vacuum chemical epitaxy (VCE) reactor which avoids the use of arsine and allows multiple wafers to be coated at one time. Our vacuum chemical epitaxy reactor closely resembles a molecular beam epitaxy system in that wafers are loaded into a stainless steel vacuum chamber through a load chamber. Also as in MBE, arsenic vapors are supplied as reactant by heating solid arsenic sources thereby avoiding the use of arsine. However, in our VCE reactor, a large number of wafers are coated at one time in a vacuum system by the substitution of Group III alkyl sources for the elemental metal sources traditionally used in MBE. Higher wafer throughput results because in VCE, the metal-alkyl sources for Ga, Al, and dopants can be mixed at room temperature and distributed uniformly though a large area injector to multiple substrates as a homogeneous array of mixed element molecular beams. The VCE reactor that we have built and that we shall describe here uniformly deposits films on 7 inch diameter substrate platters. Each platter contains seven two inch or three 3 inch diameter wafers. The load chamber contains up to nine platters. The vacuum chamber is equipped with two VCE growth zones and two arsenic ovens, one per growth zone. Finally, each oven has a 1 kg arsenic capacity. As of this writing, mirror smooth GaAs films have been grown at up to 4 μm/h growth rate on multiple wafers with good thickness uniformity. The background doping is p-type with a typical hole concentration and mobility of 1 × 10 16/cm 3 and 350 cm 2/V·s. This background doping level is low enough for the fabrication of MESFETs, solar cells, and photocathodes as well as other types of devices. We have fabricated MESFET devices using VCE-grown epi wafers with peak extrinsic transconductance as high as 210 mS/mm for a threshold voltage of - 3 V and a 0.6 μm gate length. We have also recently grown AlGaAs epi layers with up to 80% aluminum using TEAl as the aluminum alkyl source. The Al

  5. Numerical investigations in the backflow region of a vacuum plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Goang-Shin

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this research is to numerically simulate the vacuum plume flow field in the backflow region of a low thrust nozzle exit. In space applications, the low thrust nozzles are used as a propulsion device to control the vehicle attitude, or to maneuver the vehicle flight trajectory. When the spacecraft is deployed in the orbit or cruising in a planetary mission, the vacuum plume is created behind the nozzle exit (so called backflow region), by the exhausting gas of the propulsion system or by venting internal gas to the extremely low density ambient. The low density vacuum plume flow regions cover the continuum, transitional and free molecular flow regimes, which were characterized by the Knudsen number K(sub n), K(sub n) = lambda(sub m)/L where lambda(sub m) is the mean free path of the gas molecules and L is the characteristic length of the flow field. The transitional regime is defined by 0.01 is less than or equal to K(sub n) is less than or equal to 10. The conventional Navier-Stokes equations are valid only in the flow region close to the nozzle exit since the validity of the Navier-Stokes equations fails asymptotically as the Knudsen number increases. The vacuum plume characteristics prediction is primarily a problem of transitional aerodynamics.

  6. Numerical investigations in the backflow region of a vacuum plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Goang-Shin

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to numerically simulate the vacuum plume flow field in the backflow region of a low thrust nozzle exit. In space applications, the low thrust nozzles are used as a propulsion device to control the vehicle attitude, or to maneuver the vehicle flight trajectory. When the spacecraft is deployed in the orbit or cruising in a planetary mission, the vacuum plume is created behind the nozzle exit (so called backflow region), by the exhausting gas of the propulsion system or by venting internal gas to the extremely low density ambient. The low density vacuum plume flow regions cover the continuum, transitional and free molecular flow regimes, which were characterized by the Knudsen number K(sub n), K(sub n) = lambda(sub m)/L where lambda(sub m) is the mean free path of the gas molecules and L is the characteristic length of the flow field. The transitional regime is defined by 0.01 is less than or equal to K(sub n) is less than or equal to 10. The conventional Navier-Stokes equations are valid only in the flow region close to the nozzle exit since the validity of the Navier-Stokes equations fails asymptotically as the Knudsen number increases. The vacuum plume characteristics prediction is primarily a problem of transitional aerodynamics.

  7. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  8. Radiated Susceptibility Tests in Thermal Vacuum Chambers for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anon Cancela, Manuel; Hernandez-Gomez, Daniel; Vazquez-Pascual, Mercedes; Lopez-Sanz, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    INTA EMC Area has a wide experience in performing Radiated Susceptibility (RS) tests according to civilian, military and aeronautical standards in Mode Tuned Chambers (MTC) for national and international projects; besides, INTA has two Thermal Vacuum Chamber (TVC) facilities in service for Space Systems tests. In order to perform RS tests to Space Systems in a more realistic environment, INTA EMC Area has stablished an internal research program to develop a procedure to perform this kind of tests inside a TVC as a Mode Tuned Chamber (MTC). In this paper the results of the TVC-04 validation measurements as a MTC are presented.

  9. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perico, E. L. D.; Tamayo, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ(H2) or Λ(R). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by bar PΛ = - bar rhoΛ, relating its background pressure bar PΛ with its mean energy density bar rhoΛ ≡ Λ/8πG. This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely bar rhoΛ = Σibar rhoΛi. Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ(H2) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ(R) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  10. Gravitational vacuum polarization. IV. Energy conditions in the Unruh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1997-07-01

    Building on a series of earlier papers, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions in the Unruh vacuum. I consider the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field, work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. I construct a semianalytic model for the stress-energy tensor that globally reproduces all known numerical results to within 0.8{percent}, and satisfies all known analytic features of the stress-energy tensor. I show that in the Unruh vacuum (1) all standard pointwise energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) the averaged null energy condition is violated on all outgoing radial null geodesics. In a pair of appendices I indicate a general strategy for constructing semianalytic models for the stress-energy tensor in the Hartle-Hawking and Boulware states, and show that the Page approximation is in a certain sense the minimal {ital Ansatz} compatible with general properties of the stress energy in the Hartle-Hawking state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Case study: Vacuuming for VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A.; Mazowiecki, C.R.

    1996-06-01

    The soil-vapor extraction system, which draws VOC-laden vapors from the subsurface, has become a popular remediation tool. The soil-vapor extraction (SVE) system, also know as {open_quotes}venting,{close_quotes} has proven to be a popular and cost-effective choice to remediate sites contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose zone. The SVE system includes airflow in the subsurface by applying a vacuum through extraction wells. The system is described in this article, with a report on performance monitoring included.

  12. Nature Abhors an Empty Vacuum,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Schrodingers cat .) Perhaps it migt still be possible to approximate the standard view (in which "observations" replace mixed states by pure states) in...8217AD-A106 362 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTE--ETC F/ S 20/10I NATURE ABHORS AN EMPTY VACUUM,(U) AUG Si M MINSKY N0001479’C-0260...COVERED S ŕ Nature Abhors an Empty Vacuumemorandum _ _ _ _ _A. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER J. AUTHN0R(a) S .. CONTRACT onGRANT NUM0E .,- ’.A Marvin

  13. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  14. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  15. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  16. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  17. Vacuum Decay via Lorentzian Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, J. L.

    We speculate about the space-time description due to the presence of Lorentzian worm-holes (handles in space-time joining two distant regions or other universes) in quantum gravity. The semiclassical rate of production of these Lorentzian wormholes in Reissner-Nordström space-times is calculated as a result of the spontaneous decay of vacuum due to a real tunneling configuration. In the magnetic case it only depends on the value of the field theoretical fine structure constant. We predict that the quantum probability corresponding to the nucleation of such geodesically complete space-times should be acutally negligible in our physical Universe.

  18. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  19. Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

    2010-09-10

    We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

  20. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  1. Robot design for a vacuum environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

    1987-01-01

    The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

  2. Casimir Repulsion between Metallic Objects in Vacuum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-27

    Casimir Repulsion between Metallic Objects in Vacuum Michael Levin,1 Alexander P. McCauley,2 Alejandro W. Rodriguez,2 M. T. Homer Reid,2 and Steven G...Received 19 March 2010; published 26 August 2010) We give an example of a geometry in which two metallic objects in vacuum experience a repulsive Casimir ...12.20.m Introduction.—The Casimir force between two parallel metal plates in vacuum is always attractive. A longstanding question is whether this is

  3. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

  4. Invariant solutions for the static vacuum equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leandro, Benedito; Pina, Romildo

    2017-07-01

    We consider the static vacuum Einstein space-time when the spatial factor (or, base) is conformal to a pseudo-Euclidean space, which is invariant under the action of a translation group. We characterize all such solitons. Moreover, we give examples of static vacuum Einstein solutions for Einstein's field equation. Applications provide an explicit example of a complete static vacuum Einstein space-time.

  5. Foil Patches Seal Small Vacuum Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.; Reed, David W.

    1995-01-01

    Report discloses technique to patch holes in nickel-alloy rocket-engine nozzle parts prior to vacuum brazing. Technique involves lightly spot-welding nickel foil 0.002 in. thick over hole patched, then spot-welding corrosion-resistant steel foil of same thickness over nickel foil. Once patches subject to pressure and temperature of vacuum brazing, nickel foil diffuses to bond with nickel-alloy nozzle, making vacuum-tight seal.

  6. Foil Patches Seal Small Vacuum Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.; Reed, David W.

    1995-01-01

    Report discloses technique to patch holes in nickel-alloy rocket-engine nozzle parts prior to vacuum brazing. Technique involves lightly spot-welding nickel foil 0.002 in. thick over hole patched, then spot-welding corrosion-resistant steel foil of same thickness over nickel foil. Once patches subject to pressure and temperature of vacuum brazing, nickel foil diffuses to bond with nickel-alloy nozzle, making vacuum-tight seal.

  7. Soft Photon Effects on Vacuum Power Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Voltage as Function of Insulator Angle ............... 14 6. Vacuum Flashover Component Configuration ....................... 20 7. Radiation Temperature ...application. First, when an insulator is used in a vacuum , its ability to stand off voltage is severely limited on and near its surface . Bulk breakdown...investigate the following two problem areas inherent in vacuum nower flow under soft photon fluence: 1. Insulator Flashover : When a voltage is applied

  8. Polymer Lubricants For Use In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes tests of lubricating properties of 10 polymer-based materials - in particular, polyimides - in vacuum. Commercially available materials, in forms of solid bodies and films on metals, were tested on pin-on-disk apparatus in vacuum. Best low-wear, low-friction material was 80 PMDA/20 BTDA solid-body polyimide. Friction and wear properties of most polyimides so good in vacuum that solid-lubricant additives not necessary.

  9. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  10. LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

  11. Thin film microelectronics materials production in the vacuum of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, A.; Sterling, M.; Horton, C.; Freundlich, A.; Pei, S.; Hill, R.

    1997-01-01

    The international Space Station era will open up a new dimension in the use of one of the unique attributes of space, vacuum, for the production of advanced semiconductor materials and devices for microelectronics applications. Ultra-vacuum is required for the fabrication in thin film form of high quality semiconductors. This can be accomplished behind a free flying platform similar to the current Wake Shield Facility which is specifically designed to support in-space production. The platform will require apparatus for thin film growth, a robotics interface to allow for the change out of raw materials and the harvesting of finished product, and a servicing plant incorporating Space Station that will support long-term utilization of the platform.

  12. NFPA 99-1996: changes for gas and vacuum systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Every three years, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) updates its Standard for Health Care Facilities. The latest edition, commonly referred to as NFPA 99-1996, was published in February 1996. A number of the changes made to this edition affect the provisions covering gas and vacuum systems; we discuss these changes and provide some commentary below. In the inset on the next page, we address the international impact of NFPA 99's gas and vacuum system standards. (For a discussion of some of the changes made to the previous version of this standard, NFPA 99-1993, refer to our Standards article in Health Devices 22[8-9], August-September 1993.

  13. The TPX vacuum vessel and in-vessel components

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Bialek, J.; Ellis, R.; Kessel, C.; Liew, S.

    1994-11-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak with double-null divertors. TPX is designed for 1000-second discharges with the capability of being upgraded to steady state operation. High neutron yields resulting from the long duration discharges require that special consideration be given to materials and maintainability. A unique feature of the TPX is the use of a low activation, titanium alloy vacuum vessel. Double-wall vessel construction is used since it offers an efficient solution for shielding, bakeout and cooling. Contained within the vacuum vessel are the passive coil system, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), magnetic diagnostics, and the internal control coils. All PFCs utilize carbon-carbon composites for exposed surfaces.

  14. The TPX vacuum vessel and in-vessel components

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Bialek, J.; Ellis, R.; Kessel, C.; Liew, S.

    1994-07-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak with double-null diverters. TPX is designed for 1,000-second discharges with the capability of being upgraded to steady state operation. High neutron yields resulting from the long duration discharges require that special consideration be given to materials and maintainability. A unique feature of the TPX is the use of a low activation, titanium alloy vacuum vessel. Double-wall vessel construction is used since it offers an efficient solution for shielding, bakeout and cooling. Contained within the vacuum vessel are the passive coil system, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), magnetic diagnostics, and the internal control coils. All PFCs utilize carbon-carbon composites for exposed surfaces.

  15. Meeting today's requirements for large thermal vacuum test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corinth, R. L.; Rouse, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Lockheed Thermal Vacuum Facility at Sunnyvale, California, completed in late 1986, one of the largest multi-program facilities constructed to date is described. The horizontal 12.2 m diameter by 24.4 m long chamber has removable heads at each end and houses a thermal shroud providing a test volume 10.4 m diameter by 24.4 m long. The chamber and thermal shroud are configured to permit the insertion of a 6.1 m wide by 24.4 m long vibration isolated optical bench. The pumpimg system incorporates an internal cryopumping array, turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps to handle multi-program needs and ranges of gas loads. The high vacuum system is capable of achieving clean, dry and empty pressures below 1.3 times 10 to the minus 6 power Pa (10 to the minus 8 power torr.)

  16. Vacuum Processing Technique for Development of Primary Standard Blackbodies

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, M.; Bruce, S. S.; Johnson, B. Carol; Murthy, A. V.; Saunders, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    Blackbody sources with nearly unity emittance that are in equilibrium with a pure freezing metal such as gold, silver, or copper are used as primary standard sources in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Recently, a facility using radio-frequency induction heating for melting and filling the blackbody crucible with the freeze metal under vacuum conditions was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The blackbody development under a vacuum environment eliminated the possibility of contamination of the freeze metal during the process. The induction heating, compared to a resistively heated convection oven, provided faster heating of crucible and resulted in shorter turn-around time of about 7 h to manufacture a blackbody. This paper describes the new facility and its application to the development of fixed-point blackbodies.

  17. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  18. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  19. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  1. Test stand system for vacuum chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, D. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A test stand system for supporting test items in a vacuum chamber is described. The system consists of a frame adapted to conform to the inside of the vacuum chamber and supporting a central vertical shaft. The shaft rotates on bearings located at each end of the shaft. Several vertically spaced plates which fixed to the vertical shaft may be adjusted for height to support the test equipment as required. The test equipment may be rotated during tests without disturbing the vacuum by a manually actuated drive external to the vacuum chamber.

  2. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goeppner, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum System (XVTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, R; Duffy, P; Kishiyama, K; Mckernan, M; McMahon, D; Lewis, S; Trent, J; Tung, L; Shen, S

    2005-11-04

    The vacuum system of the XVTS (X-Ray Vacuum Transport System) for the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) XTOD (X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's NTED (New Technologies Engineering Division) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, detailed analyses and selection of the vacuum components for the XTOD tunnel section are presented in this preliminary design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  4. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David

    2006-05-05

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  5. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of air blast cooling and vacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (P<0.05) than air blast cooling and immersion vacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force.

  6. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  7. LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  8. Solar thermal vacuum tests of Magellan spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The Magellen solar/thermal/vacuum test involved a number of unique requirements and approaches. Because of the need to operate in orbit around Venus, the solar intensity requirement ranged up to 2.3 suns or Earth equivalent solar constants. Extensive modification to the solar simulator portion of the test facility were required to achieve this solar intensity. Venus albedo and infrared emission were simulated using temperature controlled movable louver panels to allow the spacecraft to view either a selectable temperature black heat source with closed louvers, or the chamber coldwall behind open louvers. The test conditions included widely varying solar intensities, multiple sun angles, alternate hardware configurations, steady state and transient cases, and cruise and orbital power profiles. Margin testing was also performed, wherein supplemental heaters were mounted to internal thermal blankets to verify spacecraft performance at higher than expected temperatures. The test was successful, uncovering some spacecraft anomalies and verifying the thermal design. The test support equipment experienced some anomalous behavior and a significant failure during the test.

  9. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  10. Gravitational correction to vacuum polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.

    2015-02-01

    We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.

  11. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

  12. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  13. Repetitively pulsed vacuum insulator flashover

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.W.; Buttram, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the flashover strength of various vacuum insulators under conditions of repetitive pulsing. The pulse duration was 30 ns, and the thickness of a typical insulator sample was 1.8 cm. Data were taken for 45 insulators from five different materials. An insulator was subjected to an extended series of pulses at a given repetition rate and field. If flashover was not detected, the field level was increased and the sequence repeated. At rates up to 50 pulses per second, there was no apparent dependence of flashover field on rate. In addition, some ''single shot'' data were taken, including various modifications of the geometries and surface textures of the insulators. Only two to the modifications increased the flashover strength significantly over that of a 45 sample: (1) annealing some plastics (roughly a 35% increase), and (2) extending the insulator to cover the surfaces of both electrodes (an increase of nearly a factor of two).

  14. Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, S.; Koenig, D. E.; Dardi, L. E.

    1981-10-01

    Recognizing the fundamental cost advantage, technical capabilities, and compositional flexibility of reduced pressure (vacuum) plasma spraying compared to other overlay coating methods, an advanced, second generation, closed chamber deposition process called VPX (a Howmet trademark) was developed. An automated experimental facility for coating gas turbine engine components was also constructed. This paper describes several important features of the process and equipment. It shows that the use of optimized spray parameters combined with an appropriate schedule of relative orientations between the gun and work-piece can be used to produce dense and highly reproducible coatings of either uniform or controlled thickness distributions. The chemical composition, microstructure, and interfacial characteristics of typical MCrAlY coatings are reported. Some effects of operating procedures and MCrAlY chemical composition on coating density are noted. The results of mechanical property and burner rig tests of coated material are also described.

  15. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  16. Sugar maple sap volume increases as vacuum level is increased

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters; H. Clay Smith

    1975-01-01

    Maple sap yields collected by using plastic tubing with a vacuum pump increased as the vacuum level was increased. Sap volumes collected at the 10- and 15-inch mercury vacuum levels were statistically significantly higher than volumes collected at the 5-inch level. Although the 15-inch vacuum yielded more sap than the 10-inch vacuum, the difference was not...

  17. Elastic vacuum seal for cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenko, E.A.

    1988-06-01

    Cold-hardened silicone rubber is proposed as a vacuum seal in units that contain materials with vastly different expansion coefficients and which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The cold vulcanization process and the polymerization catalyst used to accelerate and stabilize the process are described. Test results obtained for vacuum tightness in liquid nitrogen are assessed.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There...

  19. Decoherence of quantum states in QCD vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, V.; Bagashov, E.

    2017-09-01

    The stochastic vacuum of quantum chromodynamics is used as an environment for quarks considered as color state vectors. It is shown that during interaction with the stochastic vacuum information of the quark color state is lost with time (decoherence of the quark state vector occurs), which effectively means that it is impossible to observe the quark as a free color particle (confinement).

  20. False vacuum as an unstable state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowski, K.

    2016-11-01

    Calculations performed within the Standard Model suggest that the electroweak vacuum is unstable if MH < 126 GeV, (MH is the mass of the Higgs particle). LHC discovery of the Higgs boson indicates that MH ≃ 125 GeV. So the vacuum in our Universe may be unstable. We analyze properties of unstable vacuum states from the point of view of the quantum theory. At asymptotically late times the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t2 for t → ∞. This means that the energy density in the unstable vacuum state should have analogous properties and hence the cosmological constant Λ = Λ(t) too. So Λ in the Universe with the unstable vacuum should have a form of the sum of the "bare" cosmological constant and of the term of a type 1/t^2:Λ (t) ≡ Λbare + d/t^2, (where Λbare is the cosmological constant for the Universe with the true vacuum).