Science.gov

Sample records for 14th-18th cc skeletal

  1. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle. PMID:11762404

  2. Chlorination-Promoted Skeletal-Cage Transformations of C88 Fullerene by C2 Losses and a C-C Bond Rotation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shangfeng; Wei, Tao; Scheurell, Kerstin; Kemnitz, Erhard; Troyanov, Sergey I

    2015-10-19

    High-temperature chlorination of fullerene C88 (isomer 33) with VCl4 gives rise to skeletal transformations affording several nonclassical (NC) fullerene chlorides, C86 (NC1)Cl24/26 and C84 (NC2)Cl26 , with one and two heptagons, respectively, in the carbon cages. The branched skeletal transformation including C2 losses as well as a Stone-Wales rearrangement has been comprehensively characterized by the structure determination of two intermediates and three final chlorination products. Quantum-chemical calculations demonstrate that the average energy of the C-Cl bond is significantly increased in chlorides of nonclassical fullerenes with a large number of chlorinated sites of pentagon-pentagon adjacency. PMID:26332709

  3. OASIS-CC presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Operations and Science Instrument Support (OASIS) project is a long-term effort to help produce operations capabilities that can support space science missions of the next century. Portions of the OASIS concept in software have been implemented under the general name OASIS-R/T. OASIS-CC is the OASIS Command and Control, for monitoring and controlling science instruments and spacecraft during test, integration, launch and on-orbit operations. Viewgraphs are presented on the OASIS-CC functionality description, OASIS-CC support, and OASIS-CC as a tool.

  4. Skeletal Dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Krakow, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Synoposis The skeletal dysplasias are a group of more than 450 heritable disorders of bone. They frequently present in the newborn period with disproportion, radiographic abnormalities, and occasionally other organ system abnormalities. For improved clinical care it is important to determine a precise diagnosis to aid in management, familial recurrence and identify those disorders highly associated with mortality. Long-term management of these disorders is predicated on an understanding of the associated skeletal system abnormalities and these children are best served by a team approach to health care surveillance. PMID:26042906

  5. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  6. RB1CC1 Protein Suppresses Type II Collagen Synthesis in Chondrocytes and Causes Dwarfism*

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kita, Hiroko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations. PMID:22049074

  7. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    This report summarizes EMaCC activities for fiscal year 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the department. The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the department. (JL)

  8. The multilevel CC3 coupled cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, Rolf H.; Koch, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the closed shell multilevel coupled cluster method where coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is used for the inactive orbital space and CCSD with perturbative triples (CC3) is employed for the smaller active orbital space. Using Cholesky orbitals, the active space can be spatially localized and the computational cost is greatly reduced compared to full CC3 while retaining the accuracy of CC3 excitation energies. For the small organic molecules considered we achieve up to two orders of magnitude reduction in the computational requirements.

  9. PERI-CC2: A Polarizable Embedded RI-CC2 Method.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Tobias; Sneskov, Kristian; Haugaard Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Kongsted, Jacob; Christiansen, Ove; Hättig, Christof

    2012-09-11

    We present a combination of the polarizable embedding (PE) method with the resolution-of-the-identity implementation of the approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles method CC2. The new approach, termed PERI-CC2, allows one to study excited state phenomena of large solvated molecular systems with an accurate correlated wave function method. Central to the PE approach is the advanced description of the environmental electrostatic potential and inclusion of polarization, and the quintessence of RI-CC2 is efficient access to excited state properties while retaining the accuracy associated with CC theory. To maintain efficiency, an approximate truncated CC2 density is introduced to calculate the PE contributions. Explicitly, we derive the central equations and outline an implementation of polarizable embedding for the RI-CC2 approach. The new method is tested against previous PE-CC2 and PE-CCSD results for solvatochromic shifts, demonstrating how the important effects of polarization are incorporated well with PERI-CC2 but with a dramatically reduced overall computational cost. A follow-up investigation of the solvatochromic shift of uracil in aqueous solution further illustrates the potential of PERI-CC2. We discuss the need to explicitly incorporate several water molecules into the region treated by quantum mechanics in order to obtain a reliable and accurate description of the physical effects when specific solute/solvent interactions as, e.g., hydrogen-bonds are involved. PMID:26605734

  10. Invariant-mass distribution of cc in {upsilon}(1S){yields}cc+X

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, Taewon; Lee, Jungil

    2008-12-01

    We calculate the invariant-mass distribution for the cc pair produced in the inclusive {upsilon}(1S) decay based on the color-singlet mechanism of the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics factorization approach at leading order in the bottom-quark velocity v{sub b} in the meson rest frame. As the short-distance processes, we consider bb{yields}g*gg followed by g*{yields}cc and bb{yields}{gamma}*{yields}cc at leading order in the strong coupling. The invariant-mass distribution of the bb{yields}ccgg contribution has a sharp peak just above the threshold and that of the bb{yields}{gamma}*{yields}cc channel is concentrated at the maximally allowed kinematic end point. We predict that {gamma}[{upsilon}(1S){yields}cc+X]/{gamma}[{upsilon}(1S){yields}light hadrons]=(0.065{+-}0.048){alpha}{sub s}, which is in agreement with a previous result within errors.

  11. Grout Analysis for EC and CC Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, L.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-01-06

    The EC and CC calorimeters roll on Two parallel hardened steel ways which reside on the top of the D0 platform's center beam. The ways will be grouted to the center beam once their correct elevation has been established. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and compare three different epoxy grouts and their properties for this application.

  12. Skeletal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) reside in the postnatal bone marrow and give rise to cartilage, bone, hematopoiesis-supportive stroma and marrow adipocytes in defined in vivo assays. These lineages emerge in a specific sequence during embryonic development and post natal growth, and together comprise a continuous anatomical system, the bone-bone marrow organ. SSCs conjoin skeletal and hematopoietic physiology, and are a tool for understanding and ameliorating skeletal and hematopoietic disorders. Here and in the accompanying poster, we concisely discuss the biology of SSCs in the context of the development and postnatal physiology of skeletal lineages, to which their use in medicine must remain anchored. PMID:25758217

  13. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  16. Replacement of Neisseria meningitidis C cc11/ET-15 variant by a cc103 hypervirulent clone, Brazil 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Guilherme; Cordeiro, Soraia; Gomes, Erica; Romanelli, Cinthia; Andrade, Claudia; Reis, Joice; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-08-01

    Outbreaks caused by serogroup C meningococci in the northeast region of Brazil from 2005 to 2011 were associated to the emergence of variant ET-15 of cc11, which has been replaced by cc103 from 2006 to date. The increase of cc103 should be closely monitored to prevent the spread of this clone to neighbouring regions.

  17. D0 Cryo CC Heater Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-16

    Nine pairs of heaters are installed in the bottom of the CC pressure vessel.The physical layout is shown in the CC internal development drawing, D0 dwg. 3740.510-ME-255523. Electrically the heater system is a delta configuration. Electrical details are found on D0 dwg. 3740.515EC-273761. The feedthrough connectors for power to the heaters are located in the instrumentation box. Connector positions are found on D0 dwg.3740.515-EC-273760. Original sketches for the above named drawings are included in this document. The heaters and wiring were cleaned various times prior to and after installation with ethyl a1chohol. At various stages in the installation hi-pot and continuity tests were successfully accomplished to verify the integrity of the system. The fmal hi-pot numbers are included in the documentation. The heaters and wiring are kept separated from thermometry and purity cell wiring by SS sheetmetal barriers. The fabrication, testing and installation was completed by M. Hentges and his crew from AD/Cryo.

  18. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  19. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5(-/-) or AMP-activated protein kinase α2(-/-), the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  20. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen.

  1. Actinium-225 conjugates of MAb CC49 and humanized delta CH2CC49.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Stephen J; Brechbiel, Martin W; Milenic, Diane E; Schlom, Jeffrey; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2002-04-01

    Radioisotopes with moderate half-lives are essential for conventional radioimmunotherapy using tumor-selective MAbs which require days for localization. Actinium-225, with a half-life of 10 days and a yield of 4 alpha particles in its decay chain, may be an ideal choice for tumor-targeted radioimmunotherapy. Release of daughter radioisotopes from the primary chelator after the first decay has been a complication with the use of 225Ac. It has been reported that the domain-deleted product of MAb CC49, Hu-delta CH2 CC49, is able to extravasate and penetrate more deeply into tumors than the parent IgG molecule. We reasoned that once the 225Ac-chelate-MAb had penetrated into the tumor, the daughter radioisotopes would remain trapped even if they had been released from the primary chelator. Actinium-225 HEHA MAb CC49 conjugates were tested for distribution, micro-distribution and therapy in immunocompromised mice which had LS174T tumors growing at subcutaneous or intramuscular sites. Both 125I and 225Ac CC49 and Hu-delta CH2 CC49 were efficient in delivery of the radioisotopes to tumor sites. Tissue micro-autoradiography for the two antibody forms did not demonstrate any differences in micro-distribution of either 125I or 225Ac in the tumor. Furthermore, there was no detectable difference for the two carriers in the tumor retention of daughter radioisotopes from 225Ac. Therapy experiments with 225Ac were complicated by radiotoxicity of the conjugates. The lethal dose was about 0.5 microCi in two strains of mice regardless of the carrier. At injected doses of 0.5 and 0.25 microCi, CC49 was slightly active in tumor stasis, whereas no consistent significant effect of 225Ac-Hu-delta CH2 CC49 on growth of tumors was observed. The potential of 225Ac in radioimmunotherapy is limited by the radiotoxicity of its daughter radioisotopes. Its potential will only be realized if stable conjugates, capable of daughter radioisotope retention, can be devised.

  2. First North American 50 cc Total Artificial Heart Experience: Conversion from a 70 cc Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Khalpey, Zain; Kazui, Toshinobu; Ferng, Alice S; Connell, Alana; Tran, Phat L; Meyer, Mark; Rawashdeh, Badi; Smith, Richard G; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Friedman, Mark; Lick, Scott; Slepian, Marvin J; Copeland, Jack G

    2016-01-01

    The 70 cc total artificial heart (TAH) has been utilized as bridge to transplant (BTT) for biventricular failure. However, the utilization of 70 cc TAH has been limited to large patients for the low output from the pulmonary as well as systemic vein compression after chest closure. Therefore, the 50 cc TAH was developed by SynCardia (Tucson, AZ) to accommodate smaller chest cavity. We report the first TAH exchange from a 70 to 50 cc due to a fit difficulty. The patient failed to be closed with a 70 cc TAH, although the patient met the conventional 70 cc TAH fit criteria. We successfully closed the chest with a 50 cc TAH.

  3. CC3/TIP30 affects DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pro-apoptotic protein CC3/TIP30 has an unusual cellular function as an inhibitor of nucleocytoplasmic transport. This function is likely to be activated under conditions of stress. A number of studies support the notion that CC3 acts as a tumor and metastasis suppressor in various types of cancer. The yeast homolog of CC3 is likely to be involved in responses to DNA damage. Here we examined the potential role of CC3 in regulation of cellular responses to genotoxic stress. Results We found that forced expression of CC3 in CC3-negative cells strongly delays the repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Exogenously introduced CC3 negatively affects expression levels of DDB2/XPE and p21CIP1, and inhibits induction of c-FOS after UV exposure. In addition, exogenous CC3 prevents the nuclear accumulation of P21CIP in response to UV. These changes in the levels/localization of relevant proteins resulting from the enforced expression of CC3 are likely to contribute to the observed delay in DNA damage repair. Silencing of CC3 in CC3-positive cells has a modest delaying effect on repair of the UV induced damage, but has a much more significant negative affect on the translesion DNA synthesis after UV exposure. This could be related to the higher expression levels and increased nuclear localization of p21CIP1 in cells where expression of CC3 is silenced. Expression of CC3 also inhibits repair of oxidative DNA damage and leads to a decrease in levels of nucleoredoxin, that could contribute to the reduced viability of CC3 expressing cells after oxidative insult. Conclusions Manipulation of the cellular levels of CC3 alters expression levels and/or subcellular localization of proteins that exhibit nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This results in altered responses to genotoxic stress and adversely affects DNA damage repair by affecting the recruitment of adequate amounts of required proteins to proper cellular compartments. Excess of cellular CC3 has a significant negative

  4. [Pringle's disease with skeletal changes].

    PubMed

    Schöner, N; Kloss, R; Ellegast, H; Zelger, J

    1980-06-01

    A 45 year old woman with Pringle's disease (adenoma sebaceum), gingival and digital fibromas is reported, who had also characteristical skeletal lesions. Three of five children have cutaneous lesions, one of them also skeletal lesions.

  5. Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  6. Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on the process and energetic cost of twisting around a C=C double bond and provides instructors with a simple vehicle for rectifying the common misrepresentation of C=C double bonds as rigid and inflexible. Discussions of cis and trans isomers of cycloalkenes are a good entry point for introducing students to the idea of a…

  7. Autyomatic Differentiation of C/C++

    2005-11-14

    Automatic differentiation (AD) tools mechanize the process of developing code for the computation of derivatives. AD avoids the inaccuracies inherent in numerical approximations. Furthermore, sophisticated AD algoirthms can often produce c ode that is more reliable and more efficient than code written by an expert programmer. ADIC is the first and only AD tool for C and C++ based on compiler technology. This compiler foundation makes possible analyses and optimizations not available in toos basedmore » on operator overloading. The earliest implementations of ADIC included support for ANSI C applications, ADIC 2.0 lverages EDG, a commercial C/C++ parser, to provide robust C++ differentiation support. Modern AD tools, including ADIC are implemented in a modular way, aiming to isolate language-dependent program analyses and semantic transformations. The component design leads to much higher implementation quality because the different components can be implemented by experts in each of the different domains involved. For example, a compiler expert can focus on parsing, canonicalizing, and unparising C and C++, while an expert in graph theory and algorithms can produce new differentiation modules without having to worry about the complexity of parsing and generating C++ code. Thsi separation of concerns was achieved through the use of language-independent program analysis interfaces (in collaboration with researcgers at Rice University) and a language-independent XML representation of the computational portions of programs (XAIF). In addition to improved robustness and faster development times, this design naturally enables the reuse of program analysis algorithms and differentiation modules in compiler-based AD tools for other languages. In fact, the analysis and differention components are used in both ADIC and the Open AD Fortran front-end (based on Rice's Open64 compiler.« less

  8. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... nerves. This is directly related to the primary function of skeletal muscle, ... an impulse from a nerve cell. Generally, an artery and at least one vein ...

  9. Charmonium suppression with cc¯ dissociation by strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, J.; Greiner, C.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Mosel, U.

    1999-02-01

    We study the production of cc¯ pairs in nuclear reactions at SPS energies within the covariant transport approach HSD. The production of cc¯ pairs is treated perturbatively employing experimental cross sections while the interactions of cc¯ pairs with baryons are included by conventional cascade-type two-body collisions. Adopting 6 mb for the cc¯-baryon cross section the data on J/Ψ suppression in p+A reactions are reproduced in line with calculations based on the Glauber model. Additionally the dissociation of the cc¯ pairs by strings is included in a purely geometrical way. We find good agreement with the experimental data from the NA38 and NA50 Collaborations with an estimate for the string radius of Rs~0.2-0.25 fm.

  10. Gravity and Skeletal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Turner, Russell T.

    1999-01-01

    Two simultaneous experiments were performed using 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats; in one study, the rats were flown in low earth orbit; in the other study, the hindlimbs of the growing rats were elevated to prevent weight bearing. Following 9 d of unloading, weight bearing was restored for 4, 28, and 76 hrs. Afterwards, additional hindlimb unloading experiments were performed to evaluate the skeletal response to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hrs of restored weight bearing following 7 d of unloading. Cancellous and cortical bone histomorphometry were evaluated in the left tibia at the proximal metaphysis and in the left femur at mid-diaphysis, respectively. Steady-state mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides were determined in total cellular RNA extracted from trabeculae from the right proximal tibiametaphysis and periosteum from the right femur. Spaceflight and hindlimb unloading each resulted in cancellous osteopenia, as well as a tendency towards decreased periosteal bone formation. Both models for skeletal unloading resulted in site specific reductions in mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-beta (sub 1) (TGF-beta) osteocalcin (OC), and prepro-alpha (I) subunit of type 1 collagen (collagen) and little or no changes in mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Restoration of normal weight bearing resulted in transient increases in mRNA levels for the bone matrix proteins and TGF-beta in the proximal metaphysis and periosteum and no changes in either GAP or IGF-I mRNA levels. The timecourse for the response differed between the two skeletal compartments; the tibial metaphysis responded much more quickly to reloading. These results suggest that the skeletal adaptation to acute physiological changes in mechanical usage are mediated, in part, by changes in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and TGF-beta.

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1991-05-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materialsrelated inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The Chairman of EMaCC for FY 1990 was Scott L. Richlen; the Executive Secretary was Dr. Jerry Smith.

  12. 30. Part of South Elevation / Section CC / Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Part of South Elevation / Section CC / Section BB / Elevation of Skylight (drawing 7) - Whittier State School, Hospital & Receiving Building, 11850 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  14. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  15. Glucocorticoids and Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Sue C; Furlow, J David

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, producing a catabolic effect that is opposite that of insulin. In many catabolic diseases, such as sepsis, starvation, and cancer cachexia, endogenous glucocorticoids are elevated contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function. Further, exogenous glucocorticoids are often given acutely and chronically to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in muscle atrophy. This chapter will detail the nature of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy and discuss the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on muscle. PMID:26215994

  16. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton. PMID:26205852

  17. Internal friction and gas desorption of {C}/{C} composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, H.; Sato, S.; Kohyama, A.

    1994-09-01

    {C}/{C} composites are the most promising candidates as high heat flux component materials, where temperature dependence of mechanical properties and gas desorption behavior at elevated temperature are important properties. At the beginning, the newly developed internal friction measurement apparatus, which enables the accurate measurement of dynamic elastic properties up to 1373 K along with the measurement of gas desorption behavior, was used. The materials studied were unidirectional (UD) {C}/{C} composites reinforced with mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers, which were heat treated at temperatures ranging from 1473 to 2773 K which produced a variety of graphitized microstructures. Two-dimensional (2D) {C}/{C} composites reinfored with flat woven fabrics of PAN type carbon fibers were also studied. These materials were heat treated at 1873 K. From the temperature spectrum of internal friction of 2D {C}/{C} composites, these internal friction peaks were detected and were related to gas desorption. Also the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of UD {C}/{C} composites, negative and positive dependence of Young's modulus were observed reflecting microstructure changes resulting from the heat treatments.

  18. Effects of Loading or Unloading on the Regenerative Potential of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Katsumasa; Matsuba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Sugiura, Takao; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada

    2008-06-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the influence of unloading on the regenerative process of injured skeletal muscle. Male mice (C57BL/6J), aged 8 weeks, were randomly divided into 4 groups; normal cage control (CC), cardiotoxin (CTX)-injected (CX), hindlimb suspended (HS), and HS+CX (SX) groups. HS, as the preconditioning, was performed for 2 weeks in group HS and SX. The animals in group CC and CX were maintained in 1-G environment. And then, CTX was injected into soleus muscles bilaterally in CX and SX groups. HS was continued for additional 6 weeks in group HS and SX. Soleus muscles were dissected after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Wet weight and protein content of soleus in group CX decreased, but recovered to the level of group CC after 6 weeks. Atrophy, caused by 2-week HS, in group HS and SX was maintained throughout the experimental period. The numbers of satellite cells in HS and SX groups after 2, 4, and 6 weeks were lower than those in group CC. The number of satellite cells in CX group was increased by the CTX-injection compared with group CC. On the other hand, satellite cell number in CTX-injected group SX after 2, 4, and 6 weeks were lower than that in group HS. Percentage of fibers with central nuclei, relative to the total muscle fibers, in HS and SX groups at week 6 was higher than that in group CC. That in group CX was also increased at 2nd and 4th week, but was lowered toward the control level after 6 week. It was suggested that loading plays a key role for the activation of the regenerating potential of injured skeletal muscle.

  19. Comparison of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC), and combined HCC-CC (CHC) with each other based on microarray dataset.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lishan; Zang, Weidong; Xie, Dongli; Ji, Weidong; Pan, Yaosheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Shi, Yongyong

    2013-06-01

    Liver carcinomas have been classified into three types: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC), and combined HCC-CC (CHC). We aim to find the common and different characteristic of these three types of liver cancer. The gene expression profiling of HCC, CC, and CHC were compared with each other, and enrichment pathways and processes in these three liver cancers were also identified. Using GSE15765 datasets downloaded from NCBI GEO database, the gene expression profiling of HCC, CC, and CHC were compared with each other (HCC compared with CC, HCC compared with CHC, and CC compared with HCC). Then, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in these three groups respectively, and three PPI networks were constructed for DEGs in each group. Subsequently, the clusters in these networks were identified and further analyzed by ClusterONE and MCODE. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis enrichment analysis was performed to illustrate altered pathways and processes for each type of liver cancer. A total of 112, 530, and 64 DEGs were identified in three groups, respectively, and three PPI networks were constructed respectively for the corresponding group. Through the cluster analysis, we found some new differential marker genes for distinguishing the difference between these three types of liver cancer. We also indicated that we can distinguish HCC with CC through altered pathways and processes. Our findings develop new biomarkers for categorizing the primary liver cancer and may improve patient prognosis of these cancers. However, further validation is required since our results were based on microarray data derived from a small sample size.

  20. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2]- was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  1. The maize cystatin CC9 interacts with apoplastic cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Karina; Mueller, André N; Hemetsberger, Christoph; Kashani, Farnusch; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-11-01

    In a recent study we identified corn cystain9 (CC9) as a novel compatibility factor for the interaction of the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis with its host plant maize. CC9 is transcriptionally induced during the compatible interaction with U. maydis and localizes in the maize apoplast where it inhibits apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases. The proteases are activated during incompatible interaction and salicylic acid (SA) treatment and, in turn, are sufficient to induce SA signaling including PR-gene expression. Therefore the inhibition of apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases by CC9 is essential to suppress host immunity during U. maydis infection. Here were present new experimental data on the cysteine protease-cystatin interaction and provide an in silco analysis of plant cystatins and the identified apoplastic cysteine proteases.

  2. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  3. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  4. Metal-organic cooperative catalysis in C-H and C-C bond activation and its concurrent recovery.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Jun; Park, Jung-Woo; Jun, Chul-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic activation (cleavage) system for C-H and C-C bonds is an important challenge in organic synthesis, because these bonds comprise a variety of organic molecules such as natural products, petroleum oils, and polymers on the earth. Among many elegant approaches utilizing transition metals to activate C-H and C-C bonds facilely, chelation-assisted protocols based on the coordinating ability of an organic moiety have attracted great attention, though they have often suffered from the need for an intact coordinating group in a substrate. In this Account, we describe our entire efforts to activate C-H or C-C bonds adjacent to carbonyl groups by employing a new concept of metal-organic cooperative catalysis (MOCC), which enables the temporal installation of a 2-aminopyridyl group into common aldehydes or ketones in a catalytic way. Consequently, a series of new catalytic reactions such as alcohol hydroacylation, oxo-ester synthesis, C-C triple bond cleavage, hydrative dimerization of alkynes, and skeletal rearrangements of cyclic ketones was realized through MOCC. In particular, in the quest for an optimized MOCC system composed of a Wilkinson's catalyst (Ph 3P) 3RhCl and an organic catalyst (2-amino-3-picoline), surprising efficiency enhancements could be achieved when benzoic acid and aniline were introduced as promoters for the aldimine formation process. Furthermore, a notable accomplishment of C-C bond activation has been made using 2-amino-3-picoline as a temporary chelating auxiliary in the reactions of unstrained ketones with various terminal olefins and Wilkinson's catalyst. In the case of seven-membered cyclic ketones, an interesting ring contraction to five- or six-membered ones takes place through skeletal rearrangements initiated by the C-C bond activation of MOCC. On the other hand, the fundamental advances of these catalytic systems into recyclable processes could be achieved by immobilizing both metal and organic

  5. BB: Half Section; Top of Engine; Valve Gear Detail; CC: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B-B: Half Section; Top of Engine; Valve Gear Detail; C-C: Top of Condenser; D-D: Condenser Interior; Air Pump Piston; Air Pump Lever; Water Pump - Steamboat COLUMBUS, Submerged south-southeast of Point Lookout, Scotland, St. Mary's County, MD

  6. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs…

  7. 32. SECTIONS AA, BB, CC, DD, AND EE WASTE CALCINATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SECTIONS A-A, B-B, C-C, D-D, AND E-E WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT FLOOR LEVELS TO ONE ANOTHER. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106353. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  9. Cohort profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC).

    PubMed

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-06-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70,000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org).

  10. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  11. [Study on spectral emissivity of C/C composites].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Cao, Wei-Wei; Jing, Min; Dong, Xing-Guang; Wang, Cheng-Guo

    2009-11-01

    Different types of C/C composites were prepared by conventional molding, and the changes in normal spectral emissivity of samples were tested. The testing results show that spectral emissivity of C/C composite reinforced by short cut carbon fibers is generally higher than the sample reinforced by carbon cloth in the entire 2500-13000nm wavelength region. The structure of short cut carbon fibers is relatively loose and the number of material particles is less than other samples in unit volume, which increases the penetration depth of electromagnetic waves. This is the reason for higher normal spectral emissivity and better heat radiation property. Meanwhile, the test results of normal spectral emissivity for fiber perform and C/C composite samples show that the spectral emissivity of resin carbon is better than fiber carbon because of the difference in microstructure for the two kinds of carbon materials. Laser Raman spectroscopy was employed to analyze the microstructures of different carbon materials, and the results show that because sp3 and sp2 hybrid states of carbon atoms in resin carbon produced more vibration modes, the resin carbon also has higher normal spectral emissivity and better characteristics of heat radiation.

  12. Accurate Anharmonic IR Spectra from Integrated Cc/dft Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Carnimeo, Ivan; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    The recent implementation of the computation of infrared (IR) intensities beyond the double harmonic approximation [1] paved the route to routine calculations of infrared spectra for a wide set of molecular systems. Contrary to common beliefs, second-order perturbation theory is able to deliver results of high accuracy provided that anharmonic resonances are properly managed [1,2]. It has been already shown for several small closed- and open shell molecular systems that the differences between coupled cluster (CC) and DFT anharmonic wavenumbers are mainly due to the harmonic terms, paving the route to introduce effective yet accurate hybrid CC/DFT schemes [2]. In this work we present that hybrid CC/DFT models can be applied also to the IR intensities leading to the simulation of highly accurate fully anharmonic IR spectra for medium-size molecules, including ones of atmospheric interest, showing in all cases good agreement with experiment even in the spectral ranges where non-fundamental transitions are predominant[3]. [1] J. Bloino and V. Barone, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124108 (2012) [2] V. Barone, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 1759-1787 (2014) [3] I. Carnimeo, C. Puzzarini, N. Tasinato, P. Stoppa, A. P. Charmet, M. Biczysko, C. Cappelli and V. Barone, J. Chem. Phys., 139, 074310 (2013)

  13. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  14. Skeletal Complications of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Abigail A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  15. Skeletal stem cells in space and time.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-15

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration.

  16. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  17. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S.; Baker, Carol J.; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  18. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S; Baker, Carol J; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-07-14

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV.

  19. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S; Baker, Carol J; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  20. Selected CC and CXC chemokines in children with atopic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Machura, Edyta; Mazur, Bogdan; Chrobak, Ewelina; Ziora, Katarzyna; Ziora, Dariusz; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only limited data on CC and CXC chemokines regulation in children with asthma. Aim We compared the serum profile of selected CC and CXC chemokines in patients with atopic asthma and healthy children. Material and methods Serum concentration of CC chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, and CXC chemokines IP-10, MIG, IL-8, RANTES was measured using cytometric bead array in 44 children with atopic asthma and 17 healthy subjects. Results The concentration of RANTES was significantly higher and the MIG level was lower in all children with asthma as compared to their control counterparts. We observed increased RANTES and decreased MIG levels also in patients with stable asthma when compared with children in the control group. The IP-10 concentration was similar between the whole asthma group and healthy controls, while significantly increased levels of this chemokine in acute asthma have been observed when compared to stable asthma. For MCP-1 and IL-8, the serum concentration was similar in all compared groups. The MIG concentration correlated positively with IP-10, IL-8, and CRP levels and negatively with the eosinophil count. A negative correlation between the IP-10 and eosinophil count and a negative correlation between FEV1 and IP-10 were found. Conclusions An increased serum RANTES level in children with asthma may result in enhancement of Th2 lymphocyte recruitment into the airway. A decreased expression of Th1 chemokine MIG in children with stable asthma may contribute to a diminished antagonizing effect on Th2 cytokine production and hence intensify Th2 predominance. An increased IP-10 level in children during an asthma attack suggest that this chemokine is a serological marker of disease exacerbation. PMID:27279817

  1. Cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadel, Daniel R.; Lowe, K. Todd

    2015-08-01

    A flow velocimetry method, cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV), is presented as a robust, simplified, and high dynamic range implementation of the Doppler global/planar Doppler velocimetry technique. A sweep of several gigahertz of the vapor absorption spectrum is used for each velocity sample, with signals acquired from both Doppler-shifted scattered light within the flow and a non-Doppler shifted reference beam. Cross-correlation of these signals yields the Doppler shift between them, averaged over the duration of the scan. With presently available equipment, velocities from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1 can notionally be measured simultaneously, making the technique ideal for high speed flows. The processing routine is shown to be robust against large changes in the vapor pressure of the iodine cell, benefiting performance of the system in facilities where ambient conditions cannot be easily regulated. Validation of the system was performed with measurements of a model wind turbine blade boundary layer made in a 1.83 m by 1.83 m subsonic wind tunnel for which laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements were acquired alongside the CC-DGV results. CC-DGV uncertainties of ±1.30 ms-1, ±0.64 ms-1, and ±1.11 ms-1 were determined for the orthogonal stream-wise, transverse-horizontal, and transverse-vertical velocity components, and root-mean-square deviations of 2.77 ms-1 and 1.34 ms-1 from the LDV validation results were observed for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 million and 2 million, respectively. Volumetric mean velocity measurements are also presented for a supersonic jet, with velocity uncertainties of ±4.48 ms-1, ±16.93 ms-1, and ±0.50 ms-1 for the orthogonal components, and self-validation done by collapsing the data with a physical scaling.

  2. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  6. Skeletal myoblasts for cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Shazia; Konoplyannikov, Mikhail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Haider, Khawaja Husnain

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells provide an alternative curative intervention for the infarcted heart by compensating for the cardiomyocyte loss subsequent to myocardial injury. The presence of resident stem and progenitor cell populations in the heart, and nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells with genetic induction of pluripotency markers are the emerging new developments in stem cell-based regenerative medicine. However, until safety and feasibility of these cells are established by extensive experimentation in in vitro and in vivo experimental models, skeletal muscle-derived myoblasts, and bone marrow cells remain the most well-studied donor cell types for myocardial regeneration and repair. This article provides a critical review of skeletal myoblasts as donor cells for transplantation in the light of published experimental and clinical data, and indepth discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of skeletal myoblast-based therapeutic intervention for augmentation of myocardial function in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, strategies to overcome the problems of arrhythmogenicity and failure of the transplanted skeletal myoblasts to integrate with the host cardiomyocytes are discussed. PMID:21082891

  7. Skeletal trauma in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2013-11-01

    Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries.

  8. Atlas of fetal skeletal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ornov, A.; Borochowitz, Z.; Lachman, R.; Rimoin, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas presents anterior, posterior and lateral views of normal but spontaneously aborted fetuses from 10 weeks through 27 weeks of gestation. The series of radiographs exhibits a wide array of skeletal dysplasia, and a chapter on the normal chondroosseous development - the formation of cartilage and bone and ossification of individual bones is included for further clarification.

  9. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  10. C-C bond fission pathways of chloroalkenyl alkoxy radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Renyi; Allen, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Density-functional theory and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to determine the structures and energetics of the chloroalkenyl alkoxy radicals arising from Cl-initiated reactions of isoprene as well as the transition states and products of their decomposition reactions. Geometry optimizations of the various species were performed at the Becke three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)/6-31G(d,p) level, and single-point energies were computed using second-order Møller-Plesset and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations including perturbative corrections for the triple excitations. The activation and reaction energies of C-C bond scission of the alkoxy radicals are in the ranges of 12-25 and -3-22 kcal mol-1, respectively. Using the obtained activation barriers and transition state structures, we have calculated the high-pressure limit decomposition rates of the chloroalkenyl alkoxy radicals using transition state theory, ranging from 1×10-5 to 2×104 s-1. The results indicate that C-C bond decomposition of the chloroalkenyl alkoxy radicals is rather slow and likely plays a minor role in the Cl-isoprene reactions. Implications of the present results on the formation yields of methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 1-chloro-3-methyl-3-buten-2-one are discussed.

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitor AAI-CC5 from Streptomyces sp. CC5, and its gene cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhibin; Lu, Weihao; Liu, Pingping; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Yuguo; Kong, Yi; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-02-01

    An α-amylase inhibitor producing Streptomyces sp. strain CC5 was isolated from soil. A proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitor AAI-CC5 was purified from strain CC5. AAI-CC5 specifically inhibited mammalian α-amylases. The molecular weight of the inhibitor was determined to be 8,212 Da by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrum. The N-terminal 15 amino acid residues of the purified AAI-CC5 were DTGSPAPECVEYFQS, which is dissimilar to other reported proteinaceous α-amylase inhibitors. AAI-CC5 is a pH insensitive and heat-stable protein, and cannot be hydrolysed by trypsin. AAI-CC5 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with a hexa-histidine tag on the C terminal. AAI-CC5 shared 82 % identity with Parvulustat. The recombinant α-amylase inhibitor was purified to homogeneity by one-step affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-NTA resin with molecular mass of 9,404 Da. Steady state kinetics studies of α-amylase and the inhibitor revealed an irreversible, non-competitive inhibition mechanism with IC50 and Ki value of 6.43 ×1 10(-11) and 4.45 × 10(-11) M respectively. These results suggest this novel α-amylase inhibitor possessed powerful inhibitory activity for α-amylase, and it may be a candidate in research of diabetes therapy and obesity treatment.

  13. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  14. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  15. Skeletal Fragility in Endogenous Hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Delgado, Adriano; Maffezzoni, Filippo; Formenti, Annamaria; Giustina, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal fragility is a frequent complication of endogenous hypercortisolism, and fragility fractures may be the first clinical manifestation of the disease. Fractures involve more frequently the vertebrae and may occur in 30-50% of the patients exposed to glucocorticoid excess, in close relationship with severity and duration of hypercortisolism. Although improvement of bone mineral density was reported after resolution of hypercortisolism, there are patients with persistently high fracture risk after the cure of hypercortisolism, and other patients in whom the resolution of hypercortisolism may take a long time, implying a multistep therapeutic approach. Since vertebral fractures tend to occur early during the natural history of disease, a skeletal-specific approach should be undertaken in these patients; however, the cost-effectiveness of this approach is still largely unknown since data on effectiveness and safety of bone-active drugs in endogenous hypercortisolism are scarce. PMID:27210111

  16. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  17. The complexities of skeletal biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    For a long time, the skeleton was seen as an amorphous tissue of little biological interest. But such a view ignored the large number of genetic and degenerative diseases affecting this organ. Over the past 15 years, molecular and genetic studies have modified our understanding of skeletal biology. By so doing this progress has affected our understanding of diseases and suggested in many instances new therapeutic opportunities.

  18. Results of the BETS Survey of the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1988-01-07

    This Engineering Note presents results of dimensional surveys of the CC Cryostat. The surveys were performed by members of the Fermilab Alignment Group using a computerized optical system known as BETS. The coordinate system used is described on page 1 of the note. Locations of the support bosses in the inner vessel are given on pages 2 and 3. The bosses control the position of the module array within the cryostat. Locations of the center cylinders (bores) and bypass tubes in both vessels are given on pages 2 and 4 through 6. Elevations and locations of the nozzles on top of the cryostat are given on page 9. Measurements of the stack-up heights of the support stanchions are given on page 13. Raw BETS data are included in Appendix A of the Note.

  19. Simulating CC and MLO compressions with the Surface Evolver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta do Nascimento, Marcelo; Ramos Batista, Valério

    2015-01-01

    Mammographies are X-ray images of the breast under external compressions called Craniocaudal (CC) and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO). Together they increase the chances of detecting cancer but the breast is shown in strongly deformed shapes. Cancer location is highly uncertain for the surgery and so the breast is commonly taken out entirely, a serious trauma for the patient. In this paper we present a fully virtual mammography procedure that faithfully reproduces all shapes of the breast and in its inside tracks the cancer at any step. The cancer is then precisely located for the surgery and can be removed through a small incision. So the whole structure is preserved and cured as an integral benefit to the patient.

  20. CC Chemokine Ligand 18 in ANCA-Associated Crescentic GN.

    PubMed

    Brix, Silke R; Stege, Gesa; Disteldorf, Erik; Hoxha, Elion; Krebs, Christian; Krohn, Sonja; Otto, Benjamin; Klätschke, Kristin; Herden, Elisabeth; Heymann, Felix; Lira, Sergio A; Tacke, Frank; Wolf, Gunter; Busch, Martin; Jabs, Wolfram J; Özcan, Fedai; Keller, Frieder; Beige, Joachim; Wagner, Karl; Helmchen, Udo; Noriega, Mercedes; Wiech, Thorsten; Panzer, Ulf; Stahl, Rolf A K

    2015-09-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitis is the most frequent cause of crescentic GN. To define new molecular and/or cellular biomarkers of this disease in the kidney, we performed microarray analyses of renal biopsy samples from patients with ANCA-associated crescentic GN. Expression profiles were correlated with clinical data in a prospective study of patients with renal ANCA disease. CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18), acting through CC chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8) on mononuclear cells, was identified as the most upregulated chemotactic cytokine in patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated crescentic GN. Macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells in the kidney were detected as CCL18-producing cells. The density of CCL18(+) cells correlated with crescent formation, interstitial inflammation, and impairment of renal function. CCL18 protein levels were higher in sera of patients with renal ANCA disease compared with those in sera of patients with other forms of crescentic GN. CCL18 serum levels were higher in patients who suffered from ANCA-associated renal relapses compared with those in patients who remained in remission. Using a murine model of crescentic GN, we explored the effects of the CCL18 murine functional analog CCL8 and its receptor CCR8 on kidney function and morphology. Compared with wild-type mice, Ccr8(-/-) mice had significantly less infiltration of pathogenic mononuclear phagocytes. Furthermore, Ccr8(-/-) mice maintained renal function better and had reduced renal tissue injury. In summary, our data indicate that CCL18 drives renal inflammation through CCR8-expressing cells and could serve as a biomarker for disease activity and renal relapse in ANCA-associated crescentic GN.

  1. Skeletal muscle: an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Alessandra; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Bari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and efficiency of skeletal muscle depend on the complex balance between anabolic and catabolic factors. This balance gradually deteriorates with aging, leading to an age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality, called sarcopenia: this condition plays a central role in physical and functional impairment in late life. The knowledge of the mechanisms that induce sarcopenia and the ability to prevent or counteract them, therefore, can greatly contribute to the prevention of disability and probably also mortality in the elderly. It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in inflammatory processes. Physical inactivity promotes an unbalance between these substances towards a pro-inflammatory status, thus favoring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". PMID:23858303

  2. Molecular characterization of miiuy croaker CC chemokine gene and its expression following Vibrio anguillarum injection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan-zhi; Wang, Ri-xin; Sun, Yue-na; Xu, Tian-jun

    2011-07-01

    A CC chemokine gene was isolated from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) by expressed sequence tag analysis. The Mimi-CC cDNA contains an open reading frame of 429 nucleotides encoding 142 amino acid residues. The deduced Mimi-CC possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines (C³¹, C³², C⁵⁶, and C⁷⁰). It shares 15.3%-37.4% identity to CC chemokines of mammal and teleost. Phylogenetic analysis showed that miiuy croaker was most closely related to Atlantic cod. Genomic analysis revealed that Mimi-CC gene consists of four exons and three introns, which is not typical of CC chemokines but resembles that of CXC chemokines. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Mimi-CC is constitutively expressed in most tissues including lymphoid organs, and the highest expression of Mimi-CC transcripts in normal tissues was observed in muscle. Challenge of miiuy croaker with Vibrio anguillarum resulted in significant changes in the expression of CC chemokine transcripts in four tissues, especially in kidney and spleen.

  3. Identification of a cobia (Rachycentron canadum) CC chemokine gene and its involvement in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Su, Youlu; Guo, Zhixun; Xu, Liwen; Jiang, Jingzhe; Wang, Jiangyong; Feng, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The chemokines regulate immune cell migration under inflammatory and physiological conditions. We investigated a CC chemokine gene (RcCC1) from cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The full-length RcCC1 cDNA is comprised 673 nucleotides and encodes a four-cysteine arrangement 99-amino-acid protein typical of known CC chemokines. The genomic DNA of RcCC1 consists of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RcCC1 was closest to the MIP group of CC chemokines. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed RcCC1 was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, with relative strong expression in gill, blood, kidney, spleen, and head kidney. The RcCC1 transcripts in the head kidney, spleen, and liver were quickly up-regulated after stimulation with formalin-inactivated Vibrio carchariae (bacterial vaccine) or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C). These results indicate RcCC1 not only plays a role in homeostasis, but also may be involved in inflammatory responses to bacterial and viral infection.

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a CC chemokine gene from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Sun, Yuena; Shi, Ge; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2012-12-01

    Chemokines are a family of structurally related chemotactic cytokines that regulate the migration of leukocytes, under both physiological and inflammatory conditions. A partial cDNA of CC chemokine gene designed as Mimi-CC3 was isolated from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) spleen cDNA library. Unknown 3' part of the cDNA was amplified by 3'-RACE. The complete cDNA of Mimi-CC3 contains an 89-nt 5'-UTR, a 303-nt open reading frame and a 441-nt 3'-UTR. Three exons and two introns were identified in Mimi-CC3. The deduced Mimi-CC3 protein sequences contain a 22 amino acids signal peptide and a 78 amino acids mature polypeptide, which possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines. It shares low amino acid sequence identities with most other fish and mammalian CC chemokines (less than 54.1 %), but shares very high identities with large yellow croaker CC chemokine (94.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene may have an orthologous relationship with mammalian/amphibian CCL25 gene. Tissue expression distributed analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene was constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined, although at different levels. Upon stimulated with Vibrio anguillarum, the time-course analysis using a real-time PCR showed that Mimi-CC3 transcript in kidney and liver was obviously up-regulated and reached the peak levels, followed by a recovery. Mimi-CC3 expression in kidney was more strongly increased than in liver. However, down-regulation was observed in spleen. These results indicated that Mimi-CC3 plays important roles in miiuy croaker immune response as well as in homeostatic mechanisms.

  5. Binding of imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and the distal histidine mutant, CcP(H52L).

    PubMed

    Erman, James E; Chinchilla, Diana; Studer, Jason; Vitello, Lidia B

    2015-08-01

    Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole bind to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (yCcP) with apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (KD(app)) of 3.3±0.4, 0.85±0.11, and ~0.2M, respectively, at pH7. This is the weakest imidazole binding to a heme protein reported to date and it is about 120 times weaker than imidazole binding to metmyoglobin. Spectroscopic changes associated with imidazole and 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP suggest partial ionization of bound imidazole to imidazolate. The pKa for ionization of bound imidazole is estimated to be 7.4±0.2, about 7 units lower than that of free imidazole and about 3 units lower than imidazole bound to metmyoglobin. Equilibrium binding of imidazole to CcP(H52L) is biphasic with low- and high-affinity phases having KD(app) values of 9.5±4.5 and 0.13±0.04M, respectively. CcP(H52L) binding of 1-methylimidazole is monophasic with an affinity similar to those of yCcP and rCcP. Binding of 1-methylimidazole to rCcP is associated with two kinetic phases, the initial binding complete within 10s, followed by a process that is consistent with 1-methylimidazole binding to a cavity created by movement of Trp-191 from the interior of the protein to the surface. Both the equilibrium binding and kinetics of 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP are pH dependent. yCcP has a four-fold increase in 1-methylimidazole binding affinity on decreasing the pH from 7.5 to 4.0, an observation that is unique among the many studies on binding of imidazole and imidazole derivatives to heme proteins. PMID:25907133

  6. Binding of imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and the distal histidine mutant, CcP(H52L)

    PubMed Central

    Erman, James E.; Chinchilla, Diana; Studer, Jason; Vitello, Lidia B.

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole bind to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (yCcP) with apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (KDapp) of 3.3 ± 0.4, 0.85 ± 0.11, and ~0.2 M, respectively, at pH 7. This is the weakest imidazole binding to a heme protein reported to date and it is about 120 times weaker than imidazole binding to metmyoglobin. Spectroscopic changes associated with imidazole and 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP suggest partial ionization of bound imidazole to imidazolate. The pKa for ionization of bound imidazole is estimated to be 7.4 ± 0.2, about 7 units lower than that of free imidazole and about 3 units lower than imidazole bound to metmyoglobin. Equilibrium binding of imidazole to CcP(H52L) is biphasic with low- and high-affinity phases having KDapp values of 9.5 ± 4.5 and 0.13 ± 0.04 M, respectively. CcP(H52L) binding of 1-methylimidazole is monophasic with an affinity similar to those of yCcP and rCcP. Binding of 1-methylimidazole to rCcP is associated with two kinetic phases, the initial binding complete within 10 s, followed by a process that is consistent with 1-methylimidazole binding to a cavity created by movement of Trp-191 from the interior of the protein to the surface. Both the equilibrium binding and kinetics of 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP are pH dependent. yCcP has a four-fold increase in 1-methylimidazole binding affinity on decreasing the pH from 7.5 to 4.0, an observation that is unique among the many studies on binding of imidazole and imidazole derivatives to heme proteins. PMID:25907133

  7. Role of platelet-derived growth factor-CC in capillary rarefaction in renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Boor, Peter; Bábíčková, Janka; Steegh, Floor; Hautvast, Petra; Martin, Ina V; Djudjaj, Sonja; Nakagawa, Taizo; Ehling, Josef; Gremse, Felix; Bücher, Eva; Eriksson, Ulf; van Roeyen, Claudia R C; Eitner, Frank; Lammers, Twan; Floege, Jürgen; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Ostendorf, Tammo

    2015-08-01

    We have identified platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-CC as a potent profibrotic mediator in kidney fibrosis and pro-angiogenic mediator in glomeruli. Because renal fibrosis is associated with progressive capillary rarefaction, we asked whether PDGF-CC neutralization in fibrosis might have detrimental anti-angiogenic effects leading to aggravated peritubular capillary loss. We analyzed capillary rarefaction in mice with and without PDGF-CC neutralization (using genetically deficient mice and neutralizing antibodies), in three different models of renal interstitial fibrosis, unilateral ureteral obstruction, unilateral ischemia-reperfusion, Col4a3-deficient (Alport) mice, and healthy animals. Independent of the effect of PDGF-CC neutralization on renal fibrosis, we found no difference in capillary rarefaction between PDGF-CC-neutralized mice and mice with intact PDGF-CC. We also found no differences in microvascular leakage (determined by extravasation of Evans Blue Dye) and in renal relative blood volume quantified using in vivo microcomputed tomography. PDGF-CC neutralization had no effects on renal microvasculature in healthy animals. Capillary endothelium did not express PDGF receptor-α, suggesting that potential PDGF-CC effects would have to be indirect. PDGF-CC neutralization or deficiency was not associated with preservation or accelerated loss of peritubular capillaries, suggesting no significant pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-CC during renal fibrosis. From a clinical perspective, the profibrotic effects of PDGF-CC outweigh the pro-angiogenic effects and, thus, do not limit a potential therapeutic use of PDGF-CC inhibition in renal fibrosis.

  8. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  9. Effect of salt stress on the physiology of Frankia sp strain CcI6.

    PubMed

    Oshone, Rediet; Mansour, Samira R; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants are able to overcome saline soils and reclaim land. Frankia sp strain CcI6 was isolated from nodules of Casuarina cunninghamiana found in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of Frankia sp. strain CcI6 revealed that the strain is closely related to Frankia sp. strain CcI3. The strain displays an elevated level of NaCl tolerance. Vesicle production and nitrogenase activity were also influenced by NaCl. PMID:24287648

  10. Immunological role of C4 CC chemokine-1 from snakehead murrel Channa striatus.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we have reported a cDNA sequence of C4 CC chemokine identified from snakehead murrel (also known as striped murrel) Channa striatus (named as CsCC-Chem-1) normalized cDNA library constructed by Genome Sequencing FLX™ Technology (GS-FLX™). CsCC-Chem-1 is 641 base pairs (bp) long that contain 438 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 146 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15 kDa. The polypeptide contains a small cytokine domain at 30-88. The domain carries the CC motif at Cys(33)-Cys(34). In addition, CsCC-Chem-1 consists of another two cysteine residues at C(59) and C(73), which, together with C(33) and C(34), make CsCC-Chem-1 as a C4-CC chemokine. CsCC-Chem-1 also contains a 'TCCT' motif at 32-35 as CC signature motif; this new motif may represent new characteristic features, which may lead to some unknown function that needs to be further focused on. Phylogenitically, CsCC-Chem-1 clustered together with CC-Chem-1 from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Significantly (P<0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in spleen and is up-regulated upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and virus (poly I:C) infection at various time points. The gene expression results indicate the influence of CsCC-Chem-1 in the immune system of murrel. Overall, the gene expression study showed that the CsCC-Chem-1 is a capable gene to increase the cellular response against various microbial infections. Further, we cloned the coding sequence of CsCC-Chem-1 in pMAL vector and purified the recombinant protein to study the functional properties. The cell proliferation activity of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein showed a significant metabolic activity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the chemotaxis assay showed the capability of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein which can induce the migration of spleen leukocytes in C. striatus. However, this remains to be verified

  11. Immunological role of C4 CC chemokine-1 from snakehead murrel Channa striatus.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we have reported a cDNA sequence of C4 CC chemokine identified from snakehead murrel (also known as striped murrel) Channa striatus (named as CsCC-Chem-1) normalized cDNA library constructed by Genome Sequencing FLX™ Technology (GS-FLX™). CsCC-Chem-1 is 641 base pairs (bp) long that contain 438 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 146 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15 kDa. The polypeptide contains a small cytokine domain at 30-88. The domain carries the CC motif at Cys(33)-Cys(34). In addition, CsCC-Chem-1 consists of another two cysteine residues at C(59) and C(73), which, together with C(33) and C(34), make CsCC-Chem-1 as a C4-CC chemokine. CsCC-Chem-1 also contains a 'TCCT' motif at 32-35 as CC signature motif; this new motif may represent new characteristic features, which may lead to some unknown function that needs to be further focused on. Phylogenitically, CsCC-Chem-1 clustered together with CC-Chem-1 from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Significantly (P<0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in spleen and is up-regulated upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and virus (poly I:C) infection at various time points. The gene expression results indicate the influence of CsCC-Chem-1 in the immune system of murrel. Overall, the gene expression study showed that the CsCC-Chem-1 is a capable gene to increase the cellular response against various microbial infections. Further, we cloned the coding sequence of CsCC-Chem-1 in pMAL vector and purified the recombinant protein to study the functional properties. The cell proliferation activity of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein showed a significant metabolic activity in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the chemotaxis assay showed the capability of recombinant CsCC-Chem-1 protein which can induce the migration of spleen leukocytes in C. striatus. However, this remains to be verified

  12. Monoclonal antibody CC-3 recognizes phosphoproteins in interphase and mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, A; Vincent, M

    1991-07-01

    Among a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing developmental markers in the chick embryo, mAb CC-3 was selected because of its differential immunostaining of mitotic cells. The intracellular distribution of the CC-3 antigen (CC-3a) throughout the cell cycle was visualized by immunolocalization. In interphase cells CC-3a resided in the nucleus and was arranged in distinct extranucleolar clusters. At prophase, the nuclear reactivity of CC-3a considerably increased and subsequently extended to the cytoplasm at metaphase. From metaphase through anaphase, most of the reactivity was associated with the mitotic apparatus. During cytokinesis CC-3a was detected in the mid-body and also in discrete speckles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. The initial interphase pattern was then restored in the two daughter nuclei. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that a 255-kDa phosphoprotein was present only in the interphase nucleus and that a complete new set of phosphoproteins accounted for the mitotic cell reactivity. The binding of CC-3 was dependent on the phosphorylation of its antigens. CC-3a is an evolutionary conserved molecule; it is present in such phylogenetically distant species as Drosophila and humans. Furthermore, the unique behavior of CC-3 on sections of normal, embryonic, and regenerative tissue and in cell culture immunostaining make it a reliable tool to identify mitotic foci.

  13. Skeletal muscle cramps during exercise.

    PubMed

    Schwellnus, M P

    1999-11-01

    Cramps are painful, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle that occur during or immediately after exercise and are common in endurance athletes. Although cramps can occur in many rare medical conditions, most athletes who have exercise-associated muscle cramping do not have congenital or acquired medical disorders. The cause of cramping is not well understood but may have to do with abnormal spinal control of motor neuron activity, particularly when a muscle contracts in a shortened position. Important risk factors include muscle fatigue and poor stretching habits. Treatment consists mainly of passive stretching, with supportive measures as needed. Special diagnostic studies and conditioning programs may be necessary for recurrent episodes.

  14. Application of Aquaculture Monitoring System Based on CC2530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Liu, X. Q.

    In order to improve the intelligent level of aquaculture technology, this paper puts forward a remote wireless monitoring system based on ZigBee technology, GPRS technology and Android mobile phone platform. The system is composed of wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS module, PC server, and Android client. The WSN was set up by CC2530 chips based on ZigBee protocol, to realize the collection of water quality parameters such as the water level, temperature, PH and dissolved oxygen. The GPRS module realizes remote communication between WSN and PC server. Android client communicates with server to monitor the level of water quality. The PID (proportion, integration, differentiation) control is adopted in the control part, the control commands from the android mobile phone is sent to the server, the server again send it to the lower machine to control the water level regulating valve and increasing oxygen pump. After practical testing to the system in Liyang, Jiangsu province, China, temperature measurement accuracy reaches 0.5°C, PH measurement accuracy reaches 0.3, water level control precision can be controlled within ± 3cm, dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L, all the indexes can meet the requirements, this system is very suitable for aquaculture.

  15. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-06-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs agent-based models built in NetLogo (Wilensky, NetLogo, Northwestern University, Evanston, 1999a), embedded in scripts that structure and log the students' activities. A conceptual framework was developed to structure students' experiences and learning through exploring the models. The framework describes three spheres of knowledge (conceptual, symbolic and physical) and four forms of access to understanding the system (submicro, macro, mathematical and experiential). Activities were designed to help students build an integrated view of the chemical system, by focusing on understanding within each form of access, and promoting transitions between the spheres of knowledge. The macro-level descriptions were used to bridge between the three spheres and support these shifts. The conceptual framework for the Connected Chemistry curriculum is discussed and demonstrated. Further development directions are suggested.

  16. JMS Proxy and C/C++ Client SDK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgast, Paul; Pechkam, Paul

    2007-01-01

    JMS Proxy and C/C++ Client SDK (JMS signifies "Java messaging service" and "SDK" signifies "software development kit") is a software package for developing interfaces that enable legacy programs (here denoted "clients") written in the C and C++ languages to communicate with each other via a JMS broker. This package consists of two main components: the JMS proxy server component and the client C library SDK component. The JMS proxy server component implements a native Java process that receives and responds to requests from clients. This component can run on any computer that supports Java and a JMS client. The client C library SDK component is used to develop a JMS client program running in each affected C or C++ environment, without need for running a Java virtual machine in the affected computer. A C client program developed by use of this SDK has most of the quality-of-service characteristics of standard Java-based client programs, including the following: Durable subscriptions; Asynchronous message receipt; Such standard JMS message qualities as "TimeToLive," "Message Properties," and "DeliveryMode" (as the quoted terms are defined in previously published JMS documentation); and Automatic reconnection of a JMS proxy to a restarted JMS broker.

  17. D0 CC Cryostat Test Cooldown - Cooldown Time

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, J.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-19

    The D0 CC Cryostat is to be cold tested with LN{sub 2}. Calculations show that the time required for the 12.5 ton stainless steel inner vessel to reach equilibrium is around 5 hours if the vessel is cooled by introducing liquid into a nozzle at the bottom. The heat transfer calculations contain many assumptions. As a result, the vessel will be cooled by spraying LN{sub 2} through a nozzle at the vessel top, providing as fast a cooldown as desired. Although calculations of the bottom-fill cooldown method indicate a reasonable cooldown time, the assumption of uniform gas temperature (absence of stratification) is vital to the analysis and in fast may not be valid. Initially, as liquid is introduced into the bottom of the vessel, it will boil rapidly creating large amounts of cold gas which then cool the walls above. As the vessel bottom cools and LN{sub 2} begins to pool, however, the boiloff rate could decrease significantly. Thus the cold gas assumed in the free convection calculations is not generated. For this reason and in the interest of a speedy cooldown it has been decided to fill the vessel by spraying LN{sub 2} in through a nozzle in the vessel top.

  18. cc purity of {psi}(3770) and {psi}{sup '} challenged

    SciTech Connect

    Voloshin, M.B.

    2005-06-01

    It is suggested that the resonance {psi}(3770) may contain a sizeable (O(10%) in terms of the probability weight factor) four-quark component with the up- and down-quarks and antiquarks in addition to the cc pair, which component in itself has a substantial part with isospin I=1. Furthermore such a four-quark part of the wave function should also affect the properties of the {psi}{sup '} charmonium resonance through the {psi}(3770)-{psi}{sup '} mixing previously considered in the literature. It is argued that an admixture of extra light quark pairs can explain a possible discrepancy between the theoretical expectations and the recent data on the non-DD decay width of the {psi}(3770) and the ratio of the yield of charged and neutral D meson pairs in its decays, as well as on the extra rate of the {psi}{sup '} direct decay into light hadrons and the rate of the decay {psi}{sup '}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}J/{psi}. It is further argued that the suggested four-quark component of the wave function of the {psi}(3770) should give rise to a measurable rate for the decays {psi}(3770){yields}{eta}J/{psi} and {psi}(3770){yields}{pi}{sup 0}J/{psi}.

  19. Exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria (strains CC9311 and CC9902) differentially alters fish behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T. J.; Paz-Yepes, J.; Morrison, R. A.; Palenik, B.; Tresguerres, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal California experiences large-scale blooms of Synechococcus cyanobacteria, which are predicted to become more prevalent by the end of the 21st century as a result of global climate change. This study investigated whether exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two Synechococcus strains, CC9311 and CC9902, alters fish behaviour. Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) were exposed to Synechococcus strain CC9311 or CC9902 (1.5 × 106 cells ml−1) or to control seawater in experimental aquaria for 3 days. Fish movement inside a testing arena was then recorded and analysed using video camera-based motion-tracking software. Compared with control fish, fish exposed to CC9311 demonstrated a significant preference for the dark zone of the tank in the light–dark test, which is an indication of increased anxiety. Furthermore, fish exposed to CC9311 also had a statistically significant decrease in velocity and increase in immobility and they meandered more in comparison to control fish. There was a similar trend in velocity, immobility and meandering in fish exposed to CC9902, but there were no significant differences in behaviour or locomotion between this group and control fish. Identical results were obtained with a second batch of fish. Additionally, in this second trial we also investigated whether fish would recover after a 3 day period in seawater without cyanobacteria. Indeed, there were no longer any significant differences in behaviour among treatments, demonstrating that the sp. CC9311-induced alteration of behaviour is reversible. These results demonstrate that blooms of specific marine Synechococcus strains can induce differential sublethal effects in fish, namely alterations light–dark preference behaviour and motility. PMID:27293641

  20. Exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria (strains CC9311 and CC9902) differentially alters fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T J; Paz-Yepes, J; Morrison, R A; Palenik, B; Tresguerres, M

    2014-01-01

    Coastal California experiences large-scale blooms of Synechococcus cyanobacteria, which are predicted to become more prevalent by the end of the 21st century as a result of global climate change. This study investigated whether exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two Synechococcus strains, CC9311 and CC9902, alters fish behaviour. Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) were exposed to Synechococcus strain CC9311 or CC9902 (1.5 × 10(6) cells ml(-1)) or to control seawater in experimental aquaria for 3 days. Fish movement inside a testing arena was then recorded and analysed using video camera-based motion-tracking software. Compared with control fish, fish exposed to CC9311 demonstrated a significant preference for the dark zone of the tank in the light-dark test, which is an indication of increased anxiety. Furthermore, fish exposed to CC9311 also had a statistically significant decrease in velocity and increase in immobility and they meandered more in comparison to control fish. There was a similar trend in velocity, immobility and meandering in fish exposed to CC9902, but there were no significant differences in behaviour or locomotion between this group and control fish. Identical results were obtained with a second batch of fish. Additionally, in this second trial we also investigated whether fish would recover after a 3 day period in seawater without cyanobacteria. Indeed, there were no longer any significant differences in behaviour among treatments, demonstrating that the sp. CC9311-induced alteration of behaviour is reversible. These results demonstrate that blooms of specific marine Synechococcus strains can induce differential sublethal effects in fish, namely alterations light-dark preference behaviour and motility.

  1. Measurement of Calcium Dissociation Rates from Troponin C in Rigor Skeletal Myofibrils

    PubMed Central

    Little, Sean C.; Tikunova, Svetlana B.; Norman, Catalina; Swartz, Darl R.; Davis, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ dissociation from the regulatory domain of troponin C may influence the rate of striated muscle relaxation. However, Ca2+ dissociation from troponin C has not been measured within the geometric and stoichiometric constraints of the muscle fiber. Here we report the rates of Ca2+ dissociation from the N-terminal regulatory and C-terminal structural domains of fluorescent troponin C constructs reconstituted into rabbit rigor psoas myofibrils using stopped-flow technology. Chicken skeletal troponin C fluorescently labeled at Cys 101, troponin CIAEDANS, reported Ca2+ dissociation exclusively from the structural domain of troponin C at ∼0.37, 0.06, and 0.07/s in isolation, in the presence of troponin I and in myofibrils at 15°C, respectively. Ca2+ dissociation from the regulatory domain was observed utilizing fluorescently labeled troponin C containing the T54C and C101S mutations. Troponin CMIANST54C,C101S reported Ca2+ dissociation exclusively from the regulatory domain of troponin C at >1000, 8.8, and 15/s in isolation, in the presence of troponin I and in myofibrils at 15°C, respectively. Interestingly, troponin CIAANST54C,C101S reported a biphasic fluorescence change upon Ca2+ dissociation from the N- and C-terminal domains of troponin C with rates that were similar to those reported by troponin CMIANST54C,C101S and troponin CIAEDANS at all levels of the troponin C systems. Furthermore, the rate of Ca2+ dissociation from troponin C in the myofibrils was similar to the rate of Ca2+ dissociation measured from the troponin C-troponin I complexes. Since the rate of Ca2+ dissociation from the regulatory domain of TnC in myofibrils is similar to the rate of skeletal muscle relaxation, Ca2+ dissociation from troponin C may influence relaxation. PMID:22013424

  2. Effect of hemiplegia on skeletal maturation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C D; Vogtle, L; Stevenson, R D

    1994-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have been reported to have poor growth and delayed skeletal maturation, but it is unclear whether these effects are related to the underlying brain injury or to concomitant malnutrition. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hemiplegic cerebral palsy on skeletal maturation and growth, with the unaffected side used as each subject's control. Bilateral hand-wrist radiographs were obtained for 19 children with spastic hemiplegia. Skeletal maturation was determined in a blinded fashion with the Fels method. The skeletal age of the affected (hemiplegic) side was less than that of the unaffected (control) side in all 19 subjects; the mean difference in skeletal age was 7.3 months (p < 0.001). The delay in skeletal maturation of the affected side correlated linearly with age and upper extremity function. These findings show that brain injury results in delayed skeletal maturation independent of malnutrition. This effect on skeletal maturation may explain, in part, the reason that some children with cerebral palsy grow poorly. PMID:7965443

  3. [Skeletal dysplasias. The network SKELNET].

    PubMed

    Després, S; Engel, M W; Zabel, B

    2007-12-01

    The network concept of SKELNET was developed to meet the problems and requirements encountered caring for patients with skeletal dysplasias. Skeletal dysplasias are a clinically and genetically extremely diverse group of chronic genetic diseases, which primarily affect the development of the skeleton. The rarity, extensive heterogeneity and complex pathophysiology have made these conditions a challenge to diagnose and study. They represent a group of 200 to 300 specific disorders with patients located all across Germany. So far the diagnostic process in Germany relies on a few specialists who evaluate the X-rays and clinical picture of the patient. In addition, diagnostic tests are restricted to a few laboratories across Europe. Consequences are low efficiency in diagnosis, clinical management, treatment, follow-up and scientific knowledge resulting in extremely prolonged periods between upcoming symptoms and correct diagnosis, and probably a high number of unknown and insufficiently treated cases. The improvement of cooperation among the experts is one of the key points to optimize diagnostic procedures. As the cooperating clinical and scientific specialists are at various locations in Germany, one of the major efforts is to channel the different levels of clinical and research information, making patient data files accessible and transparent to experts. This approach aims at the development of new strategies for all-embracing high level patient care fulfilling all requirements concerning the protection of personal data.

  4. Fat Targets for Skeletal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Masanobu; Devlin, Maureen J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to a critical role for the skeleton in several homeostatic processes including energy balance. The connection between fuel utilization and skeletal remodeling begins in the bone marrow with lineage allocation of mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Mature bone cells secrete factors that influence insulin sensitivity and fat cells synthesize cytokines that regulate osteoblast differentiation. The emerging importance of the bone-fat interaction suggests that novel molecules could be used as targets to enhance bone formation and possibly prevent fractures. In this review, we discuss three pathways that could favor pharmacologic intervention with the ultimate goal of enhancing bone mass and reducing osteoporotic fracture risk. Not surprisingly, because of the complex interactions across homeostatic networks, other pathways will likely be activated by this targeting and these could prove to be beneficial or detrimental for the organism. Hence a more complete picture of energy utilization and skeletal remodeling will be required to bring these potential agents into any future clinical armamentarium. PMID:19468288

  5. Regulation of NADPH oxidases in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo F; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    The only known function of NAD(P)H oxidases is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skeletal muscles express three isoforms of NAD(P)H oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4) that have been identified as critical modulators of redox homeostasis. Nox2 acts as the main source of skeletal muscle ROS during contractions, participates in insulin signaling and glucose transport, and mediates the myocyte response to osmotic stress. Nox2 and Nox4 contribute to skeletal muscle abnormalities elicited by angiotensin II, muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and high fat diet. Our review addresses the expression and regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases with emphasis on aspects that are relevant to skeletal muscle. We also summarize: i) the most widely used NAD(P)H oxidases activity assays and inhibitors, and ii) studies that have defined Nox enzymes as protagonists of skeletal muscle redox homeostasis in a variety of health and disease conditions. PMID:27184955

  6. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization. PMID:25638580

  7. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  8. Association of Overt Diabetes Mellitus with the Non-CC but not the CC Genotype of Interleukin-28B in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Varun; Sharma, Praveen; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Arora, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) polymorphism is an important predictor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment response. Whether IL-28b genotypes also influence other nontreatment related clinical parameters is unclear. Methods: Patients with HCV-related chronic liver diseases who attended our department during 2012-2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs12979860 (IL-28B) were correlated with various clinical parameters. We also compared these parameters in patients with and without overt diabetes to identify possible associations. Results: A total of 115 patients were included (median age 48, range 15-76 years; 70% males). Overall, 43/115 (37%) patients had chronic hepatitis, while the remaining 72/115 (63%) had cirrhosis. The most common IL-28B genotype was CC, which was found in 53% of patients (61/115), while the remaining 47% were nonCC [CT 42% (48/115) and TT 5% (6/115)]. Clinical and laboratory parameters like Hb, white blood cell (WBC), platelets, bilirubin, transaminases, and albumin were similar in the CC and nonCC genotypes. Overt diabetes mellitus was present in 22% (25/115) of patients. Patients with nonCC genotype had significantly higher prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus than patients with CC genotype (31% [17/54] versus 13% [8/61]; p < 0.05). When parameters were compared in patients with and without overt diabetes mellitus, only IL-28B and age were significantly associated with overt diabetes mellitus (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In HCV patients, overt diabetes mellitus was more commonly associated with the nonCC genotype of IL-28B than the CC genotype. Carriers of the T-allele of SNP rs12979860 were more likely to have insulin resistance than CC homozygotes, and this finding may explain the higher prevalence of diabetes in non-CC genotypes. Thus, an IL-28B test may be useful in patients of HCV in order to determine their likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:27047769

  9. Choosing the Right CC Welding Unit: Student Success Depends on It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchert, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the personality of a constant current (CC) dc welding machine can make the difference between a successful or unsuccessful weld test or between a student who pursues a career in welding and one who may quit in frustration. In this article, the author explains the two different "personalities" of CC welders. He also explains how…

  10. Inhibition of Btk with CC-292 provides early pharmacodynamic assessment of activity in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Erica K; Tester, Richland; Aslanian, Sharon; Karp, Russell; Sheets, Michael; Labenski, Matthew T; Witowski, Steven R; Lounsbury, Heather; Chaturvedi, Prasoon; Mazdiyasni, Hormoz; Zhu, Zhendong; Nacht, Mariana; Freed, Martin I; Petter, Russell C; Dubrovskiy, Alex; Singh, Juswinder; Westlin, William F

    2013-08-01

    Targeted therapies that suppress B cell receptor (BCR) signaling have emerged as promising agents in autoimmune disease and B cell malignancies. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays a crucial role in B cell development and activation through the BCR signaling pathway and represents a new target for diseases characterized by inappropriate B cell activity. N-(3-(5-fluoro-2-(4-(2-methoxyethoxy)phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl)acrylamide (CC-292) is a highly selective, covalent Btk inhibitor and a sensitive and quantitative assay that measures CC-292-Btk engagement has been developed. This translational pharmacodynamic assay has accompanied CC-292 through each step of drug discovery and development. These studies demonstrate the quantity of Btk bound by CC-292 correlates with the efficacy of CC-292 in vitro and in the collagen-induced arthritis model of autoimmune disease. Recently, CC-292 has entered human clinical trials with a trial design that has provided rapid insight into safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. This first-in-human healthy volunteer trial has demonstrated that a single oral dose of 2 mg/kg CC-292 consistently engaged all circulating Btk protein and provides the basis for rational dose selection in future clinical trials. This targeted covalent drug design approach has enabled the discovery and early clinical development of CC-292 and has provided support for Btk as a valuable drug target for B-cell mediated disorders.

  11. Dehydration, skeletal muscle damage and inflammation before the competitions among the elite wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Isik; Ibrahim, Cicioglu H.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to identify weight-loss and hydration levels before competitions among elite wrestlers and determine the skeletal muscle damage and inflammation levels after dehydration. [Subjects] Seventy-two elite wrestlers who participated in the Turkish Wrestling Championship. [Methods] With the help of specialists, 5 cc of blood were drawn from the forearm veins of the wrestlers. Laboratory analyses of Na+, BUN, Glucose, CK, LDH, AST, ALT, C-RP levels were performed. Using a mathematical formula for hydration the POsm levels of the athletes were calculated. [Results] The wrestlers were divided into two groups based on hydration status. There were significant correlations between hydration indicators of Na+, BUN and PBWL values. There were significant differences between AST, LDH, CK values and skeletal muscle damage indicators of the two groups, but there were no significant differences between the inflammation levels and C-RP values of the groups. [Conclusion] No differences existed in inflammation levels among the wrestlers, although dehydrated wrestlers suffered from higher level of skeletal muscle damage than wrestlers who were not dehydrated. PMID:26957750

  12. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  13. Structural insights into the interaction between a potent anti-inflammatory protein, viral CC chemokine inhibitor (vCCI), and the human CC chemokine, Eotaxin-1.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Nai-Wei; Gao, Yong-Guang; Schill, Megan S; Isern, Nancy; Dupureur, Cynthia M; Liwang, Patricia J

    2014-03-01

    Chemokines play important roles in the immune system, not only recruiting leukocytes to the site of infection and inflammation but also guiding cell homing and cell development. The soluble poxvirus-encoded protein viral CC chemokine inhibitor (vCCI), a CC chemokine inhibitor, can bind to human CC chemokines tightly to impair the host immune defense. This protein has no known homologs in eukaryotes and may represent a potent method to stop inflammation. Previously, our structure of the vCCI·MIP-1β (macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) complex indicated that vCCI uses negatively charged residues in β-sheet II to interact with positively charged residues in the MIP-1β N terminus, 20s region and 40s loop. However, the interactions between vCCI and other CC chemokines have not yet been fully explored. Here, we used NMR and fluorescence anisotropy to study the interaction between vCCI and eotaxin-1 (CCL11), a CC chemokine that is an important factor in the asthma response. NMR results reveal that the binding pattern is very similar to the vCCI·MIP-1β complex and suggest that electrostatic interactions provide a major contribution to binding. Fluorescence anisotropy results on variants of eotaxin-1 further confirm the critical roles of the charged residues in eotaxin-1. In addition, the binding affinity between vCCI and other wild type CC chemokines, MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), MIP-1β, and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), were determined as 1.1, 1.2, and 0.22 nm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first work quantitatively measuring the binding affinity between vCCI and multiple CC chemokines.

  14. Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Kenji; Machida, Takuji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a key role in postural retention as well as locomotion for maintaining the physical activities of human life. Skeletal muscle has a second role as an elaborate energy production and consumption system that influences the whole body's energy metabolism. Skeletal muscle is a specific organ that engenders a physical force, and exercise training has been known to bring about multiple benefits for human health maintenance and/or improvement. The mechanisms underlying the improvement of the human physical condition have been revealed: skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes multiple factors, and these muscle-derived factors, so-called as myokines, exert beneficial effects on peripheral and remote organs. In this short review, we focus on the third aspect of skeletal muscle function - namely, the release of multiple types of myokines, which constitute a broad network for regulating the function of remote organs as well as skeletal muscle itself. We conclusively show that skeletal muscle is one of the endocrine organs and that understanding the mechanisms of production and secretion of myokines may lead to a new pharmacological approach for treatment of clinical disorders.

  15. Deciphering skeletal patterning: clues from the limb.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Francesca V; Martin, Gail R

    2003-05-15

    Even young children can distinguish a Tyrannosaurus rex from a Brontosaurus by observing differences in bone size, shape, number and arrangement, that is, skeletal pattern. But despite our extensive knowledge about cartilage and bone formation per se, it is still largely a mystery how skeletal pattern is established. Much of what we do know has been learned from studying limb development in chicken and mouse embryos. Based on the data from such studies, models for how limb skeletal pattern is established have been proposed and continue to be hotly debated.

  16. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  17. Carotid stenosis evaluation by 64-slice CTA: comparison of NASCET, ECST and CC grading methods.

    PubMed

    Kılıçkap, Gülsüm; Ergun, Elif; Başbay, Elif; Koşar, Pınar; Kosar, Uğur

    2012-06-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver variability of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET), European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and Common Carotid (CC) methods, which are used to measure the degree of ICA stenosis, using 64-slice CT angiography and to compare the measurements made by these three methods. 88 cases (111 carotid arteries) were included in the study. Carotid CTA was performed by a 64 slice scanner (Toshiba, Aqullion 64).Two radiologists measured the degree of carotid stenosis by using NASCET, ECST and CC methods. Intraobserver and interobserver variability of each method was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots and kappa and linear weighted kappa statistics. The relation between the measurements was assessed by correlation coefficient (with linear and quadratic methods). Correlation coefficients showed that there is linear correlation between the measurements made by the three methods. The degree of stenosis measured with the NASCET method had the lowest value, while the corresponding values measured with the ECST and CC methods were close to each other. ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed high intra and inter observer agreement for NASCET, ECST and CC methods whereas kappa statistics showed moderate to substantial agreement. CC method had slightly higher agreement when compared with the other two methods. Intra and interobserver agreement is high for NASCET, ECST and CC methods however CC method has a slightly higher reproducibility. There is linear correlation between the measurements made by the three methods.

  18. Vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC mediated by HMOX1 rescues retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Zhao, Chen; Kumar, Anil; Lee, Chunsik; Chen, Mingquan; Huang, Lijuan; Wang, Jing; Ren, Xiangrong; Jiang, Yida; Chen, Wei; Wang, Bin; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhong, Zheng; Huang, Zijing; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Bing; Ding, Hao; Ju, Rong; Tang, Zhongshu; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai; Li, Xuri; Liu, Xialin

    2014-10-14

    Blood vessel degeneration is critically involved in nearly all types of degenerative diseases. Therefore strategies to enhance blood vessel protection and survival are highly needed. In this study, using different animal models and cultured cells, we show that PDGF-CC is a potent vascular protective and survival factor. PDGF-CC deficiency by genetic deletion exacerbated blood vessel regression/degeneration in various animal models. Importantly, treatment with PDGF-CC protein not only increased the survival of retinal blood vessels in a model of oxygen-induced blood vessel regression but also markedly rescued retinal and blood vessel degeneration in a disease model of retinitis pigmentosa. Mechanistically, we revealed that heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) activity is critically required for the vascular protective/survival effect of PDGF-CC, because blockade of HMOX1 completely abolished the protective effect of PDGF-CC in vitro and in vivo. We further found that both PDGF receptors, PDGFR-β and PDGFR-α, are required for the vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC. Thus our data show that PDGF-CC plays a pivotal role in maintaining blood vessel survival and may be of therapeutic value in treating various types of degenerative diseases.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics with Extended Dosing of CC-486 in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cogle, Christopher R.; Gore, Steven D.; Hetzer, Joel; Kumar, Keshava; Skikne, Barry; MacBeth, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    CC-486 (oral azacitidine) is an epigenetic modifier in development for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. In part 1 of this two-part study, a 7-day CC-486 dosing schedule showed clinical activity, was generally well tolerated, and reduced DNA methylation. Extending dosing of CC-486 beyond 7 days would increase duration of azacitidine exposure. We hypothesized that extended dosing would therefore provide more sustained epigenetic activity. Reported here are the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of CC-486 extended dosing schedules in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from part 2 of this study. PK and/or PD data were available for 59 patients who were sequentially assigned to 1 of 4 extended CC-486 dosing schedules: 300mg once-daily or 200mg twice-daily for 14 or 21 days per 28-day cycle. Both 300mg once-daily schedules and the 200mg twice-daily 21-day schedule significantly (all P < .05) reduced global DNA methylation in whole blood at all measured time points (days 15, 22, and 28 of the treatment cycle), with sustained hypomethylation at cycle end compared with baseline. CC-486 exposures and reduced DNA methylation were significantly correlated. Patients who had a hematologic response had significantly greater methylation reductions than non-responding patients. These data demonstrate that extended dosing of CC-486 sustains epigenetic effects through the treatment cycle. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00528983 PMID:26296092

  20. Catalysis by unsupported skeletal gold catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wittstock, Arne; Bäumer, Marcus

    2014-03-18

    temperatures well below water's freezing point (-30 °C) and with turnover frequencies up to 0.5 s(-1) (at 30 °C). Yet, we can anticipate the surface chemistry of these unsupported and extended gold surfaces based on model experiments under UHV conditions. We have demonstrated this for the selective oxidation of primary alcohols at low temperatures employing npAu catalysts. Chemists have paid growing interest to oxidation and reduction reactions in liquid phase catalysis, most suitable for synthetic organic chemistry. Early work on the aerobic oxidation of d-glucose in 2008 using Raney type npAu already showed the potential of this type of catalyst for liquid phase reactions. Since then, researchers have investigated further oxidation reactions (silanes to silanols) and reduction reactions of alkynes, as well as C-C coupling reactions ([4 + 2] benzannulation) and azo compound decomposition, with likely several more reactions to be reported in the next years. The advantage of this unsupported skeletal type of catalyst is its recyclability and retrievability without leaching of gold into the reaction medium, owing to its monolithic structure. Even though these materials contain nanoscopic structures, they are macroscopic in their geometric dimensions and pose no threat to the environment or health as discussed for other nanomaterials. PMID:24266888

  1. Exposure-response analysis to assess the concentration-QTc relationship of CC-122.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Carayannopoulos, Leonidas N; Thomas, Michael; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2016-01-01

    CC-122 hydrochloride is a novel pleiotropic pathway modifier compound that binds cereblon, a substrate receptor of the Cullin 4 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. CC-122 has multiple activities including modulation of immune cells, antiproliferative activity of multiple myeloma and lymphoma cells, and antiangiogenic activity. CC-122 is being developed as an oncology treatment for hematologic malignancies and advanced solid tumors. Cardiovascular and vital sign assessments of CC-122 have been conducted in hERG assays in vitro and in a 28-day good laboratory practice monkey study with negative signals. To assess the potential concentration-QTc relationship in humans and to ascertain or exclude a small QT effect by CC-122, a plasma concentration exposure- and ΔQTcF-response model of CC-122 was developed. Intensive CC-122 concentration and paired triplicate electrocardiogram data from a single ascending dose study were included in the analysis. The parameters included in the final linear exposure-response model are intercept, slope, and treatment effect. The slope estimate of 0.0201 with 90% CI of (0.009, 0.035) indicates a weak relationship between ΔQTcF and CC-122 concentration. The upper bounds of the 90% CI of the model-predicted ΔΔQTcF effect at C max from the 4 mg clinical dose and the supratherapeutic dose of 15 mg (1.18 ms and 8.76 ms, respectively) are <10 ms threshold, suggesting that the risk of CC-122 QT prolongation effect at the relevant therapeutic dose range from 1 mg to 4 mg is low.

  2. The Coprinopsis cinerea septin Cc.Cdc3 is involved in stipe cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Shioya, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroe; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Ozaki, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Okano, Keiju; Kamada, Takashi; Muraguchi, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a Coprinopsis cinerea mutant defective in stipe elongation during fruiting body development. In the wild-type, stipe cells elongate at the maturation stage of fruiting, resulting in very slender cells. In the mutant, the stipe cells fail to elongate, but become rather globular at the maturation stage. We found that the mutant phenotype is rescued by a gene encoding a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC3 septin, Cc.Cdc3. The C. cinerea genome includes 6 septin genes, 5 of which, including Cc.cdc3, are highly transcribed during stipe elongation in the wild type. In the mutant, the level of Cc.cdc3 transcription in the stipe cells remains the same as that in the mycelium, and the level of Cc.cdc10 transcription is approximately 100 times lower than that in the wild-type stipe cells. No increase in transcription of Cc.cdc3 in the mutant may be due to the fact that the Cc.cdc3 gene has a 4-base pair insertion in its promoter and/or that the promoter region is methylated in the mutant. Overexpressed EGFP-Cc.Cdc3 fusion protein rescues the stipe elongation in the transformants, localizes to the cell cortex and assembles into abundant thin filaments in the elongating stipe cells. In contrast, in vegetative hyphae, EGFP-Cc.Cdc3 is localized to the hyphal tips of the apical cells of hyphae. Cellular defects in the mutant, combined with the localization of EGFP-Cc.Cdc3, suggest that septin filaments in the cell cortex provide the localized rigidity to the plasma membrane and allow cells to elongate cylindrically.

  3. Exposure-response analysis to assess the concentration-QTc relationship of CC-122.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Carayannopoulos, Leonidas N; Thomas, Michael; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2016-01-01

    CC-122 hydrochloride is a novel pleiotropic pathway modifier compound that binds cereblon, a substrate receptor of the Cullin 4 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. CC-122 has multiple activities including modulation of immune cells, antiproliferative activity of multiple myeloma and lymphoma cells, and antiangiogenic activity. CC-122 is being developed as an oncology treatment for hematologic malignancies and advanced solid tumors. Cardiovascular and vital sign assessments of CC-122 have been conducted in hERG assays in vitro and in a 28-day good laboratory practice monkey study with negative signals. To assess the potential concentration-QTc relationship in humans and to ascertain or exclude a small QT effect by CC-122, a plasma concentration exposure- and ΔQTcF-response model of CC-122 was developed. Intensive CC-122 concentration and paired triplicate electrocardiogram data from a single ascending dose study were included in the analysis. The parameters included in the final linear exposure-response model are intercept, slope, and treatment effect. The slope estimate of 0.0201 with 90% CI of (0.009, 0.035) indicates a weak relationship between ΔQTcF and CC-122 concentration. The upper bounds of the 90% CI of the model-predicted ΔΔQTcF effect at C max from the 4 mg clinical dose and the supratherapeutic dose of 15 mg (1.18 ms and 8.76 ms, respectively) are <10 ms threshold, suggesting that the risk of CC-122 QT prolongation effect at the relevant therapeutic dose range from 1 mg to 4 mg is low. PMID:27672344

  4. Exposure-response analysis to assess the concentration–QTc relationship of CC-122

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Carayannopoulos, Leonidas N; Thomas, Michael; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2016-01-01

    CC-122 hydrochloride is a novel pleiotropic pathway modifier compound that binds cereblon, a substrate receptor of the Cullin 4 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. CC-122 has multiple activities including modulation of immune cells, antiproliferative activity of multiple myeloma and lymphoma cells, and antiangiogenic activity. CC-122 is being developed as an oncology treatment for hematologic malignancies and advanced solid tumors. Cardiovascular and vital sign assessments of CC-122 have been conducted in hERG assays in vitro and in a 28-day good laboratory practice monkey study with negative signals. To assess the potential concentration–QTc relationship in humans and to ascertain or exclude a small QT effect by CC-122, a plasma concentration exposure- and ΔQTcF-response model of CC-122 was developed. Intensive CC-122 concentration and paired triplicate electrocardiogram data from a single ascending dose study were included in the analysis. The parameters included in the final linear exposure-response model are intercept, slope, and treatment effect. The slope estimate of 0.0201 with 90% CI of (0.009, 0.035) indicates a weak relationship between ΔQTcF and CC-122 concentration. The upper bounds of the 90% CI of the model-predicted ΔΔQTcF effect at Cmax from the 4 mg clinical dose and the supratherapeutic dose of 15 mg (1.18 ms and 8.76 ms, respectively) are <10 ms threshold, suggesting that the risk of CC-122 QT prolongation effect at the relevant therapeutic dose range from 1 mg to 4 mg is low.

  5. Exposure-response analysis to assess the concentration–QTc relationship of CC-122

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Carayannopoulos, Leonidas N; Thomas, Michael; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2016-01-01

    CC-122 hydrochloride is a novel pleiotropic pathway modifier compound that binds cereblon, a substrate receptor of the Cullin 4 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. CC-122 has multiple activities including modulation of immune cells, antiproliferative activity of multiple myeloma and lymphoma cells, and antiangiogenic activity. CC-122 is being developed as an oncology treatment for hematologic malignancies and advanced solid tumors. Cardiovascular and vital sign assessments of CC-122 have been conducted in hERG assays in vitro and in a 28-day good laboratory practice monkey study with negative signals. To assess the potential concentration–QTc relationship in humans and to ascertain or exclude a small QT effect by CC-122, a plasma concentration exposure- and ΔQTcF-response model of CC-122 was developed. Intensive CC-122 concentration and paired triplicate electrocardiogram data from a single ascending dose study were included in the analysis. The parameters included in the final linear exposure-response model are intercept, slope, and treatment effect. The slope estimate of 0.0201 with 90% CI of (0.009, 0.035) indicates a weak relationship between ΔQTcF and CC-122 concentration. The upper bounds of the 90% CI of the model-predicted ΔΔQTcF effect at Cmax from the 4 mg clinical dose and the supratherapeutic dose of 15 mg (1.18 ms and 8.76 ms, respectively) are <10 ms threshold, suggesting that the risk of CC-122 QT prolongation effect at the relevant therapeutic dose range from 1 mg to 4 mg is low. PMID:27672344

  6. Identification and expression analysis of a CC chemokine from cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    PubMed

    Feng, Juan; Su, Youlu; Guo, Zhixun; Xu, Liwen; Sun, Xiuxiu; Wang, Yunxin

    2013-06-01

    Chemokines are small, secreted cytokine peptides known principally for their ability to induce migration and activation of leukocyte populations and regulate the immune response mechanisms. The cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a marine finfish species, has a great potential for net cage aquaculture in the South China Sea. We isolated and characterized a CC chemokine cDNA from cobia-designated RcCC2. Its cDNA is 783 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 110 amino acids. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the RcCC2 gene, which contains four conserved cysteine residues, shares a high degree of similarity with other known CC chemokine sequences and is closest to the CCL19/21 clade. The mRNA of RcCC2 is expressed constitutively in all tested tissues, including gill, liver, muscle, spleen, kidney, head kidney, skin, brain, stomach, intestine and heart, but not blood, with the highest level of expression in gill and liver. The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the expression of the RcCC2 gene in immune-related tissues, including head kidney, spleen and liver, following intraperitoneal injection of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, formalin-killed Vibrio carchariae (bacterial vaccine) and phosphate-buffered saline as a control. RcCC2 gene expression was up-regulated differentially in head kidney, spleen and liver during 12 h after challenge. These results indicate that the RcCC2 gene is inducible and is involved in immune responses, suggesting RcCC2 has an important role in the early stage of viral and bacterial infections.

  7. Structural Insights into the Interaction Between a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Protein, Viral CC Chemokine Inhibitor (vCCI), and the Human CC Chemokine, Eotaxin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Nai-Wei; Gao, Yong; Schill, Megan S.; Isern, Nancy G.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.; Liwang, Patricia J.

    2014-01-30

    Chemokines play important roles in the immune system, not only recruiting leukocytes to the site of infection and inflammation but also guiding cell homing and cell development. The soluble poxvirusencoded protein vCCI, a CC chemokine inhibitor, can bind to human CC chemokines tightly to impair the host immune defense. This protein has no known homologs in eukaryotes, and may represent a potent method to stop inflammation. Previously, our structure of the vCCI:MIP-1β complex indicated that vCCI uses negatively charged residues in β-sheet II to interact with positively charged residues in the MIP-1βN-terminus, 20’s region and 40’s loop. However, the interactions between vCCI and other CC chemokines have not yet been fully explored. Here, we used NMR and fluorescence anisotropy to study the interaction between vCCI and eotaxin-1 (CCL11), another CC chemokine that is an important factor in the asthma response. NMR results reveal that the binding pattern is very similar to the vCCI:MIP-1βcomplex, and suggest that electrostatic interactions provide a major contribution to binding. Fluorescence anisotropy results on variants of eotaxin-1 further confirm the critical roles of the charged residues in eotaxin. Compared to wild-type eotaxin, single, double, or triple mutations at these critical charged residues weaken the binding. One exception is the K47A mutation that exhibits increased affinity for vCCI, which can be explained structurally. In addition, the binding affinity between vCCI and other wild type CC chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1β and RANTES, were determined as 1.09 nM, 1.16 nM, and 0.22 nM, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first work quantitatively measuring the binding affinity between vCCI and different CC chemokines.

  8. Electron attachment properties of c-C4F8O in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachereau, A.; Fedor, J.; Janečková, R.; Kočišek, J.; Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    The electron attachment properties of octafluorotetrahydrofuran (c-C4F8O) are investigated using two complementary experimental setups. The attachment and ionization cross sections of c-C4F8O are measured using an electron beam experiment. The effective ionization rate coefficient, electron drift velocity and electron diffusion coefficient in c-C4F8O diluted to concentrations lower than 0.6% in the buffer gases N2, CO2 and Ar, are measured using a pulsed Townsend experiment. A kinetic model is proposed, which combines the results of the two experiments.

  9. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  10. Extinction coefficients of CC and CC bands in ethyne and ethene molecules interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites--IR studies and quantumchemical DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Kozyra, Paweł; Góra-Marek, Kinga; Datka, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    The values of extinction coefficients of CC and CC IR bands of ethyne and ethene interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites were determined in quantitative IR experiments and also by quantumchemical DFT calculations with QM/MM method. Both experimental and calculated values were in very good agreement validating the reliability of calculations. The values of extinction coefficients of ethyne and ethene interacting with bare cations and cations embedded in zeolite-like clusters were calculated. The interaction of organic molecules with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites ZSM-5 and especially charge transfers between molecule, cation and zeolite framework was also discussed in relation to the values of extinction coefficients.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  12. [Contributions by Austrian physicians to skeletal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ellegast, H H; Strasser, E

    1991-01-01

    We report about Austrian physicians who made major contributions to the scientific research of skeletal disorders. They include pathologists, radiologists, clinicians, pediatricians and surgeons. We present a short biography as well as a brief discussion of their major papers.

  13. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  14. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Exfoliative Toxin A-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Strains B-7772 and B-7777 (CC8/ST2993) and B-7774 (CC15/ST2126), Isolated in a Maternity Hospital in the Central Federal District of Russia

    PubMed Central

    Skryabin, Yury; Kislichkina, Angelina; Bogun, Alexandr; Korobova, Olga; Mayskaya, Nadezhda; Shemyakin, Igor; Dyatlov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 8 (CC8) has not been associated with staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS) in newborns and exfoliative toxin genes. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of exfoliative toxin A-producing B-7772, B-7777 (both CC8), and B-7774 (CC15) strains associated with SSSS in newborns. PMID:26941146

  16. Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Salmons, Stanley

    2009-02-01

    Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle offers an attractive surgical solution to the problem of end-stage heart failure, yet it is widely regarded as a failed approach. I argue here that this is an outdated assessment. Systematic progress has been made over the last 25 years in understanding the relevant basic science. In the light of these advances we should be reconsidering the place of skeletal muscle assist in the surgical armamentarium. PMID:18954996

  17. Angiotensin II: role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Córdova, Gonzalo; Salas, José Diego

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, the main protein reservoir in the body, is a tissue that exhibits high plasticity when exposed to changes. Muscle proteins can be mobilized into free amino acids when skeletal muscle wasting occurs, a process called skeletal muscle atrophy. This wasting is an important systemic or local manifestation under disuse conditions (e.g., bed rest or immobilization), in starvation, in older adults, and in several diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting imply the activation of specific signaling pathways which ultimately manage muscle responses to modulate biological events such as increases in protein catabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death by apoptosis. Many factors have been involved in the generation and maintenance of atrophy in skeletal muscle, among them angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Together with Ang-II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the Ang-II receptor type 1 (AT-1 receptor) are expressed in skeletal muscle, forming an important local axis that can regulate its function. In many of the conditions that lead to muscle wasting, there is an impairment of RAS in a global or local fashion. At this point, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest the participation of Ang-II, ACE, and AT-1 receptor in the generation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Interestingly, the Ang-II participation in muscle atrophy is strongly ligated to the regulation of hypertrophic activity of factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this article, we reviewed the current state of Ang-II and RAS function on skeletal muscle wasting and its possible use as a therapeutic target to improve skeletal muscle function under atrophic conditions.

  18. Symbiodinium Clade Affects Coral Skeletal Isotopic Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of different physiologies of Symbiodinium dinoflagellate symbiont clades on the skeletal chemistry of associated coral hosts has not previously been investigated. This is an important issue because coral skeletons are routinely used for tropical paleoclimatic reconstructions. We analyzed coral skeletal samples collected simultaneously from neighboring colonies off Belize and found that those harboring different clades of Symbiodinium displayed significantly different skeletal oxygen isotopic compositions. We also found evidence for mean shifts in skeletal oxygen isotopic composition after coral bleaching (the loss and potential exchange of symbionts) in two of four longer coral cores from the Mesoamerican Reef, though all experienced similar climatic conditions. Thus, we suggest that symbiont clade identity leaves a signature in the coral skeletal archive and that this influence must be considered for quantitative environmental reconstruction. In addition, we suggest that the skeletal isotopic signature may be used to identify changes in the dominant symbiont clade that have occurred in the past, to identify how common and widespread this phenomenon is--a potential adaptation to climate change.

  19. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  20. Effect of N-terminal truncation on antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and membrane perturbation activity of Cc-CATH3.

    PubMed

    Jittikoon, Jiraphun; Ngamsaithong, Narumon; Pimthon, Jutarat; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-10-01

    A series of amino-terminal truncated analogues of quail antimicrobial peptide Cc-CATH3(1-29) were created and examined antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast cell line, and membrane perturbation activity against various membrane models. Parent peptide Cc-CATH3(1-29) and the first four-residue truncated peptide Cc-CATH3(5-29) were active in all tested experiments. In contrast, the eight- and twelve-residue truncated variants Cc-CATH3(9-29) and Cc-CATH3(13-29) appeared to have lost activities. Cc-CATH3(1-29) and Cc-CATH3(5-29) possessed antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-4 and 1-2 µM, respectively. For cytotoxicity, Cc-CATH3(1-29) and Cc-CATH3(5-29) displayed cytotoxicity with the IC50 values of 9.33 and 4.93 μM, respectively. Cc-CATH3(5-29) induced greater liposome membranes disruption than Cc-CATH3(1-29) regardless of lipid type and composition. The leakage results of Cc-CATH3(1-29) share a similar trend with that in Cc-CATH3(5-29); they exhibit no preferential binding to anionic phospholipids. In conclusion, the results suggested that the first four residues at the N-terminus "RVRR" is not essential for presenting all test activities. In contrast, residues five to eight of "FWPL" are necessary as the exclusion of this short motif in Cc-CATH3(9-29) and Cc-CATH3(13-29) leads to a loss of activities. This study will be beneficial for further design and development of Cc-CATH3 to be novel antibiotic.

  1. C/C composite brake disk nondestructive evaluation by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tsuchin P.; Poudel, Anish; Filip, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the non-destructive evaluation of thick Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composite aircraft brake disks by using transient infrared thermography (IRT) approach. Thermal diffusivity measurement technique was applied to identify the subsurface anomalies in thick C/C brake disks. In addition, finite element analysis (FEA) modeling tool was used to determine the transient thermal response of the C/C disks that were subjected to flash heating. For this, series of finite element models were built and thermal responses with various thermal diffusivities subjected to different heating conditions were investigated. Experiments were conducted to verify the models by using custom built in-house IRT system and commercial turnkey system. The analysis and experimental results showed good correlation between thermal diffusivity value and anomalies within the disk. It was demonstrated that the step-heating transient thermal approach could be effectively applied to obtain the whole field thermal diffusivity value of C/C composites.

  2. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Copyright C.C. Pierce Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Copyright - C.C. Pierce Original: About 1902 Re-photo: April 1940 QUANDRANGLE (view from north) - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

  3. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  4. FLOYDS Classification of ASASSN-16cc/AT 2016aqf as a Type II Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Yang, Y.; McCully, C.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Valenti, S.

    2016-02-01

    We obtained a spectrum of ASASSN-16cc/AT 2016aqf (ATels #8736 and #8738) on 2016 February 27.4 UT with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the LCOGT 2-meter telescope in Siding Spring, Australia.

  5. CC-chemokine receptors: a potential therapeutic target for Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Marino, A P M P; Silva, A A; Santos, P V A; Pinto, L M O; Gazinelli, R T; Teixeira, M M; Lannes-Vieira, J

    2005-03-01

    The comprehension of the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is crucial to delineate new therapeutic strategies aiming to ameliorate the inflammation that leads to heart dysfunction, without hampering parasite control. The augmented expression of CCL5/RANTES and CCL3/MIP-1alpha, and their receptor CCR5, in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice suggests a role for CC-chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of T. cruzi-elicited myocarditis. Herein, we discuss our recent results using a CC-chemokine receptor inhibitor (Met-RANTES), showing the participation of CC-chemokines in T. cruzi infection and unraveling CC-chemokine receptors as an attractive therapeutic target for further evaluation in Chagas disease.

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey C.C. Woodburn, Photographer. January 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey C.C. Woodburn, Photographer. January 12, 1934 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (WEST ELEVATION) - Ferdinand Daniel Pulver House, County Road F-70 Vicinity, Vandalia, Jasper County, IA

  7. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  8. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  9. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria. PMID:14561335

  10. Mandibular shape and skeletal divergency.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; De Franco, D J

    1999-04-01

    Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 41 skeletal Class I girls aged 11 to 15 were divided according to MP-SN angle: lower than 28 degrees (hypodivergent, 10 girls), between 31 and 34 degrees (normodivergent, 18 girls), or larger than 37 degrees (hyperdivergent, 13 girls). The mandibular outlines were traced and digitized, and differences in shape were quantified using the elliptic Fourier series. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Shape differences were assessed by calculating a morphological distance (MD) between the size-independent mean mathematical reconstructions of the mandibular outlines of the three divergency classes. Mandibular shape was different in the three classes: large variations were found in hyperdivergent girls versus normodivergent girls (MD = 4.61), while smaller differences were observed in hypodivergent girls (MD versus normodivergent 2.91). Mean size-independent mandibular shapes were superimposed on an axis passing through the centres of gravity of the condyle and of the chin. Normodivergent and hyperdivergent mandibles differed mostly at gonion, the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, alveolar process, posterior border of the ramus, and along the mandibular plane. A significant size effect was also found, with smaller mandibles in the hyperdivergent girls.

  11. Skeletal manifestations of infantile scurvy.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Megan; Ives, Rachel

    2006-02-01

    Recent investigations of human skeletal material from the historic St. Martin's cemetery, England, found a range of abnormal lesions in six infants that are almost certainly related to scurvy. Porous and proliferative bone lesions affecting the cranial bones and scapulae were found, and this paper presents images obtained using both macroscopic and scanning electron microscope examination of the lesions. Previous work on infantile scurvy (Ortner et al., 1997-2001) relied heavily on changes at the sphenoid, which is often missing in archaeological bone, so the identification of changes attributable to scurvy on other cranial bones and the scapulae is encouraging. The ability to recognize changes related to scurvy on a range of bones will ensure an enhanced potential for recognition of this disease in future research involving archaeological bone. Research on historical documents from Birmingham dating to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, combined with the probable cases of scurvy identified, supports the view that the paucity of cases of infantile scurvy from the archaeological record reflects a lack of understanding and recognition of bone manifestations, rather than a lack of occurrence in this period. Changes linked to scurvy were only found in infants from the poorer sections of the community from St. Martin's, and this is almost certainly linked to patterns of food consumption and may be related to shortages of potatoes, due to blight, experienced during this period.

  12. 78 FR 6811 - Country Code Top-Level Domain (ccTLD) for the United States; Policies and Requirements; Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-XC005 Country Code Top-Level Domain (cc... Administration (NTIA) administers the contract for the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United... development for the usTLD space. Background Country code TLDs (ccTLDs) are two-letter suffixes based on...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  15. Detection of CC17 Enterococcus faecium in dogs and a comparison with human isolates.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K H; Moon, B Y; Hwang, S Y; Park, Y H

    2012-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains of clonal complex (CC) 17 were isolated from domestic dogs. The strains were more prevalent in infectious isolates than in colonized isolates, suggesting that strains of the CC17 lineage may have an advantage in causing infections in dogs. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns of some dog and human isolates were over 90% similar. However, antimicrobial resistance patterns and virulence factors were not identical, which might reflect different use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine or in host specificity.

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  17. High-resolution structure of the Tiam1 PHn-CC-Ex domain.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Gakhar, Lokesh; Fuentes, Ernesto J

    2013-07-01

    The T-lymphoma and metastasis gene 1 (TIAM1) encodes a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor protein (Tiam1) that is specific for the Rho-family GTPase Rac1 and is important for cell polarity, migration and adhesion. Tiam1 is a large multi-domain protein that contains several protein-protein binding domains that are important for regulating cellular function. The PHn-CC-Ex domain is critical for plasma-membrane association and interactions with protein-scaffold proteins (e.g. Par3b, spinophilin, IRSp53 and JIP2) that direct Tiam1-Rac1 signaling specificity. It was determined that the coiled-coil domain of Par3b binds the PHn-CC-Ex domain with a dissociation constant of ≈ 30 µM. Moreover, the structures of two variants of the Tiam1 PHn-CC-Ex domain were solved at resolutions of 1.98 and 2.15 Å, respectively. The structures indicate that the PHn, CC and Ex regions form independent subdomains that together provide an integrated platform for binding partner proteins. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data indicate that the Tiam1 PHn-CC-Ex domain is monomeric in solution and that the solution and crystal structures are very similar. Together, these data provide the foundation necessary to elucidate the structural mechanism of the PHn-CC-Ex/scaffold interactions that are critical for Tiam1-Rac1 signaling specificity.

  18. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  19. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  20. Selective Ablation of Ppp1cc Gene in Testicular Germ Cells Causes Oligo-Teratozoospermia and Infertility in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nilam; Puri, Pawan; Nairn, Angus C.; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The four isoforms of serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PP1), derived from three genes, are among the most conserved proteins known. The Ppp1cc gene encodes two alternatively spliced variants, PP1 gamma1 (PPP1CC1) and PP1 gamma2 (PPP1CC2). Global deletion of the Ppp1cc gene, which causes loss of both isoforms, results in male infertility due to impaired spermatogenesis. This phenotype was assumed to be due to the loss of PPP1CC2, which is abundant in testis. While PPP1CC2 is predominant, other PP1 isoforms are also expressed in testis. Given the significant homology between the four PP1 isoforms, the lack of compensation by the other PP1 isoforms for loss of one, only in testis, is surprising. Here we document, for the first time, expression patterns of the PP1 isoforms in postnatal developing and adult mouse testis. The timing and sites of testis expression of PPP1CC1 and PPP1CC2 in testis are nonoverlapping. PPP1CC2 is the only one of the four PP1 isoforms not detected in sertoli cells and spermatogonia. Conversely, PPP1CC2 may be the only PP1 isoform expressed in postmeiotic germ cells. Deletion of the Ppp1cc gene in germ cells at the differentiated spermatogonia stage of development and beyond in Stra8 promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice results in oligo-terato-asthenozoospermia and male infertility, thus phenocopying global Ppp1cc null (−/−) mice. Taken together, these results confirm that spermatogenic defects observed in the global Ppp1cc knockout mice and in mice expressing low levels of PPP1CC2 in testis are due to compromised functions of PPP1CC2 in meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. PMID:24089200

  1. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  2. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Pradeep; Kumar, Naveen; Shingh, Shishir; Ahuja, N.K.; Ghalaut, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed. PMID:24255559

  3. Association of Children's Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Klimecki, Walter T; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A; Martinez, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = -0.43, p = 0.001, R² = 0.08), water (b = -0.22, p = 0.07, R² = 0.03), house dust (b = -0.37, p = 0.07, R² = 0.04), and dust loading (b = -0.21, p = 0.04, R² = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = -0.42, p = 0.02, R² = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  4. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Klimecki, Walter T.; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  5. Myoglobinuria and Skeletal Muscle Phosphorylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, J. C.; Hobbs, W. K.; Greenblatt, J.

    1966-01-01

    Investigation of a patient complaining of exercise-induced dark urine, pain, stiffness and tenderness of skeletal muscle revealed findings characteristic of McArdle's disease. The dark urine was attributable to the excretion of myoglobin, and an ischemic exercise test failed to demonstrate the usual rise and fall in blood lactate and pyruvate. Enzyme assays of skeletal muscle showed an absence of phosphorylase, a slight increase in phosphorylase b kinase and a slight decrease in phosphoglucomutase. Chemical and histochemical analyses demonstrated an increase in the skeletal muscle glycogen content and an enlargement of the muscle cells. No abnormality of liver glycogen metabolism was found. In the absence of specific therapy, an effective and practical form of treatment is reduction of exercise below the threshold of symptoms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4952390

  6. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  7. Optimizing skeletal muscle reinnervation with nerve transfer.

    PubMed

    Lien, Samuel C; Cederna, Paul S; Kuzon, William M

    2008-11-01

    Denervation as a consequence of nerve injury causes profound structural and functional changes within skeletal muscle and can lead to a marked impairment in function of the affected limb. Prompt reinnervation of a muscle with a sufficient number of motion-specific motor axons generally results in good structural and functional recovery, whereas long-term denervation or insufficient or improper axonal recruitment uniformly results in poor functional recovery. Only nerve transfer has been highly efficacious in changing the clinical outcomes of patients with skeletal muscle denervation, especially in the case of proximal limb nerve injuries. Rapid reinnervation with an abundant number of motor axons remains the only clinically effective means to restore function to denervated skeletal muscles. PMID:18928892

  8. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  9. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  10. Skeletal cryptococcosis from 1977 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heng-Xing; Lu, Lu; Chu, Tianci; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Daigui; Li, Fuyuan; Ning, Guangzhi; Feng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal cryptococcosis, an aspect of disseminated cryptococcal disease or isolated skeletal cryptococcal infection, is a rare but treatable disease. However, limited information is available regarding its clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. This systematic review examined all cases published between April 1977 and May 2013 with regard to the factors associated with this disease, including patient sex, age, and epidemiological history; affected sites; clinical symptoms; underlying diseases; laboratory tests; radiological manifestations; and delays in diagnosis, treatment, follow-up assessments, and outcomes. We found that immune abnormality is a risk factor but does not predict mortality; these observations are due to recent Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii (CNVG) outbreaks (Chaturvedi and Chaturvedi, 2011). Dissemination was irrespective of immune status and required combination therapy, and dissemination carried a worse prognosis. Therefore, a database of skeletal cryptococcosis cases should be created. PMID:25642211

  11. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  12. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva without characteristic skeletal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare but extremely disabling genetic disease of the skeletal system. This disease is characterized by progression of heterotopic ossification within skeletal muscles, ligaments and tendons. Most patients with FOP are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures such as biopsy that can cause lifelong disability. Almost all of the patients have some peculiar congenital anomalies, including short great toes, hallux valgus, short thumbs and hypoplasia of digital phalanges. These congenital defects support the diagnosis of FOP, but are not constantly observed in the totality of patients. If necessary, genetic studies can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, patients should be advised in order to avoid unnecessary traumas, surgical procedures, biopsies, intramuscular injections and vaccinations. Here, we describe a patient with FOP without characteristic congenital skeletal anomalies.

  13. Plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxins: functions in developmental processes and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Nora; Thurow, Corinna; Zachgo, Sabine; Gatz, Christiane

    2015-05-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin family proteins that can either regulate the thiol redox state of proteins or are linked to iron metabolism because of their ability to incorporate iron-sulfur [2Fe-2S] clusters. Here we review recent research on a land plant-specific class of GRX-like proteins, which are characterized by the conserved CC motif in the active centre. Loss-of-function mutants of CC-type GRXs in Arabidopsis (also named ROXYs), maize, and rice have unraveled a role in floral development, including regulation of organ primordia initiation, control of organ identity gene expression, and progression into meiosis in the male germ line. Other CC-type GRXs play a role in stress responses, most likely through their capacity to regulate nuclear gene expression. Consistently, CC-type GRXs, physically and genetically interact with individual members of the TGA transcription factor family. One of the challenges in the future is to unravel whether ROXYs control the redox state of TGA factors or other yet unknown target proteins or whether they regulate gene expression through other processes. Other intriguing questions concern the original function of the first CC-type GRXs in basal land plants and their potential contribution to the extremely successful radiation of angiosperms.

  14. Excited state polarizabilities for CC2 using the resolution-of-the-identity approximation.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nora K; Friese, Daniel H; Winter, Nina O C; Hättig, Christof

    2015-12-28

    We report an implementation of static and frequency-dependent excited state polarizabilities for the approximate coupled cluster single and doubles model CC2 as analytic second derivatives of an excited state quasienergy Lagrangian. By including appropriate conditions for the normalization and the phase of the eigenvectors, divergent secular terms are avoided. This leads to response equations in a subspace orthogonal to the unperturbed eigenvectors. It is shown how these projected equations can be solved without storage of the double excitation part of the eigenvectors. By exploiting the resolution-of-the-identity approximation and a numerical Laplace transformation, the quadratic scaling of the main memory demands of RI-CC2 with the system size could be preserved. This enables calculations of excited state polarizabilities for large molecules, e.g., linear polyacenes up to decacene with almost 2500 basis functions on a single compute node within a few days. For a test set of molecules where measurements are available as reference data, we compare the orbital-relaxed and unrelaxed CC2 approaches with experiment to validate its accuracy. The approach can be easily extended to other response methods, in particular CIS(D∞). The latter gives results which, in the orbital-relaxed case, are within a few percent of the CC2 values, while coupled cluster singles results deviate typically by about 20% from orbital-relaxed CC2 and experimental reference data. PMID:26723652

  15. Exogenous lytic activity of SPN9CC endolysin against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-06-28

    Concerns over drug-resistant bacteria have stimulated interest in developing alternative methods to control bacterial infections. Endolysin, a phage-encoded enzyme that breaks down bacterial peptidoglycan at the terminal stage of the phage reproduction cycle, is reported to be effective for the control of bacterial pathogenic bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis of the SPN9CC bacteriophage genome revealed a gene that encodes an endolysin with a domain structure similar to those of the endolysins produced by the P1 and P22 coliphages. The SPN9CC endolysin was purified with a C-terminal oligo-histidine tag. The endolysin was relatively stable and active over a broad temperature range (from 24°C to 65°C). It showed maximal activity at 50°C, and its optimum pH range was from pH 7.5 to 8.5. The SPN9CC endolysin showed antimicrobial activity against only gram-negative bacteria and functioned by cutting the glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan. Interestingly, the SPN9CC endolysin could lyse intact gram-negative bacteria in the absence of EDTA as an outer membrane permeabilizer. The exogenous lytic activity of the SPN9CC endolysin makes it a potential therapeutic agent against gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24690638

  16. Acute skeletal muscle injury: CCL2 expression by both monocytes and injured muscle is required for repair

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiyan; Huang, Danping; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Zhou, Lan

    2011-01-01

    CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a ligand of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), is essential to mount an adequate inflammatory response to repair acute skeletal muscle injury. We studied the mechanisms by which CCL2 regulates muscle inflammation and regeneration. Mobilization of monocytes/macrophages (MOs/MPs) but not lymphocytes or neutrophils was impaired from bone marrow to blood and from blood to injured muscles in Ccl2−/− mice. This was accompanied by poor phagocytosis, reduced up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and impaired muscle regeneration. Bone marrow transfer from wild-type mice to irradiated Ccr2−/− but not Ccl2−/− mice restored muscle inflammation. Intravenously injected CCL2-deficient bone marrow monocytes could not enter wild-type injured muscles as well as wild-type bone marrow monocytes. Intravenously injected wild-type bone marrow monocytes could not enter CCL2-deficient injured muscles as well as wild-type injured muscles. CCL2 stimulated IGF-1 expression by wild-type but not CCR2-deficient intramuscular macrophages. A single intramuscular injection of IGF-1, but not PBS, markedly improved muscle regeneration in Ccl2−/− mice. We conclude that CCL2 is a major ligand of CCR2 to recruit MOs/MPs into injured muscles to conduct phagocytosis and produce IGF-1 for injury repair. CCL2 needs to be expressed by bone marrow cells, circulating monocytes, and injured muscle tissue cells to recruit MOs/MPs into injured muscles. CCL2/CCR2 signaling also up-regulates IGF-1 expression by intramuscular macrophages to promote acute skeletal muscle injury repair.—Lu, H., Huang, D., Ransohoff, R. M., Zhou, L. Acute skeletal muscle injury: CCL2 expression by both monocytes and injured muscle is required for repair. PMID:21697550

  17. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  18. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 6

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, S.M.; Ogden, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-six pairs of proximal radioulnar and elbow units from cadavers and prepared skeletons ranging in age from full-term neonates to fourteen years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air/cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate the osseous and cartilaginous portions of the developing epiphyses. These roentgenographic aspects are discussed and illustrated to provide a reference index. The skeletal development is outlined with regard to the diagnosis of several traumatic skeletal diseases as dislocation of elbow or radial head. Moteggia fracture dislocation and Nursemaid's elbow.

  19. Skeletal implants in aesthetic facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; Wang, T D

    1999-01-01

    The features of the nose, mentum, and malar complex define a person's profile and give the essence of character to the visage. Whether profile deficiencies are due to congenital, traumatic, or aging factors, facial plastic surgeons are able to meet patients' and their own exacting demands more thoroughly with skeletal implants. Although the search for the perfect implant continues, today's armamentarium of implant materials is vast and, with appropriate selection and attention to technique, facial skeletal implants can be successful in creating change impossible to obtain with soft tissue techniques alone. This article reviews both the biomaterials used in mandibular and malar complex implants and the techniques.

  20. The Mammalian Orthologs of Drosophila Lgd, CC2D1A and CC2D1B, Function in the Endocytic Pathway, but Their Individual Loss of Function Does Not Affect Notch Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Drusenheimer, Nadja; Migdal, Bernhard; Jäckel, Sandra; Tveriakhina, Lena; Scheider, Kristina; Schulz, Katharina; Gröper, Jieny; Köhrer, Karl; Klein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CC2D1A and CC2D1B belong to the evolutionary conserved Lgd protein family with members in all multi-cellular animals. Several functions such as centrosomal cleavage, involvement in signalling pathways, immune response and synapse maturation have been described for CC2D1A. Moreover, the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog Lgd was shown to be involved in the endosomal trafficking of the Notch receptor and other transmembrane receptors and physically interacts with the ESCRT-III component Shrub/CHMP4. To determine if this function is conserved in mammals we generated and characterized Cc2d1a and Cc2d1b conditional knockout mice. While Cc2d1b deficient mice displayed no obvious phenotype, we found that Cc2d1a deficient mice as well as conditional mutants that lack CC2D1A only in the nervous system die shortly after birth due to respiratory distress. This finding confirms the suspicion that the breathing defect is caused by the central nervous system. However, an involvement in centrosomal function could not be confirmed in Cc2d1a deficient MEF cells. To analyse an influence on Notch signalling, we generated intestine specific Cc2d1a mutant mice. These mice did not display any alterations in goblet cell number, proliferating cell number or expression of the Notch reporter Hes1-emGFP, suggesting that CC2D1A is not required for Notch signalling. However, our EM analysis revealed that the average size of endosomes of Cc2d1a mutant cells, but not Cc2d1b mutant cells, is increased, indicating a defect in endosomal morphogenesis. We could show that CC2D1A and its interaction partner CHMP4B are localised on endosomes in MEF cells, when the activity of the endosomal protein VPS4 is reduced. This indicates that CC2D1A cycles between the cytosol and the endosomal membrane. Additionally, in rescue experiments in D. melanogaster, CC2D1A and CC2D1B were able to functionally replace Lgd. Altogether our data suggest a functional conservation of the Lgd protein family in the ESCRT

  1. Genetic transformation of marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311 (Cyanophyceae) by electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaxin; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Li, Fuchao; Qin, Song

    2013-03-01

    Synechococcus sp. CC9311 is a marine cyanobacterium characterized by type IV chromatic acclimation (CA). A genetic transformation system was developed as a first step to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CA. The results show that Synechococcus sp. CC9311 cells were sensitive to four commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and chloramphenicol. An integrative plasmid to disrupt the putative phycoerythrin lyase gene mpeV, using a kanamycin resistance gene as selectable marker, was constructed by recombinant polymerase chain reaction. The plasmid was then transformed into Synechococcus sp. CC9311 via electroporation. High transformation efficiency was achieved at a field strength of 2 kV/cm. DNA analysis showed that mpeV was fully disrupted following challenge of the transformants with a high concentration of kanamycin. In addition, the transformants that displayed poor growth on agar SN medium could be successfully plated on agarose SN medium.

  2. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  3. Effects of Anti-Oxidant Migration on Friction and Wear of C/C Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Jarlen; Wang, Zhe

    2009-04-01

    The surfaces of carbon-carbon (C/C) aircraft brakes are usually coated with anti-oxidant to protect them from oxidation. These surfaces do not include the friction surfaces since it is known that when anti-oxidant get onto the friction surface, the friction coefficient decreases. The anti-oxidant migration (AOM), however, happens during processing, heat treatment and application. In this study, phosphorus based anti-oxidants inhibited 3-D C/C aircraft brake system was investigated. The effects of their migration on friction and wear in the 3-D C/C brakes were revealed by sub-scale dynamometer tests and microscopic analysis. Dynamometer results showed that when AOM occurred, both landing and taxi coefficients decreased in humid environment and the wear was slightly lowered. Microscopic study showed that under high humidity conditions there was no formation of the friction film.

  4. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies of the PPARβ/δ antagonist CC618.

    PubMed

    Kaupang, Åsmund; Paulsen, Steinar Martin; Steindal, Calin C; Ravna, Aina W; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Halvorsen, Trine G; Thoresen, G Hege; Hansen, Trond Vidar

    2015-04-13

    Herein, we describe the synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of the selective PPARβ/δ antagonist (4-methyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N-(2-(5-(trifluoromethyl)-pyridin-2-ylsulfonyl)ethyl)thiazole-5-carboxamide)), CC618. Results from in vitro luciferase reporter gene assays against the three known human PPAR subtypes revealed that CC618 selectively antagonizes agonist-induced PPARβ/δ activity with an IC50 = 10.0 μM. As observed by LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests, the treatment of PPARβ/δ with CC618 leads to a covalent modification of Cys249, located centrally in the PPARβ/δ ligand binding pocket, corresponding to the conversion of its thiol moiety to a 5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridylthioether. Finally, molecular docking is employed to shed light on the mode of action of the antagonist and its structural consequences for the PPARβ/δ ligand binding pocket.

  5. Extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2) at 137 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Laufer, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of the conduction of numerous studies regarding the vinylidene free radical, its role and importance as a reactive intermediate is not well characterized. Laufer (1980, 1983) has reported the absorption spectrum of metastable H2CC(3B2), the lowest excited state, in the vacuum ultraviolet and has measured several aspects of its quenching properties. The present study provides a measurement of the extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2). Knowledge of the vinylidene concentration is required to convert readily available absorption data into an extinction coefficient or cross section. In the current work, the H2CC(3B2) concentration was determined in an investigation of the photodissociation of vinyl chloride.

  6. Inflicted Skeletal Trauma: The Relationship of Perpetrators to Their Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Suzanne P.; Sirotnak, Andrew P.; Heisler, Kurt W.; Barnes-Eley, Myra L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although inflicted skeletal trauma is a very common presentation of child abuse, little is known about the perpetrators of inflicted skeletal injuries. Studies exist describing perpetrators of inflicted traumatic brain injury, but no study has examined characteristics of perpetrators of inflicted skeletal trauma. Methods: All cases of…

  7. An inflammatory CC chemokine of Cynoglossus semilaevis is involved in immune defense against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-xin; Sun, Jin-sheng; Sun, Li

    2011-09-01

    Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that regulate leukocyte migration. Based on the arrangement of the first two cysteine residues, chemokines are classified into four groups called CXC(α), CC(β), C, and CX(3)C. In this study, we identified a CC chemokine, CsCCK1, from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and analyzed its biological activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of CsCCK1 contains 111 amino acid residues and is phylogenetically belonging to the CCL19/21/25 group of CC chemokines. CsCCK1 possesses a DCCL motif that is highly conserved among CC chemokines. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of CsCCK1 was relatively abundant in immune organs under normal physiological conditions and was upregulated by experimental infection of a bacterial pathogen. Purified recombinant CsCCK1 (rCsCCK1) induced chemotaxis in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of both tongue sole and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in a dose-dependent manner. Mutation of the CC residues in the DCCL motif by serine substitution completely abolished the biological activity of rCsCCK1. When rCsCCK1, but not the mutant protein, was added to the cell culture of PBL, it enhanced cellular resistance against intracellular bacterial infection. Taken together, these results indicate that CsCCK1 is a functional CC chemokine whose biological activity depends on the DCCL motif and that CsCCK1 plays a role in host immune defense against bacterial infection.

  8. Atomic models of de novo designed cc beta-Met amyloid-like fibrils.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Michel O; Gattin, Zrinka; Verel, Rene; Ciani, Barbara; Stromer, Thusnelda; Green, Janelle M; Tittmann, Peter; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Gross, Heinz; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Meier, Beat H; Serpell, Louise C; Müller, Shirley A; Kammerer, Richard A

    2008-02-22

    The common characteristics of amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils from disease- and non-disease-associated proteins offer the prospect that well-defined model systems can be used to systematically dissect the driving forces of amyloid formation. We recently reported the de novo designed cc beta peptide model system that forms a native-like coiled-coil structure at low temperatures and which can be switched to amyloid-like fibrils by increasing the temperature. Here, we report a detailed molecular description of the system in its fibrillar state by characterizing the cc beta-Met variant using several microscopic techniques, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and molecular dynamics calculations. We show that cc beta-Met forms amyloid-like fibrils of different morphologies on both the macroscopic and atomic levels, which can be controlled by variations of assembly conditions. Interestingly, heterogeneity is also observed along single fibrils. We propose atomic models of the cc beta-Met amyloid-like fibril, which are in good agreement with all experimental data. The models provide a rational explanation why oxidation of methionine residues completely abolishes cc beta-Met amyloid fibril formation, indicating that a small number of site-specific hydrophobic interactions can play a major role in the packing of polypeptide-chain segments within amyloid fibrils. The detailed structural information available for the cc beta model system provides a strong molecular basis for understanding the influence and relative contribution of hydrophobic interactions on native-state stability, kinetics of fibril formation, fibril packing, and polymorphism.

  9. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Eroğlu; Fındık, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  10. From Saturated BN Compounds to Isoelectronic BN/CC Counterparts: An Insight from Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Filip; Piękoś, Łukasz; Andrzejak, Marcin; Mitoraj, Mariusz Paweł

    2015-10-19

    In the present study, the inorganic analogues of alkanes as well as their isoelectronic BN/CC counterparts that bridge the gap between organic and inorganic chemistry are comparatively studied on the grounds of static DFT and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. The BN/CC butanes CH3 CH2 BH2 NH3 , BH3 CH2 NH2 CH3 , and NH3 CH2 BH2 CH3 were considered and compared with their isoelectronic counterparts NH3 BH2 NH2 BH3 and CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 . In addition, systematical replacement of the NH2 BH2 fragment by the isoelectronic CH2 CH2 moiety is studied in the molecules H3 N(NH2 BH2 )3-m (CH2 CH2 )m BH3 (for m=0, 1, 2, or 3) and H3 N(NH2 BH2 )2-m (CH2 CH2 )m BH3 (for m=0, 1, or 2). The DFT and Car-Parrinello simulations show that the isosteres of the BN/CC butanes CH3 CH2 BH2 NH3 , BH3 CH2 NH2 CH3 , and NH3 CH2 BH2 CH3 and of larger oligomers of the type (BN)k (CC)l where k≥l are stable compounds. The BN/CC butane H3 NCH2 CH2 BH3 spontaneously produces molecular hydrogen at room temperature. The reaction, prompted by very strong dihydrogen bonding NH⋅⋅⋅HB, undergoes through the neutral, hypervalent, pentacoordinated boron dihydrogen complex RBH2 (H2 ) [R=(CH2 CH2 )n NH2 ]. The calculations suggest that such intermediate and the other BN/CC butanes CH3 CH2 BH2 NH3 , BH3 CH2 NH2 CH3 , and NH3 CH2 BH2 CH3 as well as larger BN/CC oligomers are viable experimentally. A simple recipe for the synthesis of CH3 CH2 BH2 NH3 is proposed. The strength of the dihydrogen bonding appeared to be crucial for the overall stability of the saturated BN/CC derivatives.

  11. Synthesis of some CC chemokines and their receptors in the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhebrun, D A; Totolyan, Areg A; Maslyanskii, A L; Titov, A G; Patrukhin, A P; Kostareva, A A; Gol'tseva, I S

    2014-12-01

    We studied the expression of some CC chemokines and their receptors in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and a history of joint injury. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the levels mRNA for some angiogenic and proinflammatory chemokines (CCL5/RANTES, CCL11/eotaxin, CCL24/eotaxin-2, and CCL26/eotaxin-3) and their receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, and CCR5) was elevated. mRNA expression correlated with activity, stage, and serological status of rheumatoid arthritis. Obtained data confirm the importance of CC chemokines as mediators of angiogenesis and inflammation in the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+/- --> K+/-X(cc).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Schott, G; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Edgar, C L; Hodgkinson, M C; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-02-10

    We study the two-body decays of B+/- mesons to K+/- and a charmonium state X(cc) in a sample of 210.5 fb(-1) of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions beta(B+/- --> K+/-X(cc)) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit beta(B+/- --> K+/- X(3872)) < 3.2 x 10(-4) at 90% C.L. and the inferred lower limit beta(X(3872)J/psipi+ pi-) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872).

  13. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zaliz, R; Del Val, C; Cobb, J P; Zwir, I

    2008-07-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  14. Proposed changes to FED-STD-209 and IES-RP-CC006

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    In the United States, two documents have been considered basic to work with cleanrooms and controlled environments. They are {ital Cleanroom and Work Station Requirements, Controlled Environment{emdash}Federal Standard 209D}, published by the U.S. General Services Administration, and {ital Recommended Practice for Testing Cleanrooms} (IES-RP-CC006), published by the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES). FED-STD-209 is the authoritative document on air cleanliness classification and cleanroom certification. Recommended Practice 006 is the recognized source for testing cleanroom performance. This paper covers the purpose and proposed changes for both FED-STD-209D and IES-RP-CC006. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  16. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zaliz, R.; del Val, C.; Cobb, J. P.; Zwir, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  17. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  18. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  19. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  20. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  1. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  2. Enhancing skeletal features in digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongshan; Kuduvalli, Gopinath

    2006-03-01

    Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) is a critical part of 2D-3D image registration that is utilized in patient position alignment for image-guided radiotherapy and radiosurgery. The DRRs are generated from a pre-operative CT scan and used as the references to match the X-ray images for determining the change of patient position. Skeletal structures are the primary image features to facilitate the registration between the DRR and X-ray images. In this paper, we present a method to enhance skeletal features of spinal regions in DRRs. The attenuation coefficient at each voxel is first calculated by applying an exponential transformation of the original attenuation coefficient in the CT scan. This is a preprocessing step that is performed prior to DRR generation. The DRR is then generated by integrating the newly calculated attenuation coefficients along the ray that connects the X-ray source and the pixel in the DRR. Finally, the DRR is further enhanced using a weighted top-hat filter. During the entire process, because there is no original CT information lost, even the small skeletal features contributed by low intensity part of CT data are preserved in the enhanced DRRs. Experiments on clinical data were conducted to compare the image quality of DRRs with and without enhancement. The results showed that the image contrast of skeletal features in the enhanced DRRs is significantly improved. This method has potential to be applied for more accurate and robust 2D-3D image registration.

  3. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  4. Connexins in skeletal muscle development and disease.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Peter A; Laird, Dale W

    2016-02-01

    Gap junctions consist of clusters of intercellular channels composed of connexins that connect adjacent cells and allow the exchange of small molecules. While the 21 member multi-gene family of connexins are ubiquitously found in humans, only Cx39, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 have been documented in developing myoblasts and injured adult skeletal muscle while healthy adult skeletal muscle is devoid of connexins. The use of gap junctional blockers and cultured myoblast cell lines have suggested that these connexins play a critical role in myotube formation and muscle regeneration. More recent genetically-modified mouse models where Cx43 function is greatly compromized or ablated have further supported a role for Cx43 in regulating skeletal muscle development. In the last decade, we have become aware of a cohort of patients that have a development disorder known as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). These patients harbor either gain or loss of Cx43 function gene mutations that result in many organ anomalies raising questions as to whether they suffer from defects in skeletal muscle formation or regeneration upon injury. Interesting, some ODDD patients report muscle weakness and loss of limb control but it is not clear if this is neurogenic or myogenic in origin. This review will focus on the role connexins play in muscle development and repair and discuss the impact of Cx43 mutants on muscle function. PMID:26688333

  5. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Vandenburgh, H; Chromiak, J; Shansky, J; Del Tatto, M; Lemaire, J

    1999-06-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  6. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  7. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  8. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  9. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations. PMID:27418331

  10. [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].

    PubMed

    Sołtysiak, Patrycja; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant substances of plant origin, such as lycopene, may favorably affect the skeletal system. Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment, responsible for characteristic red color of tomatoes. It is believed that lycopene may play a role in the prevention of various diseases; despite theoretical premises and results of experimental studies, the effectiveness of lycopene has not yet been clearly demonstrated in studies carried out in humans. The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of lycopene on the osseous tissue in in vitro and in vivo experimental models and on the skeletal system in humans. Results of the studies indicate that lycopene may inhibit bone resorption. Favorable effects of high doses of lycopene on the rat skeletal system in experimental conditions, including the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency, have been demonstrated. The few epidemiological and clinical studies, although not fully conclusive, suggest a possible beneficial effect of lycopene present in the diet on the skeletal system. PMID:25720611

  11. Skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in an animal model of pulmonary emphysema: formoterol and skeletal muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sullo, Nikol; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Matteis, Maria; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Lombardi, Assunta; Lucattelli, Monica; Polverino, Francesca; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cirino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a significant contributor to exercise limitation in pulmonary emphysema. This study investigated skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism before and after aerosol exposure to a long-acting β-agonist (LABA), such as formoterol, in the pallid mouse (B6.Cg-Pldnpa/J), which has a deficiency in serum α(1)-antitrypsin (α(1)-PI) and develops spontaneous pulmonary emphysema. C57 BL/6J and its congener pallid mice of 8-12 and 16 months of age were treated with vehicle or formoterol aerosol challenge for 120 seconds. Morphological and morphometric studies and evaluations of mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate-stimulated respiration and of cytochrome oxidase activity on skeletal muscle were performed. Moreover, the mtDNA content in skeletal muscle and the mediators linked to muscle mitochondrial function and biogenesis, as well as TNF-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), were also evaluated. The lungs of pallid mice at 12 and 16 months of age showed patchy areas of airspace enlargements, with the destruction of alveolar septa. No significant differences were observed in basal values of mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes between C57 BL/6J and pallid mice. Exposure to LABA significantly improved mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes in emphysematous mice, where the mtDNA content was significantly higher with respect to 8-month-old pallid mice. This effect was compared with a significant increase of PGC-1α in skeletal muscles of 16-month-old pallid mice, with no significant changes in TNF-α concentrations. In conclusion, in emphysematous mice that showed an increased mtDNA content, exposure to inhaled LABA can improve mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes. PGC-1α may serve as a possible mediator of this effect.

  12. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  13. The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Bitya; Gabet, Yankel

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of skeletal remodeling and bone mass, addressed in basic, translational and clinical research. Since the first publications in 2005, there are more than 1000 publications addressing the skeletal endocannabinoid system. This review focuses on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal biology via the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2 and others. Endocannabinoids play important roles in bone formation, bone resorption and skeletal growth, and are sometimes age, gender, species and strain dependent. Controversies in the literature and potential therapeutic approaches targeting the endocannabinoid system in skeletal disorders are also discussed.

  14. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  15. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... research credit. The final regulations simplify how taxpayers make the election and affect taxpayers that... return because each member would be required to file a separate Form 6765 to make the election under... 280C(c)(3) is made is generally sufficient to clearly indicate the intent of the common parent to...

  16. A multistate local coupled cluster CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform.

    PubMed

    Kats, Danylo; Schütz, Martin

    2009-09-28

    A new Laplace transform based multistate local CC2 response method for calculating excitation energies of extended molecular systems is presented. By virtue of the Laplace transform trick, the eigenvalue problem involving the local CC2 Jacobian is partitioned along the doubles-doubles block (which is diagonal in the parental canonical method) without losing the sparsity in the integral, amplitude, and amplitude response supermatrices. Hence, only an effective eigenvalue problem involving singles vectors has to be solved, while the doubles part can be computed on-the-fly. Within this framework, a multistate treatment of excited states with state specific and adaptive local approximations imposed on the doubles part is straightforwardly possible. Furthermore, in the context of the density fitting approximation of the two-electron integrals, a procedure to specify the local approximation, i.e., the restricted pair lists and domains, on the basis of an analysis of the object to be approximated itself is proposed. Performance and accuracy of the new Laplace transformed density fitted local CC2 (LT-DF-LCC2) response method are tested for set of different test molecules and states. It turns out that LT-DF-LCC2 response is much more robust than the earlier local CC2 response method proposed before, which failed to find some excited states in difficult cases.

  17. Students' Learning with the Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum: Navigating the Complexities of the Particulate World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study is students' learning with a Connected Chemistry unit, CC1 (denotes Connected Chemistry, chapter 1), a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry (Levy and Wilensky 2009). An investigation was conducted into high-school students' learning with Connected…

  18. A multistate local coupled cluster CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Danylo; Schütz, Martin

    2009-09-01

    A new Laplace transform based multistate local CC2 response method for calculating excitation energies of extended molecular systems is presented. By virtue of the Laplace transform trick, the eigenvalue problem involving the local CC2 Jacobian is partitioned along the doubles-doubles block (which is diagonal in the parental canonical method) without losing the sparsity in the integral, amplitude, and amplitude response supermatrices. Hence, only an effective eigenvalue problem involving singles vectors has to be solved, while the doubles part can be computed on-the-fly. Within this framework, a multistate treatment of excited states with state specific and adaptive local approximations imposed on the doubles part is straightforwardly possible. Furthermore, in the context of the density fitting approximation of the two-electron integrals, a procedure to specify the local approximation, i.e., the restricted pair lists and domains, on the basis of an analysis of the object to be approximated itself is proposed. Performance and accuracy of the new Laplace transformed density fitted local CC2 (LT-DF-LCC2) response method are tested for set of different test molecules and states. It turns out that LT-DF-LCC2 response is much more robust than the earlier local CC2 response method proposed before, which failed to find some excited states in difficult cases.

  19. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.

  20. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Insertion of Allenes into C-C Bonds of Benzocyclobutenols.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunliang; Liu, Li-Chuan; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Chenran; Zhang, Qing-Wei; He, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Herein we report a Rh(I)-catalyzed two carbon insertion into C-C bonds of benzocyclobutenols by employing symmetrical and unsymmetrical allenes. This reaction provides rapid access to alkylidene tetralins bearing two adjacent stereogenic centers in good yields and diasteroselectivities.

  1. 46. Construction Drawing 2042F163, entitled Power House Longitudinal Section CC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Construction Drawing 2042-F-163, entitled Power House- Longitudinal Section C-C through Boiler Room. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  2. Light Induced C-C Coupling of 2-Chlorobenzazoles with Carbamates, Alcohols, and Ethers.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Alexander; Lahm, Günther; Opatz, Till

    2016-06-01

    A light induced, transition-metal-free C-C coupling reaction of 2-chlorobenzazoles with aliphatic carbamates, alcohols, and ethers is presented. Inexpensive reagents, namely sodium acetate, benzophenone, water, and acetonitrile, are employed in a simple reaction protocol using a cheap and widely available 25 W energy saving UV-A lamp at ambient temperature. PMID:27128627

  3. Synthesis and Applications of Rhodacyclopentanones Derived From C-C Bond Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Megan H.; Bower, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Rhodacyclopentanones, an “sp3-rich” class of metallacycle, underpin an emerging range of catalytic methodologies for the direct generation of complex scaffolds. This review highlights strategies for accessing rhodacyclopentanones (and related species) by C-C bond activation of cyclobutanones or cyclopropanes. The scope and mechanism of methodologies that exploit these activation modes is outlined. PMID:27385089

  4. The photometric solution of CC COM by use of the Wilson and Devinney card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong-Nan

    1988-02-01

    The data of Rucinski et al. (1977) on the photometric observations of CC Comae system (conducted in February 1975 with a 91-cm telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory) and the synthetic light curve technique of Wilson and Devinney (1971, 1973) were used to calculate the photometric orbit of the system. The results indicate that the CC Com belongs to the late-type eclipsing binary system with the spectral type of components K5V and K6V. The component masses M1 and M2 equal to 0.62 and 0.36 solar mass, respectively; and the radii R1 and R2 equal to 0.70 and 0.52 solar radii. The mass ratio of the CC Com is 0.58732 + or - 0.0021, and the orbital inclination equals to 87.714 + or - 1.44 deg. The temperatures of the two components are T1 = 4300 K and T2 = 4265 K. These parameters indicate that the system cannot be explained by Lucy's (1968) theoretical model for late W-type systems, since the two CC Com components have low mass, temperature, and size, and hence are more similar to each other than the model specifies.

  5. CC and CXC chemokines are pivotal mediators of cerebral injury in ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli-Badenier, Marisol; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Viviani, Giorgio Luciano; Dallegri, Franco; Quercioli, Alessandra; Veneselli, Edvige; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2011-03-01

    The definition of ischaemic stroke has been recently updated as an acute episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischaemia in the presence of a cerebral infarction. This "tissular" definition has highlighted the importance of pathophysiological processes underlying cerebral damage. In particular, post- ischaemic inflammation in the brain and in the blood stream could influence crucial steps of the tissue injury/repair cascade. CC and CXC chemokines orchestrate the inflammatory response in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and cerebral infarction. These molecules exert their activities through the binding to selective transmembrane receptors. CC and CXC chemokines modulate crucial processes (such as inflammatory cell recruitment and activation, neuronal survival, neoangiogenesis). On the other hand, CXC chemokines could also modulate stem cell homing, thus favouring tissue repair. Given this evidence, both CC and CXC chemokines could represent promising therapeutic targets in primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. Only preliminary studies have been performed investigating treatments with selective chemokine agonists/antagonists. In this review, we will update evidence on the role and the potential therapeutic strategies targeting CC and CXC chemokines in the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke. PMID:21174009

  6. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  7. Emergence of a novel subpopulation of CC398 Staphylococcus aureus infecting animals is a serious hazard for humans.

    PubMed

    van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie L; Corvaglia, Anna; Haenni, Marisa; Bertrand, Xavier; Franck, Jean-Baptiste; Kluytmans, Jan; Girard, Myriam; Quentin, Roland; François, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Staphylococcus aureus from clonal complex (CC)398 were mostly described as colonizing asymptomatic raised pigs and pig-farmers. Currently, the epidemiology of the CC398 lineage is becoming more complex. CC398 human-adapted isolates are increasingly being identified in bloodstream infections in humans living in animal-free environments. In addition, CC398 isolates are increasingly responsible for invasive infections in various animals. CC398 isolates that colonize asymptomatic pigs and the isolates that infect humans living in animal-free environments (human-adapted isolates) both lack several clinically important S. aureus-associated virulence factors but differ on the basis of their prophage content. Recent findings have provided insight into the influence of a φMR11-like helper prophage on the ability of CC398 isolates to infect humans. To assess the recent spread of the CC398 lineage to various animal species and to investigate the links between the φMR11-like prophage and the emergence of CC398 isolates infecting animals, we studied 277 isolates causing infections in unrelated animals. The prevalence of CC398 isolates increased significantly between 2007 and 2013 (p < 0.001); 31.8% of the animal isolates harbored the φMR11-like prophage. High-density DNA microarray experiments with 37 representative infected-animal isolates positive for φMR11-like DNA established that most infected-animal isolates carried many genetic elements related to antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and a φ3 prophage encoding immune-modulating proteins and associated with animal-to-human jumps. Our findings suggest recent clonal expansion and dissemination of a new subpopulation of CC398 isolates, responsible for invasive infections in various animals, with a considerable potential to colonize and infect humans, probably greater than that of human-adapted CC398 isolates, justifying active surveillance.

  8. Vitamin D and skeletal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Koo, Winston; Walyat, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin D is critical to bone mineral metabolism and to the growth and development of the skeleton. Optimizing vitamin D status could be one of the cornerstones to optimize skeletal growth and achieving the maximum peak bone mass soon after the completion of adolescence. Maximizing peak bone mass is considered to be the key to primary prevention of osteoporosis. There is controversy, however, about what constitutes a healthy vitamin D status based on the most abundant circulating metabolite of vitamin D, namely 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) in plasma or serum; and even the value of 25 OHD that should be used to define vitamin D deficiency. We reviewed the recent data on circulating 25 OHD concentrations and its relationship with skeletal growth in apparently healthy children and in those with nutritional vitamin D deficiency.

  9. Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Liu, Bin; Liang, Chun; Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often associated with physical inactivity and reduced food intake, therapeutic interventions will be most effective when multiple approaches are used in conjunction with nutritional support and exercise. PMID:27025788

  10. Laminin-211 in skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Johan; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    A chain is no stronger than its weakest link is an old idiom that holds true for muscle biology. As the name implies, skeletal muscle’s main function is to move the bones. However, for a muscle to transmit force and withstand the stress that contractions give rise to, it relies on a chain of proteins attaching the cytoskeleton of the muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. The importance of this attachment is illustrated by a large number of muscular dystrophies caused by interruption of the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interaction. One of the major components of the extracellular matrix is laminin, a heterotrimeric glycoprotein and a major constituent of the basement membrane. It has become increasingly apparent that laminins are involved in a multitude of biological functions, including cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival. This review will focus on the importance of laminin-211 for normal skeletal muscle function. PMID:23154401

  11. Skeletal Implications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, Barbara M; Moreira, Carolina A; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with numerous comorbidities, among which osteoporosis is of high significance. Low bone mass and the occurrence of fragility fractures is a common finding in patients with COPD. Typical risk factors related directly or indirectly to these skeletal complications include systemic inflammation, tobacco smoking, vitamin D deficiency, and treatment with oral or inhaled corticosteroids. In particular, treatment with glucocorticoids appears to be a strong contributor to bone changes in COPD, but does not fully account for all skeletal complications. Additional to the effects of COPD on bone mass, there is evidence for COPD-related changes in bone microstructure and material properties. This review summarizes the clinical outcomes of low bone mass and increased fracture risk, and reports on recent observations in bone tissue and material in COPD patients. PMID:26861899

  12. YAP-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martina; Rikeit, Paul; Knaus, Petra; Coirault, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralog, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction. PMID:26909043

  13. Cellular Players in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ceafalan, Laura Cristina; Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies. PMID:24779022

  14. Bone Proteoglycan Changes During Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Uzawa, K.; Pornprasertsuk, S.; Arnaud, S.; Grindeland, R.; Grzesik, W.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal adaptability to mechanical loads is well known since the last century. Disuse osteopenia due to the microgravity environment is one of the major concerns for space travelers. Several studies have indicated that a retardation of the mineralization process and a delay in matrix maturation occur during the space flight. Mineralizing fibrillar type I collagen possesses distinct cross-linking chemistries and their dynamic changes during mineralization correlate well with its function as a mineral organizer. Our previous studies suggested that a certain group of matrix proteoglycans in bone play an inhibitory role in the mineralization process through their interaction with collagen. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that the altered mineralization during spaceflight is due in part to changes in matrix components secreted by cells in response to microgravity. In this study, we employed hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) rat model to study the effects of skeletal unloading on matrix proteoglycans in bone.

  15. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and aging.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of maximal cell functionality, and mitochondria are considered a key factor in aging process, since they determine the ATP availability in the cells. Mitochondrial performance during aging in skeletal muscle is reported to be either decreased or unchanged. This heterogeneity of results could partly be due to the method used to assess mitochondrial performance. In addition, in skeletal muscle the mitochondrial population is heterogeneous, composed of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the results obtained on the functionality of the above mitochondrial populations during aging, taking into account that the mitochondrial performance depends on organelle number, organelle activity, and energetic efficiency of the mitochondrial machinery in synthesizing ATP from the oxidation of fuels. PMID:25970752

  16. Skeletal and body composition evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry analysis of errors affecting single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques, cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals, studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis, organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement, and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  17. Extraction of DNA from Human Skeletal Material.

    PubMed

    Pajnič, Irena Zupanič

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the recovery and analysis of DNA from skeletal remains has been applied to several contexts ranging from disaster victim identification to the identification of the victims of conflict. Here are described procedures for processing the bone and tooth samples including mechanical and chemical cleaning, cutting and powdering in the presence of liquid nitrogen, complete demineralization of bone and tooth powder, DNA extraction, DNA purification using magnetic beads, and the precautions and strategies implemented to avoid and detect contamination. It has proven highly successful in the analysis of bones and teeth from Second World War victims' skeletal remains that have been excavated from mass graves in Slovenia and is also suitable for genetic identification of relatively fresh human remains. PMID:27259733

  18. Skeletal adaptation in altered gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Tony S.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the single factor that most limits human survivability in non Earth environments is the phenomenon of bone demineralization and the medical problems induced by the subsequent imbalance in the calcium metabolism. Alterations of skeletal properties occur as a result of disturbances in the normal mechanical loading environment of bone. These alterations or adaptations obey physical laws, but the precise mathematical relationship remains to be determined. Principles governing unloading and overloading of bone are gaining more attention as a consequence of the planning of manned space stations, Moon and Mars bases and spaceflights of long duration. A mathematical framework which allows for the prediction of skeletal adaptation on Earth and in non Earth gravity environments by power law relationships is presented.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  20. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Philip, Rajeev; Philip, Renjit; Toms, Ajit; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, K K

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  1. Leptin receptors in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Borja; Santana, Alfredo; Fuentes, Teresa; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, Jose A L

    2007-05-01

    Human skeletal muscle expresses leptin receptor mRNA; however, it remains unknown whether leptin receptors (OB-R) are also expressed at the protein level. Fourteen healthy men (age = 33.1 +/- 2.0 yr, height = 175.9 +/- 1.7 cm, body mass = 81.2 +/- 3.8 kg, body fat = 22.5 +/- 1.9%; means +/- SE) participated in this investigation. The expression of OB-R protein was determined in skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hypothalamus using a polyclonal rabbit anti-human leptin receptor. Three bands with a molecular mass close to 170, 128, and 98 kDa were identified by Western blot with the anti-OB-R antibody. All three bands were identified in skeletal muscle: the 98-kDa and 170-kDa bands were detected in hypothalamus, and the 98-kDa and 128-kDa bands were detected in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue. The 128-kDa isoform was not detected in four subjects, whereas in the rest its occurrence was fully explained by the presence of intermuscular adipose tissue, as demonstrated using an anti-perilipin A antibody. No relationship was observed between the basal concentration of leptin in serum and the 170-kDa band density. In conclusion, a long isoform of the leptin receptor with a molecular mass close to 170 kDa is expressed at the protein level in human skeletal muscle. The amount of 170-kDa protein appears to be independent of the basal concentration of leptin in serum.

  2. Denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle after denervation and reinnervation. These changes are compared with those observed after altered motor function. Also considered is the nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties. Topics examined include the membrane and contractile properties of denervated and reinnervated muscle; the cholinergic proteins, such as choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and the acetylcholine receptor; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services E Appendix E to Part 57 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services E Appendix E to Part 57 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early...

  5. Narrowing the Broader Autism Phenotype: A Study Using the Communication Checklist-Adult Version (CC-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Coon, Hilary; Miller, Judith; Salisbury, Bryanna; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Communication Checklist-Adult (CC-A) could identify subtypes of social and communication dysfunction in autism probands and their parents. The CC-A is divided into subscales measuring linguistic ability as well as two aspects of social communication: the Pragmatic Skills subscale assesses the level of pragmatic…

  6. Pseudopotential-Based Correlation Consistent Composite Approach (rp-ccCA) for First- and Second-Row Transition Metal Thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manivasagam, Sivabalan; Laury, Marie L; Wilson, Angela K

    2015-07-01

    The relativistic-pseudopotential correlation consistent composite approach (rp-ccCA) was used to determine the enthalpy of formation (ΔHf) of 24 first row (3d) transition metal compounds. The rp-ccCA-derived ΔHf's were compared to ΔHf's previously obtained with an all-electron composite method for transition metals (ccCA-TM). For the 3d metal systems, rp-ccCA achieves transition metal accuracy, within 3 kcal/mol of reliable experimental data, overall. By utilizing pseudopotentials within the rp-ccCA methodology, we observed a significant computational time savings (53%) in comparison to the all-electron basis sets employed within ccCA-TM. With the proven reliability and accuracy of rp-ccCA, the methodology was employed to construct a calibration set of 210 second-row (4d) transition metal compounds and their ΔHf's. The 4d calibration set is referred to as 4dHf-210. Within the 4dHf-210 set, there were 61 molecules with available experimental data. The average experimental uncertainty was 4.05 kcal/mol and the mean absolute deviation of rp-ccCA was 3.64 kcal/mol, excluding outliers (10 total). This study provides a large set of energetics that can be used to gauge existing and future computational methodologies and to aid experimentalists in reaction design. PMID:26000954

  7. 77 FR 12578 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; C&C Ventures, Doing Business as Randolph...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; C&C Ventures, Doing Business as... hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to C&C Ventures, doing business as Randolph Products, a... response. Authority: 35 U.S.C. 207, 37 CFR Part 404. Dated: February 22, 2012. J.M. Beal,...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services E Appendix E to Part 57 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early...

  9. Isolation, Cryosection and Immunostaining of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ortuste Quiroga, Huascar P; Goto, Katsumasa; Zammit, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is maintained and repaired by resident stem cells called satellite cells, located between the plasmalemma of a muscle fiber, and the surrounding basal lamina. When needed, satellite cells are activated to form proliferative myoblasts, that then differentiate and fuse to existing muscle fibers, or fuse together to form replacement myofibers. In parallel, a proportion of satellite cells self-renew, to maintain the stem cell pool. To date, Pax7 is the marker of choice for identifying quiescent satellite cells. Co-immunostaining of skeletal muscle with Pax7 and laminin allows both identification of satellite cells, and the myofiber that they are associated with. Furthermore, satellite cells can be followed through the early stages of the myogenic program by co-immunostaining with myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD. To test genetically modified mice for satellite cell expression, co-immunostaining can be performed for Pax7 and reporter genes such as eGFP. Here, we describe a method for identification of satellite cells in skeletal muscle sections, including muscle isolation, cryosectioning and co-immunostaining for Pax7 and laminin. PMID:27492168

  10. Redox Characterization of Functioning Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle physiology is influenced by the presence of chemically reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules regulate multiple redox-sensitive signaling pathways that play a critical role in cellular processes including gene expression and protein modification. While ROS have gained much attention for their harmful effects in muscle fatigue and dysfunction, research has also shown ROS to facilitate muscle adaptation after stressors such as physical exercise. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of redox signaling in skeletal muscle. ROS-induced oxidative stress and its role in the aging process are discussed. Mitochondria have been shown to generate large amounts of ROS during muscular contractions, and thus are susceptible to oxidative stress. ROS can modify proteins located in the mitochondrial membrane leading to cell death and osmotic swelling. ROS also contribute to the necrosis and inflammation of muscle fibers that is associated with muscular diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It is imperative that future research continues to investigate the exact role of ROS in normal skeletal muscle function as well as muscular dysfunction and disease. PMID:26635624

  11. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  12. Insulin Increases Ceramide Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M. E.; Tippetts, T. S.; Anderson, M. C.; Holub, Z. E.; Moulton, E. R.; Swensen, A. C.; Prince, J. T.; Bikman, B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods. Skeletal muscle cells were treated with insulin with or without palmitate for various time periods. Lipids (ceramides and TAG) were isolated and gene expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes were quantified. Additionally, adult male mice received daily insulin injections for 14 days, followed by muscle ceramide analysis. Results. In muscle cells, insulin elicited an increase in ceramides comparable to palmitate alone. This is likely partly due to an insulin-induced increase in expression of multiple enzymes, particularly SPT2, which, when knocked down, prevented the increase in ceramides. In mice, 14 days of insulin injection resulted in increased soleus ceramides, but not TAG. However, insulin injections did significantly increase hepatic TAG compared with vehicle-injected animals. Conclusions. This study suggests that insulin elicits an anabolic effect on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, resulting in increased ceramide accumulation. These findings reveal a potential mechanism of the deleterious consequences of the hyperinsulinemia that accompanies insulin resistance and suggest a possible novel therapeutic target to mitigate its effects. PMID:24949486

  13. Do inflammatory cells influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Koh, Timothy J; Pizza, Francis X

    2009-06-01

    Most research on muscle hypertrophy has focused on the responses of muscle cells to mechanical loading; however, a number of studies also suggest that inflammatory cells may influence muscle hypertrophy. Neutrophils and macrophages accumulate in skeletal muscle following increased mechanical loading, and we have demonstrated that macrophages are essential for hypertrophy following synergist ablation. Whether neutrophils are required remains to be determined. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impair adaptive responses of skeletal muscle in both human and animal experiments suggesting that the routine use of such drugs could impair muscle performance. Much remains to be learned about the role of inflammatory cells in muscle hypertrophy, including the molecular signals involved in calling neutrophils and macrophages to skeletal muscle as well as those that regulate their function in muscle. In addition, although we have demonstrated that macrophages produce growth promoting factors during muscle hypertrophy, the full range of functional activities involved in muscle hypertrophy remains to be determined. Further investigation should provide insight into the intriguing hypothesis that inflammatory cells play integral roles in regulating muscle hypertrophy.

  14. Antenatal diagnosis of lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Tretter, A E; Saunders, R C; Meyers, C M; Dungan, J S; Grumbach, K; Sun, C C; Campbell, A B; Wulfsberg, E A

    1998-02-17

    Lethal skeletal dysplasias (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of rare but important genetic disorders characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone and cartilage. We describe the diagnosis and outcome of 29 cases of lethal skeletal dysplasias evaluated between January 1989 and December 1996 at the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Ultrasound Institute of Baltimore. Two cases presented at delivery with no prenatal care while the remaining 27 cases were identified by antenatal sonography. Final diagnoses included thanatophoric dysplasia (14), osteogenesis imperfecta, type II (6), achondrogenesis (2), short rib syndromes (3), campomelic syndrome (2), atelosteogenesis (1), and no evidence of a skeletal dysplasia (1). Twenty out of 27 pregnancies were terminated with an average at detection of 21.6 weeks. The other 7 pregnancies that went on to deliver had an average age at detection of 29.2 weeks. Fetal abnormalities in the terminated pregnancies were identified at a significantly earlier gestational age (P = 0.0016) than the pregnancies that continued. While the identification of LSD by sonography was excellent (26/27), only 13/27 (48%) were given an accurate specific antenatal diagnosis. In 8/14 (57%) cases with an inaccurate or nonspecific diagnosis there was a significant or crucial change in the genetic counseling. Thus, while antenatal sonography is an excellent method for discovering LSD, clinical examination, radiographs, and autopsy are mandatory for making a specific diagnosis. PMID:9489797

  15. Reactive Oxygen Species in Skeletal Muscle Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Sestili, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in eukaryotic cells' life. Up to the 1990s of the past century, ROS have been solely considered as toxic species resulting in oxidative stress, pathogenesis and aging. However, there is now clear evidence that ROS are not merely toxic species but also—within certain concentrations—useful signaling molecules regulating physiological processes. During intense skeletal muscle contractile activity myotubes' mitochondria generate high ROS flows: this renders skeletal muscle a tissue where ROS hold a particular relevance. According to their hormetic nature, in muscles ROS may trigger different signaling pathways leading to diverging responses, from adaptation to cell death. Whether a “positive” or “negative” response will prevail depends on many variables such as, among others, the site of ROS production, the persistence of ROS flow or target cells' antioxidant status. In this light, a specific threshold of physiological ROS concentrations above which ROS exert negative, toxic effects is hard to determine, and the concept of “physiologically compatible” levels of ROS would better fit with such a dynamic scenario. In this review these concepts will be discussed along with the most relevant signaling pathways triggered and/or affected by ROS in skeletal muscle. PMID:22175016

  16. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogeneis imperfecta mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J. Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J.; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (Po, Po/mg and Po/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased Po and an inability to sustain Po for the 300 ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. PMID:20619344

  17. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  18. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  19. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Jana, Manisha; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient. PMID:25349664

  20. Ribosome biogenesis in skeletal development and the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Paul A; Merrill, Amy E

    2014-06-01

    The skeleton affords a framework and structural support for vertebrates, while also facilitating movement, protecting vital organs, and providing a reservoir of minerals and cells for immune system and vascular homeostasis. The mechanical and biological functions of the skeleton are inextricably linked to the size and shape of individual bones, the diversity of which is dependent in part upon differential growth and proliferation. Perturbation of bone development, growth and proliferation, can result in congenital skeletal anomalies, which affect approximately 1 in 3000 live births [1]. Ribosome biogenesis is integral to all cell growth and proliferation through its roles in translating mRNAs and building proteins. Disruption of any steps in the process of ribosome biogenesis can lead to congenital disorders termed ribosomopathies. In this review, we discuss the role of ribosome biogenesis in skeletal development and in the pathogenesis of congenital skeletal anomalies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. PMID:24252615

  1. Phylogenetic study of clonal complex (CC)198 capsule null locus (cnl) genomes: A distinctive group within the species Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Du, Pengcheng; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li; Wang, Haiyin; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Haijian; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Chen; Shao, Zhujun

    2015-08-01

    Capsule null locus (cnl) strains, one type of specific unencapsulated Neisseria spp., only have regions D and E of the capsule gene cluster which encodes the genes for capsule biosynthesis, modification, and transportation. Compared with encapsulated strains, regions A and C of cnl strains have been replaced by 113 or 114 bp conserved non-coding sequences. Cnl strains include multiple clonal complexes (CC). According to previous studies, CC198 is the major clonal lineage in both cnl patients and healthy cnl carriers. We hypothesized that CC198 possesses different genome characteristics compared with other cnl strains. In this study, we obtained the draft genomes of two CC198 strains from healthy carriers. Using 75071 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in 1163 core genes, we constructed the phylogenetic relationships between a batch of representative Neisseria meningitidis genomes. CC198 and CC1136 clustered together, but apart from other N. meningitidis strains including CC53. We also aligned the sequences of genes located in regions D and E of the capsule gene locus from encapsulated and unencapsulated strains. A number of possible recombination events were identified in the galE and tex genes between different serogroups of encapsulated N. meningitidis and CC53 strains, especially in tex. In contrast, there is almost no recombination in N. meningitidis CC198 strains. These results showed that CC198 belongs to a phylogenetically distinct group within the species N. meningitidis, which may be directly derived from the cnl-type ancestor of N. meningitidis. The encapsulated strains may acquire other necessary genes for capsule formation by horizontal transfer.

  2. Multiscale simulation of pollution gases adsorption in porous organic cage CC3.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingping

    2014-01-15

    A general multiscale simulation procedure is proposed to accurately predict the uptakes of pollution gases such as CO2, SO2, H2S, and CO in one of the most investigated porous organic cages CC3 by using a sophisticated force field vdW3 fitted by double hybrid functional (B2PLYP) with a dispersion correction (D3) separately for gas-gas and CC3-gas interactions. The fitted vdW3 was used in grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Good comparison with the coupled cluster single and double excitation and the perturbative triples (CCSD(T))/complete basis set (CBS) limit interaction energies make the B2PLYP-D3 results reliable for our purpose. The good agreement of simulated CO2 loading with experimental one and the low deviation in the fitting procedure for H2S and CO make our approach available in predicting gases in novel porous materials.

  3. Scaling animal to human biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Pamela Ochoa; Veloza, Stella

    2016-07-01

    The radiotracer called 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx)-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) is a novel radiophar-maceutical for the detection of prostate cancer lesions by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Setting up a cost-effective manual synthesis of this radiotracer and making its clinical translation in Colombia will require two important elements: the evaluation of the procedure to yield a consistent product, meeting standards of radio-chemical purity and low toxicity and then, the evaluation of the radiation dosimetry. In this paper a protocol to extrapolate the biokinetic model made in normal mice to humans by using the computer software for internal dose assessment OLINDA/EXM® is presented as an accurate and standardized method for the calculation of radiation dosimetry estimates.

  4. Formation of C-C Bonds via Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Bower, John F; Krische, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The formation of C-C bonds via catalytic hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation enables carbonyl and imine addition in the absence of stoichiometric organometallic reagents. In this review, iridium-catalyzed C-C bond-forming hydrogenations and transfer hydrogenations are surveyed. These processes encompass selective, atom-economic methods for the vinylation and allylation of carbonyl compounds and imines. Notably, under transfer hydrogenation conditions, alcohol dehydrogenation drives reductive generation of organoiridium nucleophiles, enabling carbonyl addition from the aldehyde or alcohol oxidation level. In the latter case, hydrogen exchange between alcohols and π-unsaturated reactants generates electrophile-nucleophile pairs en route to products of hydro-hydroxyalkylation, representing a direct method for the functionalization of carbinol C-H bonds. PMID:21822399

  5. Analysis of genes involved in methyl halide degradation in Aminobacter lissarensis CC495.

    PubMed

    Warner, Karen L; Larkin, Michael J; Harper, David B; Murrell, J Colin; McDonald, Ian R

    2005-10-01

    Aminobacter lissarensis CC495 is an aerobic facultative methylotroph capable of growth on glucose, glycerol, pyruvate and methylamine as well as the methyl halides methyl chloride and methyl bromide. Previously, cells grown on methyl chloride have been shown to express two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 67 and 29 kDa. The 67 kDa protein was purified and identified as a halomethane:bisulfide/halide ion methyltransferase. This study describes a single gene cluster in A. lissarensis CC495 containing the methyl halide utilisation genes cmuB, cmuA, cmuC, orf 188, paaE and hutI. The genes correspond to the same order and have a high similarity to a gene cluster found in Aminobacter ciceronei IMB-1 and Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum strain CM2 indicating that genes encoding methyl halide degradation are highly conserved in these strains. PMID:16102909

  6. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd Medi·Ca CC for Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Mai; Suzuki, Takeo; Hamada, Chie; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for coliform count, the Medi·Ca CC method, was compared to the Violet Red Bile Agar method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 4, Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria, Section G) for nine raw foods from four food categories: raw ground pork, raw lamb, raw ground chicken, raw tuna fillet, raw salmon fillet, raw shrimp, fresh peeled banana, fresh cut pineapple, and fresh cut apple. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for seven matrixes from all four categories fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for four matrixes from three categories. These results demonstrated that the Medi·Ca CC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, and fresh fruits.

  7. Endothelial PDGF-CC regulates angiogenesis-dependent thermogenesis in beige fat

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Takahiro; Hosaka, Kayoko; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Honek, Jennifer; Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Nakamura, Masaki; Näslund, Erik; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Sun, Meili; Iwamoto, Hideki; Li, Xuri; Liu, Yizhi; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Cold- and β3-adrenoceptor agonist-induced sympathetic activation leads to angiogenesis and UCP1-dependent thermogenesis in mouse brown and white adipose tissues. Here we show that endothelial production of PDGF-CC during white adipose tissue (WAT) angiogenesis regulates WAT browning. We find that genetic deletion of endothelial VEGFR2, knockout of the Pdgf-c gene or pharmacological blockade of PDGFR-α impair the WAT-beige transition. We further show that PDGF-CC stimulation upregulates UCP1 expression and acquisition of a beige phenotype in differentiated mouse WAT-PDGFR-α+ progenitor cells, as well as in human WAT-PDGFR-α+ adipocytes, supporting the physiological relevance of our findings. Our data reveal a paracrine mechanism by which angiogenic endothelial cells modulate adipocyte metabolism, which may provide new targets for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:27492130

  8. Structural Transformation and Aggregation of cc-beta Peptides Into Amyloid Proto-fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Yuba; Steckmann, Timothy; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    The study of amyloid fibrils has important implications in understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. During the formation of amyloid fibrils, peptide polymers manifest fascinating physical behavior by undergoing complicated structural transformations. We examine the behavior of a small engineered peptide called cc-beta, that was designed to mimic the structural changes of the much larger, naturally occurring amyloid beta proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to uncover the underlying physics that is responsible for the large scale structural transformations. By using implicit solvent replica exchange MD simulations, we examined the behavior of 12 peptides, initially arranged in four different cc-beta alpha helix trimers. We observed various intermediate stages of aggregation, as well as an organized proto-fibril beta aggregate. We discuss the time evolution and the various interactions involved in the structural transformation.

  9. Primary sacrococcygeal chordoma with unusual skeletal muscle metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lisa; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are rare neoplasms that do not often metastasize. Of the small percent that do metastasize, they very infrequently involve skeletal muscle. Only a few cases of skeletal muscle metastases have been reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of a patient with a primary sacrococcygeal chordoma who experienced a long period of remission but who subsequently developed recurrence and multiple metastatic lesions to skeletal muscles including the deltoid, triceps, and pectineus. PMID:27190554

  10. Effects of regular exercise training on skeletal muscle contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is critical to movement and one's ability to perform daily tasks, such as eating and walking. One objective of this article is to review the contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle and single fibers, with particular emphasis on the cellular events that control or rate limit the important mechanical properties. Another important goal of this article is to present the current understanding of how the contractile properties of limb skeletal muscle adapt to programs of regular exercise.

  11. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects. PMID:24971597

  12. Baeyer-Villiger C-C bond cleavage reaction in gilvocarcin and jadomycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tibrewal, Nidhi; Pahari, Pallab; Wang, Guojun; Kharel, Madan K.; Morris, Caleb; Downey, Theresa; Hou, Yanpeng; Bugni, Tim S.; Rohr, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    GilOII has been unambiguously identified as the key enzyme performing the crucial C-C bond cleavage reaction responsible for the unique rearrangement of a benz[a]anthracene skeleton to the benzo[d]naphthopyranone backbone typical for the gilvocarcin type natural anticancer antibiotics. Further investigations of this enzyme led to the isolation of a hydroxy-oxepinone intermediate which allowed important conclusions regarding the cleavage mechanism. PMID:23102024

  13. Staphylococcus aureus CC398: Host Adaptation and Emergence of Methicillin Resistance in Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Price, Lance B.; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik; Aziz, Maliha; Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James; Gillece, John; Driebe, Elizabeth; Liu, Cindy M.; Springer, Burkhard; Zdovc, Irena; Battisti, Antonio; Franco, Alessia; Żmudzki, Jacek; Schwarz, Stefan; Butaye, Patrick; Jouy, Eric; Pomba, Constanca; Porrero, M. Concepción; Ruimy, Raymond; Smith, Tara C.; Robinson, D. Ashley; Weese, J. Scott; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Yu, Fangyou; Laurent, Frederic; Keim, Paul; Skov, Robert; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock-associated MRSA possessing three different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) types (IV, V, and VII-like) including nine subtypes. The human-associated isolates from the basal clades carried phages encoding human innate immune modulators that were largely missing among the livestock-associated isolates. Our results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA. The lineage appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Further analyses are required to estimate the number of independent genetic events leading to the methicillin-resistant sublineages, but the diversity of SCCmec subtypes is suggestive of strong and diverse antimicrobial selection associated with food animal production. PMID:22354957

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Biocontrol Strain Bacillus velezensis CC09

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xunchao; Kang, Xingxing; Xi, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis is a heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, and Bacillus oryzicola, and has been used to control plant fungal diseases. In order to fully understand the genetic basis of antimicrobial capacities, we did a complete genome sequencing of the endophytic B. velezensis strain CC09. Genes tightly associated with biocontrol ability, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthetases, iron acquisition, colonization, and volatile organic compound synthesis were identified in the genome. PMID:27688342

  15. Deletion of autophagy inducer RB1CC1 results in degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jingyu; Jia, Lin; Khan, Naheed; Lin, Chengmao; Mitter, Sayak K; Boulton, Michael E; Dunaief, Joshua L; Klionsky, Daniel J; Guan, Jun-Lin; Thompson, Debra A; Zacks, David N

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis and response to environmental stress. Within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye, the level of autophagy can change with both age and disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between reduced autophagy and age-related degeneration of the RPE. The gene encoding RB1CC1/FIP200 (RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1), a protein essential for induction of autophagy, was selectively knocked out in the RPE by crossing Best1-Cre mice with mice in which the Rb1cc1 gene was flanked with Lox-P sites (Rb1cc1(flox/flox)). Ex vivo and in vivo analyses, including western blot, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and electroretinography were performed to assess the structure and function of the retina as a function of age. Deletion of Rb1cc1 resulted in multiple autophagy defects within the RPE including decreased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, accumulation of autophagy-targeted precursors, and increased numbers of mitochondria. Age-dependent degeneration of the RPE occurred, with formation of atrophic patches, subretinal migration of activated microglial cells, subRPE deposition of inflammatory and oxidatively damaged proteins, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and occasional foci of choroidal neovascularization. There was secondary loss of photoreceptors overlying the degenerated RPE and reduction in the electroretinogram. These observations are consistent with a critical role of autophagy in the maintenance of normal homeostasis in the aging RPE, and indicate that disruption of autophagy leads to retinal phenotypes associated with age-related degeneration.

  16. Flow field study comparing design iterations of a 50 cc left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Nanna, Jason C.; Wivholm, Jennifer A.; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B.

    2011-01-01

    The REMATCH study shows that implanted ventricular assist devices improve survival time and quality of life when used as a permanent therapy in patients who do not qualify for heart transplant. The success of the pulsatile 70 cc stroke volume left ventricular assist device (LVAD) developed by Penn State has led to the development of a 50 cc stroke volume pump for use in patients with smaller chest cavities to benefit a larger patient population. The initial 50 cc pump shows regions of in vivo thrombus formation which correlate to low wall shear rates within the device. In an in vitro evaluation of three new designs (V-2, V-3, V-4) of the 50 cc LVAD, identical except for the location and orientation of their outlet ports, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to capture planar flow field data within the pumps. V-2 has an outlet port which is located parallel to the inlet. In V-3, the outlet port is rotated away from the inlet port, with the intention of minimizing the amount of fluid turning needed to exit the device. With V-4 the outlet port is moved to the center of the pump in order to prolong the desirable rotational flow. PIV data were taken at 6 planar locations within the pump. While the modifications to the outlet port locations serve their intended purpose, they also introduce unwanted changes in the flow. Poorer wall washing and weaker rotational flow are observed with V-3 and V-4. While the differences between the devices are subtle, the device that has the most desirable flow characteristics is V-2. PMID:21734560

  17. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  18. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  19. Deletion of autophagy inducer RB1CC1 results in degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jingyu; Jia, Lin; Khan, Naheed; Lin, Chengmao; Mitter, Sayak K; Boulton, Michael E; Dunaief, Joshua L; Klionsky, Daniel J; Guan, Jun-Lin; Thompson, Debra A; Zacks, David N

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis and response to environmental stress. Within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye, the level of autophagy can change with both age and disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between reduced autophagy and age-related degeneration of the RPE. The gene encoding RB1CC1/FIP200 (RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1), a protein essential for induction of autophagy, was selectively knocked out in the RPE by crossing Best1-Cre mice with mice in which the Rb1cc1 gene was flanked with Lox-P sites (Rb1cc1(flox/flox)). Ex vivo and in vivo analyses, including western blot, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and electroretinography were performed to assess the structure and function of the retina as a function of age. Deletion of Rb1cc1 resulted in multiple autophagy defects within the RPE including decreased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, accumulation of autophagy-targeted precursors, and increased numbers of mitochondria. Age-dependent degeneration of the RPE occurred, with formation of atrophic patches, subretinal migration of activated microglial cells, subRPE deposition of inflammatory and oxidatively damaged proteins, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and occasional foci of choroidal neovascularization. There was secondary loss of photoreceptors overlying the degenerated RPE and reduction in the electroretinogram. These observations are consistent with a critical role of autophagy in the maintenance of normal homeostasis in the aging RPE, and indicate that disruption of autophagy leads to retinal phenotypes associated with age-related degeneration. PMID:26075877

  20. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    The following text briefly describes the materials research programs of the Department of Energy. It is organized by office and organizational charts are provided to allow easy identification of the materials research programs of each office. These program descriptions have been prepared from inputs submitted by many different EMaCC members. This report is not a comprehensive summary of the Department's programs, but rather a compilation of the programs of those offices that submitted inputs.

  1. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1992. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The DOE EMaCC serves to coordinate the department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the department. This document presents summaries of budgets and of research projects, arranged according to the offices of energy efficiency and renewable energy, energy research, environmental restoration and waste management, nuclear energy, civilian radioactive waste management, defense, and fossil energy. A directory and a keyword index are included.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Biocontrol Strain Bacillus velezensis CC09.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xunchao; Kang, Xingxing; Xi, Huan; Liu, Changhong; Xue, Yarong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis is a heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, and Bacillus oryzicola, and has been used to control plant fungal diseases. In order to fully understand the genetic basis of antimicrobial capacities, we did a complete genome sequencing of the endophytic B. velezensis strain CC09. Genes tightly associated with biocontrol ability, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthetases, iron acquisition, colonization, and volatile organic compound synthesis were identified in the genome. PMID:27688342

  3. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  4. Genome sequence of Synechococcus CC9311: Insights into adaptation to a coastal environment

    PubMed Central

    Palenik, Brian; Ren, Qinghu; Dupont, Chris L.; Myers, Garry S.; Heidelberg, John F.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, William C.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Dodson, Robert J.; Durkin, A. Scott; Daugherty, Sean C.; Sullivan, Stephen A.; Khouri, Hoda; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Halpin, Rebecca; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal aquatic environments are typically more highly productive and dynamic than open ocean ones. Despite these differences, cyanobacteria from the genus Synechococcus are important primary producers in both types of ecosystems. We have found that the genome of a coastal cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, has significant differences from an open ocean strain, Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102, and these are consistent with the differences between their respective environments. CC9311 has a greater capacity to sense and respond to changes in its (coastal) environment. It has a much larger capacity to transport, store, use, or export metals, especially iron and copper. In contrast, phosphate acquisition seems less important, consistent with the higher concentration of phosphate in coastal environments. CC9311 is predicted to have differences in its outer membrane lipopolysaccharide, and this may be characteristic of the speciation of some cyanobacterial groups. In addition, the types of potentially horizontally transferred genes are markedly different between the coastal and open ocean genomes and suggest a more prominent role for phages in horizontal gene transfer in oligotrophic environments. PMID:16938853

  5. Analysis of CC chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in solid ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Scotton, C; Milliken, D; Wilson, J; Raju, S; Balkwill, F

    2001-01-01

    To understand the chemokine network in a tissue, both chemokine and chemokine receptor expression should be studied. Human epithelial ovarian tumours express a range of chemokines but little is known about the expression and localisation of chemokine receptors. With the aim of understanding chemokine action in this cancer, we investigated receptors for CC–chemokines and their ligands in 25 biopsies of human ovarian cancer. CC–chemokine receptor mRNA was generally absent from solid tumours, the exception being CCR1 which was detected in samples from 75% of patients. CCR1 mRNA localised to macrophages and lymphocytes and there was a correlation between numbers of CD8+ and CCR1 expressing cells (P = 0.031). mRNA for 6 CC-chemokines was expressed in a majority of tumour samples. In a monocytic cell line in vitro, we found that CCR1 mRNA expression was increased 5-fold by hypoxia. We suggest that the CC-chemokine network in ovarian cancer is controlled at the level of CC-chemokine receptors and this may account for the phenotypes of infiltrating cells found in these tumours. The leukocyte infiltrate may contribute to tumour growth and spread by providing growth survival factors and matrix metalloproteases. Thus, CCR1 may be a novel therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. http://www.bjcancer.com © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11556842

  6. cc¯ pair production in proton-proton collisions including subdominant terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, M.; Szczurek, A.

    2011-10-01

    For the cc¯ production at high-energies the gluon-gluon fusion is the dominant mechanism. This process was calculated in the NLO collinear as well as in the k-factorisation approaches in the past. We show that the present knowledge of gluon distributions does not allow to make precise predictions for cc¯ production at LHC. Next, we study production of cc¯ pairs including following subprocesses: gg→QQ¯, γg→QQ¯, gγ→QQ¯, γγ→QQ¯. In this context we use MRST-QED (Martin, Roberts, Stirling, Thorne) parton distributions which include photon as a parton in the proton. We include also elastic contributions (single proton in the final state) within the equivalent photon approximation. We present distributions in c ( c¯) rapidity and transverse momenta and compare them with the dominant gluon-gluon fusion contribution. We discuss also single and central diffractive processes using diffractive parton distribution found from the analysis of HERA data. As in the previous case we present distribution in c ( c¯) rapidity and transverse momentum.

  7. Subdominant terms in the production of cc¯ pairs in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, M.; Maciuła, R.; Szczurek, A.

    2011-12-01

    At high energies the gluon-gluon fusion is the dominant mechanism of cc¯ production. This process was calculated in the next-to-leading-order collinear as well as in the kt-factorization approaches in the past. We show that the present knowledge of gluon distributions does not allow one to make precise predictions for cc¯ production at LHC, in particular at forward rapidities. In this paper we study production of cc¯ pairs including several subleading mechanisms. This includes gg→QQ¯, γg→QQ¯, gγ→QQ¯, and γγ→QQ¯. In this context we use Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne QED parton distributions which include the photon as a parton in the proton as well as elastic photon distributions calculated in the equivalent photon approximation. We present distributions in the c quark (c¯ antiquark) rapidity and transverse momenta and compare them to the dominant gluon-gluon fusion contribution. We discuss also inclusive single and central diffractive processes using diffractive parton distribution found from the analysis of HERA diffractive data. As in the previous case we present the distribution in c (c¯) rapidity and transverse momentum. Finally, we present results for an exclusive central diffractive mechanism discussed recently in the literature. We show corresponding differential distributions and compare them with corresponding distributions for single and central diffractive components.

  8. Characterization of CC-531 as a Rat Model of Colorectal Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah Beth; Procissi, Daniele; Chen, Jeane; Gogineni, Venkateswara Rao; Tyler, Patrick; Yang, Yihe; Omary, Reed A.; Larson, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases is not achievable in more than 70% of the cases. Although the liver directed therapies have become a part of the stand of care, lack of a preclinical model impedes the assessment of toxicity and therapeutic benefits attributed several candidate drugs or treatment regimens that can be designed. In the present study we aim develop and characterize a rat colorectal liver metastasis model. Materials and Methods Growth characteristics of CC-531 cells were determined in vitro followed by subcapsular liver implantation in syngeneic WAG/Rij rats. Tumor growth progression was followed over 3 weeks by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Growth characteristics were also assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in harvested tumor tissues. Results The doubling time of CC-531 cells was found be under 24hrs and all the implanted rats grew tumors. US imaging showed hypoechoic masses and MRI showed contrast enhancement representing complex tumor microenvironments. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining confirmed tumor growth and uniform CD31 staining in tumor confirmed even vessel density. Conclusion CC-531 can be used as a metastatic rat tumor colorectal liver metastases model with well-defined characteristics that can be readily followed by imaging whilst having a therapeutic window for interventions. PMID:27171151

  9. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  10. Active Brazing of C/C Composite to Copper by AgCuTi Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kexiang; Xia, Lihong; Zhang, Fuqin; He, Lianlong

    2016-05-01

    Brazing between the carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon composite (C/C composite) and copper has gained increasing interest because of its important application in thermal management systems in nuclear fusion reactors and in the aerospace industry. In order to examine the "interfacial shape effect" on the mechanical properties of the joint, straight and conical interfacial configurations were designed and machined on the surface of C/C composites before joining to copper using an Ag-68.8Cu-4.5Ti (wt pct) alloy. The microstructure and interfacial microchemistry of C/C composite/AgCuTi/Cu brazed joints were comprehensively investigated by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the joint region of both straight and conical joints can be described as a bilayer. Reaction products of Cu3Ti3O and γ-TiO were formed near the copper side in a conical interface joint, while no reaction products were found in the straight case. The effect of Ag on the interfacial reaction was discussed, and the formation mechanism of the joints during brazing was proposed. On the basis of the detailed microstructure presented, the mechanical performance of the brazed joints was discussed in terms of reaction and morphology across the joint.

  11. On-chip isothermal, chemical cycling polymerase chain reaction (ccPCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate a novel ccPCR technique for microfluidic DNA amplification where temperature is held constant in space and time. The polymerase chain reaction is a platform of choice for biological assays and typically based on a three-step thermal cycling: DNA denaturation, primers annealing and extension by an enzyme. We here demonstrate a novel technique where high concentration chemical denaturants (solvents) denature DNA. We leverage the high electrophoretic mobility of DNA and the electrical neutrality of denaturants to achieve chemical cycling. We focus DNA with isotachophoresis (ITP); a robust electrophoretic preconcentration technique which generates strong electric field gradients and protects the sample from dispersion. We apply a pressure-driven flow to balance electromigration velocity and keep the DNA sample stationary in a microchannel. We drive the DNA through a series of high denaturant concentration zones. DNA denatures at high denaturant concentration. At low denaturant concentration, the enzyme creates complementary strands. DNA reaction kinetics are slower than buffer reactions involved in ITP. We demonstrate successful ccPCR amplification for detection of E. Coli. The ccPCR has the potential for simpler chemistry than traditional PCR.

  12. Skeletal metastasis: treatments, mouse models, and the Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C.; Steensma, Matthew R.; Williams, Bart O.; Zhong, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases result in significant morbidity and mortality. This is particularly true of cancers with a strong predilection for the bone, such as breast, prostate, and lung cancers. There is currently no reliable cure for skeletal metastasis, and palliative therapy options are limited. The Wnt signaling pathway has been found to play an integral role in the process of skeletal metastasis and may be an important clinical target. Several experimental models of skeletal metastasis have been used to find new biomarkers and test new treatments. In this review, we discuss pathologic process of bone metastasis, the roles of the Wnt signaling, and the available experimental models and treatments. PMID:23327798

  13. Interleukin-2 therapy reverses some immunosuppressive effects of skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Jason W.; Balch, Signe; Chapes, Stephen K.

    1994-01-01

    Using antiorthostatic suspension, we characterized hematopoietic changes that may be responsible for the detrimental effect of skeletal unloading on macrophage development. Skeletally unloaded mice had suppressed macrophage development in unloaded and loaded bones, which indicated a systemic effect. Bone marrow cells from unloaded mice secreted less macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 than control mice. Additionally, T-lymphocyte proliferation was reduced after skeletal unloading. We show that polyethylene glycol-interleukin-2 therapy reversed the effects of skeletal unloading on macrophage development and cell proliferation.

  14. The importance of soft tissues in certain skeletal traumatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Harris, J H

    1981-12-01

    Soft tissue aspects of skeletal trauma are discussed according to two categories: (1) those injuries in which the significance of the soft tissue in the pathophysiology of the skeletal lesion is indicated by the characteristics of the skeletal injury (such as extension teardrop fracture, little leaguer's elbow, "baseball fracture," and Bennett's fracture); and (2) those injuries in which the associated soft tissue injury, or complication, may be reasonably inferred by the location and nature of the skeletal injury (such as major facial fractures, posterior sternoclavicular dislocations, fractures of the lower rib and lumbar transverse processes, and pelvic disruptions).

  15. Changes in Skeletal Tumor Activity on (18)F-choline PET/CT in Patients Receiving (223)Radium Radionuclide Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kyle S; Kuang, Yu; Kwee, Sandi A

    2015-06-01

    Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical shown to prolong survival in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic skeletal metastases. This report describes in two patients the acute changes in bone metastatic activity detected by F-18 choline PET/CT imaging midway during treatment with radium-223 dichloride. In addition to visual and standardized uptake value analysis, changes in the whole-body tumor burden were quantified by measuring the difference in net metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion activity (TLA) between pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. After the third dose of radium-223 dichloride, near-total disappearance of abnormal skeletal activity was observed in one case (net MATV change from 260.7 to 0.8 cc; net TLA change from 510.7 to 2.1), while a heterogeneous tumor response was observed in the other (net MATV change from 272.2 to 241.3 cc; net TLA change from 987.1 to 779.4). Corresponding normalization and persistent elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase levels were observed in these cases, respectively. Further research is needed to determine the predictive value of serial F-18 choline PET/CT imaging in patients receiving radium-223 dichloride for CRPC.

  16. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the skeletal stability after large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation and to correlate the skeletal stability with the vertical facial type. Material and Methods A total of 33 consecutive patients underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion with a mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) measured at B-point and postoperative skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation for 16 weeks. Skeletal stability was evaluated using lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained preoperative (T1), 8 weeks postoperatively (T2), and 18 month postoperatively (T3). B-point and pogonion (Pog) was used to measure the skeletal relapse and the mandibular plane angle (MP-angle) was used to determine the vertical facial type. Results The mean advancement from T1 to T2 were 11.6 mm and 13.5 mm at B-point and Pog, respectively. The mean skeletal relapse from T2 to T3 was -1.3 mm at B-point and -1.6 mm at Pog. The nineteen patients characterized as long facial types, showed the highest amount of skeletal relapse (-1.5 mm at B-point and -1.9 mm at Pog). Conclusions The present study showed a limited amount of skeletal relapse in large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in combination with skeletal intermaxillary fixation can therefore be an alternative to distraction osteogenesis in large mandibular advancements. PMID:27489609

  17. Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) Strain CC 1192.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Copeland, L

    1997-09-01

    To investigate why Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) strain CC 1192 cells accumulate poly-R-3-hydroxybutyrate in the free-living state but not as bacteroids in nodules on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants, we have examined the kinetic properties of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and 3-ketothiolase [EC 2.3.1.9]) from both types of cells. The enzyme had a native molecular mass of 180 (plusmn) 4 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass was 44 (plusmn) 1 kDa. The seven amino acids from the N terminus were Lys-Ala-Ser-Ile-Val-Ile-Ala. Thiolysis and condensation activity of the enzyme from free-living CC 1192 cells were optimal at pHs 7.8 and 8.1, respectively. The relationship between substrate concentrations and initial velocity for the thiolysis reaction were hyperbolic and gave K(infm) values for acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA of 42 and 56 (mu)M, respectively. The maximum velocity in the condensation direction was approximately 10% of that of the thiolysis reaction. With highly purified preparations of the enzyme, a value of approximately 1 mM was determined for the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA. However, with partially purified enzyme preparations or when N-ethylmaleimide was included in reaction mixtures the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA was close to 0.3 mM. In the condensation direction, CoA was a potent linear competitive inhibitor with an inhibition constant of 11 (mu)M. The much higher affinity of the enzyme for the product CoA than the substrate acetyl-CoA could have significance in view of metabolic differences between bacteroid and free-living cells of CC 1192. We propose that in free-living CC 1192 cells, the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio reaches a value that allows condensation activity of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, but that in CC 1192 bacteroids, the ratio is poised so that the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA is not favored.

  18. Transcriptomes of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 in growth transitions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Frankia sp. strains are actinobacteria that form N2-fixing root nodules on angiosperms. Several reference genome sequences are available enabling transcriptome studies in Frankia sp. Genomes from Frankia sp. strains differ markedly in size, a consequence proposed to be associated with a high number of indigenous transposases, more than 200 of which are found in Frankia sp. strain CcI3 used in this study. Because Frankia exhibits a high degree of cell heterogeneity as a consequence of its mycelial growth pattern, its transcriptome is likely to be quite sensitive to culture age. This study focuses on the behavior of the Frankia sp. strain CcI3 transcriptome as a function of nitrogen source and culture age. Results To study global transcription in Frankia sp. CcI3 grown under different conditions, complete transcriptomes were determined using high throughput RNA deep sequencing. Samples varied by time (five days vs. three days) and by culture conditions (NH4+ added vs. N2 fixing). Assembly of millions of reads revealed more diversity of gene expression between five-day and three-day old cultures than between three day old cultures differing in nitrogen sources. Heat map analysis organized genes into groups that were expressed or repressed under the various conditions compared to median expression values. Twenty-one SNPs common to all three transcriptome samples were detected indicating culture heterogeneity in this slow-growing organism. Significantly higher expression of transposase ORFs was found in the five-day and N2-fixing cultures, suggesting that N starvation and culture aging provide conditions for on-going genome modification. Transposases have previously been proposed to participate in the creating the large number of gene duplication or deletion in host strains. Subsequent RT-qPCR experiments confirmed predicted elevated transposase expression levels indicated by the mRNA-seq data. Conclusions The overall pattern of gene expression in aging

  19. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-04-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31-87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2-24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1-24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS. PMID:26442612

  20. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-04-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31-87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2-24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1-24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS.

  1. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  2. Efficacy and safety of extended dosing schedules of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manero, G; Gore, S D; Kambhampati, S; Scott, B; Tefferi, A; Cogle, C R; Edenfield, W J; Hetzer, J; Kumar, K; Laille, E; Shi, T; MacBeth, K J; Skikne, B

    2016-01-01

    CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31–87) and 75% of patients had International Prognostic Scoring System Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2–24) for the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1–24) for the 21-day schedule. Overall response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion independence (TI), or hematologic improvement) (International Working Group 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31% and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS. PMID:26442612

  3. a Computational Investigation of c-C3H2...HX(X = F, Cl, Br) H-Bonded Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R.; Varadwaj, Arpita; Peslherbe, Gilles H.

    2011-06-01

    Cyclopropenylidene (c-C3H2) is of significant importance in interstellar chemistry and synthetic chemistry (e.g., transition metal and organic catalysis). Because of its peculiar structure, c-C3H2 can act as a hydrogen-bond donor or acceptor. In order to gain insight into this feature, the ground-state potential energy surfaces of singlet c-C3H2 complexed with hydrogen halides HX (X = F, Cl, Br) have been explored extensively by density-functional theory (B3LYP) and {ab initio} quantum chemistry (MP2) with a variety of basis sets, cc-pVxZ and aug-cc-pVxZ (x = D, T). The complexes characterized have the carbenic end of c-C3H2 H-bonded to HX, with some proton transfer occurring, the extent of which follows the order HF < HCl < HBr. Accompanying the complex formation are the dipole moment enhancement, the charge transfer, red shifts of the HX vibrational stretching frequencies together with the significant enhancement of band intensity and concomitant HX bond elongation. The nature of H-bonding in these complexes has been explored, based on energy decomposition schemes and the Bader's quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules, with the conclusion that c-C3H2 is a strong H-bond acceptor with respect to the hydrogen halides.

  4. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice.

    PubMed

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  5. Merging Active-Space and Renormalized Coupled-Cluster Methods via the CC(P;Q) Formalism, with Benchmark Calculations for Singlet-Triplet Gaps in Biradical Systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-12-11

    We have recently developed a flexible form of the method of moments of coupled-cluster (CC) equations and the CC(P;Q) hierarchy, which enable one to correct the CC and equation-of-motion CC energies obtained with unconventional truncations in the cluster and excitation operators [Shen, J.; Piecuch, P. Chem. Phys.2012, 401, 180; J. Chem. Phys.2012, 136, 144104]. One of the CC(P;Q) methods is a novel hybrid scheme, abbreviated as CC(t;3), in which the results of CC calculations with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, are corrected for the triple excitations missing in CCSDt using the expressions that are reminiscent of the completely renormalized (CR) CC approach known as CR-CC(2,3). We demonstrate that the total electronic energies of the lowest singlet and triplet states, and the singlet-triplet gaps in biradical systems, including methylene, (HFH)(-), and trimethylenemethane, resulting from the CC(t;3) calculations agree with those obtained with the full CC approach with singles, doubles, and triples to within fractions of a millihartree, improving the results of the noniterative triples CCSD(T), CCSD(2)T, and CR-CC(2,3) and hybrid CCSD(T)-h calculations, and competing with the best multireference CC data.

  6. Induction of heat-labile sites in DNA of mammalian cells by the antitumor alkylating drug CC-1065

    SciTech Connect

    Zsido, T.J.; Woynarowski, J.M.; Baker, R.M.; Gawron, L.S.; Beerman, T.A. )

    1991-04-16

    CC-1065 is a very potent antitumor antibiotic capable of covalent and noncovalent binding to the minor groove of naked DNA. Upon thermal treatment, covalent adducts formed between CC-1065 and DNA generate strand break. The authors have shown that this molecular damage can be detected following CC-1065 treatment of mammalian whole cells. Using alkaline sucrose gradient analysis, They observe thermally induced breakage of ({sup 14}C)thymidine-prelabeled DNA from drug-treated African green monkey kidney BSC-1 cells. Very little damage to cellular DNA by CC-1065 can be detected without first heating the drug-treated samples. CC-1065 can also generate heat-labile sites within DNA during cell lysis and heating, subsequent to the exposure of cells to drug, suggesting that a pool of free and noncovalently bound drug is available for posttreatment adduct formation. This effect was controlled for by mixing ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled untreated cells with the ({sup 14}C)thymidine-labeled drug-treated samples. The lowest drug dose at which heat-labile sites were detected was 3 nM CC-1065 (3 single-stranded breaks/10{sup 6} base pairs). This concentration reduced survival of BSC-1 cells to 0.1% in cytotoxicity assays. The generation of CC-1065-induced lesions in cellular DNA is time dependent (the frequency of lesions caused by a 60 nM treatment reaching a plateau at 2 h) and is not readily reversible. The results of this study demonstrate that CC-1065 does generate heat-labile sites with the cellular DNA of intact cells and suggest that a mechanism of cytotoxic action of CC-1065 involves formation of covalent adducts to DNA.

  7. Contemporary approaches for imaging skeletal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ulmert, David; Solnes, Lilja; Thorek, Daniel LJ

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is a common site of cancer metastasis. Notably high incidences of bone lesions are found for breast, prostate, and renal carcinoma. Malignant bone tumors result in significant patient morbidity. Identification of these lesions is a critical step to accurately stratify patients, guide treatment course, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to therapy. Diagnosis of cancer in the skeleton typically relies on indirect bone-targeted radiotracer uptake at sites of active bone remodeling. In this manuscript, we discuss established and emerging tools and techniques for detection of bone lesions, quantification of skeletal tumor burden, and current clinical challenges. PMID:26273541

  8. Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

  9. Myostatin in the Pathophysiology of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Carnac, Gilles; Vernus, Barbara; Bonnieu, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Myostatin is an endogenous, negative regulator of muscle growth determining both muscle fiber number and size. The myostatin pathway is conserved across diverse species ranging from zebrafish to humans. Experimental models of muscle growth and regeneration have implicated myostatin as an important mediator of catabolic pathways in muscle cells. Inhibition of this pathway has emerged as a promising therapy for muscle wasting. Here we discuss the recent developments and the controversies in myostatin research, focusing on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the actions of myostatin on skeletal muscle and the potential therapeutic role of myostatin on muscle-related disorders. PMID:19412331

  10. International Skeletal Society outreach in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ignacio; Bencardino, Jenny T; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Steinbach, Lynne

    2014-04-01

    From June 28th to 29th, 2013, the Argentinian ISS Outreach Program took place in collaboration with the Centro de Diagnóstico Dr. Enrique Rossi in the city of Buenos Aires. A total of 690 participants attended. In the following report, we analyze the actual radiologic situation in this South American country. Outreach programs in a country such as Argentina are extremely valuable, as they provide a great opportunity for physicians that cannot travel overseas an attend international meetings such as RSNA, International Skeletal Society, or ARRS.

  11. Human Skeletal Muscle Health with Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, Scott

    2012-07-01

    This lecture will overview the most recent aerobic and resistance exercise programs used by crewmembers while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for six months and examine its effectiveness for protecting skeletal muscle health. Detailed information on the exercise prescription program, whole muscle size, whole muscle performance, and cellular data obtained from muscle biopsy samples will be presented. Historically, detailed information on the exercise program while in space has not been available. These most recent exercise and muscle physiology findings provide a critical foundation to guide the exercise countermeasure program forward for future long-duration space missions.

  12. Bone SPECT/CT in skeletal trauma.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The utility of radionuclide bone scanning in skeletal trauma has been greatly enhanced over the last decade by hybrid technology merging multislice CT with SPECT that can take advantage of CT-based correction of attenuation and scatter. The resulting images have been particularly helpful in giving us new insights into the evaluation of foot and ankle injuries and vertebral pathology both before and after surgery. The physiological information and anatomical detail allow a better understanding of the causes of patients' pain and have proven to be particularly useful in planning surgical intervention.

  13. Skeletal muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J M; Brennan, D D; Taylor, D H; Holloway, D P; Hurson, B; O'Keane, J C; Eustace, S J

    2004-11-01

    A case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging painful right thigh mass is presented. She had a known diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma following a hysterectomy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. She subsequently developed a single hepatic metastatic deposit that responded well to radiofrequency ablation. Whole-body MRI and MRA revealed a vascular mass in the sartorius muscle and a smaller adjacent mass in the gracilis muscle, proven to represent metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine origin. To our knowledge, metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the skeletal muscle has not been described previously in the English medical literature.

  14. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Brianna D; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Esser, Karyn A

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  15. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Harfmann, Brianna D.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  16. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Brianna D; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Esser, Karyn A

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle.

  17. Skeletal Structure of Printed Words: Evidence From the Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Marom, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Do readers encode the sequencing of consonant (C) and vowel (V) phonemes (skeletal structure) in printed words? The authors used the Stroop task to examine readers' sensitivity to skeletal structure. In Experiment 1, CVC nonwords (e.g., pof) facilitated the naming of colors with congruent frames (e.g., red, a CVC word) but not with incongruent…

  18. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  19. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    PubMed

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  20. Circadian Rhythms, skeletal muscle molecular clocks and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40 % of total body mass and, as such, contributes to maintenance of human health. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of molecular clocks in skeletal muscle. In addition we discuss a new function for exercise as a time setting cue for muscle and other peripheral tissues. PMID:23917214

  1. Fetal imaging in the skeletal dysplasias: overview and experience.

    PubMed

    Lachman, R S

    1994-01-01

    The skeletal dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by generalized abnormalities of skeletal growth and development. Of approximately 125 well-described skeletal dysplasias, about 50 are clinically apparent and identifiable at birth. The prevalence of these dysplasias in the newborn is quite frequent and has been estimated to be between 3-4.5 per 10,000, and the overall frequency of skeletal dysplasias among perinatal deaths to be about 9 per 1,000. Over the past 23 years we have acquired an enormous experience in the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry with skeletal dysplasias diagnosable at birth or earlier. More and more cases referred to the registry over the past 2 years have been diagnosed as abnormal by ultrasound during the second trimester. The results of our evaluation of almost 400 fetuses and stillborn babies with reference to detailed prenatal history and postmortem evaluation including radiographs, chondro-osseous morphology and even some biochemical and molecular studies are presented. The most common disorders diagnosed were osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), thanatophoric dysplasia, campomelic dysplasia and achondrogenesis type II. Twenty-two types of neonatally diagnosable skeletal dysplasias are discussed together with potential fetal (second trimester) ultrasound findings, the number of fetal ultrasound cases referred to this registry, the number of total cases of that disorder sent to our registry, and the inheritance pattern of that skeletal dysplasia. This information should prove helpful in the evaluation of future cases ascertained by ultrasonography in the second trimester. PMID:7700717

  2. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, three objectives (e.g., define the skeletal system and list its functions), and three learning…

  3. Modeling of the Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Beth, Christophe; Salado, Jerome

    2004-11-01

    Numerical simulations of blood flow in a microvascular network require extensive modeling. This contribution focuses on the reconstruction of a complete network topology from microscopic images of rat skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle fascia. The bifurcating network is composed of a feeding arterial network, a collecting venous network, and bundles of capillaries. Multiple topologies of each network component are recontructed and statistical properties of the network, such as distributions of vessel diameters, vessel lengths, and branching patters are determined. Particular attention has been paid to venous vessel loops that are observed only in the muscle fascia. The flow in the microvessel network is then computed. In the simulations, the microvessels are distensible by pressure, and the arterioles are actively contractile. The blood has non-Newtonian apparent viscosity. Models of each of these properties have previously been determined and are used in the computations. The method of indefinite admittances is used to compute the flow in the network. The apparent viscosity is computed from the local hematocrit, which is found using a combination of breadth first search and Dykstra's algorithms. The computations allow the determination of additional properties of the network, such as flow velocities, shear stresses, and hematocrit.

  4. The meaning of Neandertal skeletal morphology

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for distinguishing among competing hypotheses for fossil morphology and then used to evaluate current views on the meaning of Neandertal skeletal morphology. Three explanations have dominated debates about the meaning of Neandertal cranial features: climatic adaptation, anterior dental loading, and genetic drift. Neither climatic adaptation nor anterior dental loading are well supported, but genetic drift is consistent with the available evidence. Climatic adaptation and activity patterns are the most discussed explanations for Neandertal postcranial features. Robust empirical relationships between climate and body form in extant humans and other endotherms currently make climatic adaptation the most plausible explanation for the wide bodies and relatively short limbs of Neandertals, and many additional postcranial features are likely secondary consequences of these overall skeletal proportions. Activity patterns may explain certain Neandertal postcranial features, but unlike the situation for climate, relationships in extant humans between morphology and activities are typically not well established. For both the cranium and the postcranium, changes in diet or activity patterns may underlie why Neandertals and Pleistocene modern humans tend to be more robust than Holocene humans. PMID:19805258

  5. FAK-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Currey, Jennifer A.; Brunski, John; Helms, Jill A.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of cells are equipped to detect and decipher physical stimuli, and then react to these stimuli in a cell type-specific manner. Ultimately, these cellular behaviors are synchronized to produce a tissue response, but how this is achieved remains enigmatic. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for mechanotransduction using the bone marrow as a model system. We found that physical stimuli produced a pattern of principal strain that precisely corresponded to the site-specific expression of sox9 and runx2, two transcription factors required for the commitment of stem cells to a skeletogenic lineage, and the arrangement and orientation of newly deposited type I collagen fibrils. To gain insights into the genetic basis for skeletal mechanotransduction we conditionally inactivated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an intracellular component of the integrin signaling pathway. By doing so we abolished the mechanically induced osteogenic response and thus identified a critical genetic component of the molecular machinery required for mechanotransduction. Our data provide a new framework in which to consider how physical forces and molecular signals are synchronized during the program of skeletal regeneration. PMID:17460757

  6. Negative Skeletal Effects of Locally Produced Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Marcia J.; Roth, Theresa M.; Ho, Linh; Wang, Liping; O’Carroll, Dylan; Nissenson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3–4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg mice had increased numbers of adipocytes in close proximity to trabecular bone in the tibia, associated with increased adiponectin levels in tibial marrow. Treatment of BMSCs with adiponectin after initiation of osteoblastic differentiation resulted in reduced mineralized colony formation and reduced expression of mRNA of osteoblastic genes, osterix (70%), Runx2 (52%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), Col1 (74%), and osteocalcin (81%). Adiponectin treatment of differentiating osteoblasts increased expression of the osteoblast genes PPARγ (32%) and C/ebpα (55%) and increased adipocyte colony formation. These data suggest a model in which locally produced adiponectin plays a negative role in regulating skeletal homeostasis through inhibition of bone formation and by promoting an adipogenic phenotype. PMID:26230337

  7. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  8. Phosphoproteomic analysis of aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Joan; Staunton, Lisa; O'Connell, Kathleen; Doran, Philip; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2008-07-01

    One of the most important post-translational modifications is represented by phosphorylation on tyrosine, threonine and serine residues. Since abnormal phosphorylation is associated with various pathologies, it was of interest to perform a phosphoproteomic profiling of age-related skeletal muscle degeneration. We used the fluorescent phospho-specific Pro-Q Diamond dye to determine whether changes in the overall phosphorylation of the soluble skeletal muscle proteome differs significantly between young adult and senescent fibres. As an established model system of sarcopenia, we employed 30-month-old rat gastrocnemius fibres. Following the mass spectrometric identification of 59 major 2-D phosphoprotein landmark spots, the fluorescent dye staining survey revealed that 22 muscle proteins showed a differential expression pattern between 3-month- and 30-month-old muscle. Increased phosphorylation levels were shown for myosin light chain 2, tropomyosin alpha, lactate dehydrogenase, desmin, actin, albumin and aconitase. In contrast, decreased phospho-specific dye binding was observed for cytochrome c oxidase, creatine kinase and enolase. Thus, aging-induced alterations in phosphoproteins appear to involve the contractile machinery and the cytoskeleton, as well as the cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism. This confirms that sarcopenia of old age is a complex neuromuscular pathology that is associated with drastic changes in the abundance and structure of key muscle proteins. PMID:18575773

  9. Wave biomechanics of the skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Results of acoustic measurements in skeletal muscle are generalized. It is shown that assessment of the pathologies and functional condition of the muscular system is possible with the use of shear waves. The velocity of these waves in muscles is much smaller than the velocity of sound; therefore, a higher symmetry type is formed for them. In the presence of a preferential direction (along muscle fibers), it is characterized by only two rather than five (as in usual media with the same anisotropy) moduli of elasticity. A covariant form of the corresponding wave equation is presented. It is shown that dissipation properties of skeletal muscles can be controlled by contracting them isometrically. Pulsed loads (shocks) and vibrations are damped differently, depending on their frequency spectrum. Characteristic frequencies on the order of tens and hundreds of hertz are attenuated due to actin-myosin bridges association/dissociation dynamics in the contracted muscle. At higher (kilohertz) frequencies, when the muscle is tensed, viscosity of the tissue increases by a factor of several tens because of the increase in friction experienced by fibrillar structures as they move relative to the surrounding liquid; the tension of the fibers changes the hydrodynamic conditions of the flow around them. Finally, at higher frequencies, the attenuation is associated with the rheological properties of biological molecules, in particular, with their conformational dynamics in the wave field. Models that describe the controlled shock dissipation mechanisms are proposed. Corresponding solutions are found, including those that allow for nonlinear effects.

  10. Specific skeletal dysplasias in utero: sonographic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, D H; Rumack, C M; Manco-Johnson, M L; Manchester, D; Meier, P; Bramble, J; Clewell, W

    1986-04-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 13 short-limbed fetuses with lethal skeletal dysplasias that were evaluated with ultrasound (US) from 1981 to 1984. The specific diagnoses were thanatophoric dwarfism, achondrogenesis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and campomelic dwarfism. Death occurred in utero or within 2 weeks after delivery in all cases. US examination showed other associated abnormalities, including polyhydramnios, hydrops, shortened femurs, and CNS abnormalities. Radiographs confirmed these findings and provided more information regarding the shape of the limbs and thorax and the appearance of the spine. The probable diagnosis of lethal short-limbed dwarfism was made antenatally using US in eleven of the fetuses. Spinal appearance, thoracic shape, and associated hydrops and polyhydramnios were most helpful in determining the specific type of dysplasia present. Lethal short-limbed skeletal dysplasia may be diagnosed confidently in utero using US examination; however, obstetric plain film radiography may be required to determine the definitive type of dysplasia. In certain cases, US may be sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:3513248

  11. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    There were two major goals for my project. One was to examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter. This initial goal was subsequently modified so that additional developmental measures were taken (e.g. body weight, eye opening) as the progeny developed, and the study period was lengthened to eighty days. Also videotapes taken shortly after the pregnant Flight dams returned to Earth were scored for locomotor activity and compared to those for the Synchronous control dams at the same stage of pregnancy. The second goal was to examine skeletal muscle. Selected hindlimb skeletal muscles were to be identified, weighed, and examined for the presence and integrity of muscle receptors, (both muscle spindles and tendon organs), at the level of the light and electron microscope. Muscles were examined from rats that were at fetal (G20), newborn (postnatal day 1 or P1, where P1 = day of birth), and young adult (approx. P100) stages. At the present time data from only the last group of rats (i.e. P100) has been completely examined.

  12. Exo-Skeletal Engine: Novel Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2004-01-01

    The exo-skeletal engine concept represents a new radical engine technology with the potential to substantially revolutionize engine design. It is an all-composite drum-rotor engine in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. The exo-skeletal engine is described in some detail with respect to geometry, components, and potential benefits. Initial evaluations and results for drum rotors, bearings, and weights are summarized. Component configuration, assembly plan, and potential fabrication processes are also identified. A finite element model of the assembled engine and its major components is described. Preliminary results obtained thus far show at least a 30-percent reduction of engine weight and about a 10-dB noise reduction, compared with a baseline conventional high-bypass-ratio engine. Potential benefits in all aspects of this engine technology are identified and tabulated. Quantitative assessments of potential benefits are in progress.

  13. Heterologous Quaternary Structure of CXCL12 and its Relationship to the CC Chemokine Family

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.; Yuan, H; Kong, Y; Xiong, Y; Lolis, E

    2010-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that CXCL12 is able to form multiple dimer types, a traditional CXC dimer and a 'CC-like' form. Phylogenetic analysis of all known human chemokines demonstrates CXCL12 is more closely related to the CC chemokine class than other CXC chemokines. These observations indicate that CXCL12 contains genomic and structural elements characteristic of both CXC and CC chemokines.Chemokines are members of a superfamily of proteins involved in the migration of cells to the proper anatomical position during embryonic development or in response to infection or stress during an immune response. There are two major (CC and CXC) and two minor (CX3C and XC) families based on the sequence around the first conserved cysteine. The topology of all structures is essentially identical with a flexible N-terminal region of 3-8 amino acids, a 10-20 residue N-terminal loop, a short 3{sub 10}-helix, three {beta}-strands, and a {alpha}-helix. The major consequence of the subtle difference between the families occurs at the oligomeric level. Monomers of the CC, CXC, and CX3C families form dimers in a family-specific manner. The XCL1 chemokine is a monomer that can interconvert between two folded states. All chemokines activate GPCRs according to family-specificity, however there are a few examples of chemokines crossing the family boundary to function as antagonists. A two-stage mechanism for chemokine activation of GPCRs has been proposed. The N-terminal region of the receptor interacts with the chemokine, followed by receptor activation by the chemokine N-terminal region. Monomeric chemokines have been demonstrated to be the active form for receptor function. There are numerous examples of both chemokines and their receptors forming dimers. While family-specific dimerization may be an attractive explanation for why specific chemokines only activate GPCRs within their own family, the role of dimers in the function of chemokines has not been resolved. Given

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rayavarapu, Sree; Coley, William

    2013-01-01

    Our appreciation of the role of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress pathways in both skeletal muscle homeostasis and the progression of muscle diseases is gaining momentum. This review provides insight into ER stress mechanisms during physiologic and pathological disturbances in skeletal muscle. The role of ER stress in the response to dietary alterations and acute stressors, including its role in autoimmune and genetic muscle disorders, has been described. Recent studies identifying ER stress markers in diseased skeletal muscle are noted. The emerging evidence for ER–mitochondrial interplay in skeletal muscle and its importance during chronic ER stress in activation of both inflammatory and cell death pathways (autophagy, necrosis, and apoptosis) have been discussed. Thus, understanding the ER stress–related molecular pathways underlying physiologic and pathological phenotypes in healthy and diseased skeletal muscle should lead to novel therapeutic targets for muscle disease. PMID:22410828

  15. Regulation of exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a Ser/Thr kinase that has been thought to be an important mediator for exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related protein kinases, of which the function in skeletal muscle has not been well documented. Our group and others have generated mice lacking AMPK activity in skeletal muscle, as well as muscle-specific LKB1 knockout mice. In this review, we discuss the potential role of AMPK and LKB1 in regulating exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. We also discuss our recent study, demonstrating the molecular mechanism of obesity-induced development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. PMID:27462580

  16. Genetic skeletal dysplasia in Thailand: the Siriraj experience.

    PubMed

    Wasant, P; Waeteekul, S; Rimoin, D L; Lachman, R S

    1995-01-01

    Genetic skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in the skeletal system frequently presenting with disproportionate short stature. There are over 100 distinct skeletal dysplasias which have been classified primarily on the basis of the clinical or radiographic characteristics. We have identified many genetic skeletal dysplasia disorders at Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. We have cases of achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, pseudoachondroplasia, atelosteogenesis, pyknodysostosis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita, spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), osteogenesis imperfecta type I, II and III, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis, thanatophoric dysplasia, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis I, II, IV and VI, mucolipidosis II, osteopetrosis, camptomelic dysplasia, metaphyseal dysplasia with spine involvement (Kozlowski type), Langer-Gideon syndrome and hypophosphatemic rickets. We have established a Genetic Skeletal Dysplasia Clinic at Siriraj Hospital since 1992, and see referrals from around the country. Genetic counseling is provided, including prenatal diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach.

  17. A compendium of the data used with the SYVAC3-CC3 system model

    SciTech Connect

    Szekely, J.G.; Stephens, M.E.; Witzke, K.H.; Melnyk, T.W.; LeNeveu, D.M.; McConnell, D.B.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    AECL is evaluating a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste from Canada`s CANDU reactors deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. As part of this evaluation, AECL has developed models of the physical, chemical, geological and biological processes that could occur in a sealed disposal vault designed to limit transport of contaminants to the accessible environment over thousands of years. The mathematical models of the transport of radionuclides and toxic chemicals from nuclear fuel waste to the environment are incorporated into a computer model named the Systems Variability Analysis Code, Generation 3, and Canadian Concept Model, Generation 3 (SYVAC3-CC3). This report reproduces the data in the master database used by SYVAC3-CC3 for the postclosure assessment of deep geological disposal. These data are derived from a major program of laboratory and field studies conducted by AECL Research over the past fifteen years, including the investigations at an Underground Research Laboratory excavated to a depth of 450 meters in a large granitic batholith within the Whiteshell Research Area near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba; conceptual engineering studies; detailed analyses of specific features, events and processes; and published literature. The data represent characteristics of a hypothetical vault, certain geological characteristics of the Whiteshell Research Area, and a general surface environment with a human population living a rural lifestyle on a portion of the Canadian Shield in central Canada. The data are stored in a master database, which is used with a suite of computer programs to create the input data files used by SYVAC3-CC3.

  18. Caregiver's concerns-quality of life scale (CC-QoLS): development and evaluation of psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Caregiver's Concerns-Quality of Life Scale (CC-QoLS) for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) who exhibit aggressive behaviour. The CC-QoLS is a brief (8 items in each subscale, CC and QoL respectively) proxy measure completed by caregivers. This is a specific health related quality of life instrument (HRQoL) combined with measures of caregiver's concerns for use as an outcome measure to assess clinical and cost effectiveness of interventions for aggression in adults with ID. The CC-QoLS was found to have good face validity and very good test-retest reliability with an ICC of 0.81 for CC (range 0.46-0.83 across items) and 0.80 for QoL (range 0.65-0.81 across items). Similarly, the scale had good inter-rater reliability with an ICC of 0.67 for CC (range 0.31-0.63 across items) and 0.63 for QoL (range 0.31-0.65 across items). Internal consistency for each subscale was also good (Cronbach's alpha was 0.85 for CC and 0.80 for QoL; Split-half Spearman-Brown was 0.81 for CC and 0.70 for QoL). Furthermore, the scale showed good concurrent validity with measures of severity of aggressive behaviour, namely Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) (CC: r=0.4; p≤0.01 and QoL: r=-0.2; p≤0.05) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (ABC-I) (CC: r=0.5; p≤0.01 and QoL: r=-0.02; p≤0.05) as well as Caregiver's Uplift and Burden Scale score (<0.05). We believe that the CC-QoLS is a user friendly, easy to complete, first-ever HRQoL measure for adults with ID and aggressive behaviour with very good psychometric properties.

  19. Determination of the static performance of a Cuyuna cc model UL-430RR engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    The results of static performance tests were carried out on an ultralight engine. A Cuyuna 430 cc, 2 stroke, 2 cylinder model was used to measure thrust, torque, propeller RPM, fuel flow, cylinder head temperature, and change in pressure through the propeller. Measurement of each of the above parameters was taken at specific values of RPM. The propeller's RPM's ranged from idle at approximately 750 RPM to a maximum value of 2810 RPM. The test results were then manipulated to obtain thrust coefficient, power coefficient, shaft horse power, and shaft specific fuel consumption.

  20. Formation of C-C bonds via ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation().

    PubMed

    Moran, Joseph; Krische, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of diverse π-unsaturated reactants in the presence of aldehydes provides products of carbonyl addition. Dehydrogenation of primary alcohols in the presence of the same π-unsaturated reactants provides identical products of carbonyl addition. In this way, carbonyl addition is achieved from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level in the absence of stoichiometric organometallic reagents or metallic reductants. In this account, the discovery of ruthenium-catalyzed C-C bond-forming transfer hydrogenations and the recent development of diastereo- and enantioselective variants are discussed. PMID:23430602

  1. Metalloenzyme-Like Zeolites as Lewis Acid Catalysts for C-C Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-10-19

    The use of metalloenzyme-like zeolites as Lewis acid catalysts for C-C bond formation reactions has received increasing attention over the past few years. In particular, the observation of direct aldol condensation reactions enabled by hydrophobic zeolites with isolated framework metal sites has encouraged the development of catalytic approaches for producing chemicals from biomass-derived compounds. The discovery of new Diels-Alder cycloaddition/dehydration routes and experimental and computational studies of Lewis acid catalyzed carbonyl-ene reactions have given a further boost to this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26465652

  2. Genetically diverse CC-founder mouse strains replicate the human influenza gene expression signature.

    PubMed

    Elbahesh, Husni; Schughart, Klaus

    2016-05-19

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are zoonotic pathogens that pose a major threat to human and animal health. Influenza virus disease severity is influenced by viral virulence factors as well as individual differences in host response. We analyzed gene expression changes in the blood of infected mice using a previously defined set of signature genes that was derived from changes in the blood transcriptome of IAV-infected human volunteers. We found that the human signature was reproduced well in the founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC) mice, thus demonstrating the relevance and importance of mouse experimental model systems for studying human influenza disease.

  3. SALT spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16cc (SN 2016aqf) as a type-II supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Miszalski, B.

    2016-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of ASASSN-16cc (SN 2016aqf) on 2016 February 27.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-920 nm. The spectrum features a blue continuum with prominent P-Cygni lines of H and He. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows a good match to the type-IIP SN 2014et at -3 days, confirming the results of Hosseinzadeh et al. (ATel 8748).

  4. An erbium-based bifuctional heterogeneous catalyst: a cooperative route towards C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Oliverio, Manuela; Costanzo, Paola; Macario, Anastasia; De Luca, Giuseppina; Nardi, Monica; Procopio, Antonio

    2014-07-15

    Heterogeneous bifuctional catalysts are multifunctional synthetic catalysts enabling efficient organic transformations by exploiting two opposite functionalities without mutual destruction. In this paper we report the first Er(III)-based metallorganic heterogeneous catalyst, synthesized by post-calcination MW-assisted grafting and modification of the natural aminoacid L-cysteine. The natural acid-base distance between sites was maintained to assure the cooperation. The applicability of this new bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst to C-C bond formation and the supposed mechanisms of action are discussed as well.

  5. Continuous flow Sonogashira C-C coupling using a heterogeneous palladium-copper dual reactor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li-Min; Sem, Zhi-Yu; Chong, Wei-Yuan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Hendra; Kwan, Wei Lek; Lee, Chi-Lik Ken

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a heterogeneous catalyst system on continuous flow chemistry. A palladium (Pd) coated tubular reactor was placed in line with copper (Cu) tubing using a continuous flow platform, and a Sonogashira C-C coupling reaction was used to evaluate the performance. The reactions were favorably carried out in the Cu reactor, catalyzed by the traces of leached Pd from the Pd reactor. The leached Pd and Cu were trapped with a metal scavaging resin at the back-end of the continuous flow system, affording a genuine approach toward green chemistry. PMID:23248977

  6. Unlocking Hydrogenation for C-C Bond Formation: A Brief Overview of Enantioselective Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Abbas; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenation of π-unsaturated reactants in the presence of carbonyl compounds or imines promotes reductive C-C coupling, providing a byproduct-free alternative to stoichiometric organometallic reagents in an ever-increasing range of C=X (X = O, NR) additions. Under transfer hydrogenation conditions, hydrogen exchange between alcohols and π-unsaturated reactants triggers generation of electrophile-nucleophile pairs, enabling carbonyl addition directly from the alcohol oxidation level, bypassing discrete alcohol oxidation and generation of stoichiometric byproducts. PMID:22125398

  7. Subacute Stroke Mimicking Cerebral Metastasis in 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Noto, Benjamin; Vrachimis, Alexis; Schäfers, Michael; Stegger, Lars; Rahbar, Kambiz

    2016-10-01

    A 65-year-old man with disseminated bone metastases of prostate cancer was referred for Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT (short PSMA-PET/CT) to exclude visceral metastases before treatment of bone metastases with Ra-dichloride. Apart from disseminated bone metastases, PSMA-PET/CT revealed a focal cerebral tracer uptake in the right frontal lobe highly suspicious for cerebral spread. According to patient history, a cerebral infarction occurred 14 days before PSMA imaging in corresponding localization confirmed by MRI scanning. This case demonstrates the possibility of false-positive finding of cerebral metastases in PSMA-PET early after stroke.

  8. CC-223, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of mTOR Kinase: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Deborah S; Fultz, Kimberly E; Xu, Shuichan; Xu, Weiming; Packard, Garrick; Khambatta, Godrej; Gamez, James C; Leisten, Jim; Zhao, Jingjing; Apuy, Julius; Ghoreishi, Kamran; Hickman, Matt; Narla, Rama Krishna; Bissonette, Rene; Richardson, Samantha; Peng, Sophie X; Perrin-Ninkovic, Sophie; Tran, Tam; Shi, Tao; Yang, Wen Qing; Tong, Zeen; Cathers, Brian E; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Canan, Stacie S; Worland, Peter; Sankar, Sabita; Raymon, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, and survival. mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) are critical mediators of the PI3K-AKT pathway, which is frequently mutated in many cancers, leading to hyperactivation of mTOR signaling. Although rapamycin analogues, allosteric inhibitors that target only the mTORC1 complex, have shown some clinical activity, it is hypothesized that mTOR kinase inhibitors, blocking both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling, will have expanded therapeutic potential. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of CC-223. CC-223 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of mTOR kinase, demonstrating inhibition of mTORC1 (pS6RP and p4EBP1) and mTORC2 [pAKT(S473)] in cellular systems. Growth inhibitory activity was demonstrated in hematologic and solid tumor cell lines. mTOR kinase inhibition in cells, by CC-223, resulted in more complete inhibition of the mTOR pathway biomarkers and improved antiproliferative activity as compared with rapamycin. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis was demonstrated in a panel of hematologic cancer cell lines. Correlative analysis revealed that IRF4 expression level associates with resistance, whereas mTOR pathway activation seems to associate with sensitivity. Treatment with CC-223 afforded in vivo tumor biomarker inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, after a single oral dose. CC-223 exhibited dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in multiple solid tumor xenografts. Significant inhibition of mTOR pathway markers pS6RP and pAKT in CC-223-treated tumors suggests that the observed antitumor activity of CC-223 was mediated through inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. CC-223 is currently in phase I clinical trials.

  9. Macrophages recruited via CCR2 produce insulin-like growth factor-1 to repair acute skeletal muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiyan; Huang, Danping; Saederup, Noah; Charo, Israel F.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Zhou, Lan

    2011-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is essential to acute skeletal muscle injury repair. We studied the subpopulation of inflammatory cells recruited via CCR2 signaling and their cellular functions with respect to muscle regeneration. Mobilization of monocytes/macrophages (MOs/MPs), but not lymphocytes or neutrophils, was impaired from bone marrow to blood and from blood to injured muscle in Ccr2−/− mice. While the Ly-6C+ but not the Ly-6C− subset of MOs/MPs was significantly reduced in blood, both subsets were drastically reduced in injured muscle of Ccr2−/− mice. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) was markedly up-regulated in injured muscle of wild-type but not Ccr2−/− mice. IGF-I was strongly expressed by macrophages within injured muscle, more prominently by the Ly-6C− subset. A single injection of IGF-I, but not PBS, into injured muscle to replace IGF-I remarkably improved muscle regeneration in Ccr2−/− mice. CCR2 was not detected in myogenic cells or capillary endothelial cells in injured muscle to suggest its direct involvement in muscle regeneration or angiogenesis. We conclude that CCR2 is essential to acute skeletal muscle injury repair primarily by recruiting Ly-6C+ MOs/MPs. Within injured muscle, these cells conduct phagocytosis, contribute to accumulation of intramuscular Ly-6C− macrophages, and produce a high level of IGF-I to promote muscle regeneration.—Lu, H., Huang, D., Saederupm, N., Charo, I. F., Ransohoff, R. M., Zhou, L. Macrophages recruited via CCR2 produce insulin-like growth factor-1 to repair acute skeletal muscle injury. PMID:20889618

  10. CC2D1A Regulates Human Intellectual and Social Function as well as NF-κB Signaling Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, M. Chiara; Xiong, Lan; Shaheen, Ranad; Tambunan, Dimira E.; Di Costanzo, Stefania; Mitisalis, Vanessa; Tischfield, David J.; Cinquino, Antonella; Ghaziuddin, Mohammed; Christian, Mehtab; Jiang, Qin; Laurent, Sandra; Nanjiani, Zohair A.; Rasheed, Saima; Hill, R. Sean; Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Gleason, Danielle; Sabbagh, Diya; Salih, Mustafa A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are often comorbid, but the extent to which they share common genetic causes remains controversial. Here, we present two autosomal-recessive “founder” mutations in the CC2D1A gene causing fully penetrant cognitive phenotypes, including mild-to-severe ID, ASD, as well as seizures, suggesting shared developmental mechanisms. CC2D1A regulates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, and we found its strongest effect to be on the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Cc2d1a gain and loss of function both increase activation of NF-κB, revealing a critical role of Cc2d1a in homeostatic control of intra-cellular signaling. Cc2d1a knockdown in neurons reduces dendritic complexity and increases NF-κB activity, and the effects of Cc2d1a depletion can be rescued by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Homeostatic regulation of neuronal signaling pathways provides a mechanism whereby common founder mutations could manifest diverse symptoms in different patients. PMID:25066123

  11. Cloning of two chemokine receptor homologs (CXC-R4 and CC-R7) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Daniels, G D; Zou, J; Charlemagne, J; Partula, S; Cunningham, C; Secombes, C J

    1999-05-01

    Two rainbow trout chemokine receptors have been sequenced, with homology to CXC-R4 and CC-R7 molecules. The CXC-R4 sequence consisted of 1681 nucleotides, which translated into a mature protein of 357 amino acids, with 80.7% similarity to human CXC-R4. The CC-R7 sequence consisted of 2287 nucleotides, which translated into a 368-amino acid mature protein with 64.5% similarity to human CC-R7. Both sequences contained seven hydrophobic regions, representing the seven transmembrane domains (TM) typical of G-protein-coupled receptors. Extracellular cysteines, transmembrane prolines, and the DRY motif immediately following TM3 were conserved. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a tight clustering of trout CXC-R4 with CXC-R3-5 genes. Trout CC-R7 clustered with CC-R6-7 and CXC-R1-2. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated a wide tissue distribution of CXC-R4 and CC-R7 message in trout, being present in head-kidney leukocytes, blood, gill, brain, spleen, and liver. PMID:10331499

  12. Critical current degradation behaviour of GdBCO CC tapes in pure torsion and combined tension-torsion modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Shin, Hyung-Seop

    2016-10-01

    Coated conductor (CC) tapes utilized in high-current-density superconducting cables are commonly subjected to different loading modes, primarily torsion and tension especially in the case of twisted stacked-tape cable. Torsion load can occur due to twisting along the length or when winding the CC tapes around a former, while tension load can occur due to pre-tension when coiled and as a hoop stress when the coil is energized. In this study, electromechanical properties of single CC tapes under torsion load were investigated using a new test apparatus. The results could provide basic information for cable designers to fully characterize stacked cables. Copper-electroplated and brass-laminated CC tapes fabricated with different deposition techniques were subjected to pure torsion and combined tension-torsion loading. The critical current, I c degradation behaviours of CC tapes under torsional deformation were examined. Also, the effect of further external lamination on the I c degradation behaviour of the CC tapes under such loading conditions was investigated. In the case of the combined tension-torsion test, short samples were subjected to twist pitches of 200 mm and 100 mm. Critical parameters including reversible axial stress and strain in such twist pitch conditions were also investigated.

  13. GENXICC: A generator for hadronic production of the double heavy baryons ΞccΞcc, ΞbcΞbc and ΞbbΞbb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2007-09-01

    We write down a generator program for the hadronic production of the double-heavy baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ according to relevant publications. We name it as GENXICC and we test it by comparing its numerical results with those in references. It is written in a PYTHIA-compatible format and it can be easily implemented into PYTHIA. GENXICC is also written in modularization manner, with make, a GNU C compiler, one may apply the generator to various situations or experimental environments very conveniently. Program summaryProgram title:GENXICC Catalogue identifier:ADZJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:99 252 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 432 846 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:FORTRAN77/90 Computer:Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN77 or FORTRAN90 and GNU C compiler installed Operating systems:LINUX RAM:About 2.0 MB Classification:11.2 Nature of problem:Hadronic production of a double-heavy baryons: Ξ, Ξ and Ξ. Solution method:The production of the double-heavy baryons is realized by producing a binding double-heavy diquark either (QQ)[3]3¯,6 ( Q,Q=b,c) or (QQ)[1]3¯,6, which is in color anti-triplet 3¯ or color sextuplet 6 and in S-wave triplet or singlet configuration, respectively, and then by absorbing a proper light quark non-perturbatively. For the production of the various double-heavy baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ, the 'gluon-gluon fusion' mechanism, being the most important, is written precisely in the generator, but two additional mechanisms, i.e. the 'gluon-charm collision' and the 'charm-charm collision' ones, only for Ξ ( Ξcc+ or Ξcc++) are written. Furthermore, all the mechanisms are treated consistently within the general-mass flavor

  14. The human MCP-2 gene (SCYA8): Cloning, sequence analysis, tissue expression, and assignment to the CC chemokine gene contig on chromosome 17q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Van Coillie, E.; Fiten, P.; Van Damme, J.; Opdenakker, G.

    1997-03-01

    Monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCPs) form a subfamily of chemokines that recruit leukocytes to sites of inflammation and that may contribute to tumor-associated leukocyte infiltration and to the antiviral state against HIV infection. With the use of degenerate primers that were based on CC chemokine consensus sequences, the known MIP-1{alpha}/LD78{alpha}, MCP-1, and MCP-3 genes and the previously unidentified eotaxin and MCP-2 genes were isolated from a YAC contig from human chromosome 17q11.2. The amplified genomic MCP-2 fragment was used to isolate an MCP-2 cosmid from which the gene sequence was determined. The MCP-2 gene shares with the MCP-1 and MCP-3 genes a conserved intron-exon structure and a coding nucleotide sequence homology of 77%. By Northern blot analysis the 1.0-kb MCP-2 mRNA was predominantly detectable in the small intestine, peripheral blood, heart, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, ovary, colon, spinal cord, pancreas, and thymus. Transcripts of 1.5 and 2.4 kb were found in the testis, the small intestine, and the colon. The isolation of the MCP-2 gene from the chemokine contig localized it on YAC clones of chromosome 17q11.2, which also contain the eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-3, and NCC-1/MCP-4 genes. The combination of using degenerate primer PCR and YACs illustrates that novel genes can efficiently be isolated from gene cluster contigs with less redundancy and effort than the isolation of novel ESTs. 42 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging: prospective tools for monitoring skeletal cells and skeletal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Catarina Costa; Tare, Rahul S.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    The use of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) for cell-based therapies is currently one of the most promising areas for skeletal disease treatment and skeletal tissue repair. The ability for controlled modification of SSCs could provide significant therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine, with the prospect to permanently repopulate a host with stem cells and their progeny. Currently, SSC differentiation into the stromal lineages of bone, fat and cartilage is assessed using different approaches that typically require cell fixation or lysis, which are invasive or even destructive. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy present an exciting alternative for studying biological systems in their natural state, without any perturbation. Here we review the applications of Raman spectroscopy and CARS imaging in stem-cell research, and discuss the potential of these two techniques for evaluating SSCs, skeletal tissues and skeletal regeneration as an exemplar. PMID:27170652

  16. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  17. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  18. Abrogation of CC chemokine receptor 9 ameliorates ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yijie; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yuting; Tang, Yanhong; Wang, Teng; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2016-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), which is a unique receptor for CC chemokine ligand (CCL25), is mainly expressed on lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages. CCR9 mediates the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and participates in the pathological progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the role of CCR9 in the pathological process of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored; inflammation plays a key role in this process. Here, we used CCR9 knockout mice to determine the functional significance of CCR9 in regulating post-MI cardiac remodeling and its underlying mechanism. MI was induced by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in CCR9 knockout mice and their CCR9+/+ littermates. Our results showed that the CCR9 expression levels were up-regulated in the hearts of the MI mice. Abrogation of CCR9 improved the post-MI survival rate and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and decreased the infarct size. In addition, the CCR9 knockout mice exhibited attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, structural and electrical remodeling compared with the CCR9+/+ MI mice. Mechanistically, CCR9 mainly regulated the pathological response by interfering with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, the data reveal that CCR9 serves as a novel modulator of pathological progression following MI through NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  19. Boosting framework for mammographic mass classification with combination of CC and MLO view information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Hoe; Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-02-01

    In breast cancer screening practice, radiologists compare multiple views during the interpretation of mammograms to detect breast cancers. Hence, it is natural that information derived from multiple mammograms can be used for computer-aided detection (CAD) system to obtain better sensitivity and/or specificity. However, similarity features derived from the combination of cranio-caudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views are weak for classifying masses, because a breast is elastic and deformable. In this study, therefore, a new mass classification with boosting algorithm is proposed, aiming to reduce FPs by combining the information of CC and MLO view mammograms. The proposed method has been developed under the following facts: (1) classifiers trained using similarity features are rather weak classifier; (2) boosting technique generates a single strong classifier by combining multiple weak classifiers. By combining the classifier ensemble framework with similarity features, we are able to improve mass classification performance in two-view analysis. In this study, 192 mammogram cases were collected from the public DDSM database (DB) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of improving mass classification. Results show that our proposed classifier ensemble method can improve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.7479, compared to the best single support vector machine (SVM) classifier using feature-level fusion (AUC of 0.7123). In addition, the weakness of similarity features is experimentally found to prove the feasibility of the proposed method.

  20. [The role of CC-chemokine ligand 2 in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Saika, Fumihiro; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kishioka, Shiroh

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is described as a chronic neurological disorder associated with plasticity in the mesolimbic system. Recently, it has been suggested that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the induction of neuronal plasticity and the formation of pathogenesis in chronic neurological disorders. Therefore, we examined the role of CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a proinflammatory chemokine, in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine. In mice treated with methamphetamine, CCL2 mRNA was significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Moreover, phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase serine40 (pTH Ser40) levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were increased by methamphetamine. Similarly, pTH Ser40 levels in the VTA were also increased by the intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant CCL2. The increment of pTH Ser40 levels in the VTA by methamphetamine was attenuated by RS504393, a selective CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist, indicating that the increased CCL2 activates the brain reward system via CCR2 activation. In the conditioned place preference test, methamphetamine produced place preference in a dose-dependent manner, which was attenuated by RS504393. These results suggest that the activation of the brain reward system via CCL2-CCR2 pathway plays an important role in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine. PMID:26946780

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of three novel CC chemokine genes from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zou, Gang-gang; Nozaki, Reiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

    2014-10-01

    Chemokines are small cytokines secreted by various cell types. They not only function in cell activation, differentiation and trafficking, but they also have influences on many biological processes. In this study, three novel CC chemokine genes Paol-SCYA105, 106 and 107 in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were cloned and characterized. Paol-SCYA105 was mainly detected in gill, kidney and spleen, Paol-SCYA106 was detected in all tissues examined and Paol-SCYA107 was mainly detected in the spleen and kidney. Paol-SCYA105 and Paol-SCYA106 gene expressions peaked in kidney at day 3 after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection and decreased at day 6, but Paol-SCYA106 still remained at a high level at day 6. Paol-SCYA107 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in kidney at day 6 after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection. In response to infection by Gram-negative Edwardsiella tarda and Gram-positive Streptococcus iniae in kidney, only Paol-SCYA106 gene expression significantly increased. Together, these results indicate that these three novel CC chemokines are involved in the immune response against pathogen infections.

  2. Neolignans from the Arils of Myristica fragrans as Potent Antagonists of CC Chemokine Receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Hachiman, Ikuko; Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Eriko; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Takao; Yoshie, Osamu; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-26

    CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is expressed selectively in eosinophils, basophils, and some Th2 cells and plays a major role in allergic diseases. A methanol extract from the arils of Myristica fragrans inhibited CC chemokine ligand 11-induced chemotaxis in CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells at 100 μg/mL. From this extract, eight new neolignans, maceneolignans A-H (1-8), were isolated, and their stereostructures were elucidated from their spectroscopic values and chemical properties. Of those constituents, compounds 1, 4, 6, and 8 and (+)-erythro-(7S,8R)-Δ(8')-7-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (11), (-)-(8R)-Δ(8')-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (17), (+)-licarin A (20), nectandrin B (25), verrucosin (26), and myristicin (27) inhibited CCR3-mediated chemotaxis at a concentration of 1 μM. Among them, 1 (EC50 1.6 μM), 6 (1.5 μM), and 8 (1.4 μM) showed relatively strong activities, which were comparable to that of a synthetic CCR3 selective antagonist, SB328437 (0.78 μM).

  3. ccPDB: compilation and creation of data sets from Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harinder; Chauhan, Jagat Singh; Gromiha, M. Michael; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2012-01-01

    ccPDB (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/ccpdb/) is a database of data sets compiled from the literature and Protein Data Bank (PDB). First, we collected and compiled data sets from the literature used for developing bioinformatics methods to annotate the structure and function of proteins. Second, data sets were derived from the latest release of PDB using standard protocols. Third, we developed a powerful module for creating a wide range of customized data sets from the current release of PDB. This is a flexible module that allows users to create data sets using a simple six step procedure. In addition, a number of web services have been integrated in ccPDB, which include submission of jobs on PDB-based servers, annotation of protein structures and generation of patterns. This database maintains >30 types of data sets such as secondary structure, tight-turns, nucleotide interacting residues, metals interacting residues, DNA/RNA binding residues and so on. PMID:22139939

  4. Characterization of Brazed Joints of C-C Composite to Cu-clad-Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites with either pitch+CVI matrix or resin-derived matrix were joined to copper-clad molybdenum using two active braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward de-lamination in resin-derived C-C composite due to its low inter-laminar shear strength. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the pitch+CVI C-C composites was observed. The relatively low brazing temperatures (<950 C) precluded melting of the clad layer and restricted the redistribution of alloying elements but led to metallurgically sound composite joints. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the joint interfaces revealed sharp gradients at the Cu-clad-Mo/braze interface and higher hardness in Ticusil (approx.85-250 HK) than in Cusil-ABA (approx.50-150 HK). These C-C/Cu-clad-Mo joints with relatively low thermal resistance may be promising for thermal management applications.

  5. Abrogation of CC chemokine receptor 9 ameliorates ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yijie; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yuting; Tang, Yanhong; Wang, Teng; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2016-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), which is a unique receptor for CC chemokine ligand (CCL25), is mainly expressed on lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages. CCR9 mediates the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and participates in the pathological progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the role of CCR9 in the pathological process of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored; inflammation plays a key role in this process. Here, we used CCR9 knockout mice to determine the functional significance of CCR9 in regulating post-MI cardiac remodeling and its underlying mechanism. MI was induced by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in CCR9 knockout mice and their CCR9+/+ littermates. Our results showed that the CCR9 expression levels were up-regulated in the hearts of the MI mice. Abrogation of CCR9 improved the post-MI survival rate and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and decreased the infarct size. In addition, the CCR9 knockout mice exhibited attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, structural and electrical remodeling compared with the CCR9+/+ MI mice. Mechanistically, CCR9 mainly regulated the pathological response by interfering with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, the data reveal that CCR9 serves as a novel modulator of pathological progression following MI through NF-κB and MAPK signaling. PMID:27585634

  6. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy baryons {Ω _{cc}}, {Ω _{bb}}, and {Ω _{bc}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Zalak; Thakkar, Kaushal; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the mass spectrum of Ω baryon with two heavy quarks and one light quark ( ccs, bbs, and bcs). The main goal of the paper is to calculate the ground state masses and after that, the positive and negative parity excited states masses are also obtained within a hypercentral constituent quark model, using Coulomb plus linear potential framework. We also added a first order correction to the potential. The mass spectra up to 5S for radial excited states and 1P-5P, 1D-4D, and 1F-2F states for orbital excited states are computed for Ω _{cc}, Ω _{bb}, and Ω _{bc} baryons. Our obtained results are compared with other theoretical predictions, which could be a useful complementary tool for the interpretation of experimentally unknown heavy baryon spectra. The Regge trajectory is constructed in both the (n_r, M2) and the ( J, M2) planes for Ω _{cc}, Ω _{bb}, and Ω _{bc} baryons and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Magnetic moments of doubly heavy Ω 's are also calculated.

  7. Abrogation of CC chemokine receptor 9 ameliorates ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yijie; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yuting; Tang, Yanhong; Wang, Teng; Hu, Dan; Huang, Congxin

    2016-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), which is a unique receptor for CC chemokine ligand (CCL25), is mainly expressed on lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages. CCR9 mediates the chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and participates in the pathological progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the role of CCR9 in the pathological process of myocardial infarction (MI) remains unexplored; inflammation plays a key role in this process. Here, we used CCR9 knockout mice to determine the functional significance of CCR9 in regulating post-MI cardiac remodeling and its underlying mechanism. MI was induced by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in CCR9 knockout mice and their CCR9+/+ littermates. Our results showed that the CCR9 expression levels were up-regulated in the hearts of the MI mice. Abrogation of CCR9 improved the post-MI survival rate and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and decreased the infarct size. In addition, the CCR9 knockout mice exhibited attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, structural and electrical remodeling compared with the CCR9+/+ MI mice. Mechanistically, CCR9 mainly regulated the pathological response by interfering with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, the data reveal that CCR9 serves as a novel modulator of pathological progression following MI through NF-κB and MAPK signaling. PMID:27585634

  8. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  9. Temperature measurements along the principal Hugoniot for 0.2g/cc aerogel foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, John; Taccetti, Martin; Luo, Shengnian; Lanier, Nick; Falk, Katerina; Schmidt, Derek; Crockett, Scott; Fryer, Chris

    2012-10-01

    Aerogel (SiO2) foams are used in a variety of HED experiments such as radiation flow experiments and more recently as a low-density shock standard for WDM equation of state experiments. Many of these experiments can be sensitive to the equation of state (EOS) of the foam. Despite recent very successful Hugoniot measurements of 0.2 g/cc aerogel foam, the temperature of these foams at a given pressure has not been measured and many EOS models for foams ignore important physics, thus predicting very different temperatures for a given condition. We have completed a set of temperature measurements of 0.2 g/cc aerogel foam shocked along the principal Hugoniot from 100 to 400 GPa. The experiments were done using 12 beams at the Omega laser facility to launch strong steady shocks into the foam targets. The temperature of the shocked foam was determined from measurements using the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). The range of pressures covered established the behavior of the temperature through the important dissociation and initial ionization range. Equation of state models, where available, are compared to the data.

  10. [The role of CC-chemokine ligand 2 in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Saika, Fumihiro; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kishioka, Shiroh

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is described as a chronic neurological disorder associated with plasticity in the mesolimbic system. Recently, it has been suggested that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the induction of neuronal plasticity and the formation of pathogenesis in chronic neurological disorders. Therefore, we examined the role of CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a proinflammatory chemokine, in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine. In mice treated with methamphetamine, CCL2 mRNA was significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Moreover, phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase serine40 (pTH Ser40) levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were increased by methamphetamine. Similarly, pTH Ser40 levels in the VTA were also increased by the intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant CCL2. The increment of pTH Ser40 levels in the VTA by methamphetamine was attenuated by RS504393, a selective CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist, indicating that the increased CCL2 activates the brain reward system via CCR2 activation. In the conditioned place preference test, methamphetamine produced place preference in a dose-dependent manner, which was attenuated by RS504393. These results suggest that the activation of the brain reward system via CCL2-CCR2 pathway plays an important role in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine.

  11. Neolignans from the Arils of Myristica fragrans as Potent Antagonists of CC Chemokine Receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Hachiman, Ikuko; Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Eriko; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Takao; Yoshie, Osamu; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-26

    CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is expressed selectively in eosinophils, basophils, and some Th2 cells and plays a major role in allergic diseases. A methanol extract from the arils of Myristica fragrans inhibited CC chemokine ligand 11-induced chemotaxis in CCR3-expressing L1.2 cells at 100 μg/mL. From this extract, eight new neolignans, maceneolignans A-H (1-8), were isolated, and their stereostructures were elucidated from their spectroscopic values and chemical properties. Of those constituents, compounds 1, 4, 6, and 8 and (+)-erythro-(7S,8R)-Δ(8')-7-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (11), (-)-(8R)-Δ(8')-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (17), (+)-licarin A (20), nectandrin B (25), verrucosin (26), and myristicin (27) inhibited CCR3-mediated chemotaxis at a concentration of 1 μM. Among them, 1 (EC50 1.6 μM), 6 (1.5 μM), and 8 (1.4 μM) showed relatively strong activities, which were comparable to that of a synthetic CCR3 selective antagonist, SB328437 (0.78 μM). PMID:27419473

  12. Detection of interstellar ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Ikeda, M; Ishikawa, S; Nummelin, A; Hjalmarson, A

    1997-11-10

    We report the identification of 10 transitions that support the detection of the small cyclic molecule ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) in Sgr B2N. Although one of these transitions is severely blended, so that an accurate intensity and line width could not be determined, and two other lines are only marginally detected, we have done Gaussian fits to the remaining seven lines and have performed a rotation diagram analysis. Our results indicate a rotation temperature T(rot) = 18 K and a molecular column density N(c-C2H4O) = 3.3 x 10(14) cm-2, corresponding to a fractional abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of order 6 x 10(-11). This is a factor of more than 200 higher than the abundance for this molecule suggested by the "new standard" chemistry model of Lee, Bettens, & Herbst. This result suggests that grain chemistry might play an effective role in the production of c-C2H4O. No transitions of this molecule were detected in either Sgr B2M or Sgr B2NW.

  13. Measuring the conformational space of square four-helical bundles with the program samCC.

    PubMed

    Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Lupas, Andrei N

    2010-05-01

    Four-helical bundles are the most abundant topological motif among helical folds. Their constituent helices show crossing angles that mainly cluster around +20 degrees (aligned) or -50 degrees (orthogonal). Bundles with all helices aligned are called 'square' and comprise four-helical coiled coils as their structurally most regular form. Since coiled coils can be described fully by parametric equations, they can serve as a reference point for quantifying the conformational space of all square bundles. To this end we have developed a program, samCC, which measures the deviation of a given bundle from an idealized coiled coil and decomposes this into axial rotation and axial, radial, and angular shifts. We present examples of analyses performed with the program and focus in particular on the axial rotation states of helices in coiled coils, in order to gain further insight into a proposed mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction, which involves a 26 degrees axial rotation of helices between a canonical coiled coil and a variant called the Alacoil. We find that, unlike expected from the mechanistic model, coiled coils show a continuum of axial rotation states, suggesting that the Alacoil does not represent a single, defined state. We also find that one of the originally proposed Alacoil proteins, Rop, in fact has canonical packing. SamCC is freely available as a web service athttp://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/samcc.

  14. Skeletal evidence of tuberculosis in a modern identified human skeletal collection (Certosa cemetery, Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Zuppello, Micol; Pedrosi, Maria Elena; Bettuzzi, Matteo; Brancaccio, Rosa; Peccenini, Eva; Morigi, Maria Pia; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in osteoarcheological series relies on the identification of osseous lesions caused by the disease. The study of identified skeletal collections provides the opportunity to investigate the distribution of skeletal lesions in relation to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the skeletal evidence for TB in late adolescent and adult individuals from the identified human collection of the Certosa cemetery of Bologna (Italy, 19th-20th c.). The sample group consists of 244 individuals (138 males, 106 females) ranging from 17 to 88 years of age. The sample was divided into three groups on the basis of the recorded cause of death: TB (N = 64), pulmonary non-TB (N = 29), and other diseases (N = 151). Skeletal lesions reported to be related to TB were analyzed. The vertebral lesions were classified into three types: enlarged foramina (EnF, vascular foramina with diameter of 3-5 mm), erosions (ER), and other foramina (OtF, cavities of various shapes > 3 mm). A CT scan analysis was also performed on vertebral bodies. Some lesions were seldom present in our sample (e.g., tuberculous arthritis). OtF (23.7%) and subperiosteal new bone formation on ribs (54.2%) are significantly more frequent in the TB group with respect to the other groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the vertebrae of individuals who have died of TB may have internal cavities in the absence of external lesions. These traits represent useful elements in the paleopathological diagnosis of TB. PMID:25727573

  15. Skeletal evidence of tuberculosis in a modern identified human skeletal collection (Certosa cemetery, Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Zuppello, Micol; Pedrosi, Maria Elena; Bettuzzi, Matteo; Brancaccio, Rosa; Peccenini, Eva; Morigi, Maria Pia; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in osteoarcheological series relies on the identification of osseous lesions caused by the disease. The study of identified skeletal collections provides the opportunity to investigate the distribution of skeletal lesions in relation to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the skeletal evidence for TB in late adolescent and adult individuals from the identified human collection of the Certosa cemetery of Bologna (Italy, 19th-20th c.). The sample group consists of 244 individuals (138 males, 106 females) ranging from 17 to 88 years of age. The sample was divided into three groups on the basis of the recorded cause of death: TB (N = 64), pulmonary non-TB (N = 29), and other diseases (N = 151). Skeletal lesions reported to be related to TB were analyzed. The vertebral lesions were classified into three types: enlarged foramina (EnF, vascular foramina with diameter of 3-5 mm), erosions (ER), and other foramina (OtF, cavities of various shapes > 3 mm). A CT scan analysis was also performed on vertebral bodies. Some lesions were seldom present in our sample (e.g., tuberculous arthritis). OtF (23.7%) and subperiosteal new bone formation on ribs (54.2%) are significantly more frequent in the TB group with respect to the other groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the vertebrae of individuals who have died of TB may have internal cavities in the absence of external lesions. These traits represent useful elements in the paleopathological diagnosis of TB.

  16. Guidelines for genetic skeletal dysplasias for pediatricians

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasia (SD) is a kind of heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by abnormal growth, development, differentiation, and maintenance of the bone and cartilage. The patients with SD most likely to be seen by a pediatrician or orthopedic surgeon are those who present with short stature in childhood. Because each category has so many diseases, classification is important to understand SD better. In order to diagnose a SD accurately, clinical and radiographic findings should be evaluated in detail. In addition, genetic diagnosis of SD is important because there are so various SDs with complex phenotypes. To reach an exact diagnosis of SDs, cooperative approach by a clinician, a radiologist and a geneticist is important. This review aims to provide an outline of the diagnostic approach for children with disproportional short stature. PMID:26817005

  17. Satellite Cell Heterogeneity in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Matthew T; Sacco, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    The cellular turnover required for skeletal muscle maintenance and repair is mediated by resident stem cells, also termed satellite cells. Satellite cells normally reside in a quiescent state, intermittently entering the cell cycle to fuse with neighboring myofibers and replenish the stem cell pool. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells maintain the precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation necessary for long-term homeostasis remain unclear. Recent work has supported a previously unappreciated heterogeneity in the satellite cell compartment that may underlie the observed variability in cell fate and function. In this review, we examine the work supporting this notion as well as the potential governing principles, developmental origins, and principal determinants of satellite cell heterogeneity.

  18. Adverse skeletal effects of drugs - beyond Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Susannah; Grey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are an important public health problem with significant individual and societal costs. In addition to the major risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, low bone mineral density (BMD), age, low body weight and history of fracture or falls, some drugs are now considered to be important secondary risk factor for bone loss and fracture, particularly amongst predisposed individuals. Currently available data are often generated from small observational clinical studies, making risk assessment and development of management guidelines difficult. In many cases, the exposed population has a low baseline risk for fracture and additional assessment and treatment may not be necessary. In this review, we focus on drugs other than glucocorticoids identified as potentially causing adverse skeletal effects, summarizing the existing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies, and suggest recommendations for patient management. PMID:25039381

  19. Space medicine considerations: Skeletal and calcium homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor B.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the information obtained from space missions, particularly Skylab and the longer Salyut missions, it is clear that bone and mineral metabolism is substantially altered during space flight. Calcium balance becomes increasingly more negative throughout the flight, and the bone mineral content of the os calcis declines. The major health hazards associated with skeletal changes include the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia with rapid bone turnover, the risk of kidney stones because of hypercalciuria, the lengthy recovery of lost bone mass after flight, the possibility of irreversible bone loss (particularly the trabecular bone), the possible effects of metastated calcification in the soft tissues, and the possible increase in fracture potential. For these reasons, major efforts need to be directed toward elucidating the fundamental mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures to prevent both short-term and long-term complications.

  20. Growth and skeletal development of the pig.

    PubMed

    Reiland, S

    1978-01-01

    Growth and skeletal development of the domestic pig (Swedish landrace and Yorkshire) are reported and the weight curve of males from birth to maturity included. Other parameters were tooth development and growth of certain bones. It was concluded that daily weight gain increases rapidly to an age of about 5 months. Sexual maturity is reached by both the male and female pig at about 5--6 months of age. At this time there is an inflection point on the weight curve. The period from 5--6 months to about 18 months of age is called adolescence. After 18 months of age the weight curve is flattened. The data from the domestic pigs were compared with the corresponding data of the wild European hog. It was found that the wild hog has a much slower weight gain. PMID:233594

  1. Skeletal Collagen Turnover by the Osteoblast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1997-01-01

    Among the most overt negative changes experienced by man and experimental animals under conditions of weightlessness are the loss of skeletal mass and attendant hypercalciuria. These clearly result from some disruption in the balance between bone formation and bone resorption (i.e. remodelling) which appears to be due to a decrease in the functions of the osteoblast. In the studies funded by this project, the clonal osteoblastic cell line, UMR 106-01, has been used to investigate the regulation of collagenase and Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteases (TIMPs). This project has shed light on the comprehensive role of the osteoblast in the remodelling process, and, in so doing, provided some insight into how the process might be disrupted under conditions of microgravity.

  2. Emerging targeted drug therapies in skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Yap, Patrick; Savarirayan, Ravi

    2016-10-01

    Quantum advances have occurred in the field of human genetics in the six decades since Watson and Crick expressed their "wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid." These culminated with the human genome project, which has opened up myriad possibilities, including that of individualized genetic medicine, the ability to deliver medical advice, management, and therapy tailored to an individual's genetic blueprint. Advances in genetic diagnostic capabilities have been rapid, to the point where the genome can be sequenced for several thousand dollars. Crucially, it has facilitated the identification of targets for "precision" treatments to combat genetic diseases at their source. This manuscript will review the innovative, pathogenesis-based therapies that are revolutionizing management of skeletal dysplasias, giving patients and families new options and outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27155200

  3. Guidelines for genetic skeletal dysplasias for pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal dysplasia (SD) is a kind of heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by abnormal growth, development, differentiation, and maintenance of the bone and cartilage. The patients with SD most likely to be seen by a pediatrician or orthopedic surgeon are those who present with short stature in childhood. Because each category has so many diseases, classification is important to understand SD better. In order to diagnose a SD accurately, clinical and radiographic findings should be evaluated in detail. In addition, genetic diagnosis of SD is important because there are so various SDs with complex phenotypes. To reach an exact diagnosis of SDs, cooperative approach by a clinician, a radiologist and a geneticist is important. This review aims to provide an outline of the diagnostic approach for children with disproportional short stature. PMID:26817005

  4. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression and elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25098362

  5. Karate moves recognition from skeletal motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Tisato, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    This work aims at automatically recognizing sequences of complex karate movements and giving a measure of the quality of the movements performed. Since this is a problem which intrinsically needs a 3D model, in this work we propose a solution taking as input sequences of skeletal motions that can derive from both motion capture hardware or consumer-level, off the shelf, depth sensing systems. The proposed system is constituted by four different modules: skeleton representation, pose classification, temporal alignment, and scoring. The proposed system is tested on a set of different punch, kick and defense karate moves executed starting from the simplest case, i.e. fixed static stances (heiko dachi) up to sequences in which the starting stances is different from the ending one. The dataset has been recorded using a single Microsoft Kinect. The dataset includes the recordings of both male and female athletes with different skill levels, ranging from novices to masters.

  6. Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Muhammad; Zia, Shumaila

    2012-09-01

    Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome (COFSS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder. We describe an 8 months old Saudi girl, a product of consanguineous parents with unremarkable pre-natal and postnatal history and birth weight 2 kg. She was having microcephaly, micrognathia, micro-ophthalmia, large low set ears, upper lip overhanging the lower lip and congenital contractures. Growth and development were severely retarded. MRI and MRS (magnetic resonance spectrometry) of brain displayed severe brain atrophy and hypo/demyelination of white matter. The relationship between COFSS and differential diagnoses, Cockayne syndrome (CS), Pena-Shokier phenotype (PSP) and Neu-Lexova syndrome (NLS) are discussed. Pre-natal diagnosis followed by appropriate management in time may be helpful to reduce its incidence in the community.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J.; Galloway, Stuart D. R.; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. PMID:26610527

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-19

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  10. Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders: 2010 Revision

    PubMed Central

    Warman, Matthew L; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Hall, Christine; Krakow, Deborah; Lachman, Ralph; LeMerrer, Martine; Mortier, Geert; Mundlos, Stefan; Nishimura, Gen; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Spranger, Juergen; Unger, Sheila; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Genetic disorders involving the skeletal system arise through disturbances in the complex processes of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis and remain a diagnostic challenge because of their variety. The Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders provides an overview of recognized diagnostic entities and groups them by clinical and radiographic features and molecular pathogenesis. The aim is to provide the Genetics, Pediatrics and Radiology community with a list of recognized genetic skeletal disorders that can be of help in the diagnosis of individual cases, in the delineation of novel disorders, and in building bridges between clinicians and scientists interested in skeletal biology. In the 2010 revision, 456 conditions were included and placed in 40 groups defined by molecular, biochemical, and/or radiographic criteria. Of these conditions, 316 were associated with mutations in one or more of 226 different genes, ranging from common, recurrent mutations to “private” found in single families or individuals. Thus, the Nosology is a hybrid between a list of clinically defined disorders, waiting for molecular clarification, and an annotated database documenting the phenotypic spectrum produced by mutations in a given gene. The Nosology should be useful for the diagnosis of patients with genetic skeletal diseases, particularly in view of the information flood expected with the novel sequencing technologies; in the delineation of clinical entities and novel disorders, by providing an overview of established nosologic entities; and for scientists looking for the clinical correlates of genes, proteins and pathways involved in skeletal biology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21438135

  11. Skeletal Muscle Gender Dimorphism from Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Dimova, Kalina; Metskas, Lauren Ann; Kulp, Mohini; Scordilis, Stylianos P.

    2011-01-01

    Gross contraction in skeletal muscle is primarily determined by a relatively small number of contractile proteins, however this tissue is also remarkably adaptable to environmental factors1 such as hypertrophy by resistance exercise and atrophy by disuse. It thereby exhibits remodeling and adaptations to stressors (heat, ischemia, heavy metals, etc.)2,3. Damage can occur to muscle by a muscle exerting force while lengthening, the so-called eccentric contraction4. The contractile proteins can be damaged in such exertions and need to be repaired, degraded and/or resynthesized; these functions are not part of the contractile proteins, but of other much less abundant proteins in the cell. To determine what subset of proteins is involved in the amelioration of this type of damage, a global proteome must be established prior to exercise5 and then followed subsequent to the exercise to determine the differential protein expression and thereby highlight candidate proteins in the adaptations to damage and its repair. Furthermore, most studies of skeletal muscle have been conducted on the male of the species and hence may not be representative of female muscle. In this article we present a method for extracting proteins reproducibly from male and female muscles, and separating them by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by high resolution digital imaging6. This provides a protocol for spots (and subsequently identified proteins) that show a statistically significant (p < 0.05) two-fold increase or decrease, appear or disappear from the control state. These are then excised, digested with trypsin and separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) for protein identification (LC/MS/MS)5. This methodology (Figure 1) can be used on many tissues with little to no modification (liver, brain, heart etc.). PMID:22215112

  12. Mechanisms balancing skeletal matrix synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone; Schlesinger, Paul H

    2002-01-01

    Bone is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signals that balance continuous differentiation of bone matrix-producing cells against apoptosis and matrix removal. This is continued from embryogenesis, where the skeleton differentiates as a solid mass and is shaped into separate bones by cell death and proteolysis. The two major tissues of the skeleton are avascular cartilage, with an extracellular matrix based on type II collagen and hydrophilic proteoglycans, and bone, a stronger and lighter material based on oriented type I collagen and hydroxyapatite. Both differentiate from the same mesenchymal stem cells. This differentiation is regulated by a family of related signals centred on bone morphogenic proteins. Fibroblast growth factors, Indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein are important in determining the type of matrix and the relation of skeletal and non-skeletal structures. Removal of mineralized matrix involves apoptosis of matrix cells and differentiation of acid-secreting cells (osteoclasts) from macrophage precursors. Key regulators of matrix removal are signals in the tumour-necrosis-factor family. Osteoclasts dissolve bone by isolating a region of the matrix and secreting HCl and proteinases at that site. Successive cycles of removal and replacement allow growth, repair and remodelling. The signals for bone turnover are predominantly cell-membrane-associated, allowing very specific spatial regulation. In addition to its support function, bone is a reservoir of Ca2+, PO3-(4) and OH-. Secondary modulation of mineral secretion and bone degradation are mediated by humoral signals, including parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, as well as the cytokines that also regulate the underlying cell differentiation. PMID:12023876

  13. Skeletal muscle gender dimorphism from proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Kalina; Metskas, Lauren Ann; Kulp, Mohini; Scordilis, Stylianos P

    2011-01-01

    Gross contraction in skeletal muscle is primarily determined by a relatively small number of contractile proteins, however this tissue is also remarkably adaptable to environmental factors such as hypertrophy by resistance exercise and atrophy by disuse. It thereby exhibits remodeling and adaptations to stressors (heat, ischemia, heavy metals, etc.). Damage can occur to muscle by a muscle exerting force while lengthening, the so-called eccentric contraction. The contractile proteins can be damaged in such exertions and need to be repaired, degraded and/or resynthesized; these functions are not part of the contractile proteins, but of other much less abundant proteins in the cell. To determine what subset of proteins is involved in the amelioration of this type of damage, a global proteome must be established prior to exercise and then followed subsequent to the exercise to determine the differential protein expression and thereby highlight candidate proteins in the adaptations to damage and its repair. Furthermore, most studies of skeletal muscle have been conducted on the male of the species and hence may not be representative of female muscle. In this article we present a method for extracting proteins reproducibly from male and female muscles, and separating them by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by high resolution digital imaging. This provides a protocol for spots (and subsequently identified proteins) that show a statistically significant (p < 0.05) two-fold increase or decrease, appear or disappear from the control state. These are then excised, digested with trypsin and separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) for protein identification (LC/MS/MS). This methodology (Figure 1) can be used on many tissues with little to no modification (liver, brain, heart etc.). PMID:22215112

  14. Compartmentalized ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle triads.

    PubMed

    Han, J W; Thieleczek, R; Varsányi, M; Heilmeyer, L M

    1992-01-21

    Isolated skeletal muscle triads contain a compartmentalized glycolytic reaction sequence catalyzed by aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase. These enzymes express activity in the structure-associated state leading to synthesis of ATP in the triadic junction upon supply of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. ATP formation occurs transiently and appears to be kinetically compartmentalized, i.e., the synthesized ATP is not in equilibrium with the bulk ATP. The apparent rate constants of the aldolase and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphoglycerate kinase reaction are significantly increased when fructose 1,6-bisphosphate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is employed as substrate. The observations suggest that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is especially effectively channelled into the junctional gap. The amplitude of the ATP transient is decreasing with increasing free [Ca2+] in the range of 1 nM to 30 microM. In the presence of fluoride, the ATP transient is significantly enhanced and its declining phase is substantially retarded. This observation suggests utilization of endogenously synthesized ATP in part by structure associated protein kinases and phosphatases which is confirmed by the detection of phosphorylated triadic proteins after gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Endogenous protein kinases phosphorylate proteins of apparent Mr 450,000, 180,000, 160,000, 145,000, 135,000, 90,000, 54,000, 51,000, and 20,000, respectively. Some of these phosphorylated polypeptides are in the Mr range of known phosphoproteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle, which might give a first hint at the functional importance of the sequential glycolytic reactions compartmentalized in triads. PMID:1731894

  15. Molecular characterization, functional analysis, and defense mechanisms of two CC chemokines in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to severely pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakharuthai, Chatsirin; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-06-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (On-CC1 and On-CC2) were cloned and characterized. On-CC1 and On-CC2 showed signature cysteine motifs consisting of four cysteines. The expression levels of On-CC1 and On-CC2 were analyzed by RT-PCR, which showed that low expression of these two genes was only observed in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and spleen of normal fish. Expression levels of these two molecules were quantified in 13 tissues of fish infected with virulent strains of Streptococcus agalactiae and Flavobacterium columnare. Most tissues, especially PBLs, the spleen and the liver, expressed significantly higher mRNA levels than the controls, particularly at 12 and 24 h after infection (P < 0.05). The current study strongly indicates that CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia are crucially involved in the early immune responses to pathogens. Functional analyses clearly demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg/ml of recombinant rOn-CC1 and rOn-CC2 proteins efficiently enhanced the phagocytic activity (in vitro) of Nile tilapia phagocytes. Finally, Southern blot analysis and searching in Ensembl databases demonstrated that two different functional CC chemokine genes and other pseudogene fragments were discovered in the Nile tilapia genome.

  16. Molecular characterization, functional analysis, and defense mechanisms of two CC chemokines in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to severely pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakharuthai, Chatsirin; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-06-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (On-CC1 and On-CC2) were cloned and characterized. On-CC1 and On-CC2 showed signature cysteine motifs consisting of four cysteines. The expression levels of On-CC1 and On-CC2 were analyzed by RT-PCR, which showed that low expression of these two genes was only observed in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and spleen of normal fish. Expression levels of these two molecules were quantified in 13 tissues of fish infected with virulent strains of Streptococcus agalactiae and Flavobacterium columnare. Most tissues, especially PBLs, the spleen and the liver, expressed significantly higher mRNA levels than the controls, particularly at 12 and 24 h after infection (P < 0.05). The current study strongly indicates that CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia are crucially involved in the early immune responses to pathogens. Functional analyses clearly demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg/ml of recombinant rOn-CC1 and rOn-CC2 proteins efficiently enhanced the phagocytic activity (in vitro) of Nile tilapia phagocytes. Finally, Southern blot analysis and searching in Ensembl databases demonstrated that two different functional CC chemokine genes and other pseudogene fragments were discovered in the Nile tilapia genome. PMID:26853931

  17. Combining active-space coupled-cluster methods with moment energy corrections via the CC(P;Q) methodology, with benchmark calculations for biradical transition states.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-04-14

    We have recently suggested the CC(P;Q) methodology that can correct energies obtained in the active-space coupled-cluster (CC) or equation-of-motion (EOM) CC calculations, which recover much of the nondynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects, for the higher-order, mostly dynamical, correlations missing in the active-space CC/EOMCC considerations. It is shown that one can greatly improve the description of biradical transition states, both in terms of the resulting energy barriers and total energies, by combining the CC approach with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, with the CC(P;Q)-style correction due to missing triple excitations defining the CC(t;3) approximation.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Initial Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens: ACTG 5095 and 5142 Clinical Trials Relative to ART-CC Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mugavero, Michael J.; May, Margaret; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Gulick, Roy M.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Haubrich, Richard; Napravnik, Sonia; Abgrall, Sophie; Phillips, Andrew; Harris, Ross; Gill, M. John; de Wolf, Frank; Hogg, Robert; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Chêne, Geneviève; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Guest, Jodie L.; Smith, Colette; Murillas, Javier; Berenguer, Juan; Wyen, Christoph; Domingo, Pere; Kitahata, Mari M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Saag, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalizability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinical trial efficacy findings to routine care settings is not well studied. We compared the relative effectiveness of initial ART regimens estimated in AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) randomized controlled trials with that among patients receiving ART at Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) study sites. Methods Treatment-naive HIV-infected patients initiating identical ART regimens in ACTG trials (A5095 and A5142) and at 15 ART-CC cohort study sites were included. Virological failure (HIV-1 RNA >200 copies/ml) at 24- and 48-weeks, incident AIDS-defining events and mortality were measured according to study design (ART-CC cohort vs. ACTG trial) and stratified by 3rd drug [Abacavir (ABC), Efavirenz (EFV), and Lopinavir/r (LPV/r)]. We used logistic regression to estimate and compare odds ratios for virological failure between different regimens and study designs, and used Cox models to estimate and compare hazard ratios for AIDS and death. Results Compared with patients receiving ABC, those receiving EFV had roughly half the odds of 24-week virologic failure (>200 copies/mL) in both ACTG 5095 (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.36–0.79) and ART-CC (0.46, 0.37–0.57). Virologic superiority of EFV (vs. ABC) appeared comparable in ART-CC and ACTG 5095 (ratio of ORs 0.86, 95% CI 0.54–1.35). Odds ratios for 48-week virologic failure, comparing EFV with LPV/r, were also comparable in ACTG 5142 and ART-CC (ratio of ORs 0.87, 0.45–1.69). Conclusions Between ART regimen virologic efficacy of 3rd drugs ABC, EFV, and LPV/r observed in the ACTG 5095 and 5142 trials appear generalizable to the routine care setting of ART-CC clinical cohorts. PMID:21857357

  19. The roles of CC2D1A and HTR1A gene expressions in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sener, Elif Funda; Cıkılı Uytun, Merve; Korkmaz Bayramov, Keziban; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Oztop, Didem Behice; Canatan, Halit; Ozkul, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Classical autism belongs to a group of heterogeneous disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by repetitive stereotypic behaviors or restricted interests, social withdrawal, and communication deficits. Numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism but the etiology of this disorder is unknown in many cases. CC2D1A gene has been linked to mental retardation (MR) in a family with a large deletion before. Intellectual disability (ID) is a common feature of autistic cases. Therefore we aimed to investigate the expressions of CC2D1A and HTR1A genes with the diagnosis of autism in Turkey. Forty-four autistic patients (35 boys, 9 girls) and 27 controls were enrolled and obtained whole blood samples to isolate RNA samples from each participant. CC2D1A and HTR1A gene expressions were assessed by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) in Genome and Stem Cell Center, Erciyes University. Both expressions of CC2D1A and HTR1A genes studied on ASD cases and controls were significantly different (p < 0.001). The expression of HTR1A was undetectable in the ASD samples. Comparison of ID and CC2D1A gene expression was also found statistically significant (p = 0.028). CC2D1A gene expression may be used as a candidate gene for ASD cases with ID. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential roles of these CC2D1A and HTR1A genes in their related pathways in ASD.

  20. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Schneider, Robert; Bansal, Manjula; Mintz, Douglas N; Lane, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations.

  1. Bone-targeted agents: preventing skeletal complications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Morgans, Alicia K; Smith, Matthew R

    2012-11-01

    In men, prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death. Skeletal complications occur at various points during the disease course, either due to bone metastases directly, or as an unintended consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and bone pain and can require narcotics or palliative radiation for pain relief. ADT results in bone loss and fragility fractures. This review describes the biology of bone metastases, skeletal morbidity, and recent advances in bone-targeted therapies to prevent skeletal complications of prostate cancer.

  2. Skeletal Dysplasias That Cause Thoracic Insufficiency in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    İpek, Mehmet Sah; Akgul Ozmen, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with various abnormalities of the skeleton. Some of them are perinatally lethal and can be diagnosed at birth. Lethality is usually due to thoracic underdevelopment and lung hypoplasia. A correct diagnosis and typing of the skeletal disorder is essential for the prognosis as is genetic counseling of the family. A retrospective review of 12 cases of clinico-radiologic diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia, leading to thoracic insufficiency, was conducted. We aimed to make differential diagnosis with special emphasis on radiological findings, and to emphasize the importance of parental counseling. PMID:27057899

  3. Effects of hypodynamic simulations on the skeletal system of monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Tremor, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A research and development program was undertaken to evaluate the skeletal losses of subhuman primates in hypodynamic environments. The goals of the program are: (1) to uncover the mechanisms by which weightlessness affects the skeletal system; (2) to determine the consequences and reversibility of bone mineral losses; and (3) to acquire a body of data needed to formulate an appropriate countermeasure program for the prevention of skeletal deconditioning. Space flight experiment simulation facilities are under development and will be tested for their capability in supporting certain of the requirements for these investigations.

  4. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  5. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  6. Usefulness of electromyography of the cavernous corpora (CC EMG) in the diagnosis of arterial erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Virseda-Chamorro, M; Lopez-Garcia-Moreno, A M; Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2012-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the corpora cavernosa (CC-EMG) is able to record the activity of the erectile tissue during erection, and thus has been used as a diagnostic technique in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study examines the usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED. A cross-sectional study was made of 35 males with a mean age of 48.5 years (s.d. 11.34), referred to our center with ED for >1 year. The patients were subjected to CC-EMG and a penile Doppler ultrasound study following the injection of 20 μg of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The patients were divided into three groups according to their response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1: Group 1 (adequate erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity); Group 2 (insufficient erection and persistence of EMG activity); and Group 3 (insufficient erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity). Patient classification according to response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1 was as follows: Group 1: six patients (17%), Group 2: 18 patients (51%), and Group 3: 11 patients (31%). Patients diagnosed with arterial insufficiency according to Doppler ultrasound (systolic arterial peak velocity <30 mm s(-1) in both arteries) were significantly older than those without such damage (54.5 versus 41.8 years, respectively; s.d. 11.12). The patients in Group 3 showed a significantly lower maximum systolic velocity in both arteries than the subjects belonging to Group 2. Likewise, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the diagnosis of arterial insufficiency and patient classification in Group 3. The confirmation of insufficient erection associated with reduction/suppression of EMG activity showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (confidence interval between 50 and 84%) and a specificity of 92.9% (confidence interval between 84 and 100%) in the diagnosis of arterial ED. Owing to the high specificity of CC-EMG response to the injection of PGE1, this test is

  7. Molecular dynamics study of C-C bond ordering in diacylglycerolipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander L.; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Balabaev, Nikolay K.

    2000-02-01

    Molecular dynamics investigation of diacyldlycerolipid (DG) monolayers was carried out. Each lipid molecule contained stearic fatty acid chain (C18:0) in position 3-D and one of the fatty acid chains C18:0, C18:1(omega 9), C18:2(omega 6), C18:3(omega 3), C20:4(omega 6) or C22:6(omega 3) in position 2-D [for the nomenclature see M. Sundaralingam, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 195, 324 - 355 (1972)]. A polar head group of the lipid molecules was treated as an effective sphere. 1.5 nanosecond simulations were performed at temperature 303 K for monolayers 18:0/18:1(omega) 9cis DG, 18:0/18:2(omega) 6cis DG, 18:0/18:3(omega) 3cis DG, 18:0/20:4(omega) 6cis DG, 18:0/22:6(omega) 3cis DG and at T equals 326 K for 18:0/18:0 DG monolayer. The monolayers consisted of 48 glycerolipids of the same type arranged in a rectangular simulation cell. The average areas per lipid molecule over the simulations were 65.6 Angstrom2 in 18:0/18:0 DG monolayer, 66.2 Angstrom2 in 18:0/18:1(omega) 9cis DG, 66.1 angstrom2 in 18:0/18:2(omega) 6cis DG, 67.4 angstrom2 in 18:0/18:3(omega) 3cis DG, 70.6 angstrom2 in 18:0/20:4(omega) 6cis DG and 71.4 Angstrom2 in 18:0/22:6(omega) 3cis DG monolayer. The C-C bond orientation distributions and C-C bond order parameter profiles about the monolayer normals were calculated. The C-C bond orientation distribution function widths turned out to be depended on both bond location in the chain and chemical structure of the segment.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of C-C bond ordering in diacylglycerolipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander L.; Ripatti, Pauli O.; Balabaev, Nikolay K.

    2001-02-01

    Molecular dynamics investigation of diacyldlycerolipid (DG) monolayers was carried out. Each lipid molecule contained stearic fatty acid chain (C18:0) in position 3-D and one of the fatty acid chains C18:0, C18:1(omega 9), C18:2(omega 6), C18:3(omega 3), C20:4(omega 6) or C22:6(omega 3) in position 2-D [for the nomenclature see M. Sundaralingam, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 195, 324 - 355 (1972)]. A polar head group of the lipid molecules was treated as an effective sphere. 1.5 nanosecond simulations were performed at temperature 303 K for monolayers 18:0/18:1(omega) 9cis DG, 18:0/18:2(omega) 6cis DG, 18:0/18:3(omega) 3cis DG, 18:0/20:4(omega) 6cis DG, 18:0/22:6(omega) 3cis DG and at T equals 326 K for 18:0/18:0 DG monolayer. The monolayers consisted of 48 glycerolipids of the same type arranged in a rectangular simulation cell. The average areas per lipid molecule over the simulations were 65.6 Angstrom2 in 18:0/18:0 DG monolayer, 66.2 Angstrom2 in 18:0/18:1(omega) 9cis DG, 66.1 angstrom2 in 18:0/18:2(omega) 6cis DG, 67.4 angstrom2 in 18:0/18:3(omega) 3cis DG, 70.6 angstrom2 in 18:0/20:4(omega) 6cis DG and 71.4 Angstrom2 in 18:0/22:6(omega) 3cis DG monolayer. The C-C bond orientation distributions and C-C bond order parameter profiles about the monolayer normals were calculated. The C-C bond orientation distribution function widths turned out to be depended on both bond location in the chain and chemical structure of the segment.

  9. Exchange of the H(CC) domain mediating double receptor recognition improves the pharmacodynamic properties of botulinum neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Andreas; Mahrhold, Stefan; Bigalke, Hans; Binz, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    The four-domain structure of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) reflects their multistep intoxication process. The high toxicity of BoNTs primarily results from specific binding and uptake into neurons mediated by their 50-kDa cell-binding fragment (H(C) ). X-ray crystallography data have revealed that the H(C) fragment consists of two domains of equal size, named the 25-kDa N-terminal half of H(C) (H(CN) ) and the 25-kDa C-terminal half of H(C) (H(CC) ). In recent years, the ganglioside-binding sites of all seven BoNT serotypes have been allocated to the H(CC) domain. For BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/G, the protein receptor-binding site has been also been localized to the H(CC) domain. Here, we demonstrate that the H(CC) serotype can modulate the affinity of the H(C) fragment for neuronal membranes as well as the potency of full-length BoNT by replacing the BoNT/A H(CC) domain with the BoNT/B H(CC) , BoNT/C H(CC) and BoNT/E H(CC) domains, which exhibit higher affinity for synaptosomes. Indeed, the hybrids H(C) AB and H(C) AC display a higher affinity than wild-type H(C) A. Furthermore, the potency of a BoNT/A-based full-length hybrid containing the H(CC) B domain (AAAB; letters represent the serotype origin of the four domains) was quadrupled as compared with wild-type BoNT/A. Analogously, exchange of the H(C) fragment (AABB) yielded a neurotoxin with four-fold higher potency. As BoNT/A and BoNT/B are extensively used to treat neurological disorders, thereby facing the problem of BoNT neutralizing antibody formation, a BoNT with increased potency would lower the repeatedly administered protein dosage while maintaining the clinical benefit. Such a lowered protein load will delay the onset of neurotoxin antibody formation in patients.

  10. The relation of circulating CC16 to lung function growth, decline, and development of COPD across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Stefano; Halonen, Marilyn; Vasquez, Monica M; Spangenberg, Amber; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Wright, Anne L.; Lavi, Iris; Tarès, Lluïsa; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Dobaño, Carlota; Barreiro, Esther; Zock, Jan-Paul; Martínez-Moratalla, Jesús; Urrutia, Isabel; Sunyer, Jordi; Keidel, Dirk; Imboden, Medea; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Hallberg, Jenny; Melén, Erik; Wickman, Magnus; Bousquet, Jean; Belgrave, Danielle C. M.; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan; Antó, Josep M; Martinez, Fernando D

    2015-01-01

    Background Low serum levels of the anti-inflammatory club cell secretory protein (CC16) have been associated with an accelerated FEV1 decline in COPD. Whether low circulating CC16 precedes lung function deficits and incidence of COPD in the general population is unknown. Methods We used longitudinal data from adults who were COPD-free at baseline from the population-based TESAOD (N=960, mean follow-up: 14yrs), ECRHS-Sp (N=514, 11yrs) and SAPALDIA (N=167, 8yrs) studies. CC16 was measured in serum from baseline and associated with subsequent FEV1 decline and incidence of airflow limitation. To evaluate early life CC16 effects, we also measured circulating CC16 in samples from ages 4-6yrs to predict subsequent lung function in childhood in the CRS (N=427), MAAS (N=481), and BAMSE (N=231) birth cohorts. Findings In adults – after adjustment for sex, age, height, smoking status/intensity, pack-years, asthma, and initial FEV1 levels – baseline CC16 was inversely associated with subsequent decline of FEV1 in TESAOD (p=0.0014), ECRHS-Sp (p=0.023), and a similar trend was found in SAPALDIA (p=0.052). Low CC16 at baseline also predicted an increased risk for incident stage 2 airflow limitation (i.e., FEV1/FVC<70% plus FEV1 % predicted < 80%) in TESAOD and ECRHS-Sp. In children, the lowest tertile of CC16 at age 4–6yrs was associated with subsequent FEV1 deficits up to age 16yrs (meta-analyzed estimate from adjusted models on birth cohorts: −68ml, p=0.0001). Results were confirmed among subjects who never smoked by age 16yrs (−71ml, p<0.0001). Interpretation Low serum CC16 is associated with subsequent slower growth and accelerated decline of lung function, and increased risk of developing stage 2 airflow limitation. Funding US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and EU Seventh Framework Programme. For a complete list of other funding agencies, please refer to the acknowledgements section of the paper. PMID:26159408

  11. Advances in Measuring Culturally Competent Care: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of CAHPS-CC in a Safety-net Population

    PubMed Central

    Stern, RJ; Fernandez, A; Jacobs, EA; Neilands, TB; Weech-Maldonado, R; Quan, J; Carle, A; Seligman, HK

    2012-01-01

    Background Providing culturally competent care shows promise as a mechanism to reduce healthcare inequalities. Until the recent development of the CAHPS Cultural Competency Item Set (CAHPS-CC), no measures capturing patient-level experiences with culturally competent care have been suitable for broad-scale administration. Methods We performed confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability analysis of CAHPS-CC among patients with type 2 diabetes (n=600) receiving primary care in safety-net clinics. CAHPS-CC domains were also correlated with global physician ratings. Results A 7-factor model demonstrated satisfactory fit (χ2(231)=484.34, p<.0001) with significant factor loadings at p<.05. Three domains showed excellent reliability – Doctor Communication- Positive Behaviors (α=.82), Trust (α=.77), and Doctor Communication- Health Promotion (α=.72). Four domains showed inadequate reliability either among Spanish speakers or overall (overall reliabilities listed): Doctor Communication- Negative Behaviors (α=.54), Equitable Treatment (α=.69), Doctor Communication- Alternative Medicine (α=.52), and Shared Decision-Making (α=.51). CAHPS-CC domains were positively and significantly correlated with global physician rating. Conclusions Select CAHPS-CC domains are suitable for broad-scale administration among safety-net patients. Those domains may be used to target quality-improvement efforts focused on providing culturally competent care in safety-net settings. PMID:22895231

  12. A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.

  13. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    SciTech Connect

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  14. Architectural Visualization of C/C++ Source Code for Program Comprehension

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T; Epperly, T W; Quinlan, D; Saebjornsen, A; Vuduc, R

    2006-09-01

    Structural and behavioral visualization of large-scale legacy systems to aid program comprehension is still a major challenge. The challenge is even greater when applications are implemented in flexible and expressive languages such as C and C++. In this paper, we consider visualization of static and dynamic aspects of large-scale scientific C/C++ applications. For our investigation, we reuse and integrate specialized analysis and visualization tools. Furthermore, we present a novel layout algorithm that permits a compressive architectural view of a large-scale software system. Our layout is unique in that it allows traditional program visualizations, i.e., graph structures, to be seen in relation to the application's file structure.

  15. CC-inclusive cross section measured with the T2K near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Alfons

    2015-05-01

    T2K has performed the first measurement of muon neutrino inclusive charged current interactions on carbon at neutrino energies of ˜1 GeV where the measurement is reported as a flux-averaged double differential cross section in muon momentum and angle. The flux is predicted by the beam Monte Carlo and external data, including the results from the NA61/SHINE experiment. The data used for this measurement were taken in 2010 and 2011, with a total of 1.08*1020 protons-on-target. The analysis is performed on 4485 inclusive charged current interaction candidates selected in the most upstream fine-grained scintillator detector of the near detector. The flux-averaged total cross section is <σCC> = (6.91±0.13(stat)±0.84(syst)) 10-39 cm2/nucleon for a mean neutrino energy of 0.85 GeV.

  16. Microwave-assisted C-C bond forming cross-coupling reactions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vaibhav P; Van der Eycken, Erik V

    2011-10-01

    Among the fundamental transformations in the field of synthetic organic chemistry, transition-metal-catalyzed reactions provide some of the most attractive methodologies for the formation of C-C and C-heteroatom bonds. As a result, the application of these reactions has increased tremendously during the past decades and cross-coupling reactions became a standard tool for synthetic organic chemists. Furthermore, a tremendous upsurge in the development of new catalysts and ligands, as well as an increased understanding of the mechanisms, has contributed substantially to recent advances in the field. Traditionally, organic reactions are carried out by conductive heating with an external heat source (for example, an oil bath). However, the application of microwave irradiation is a steadily gaining field as an alternative heating mode since its dawn at the end of the last century. This tutorial review focuses on some of the recent developments in the field of cross-coupling reactions assisted by microwave irradiation.

  17. C-C chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist Compound 22 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kota; Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Ueno, Rino; Nakayama, Takashi; Yoshie, Osamu; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2016-02-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in the immune response. We previously reported the pathogenic role of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we examined whether CCR4 antagonism modulates the disease course of EAE. Wild-type and CCR4-knockout mice were induced EAE and were administered Compound 22, an antagonist of CCR4. Compound 22 significantly ameliorated the severity of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in the CCR4-knockout mice. Compound 22 inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization of antigen-induced T-cell responses. Therefore, CCR4 antagonists might be potential therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857495

  18. Investigation of the hysteresis losses in CC tapes after laser filamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, M.; Splavnik, E.; Pokrovskii, S.; Andreev, A.; Mineev, N.; Abin, D.; Rudnev, I.

    2016-09-01

    Study of AC loss has been conducted on the 4 mm wide CC-tapes manufactured by SuperOx. Filamentation was carried out by laser cutting of the commercially available tapes with a copper coating. Also for comparison, original tapes and commercial multifilament tapes (manufactured by SuperOx by using chemical etching method) were studied. Losses were obtained from the magnetization curves measured on a vibration sample magnetometer in the temperature range from 4 K to 77 K. In addition, the current carrying characteristics of tapes were studied, and the effect of filamentation on the critical current value were examined. We present an analysis of the experimental results, as well as a comparison of data for different types of samples. The possibility of decreasing the energy losses due to filamentation tapes was demonstrated.

  19. Immune evasion by murine melanoma mediated through CC chemokine receptor-10.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Cardones, Adela R; Finkelstein, Steven E; Restifo, Nicholas P; Klaunberg, Brenda A; Nestle, Frank O; Castillo, S Sianna; Dennis, Phillip A; Hwang, Sam T

    2003-11-01

    Human melanoma cells frequently express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)10, a receptor whose ligand (CCL27) is constitutively produced by keratinocytes. Compared with B16 murine melanoma, cells rendered more immunogenic via overexpression of luciferase, B16 cells that overexpressed both luciferase and CCR10 resisted host immune responses and readily formed tumors. In vitro, exposure of tumor cells to CCL27 led to rapid activation of Akt, resistance to cell death induced by melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent protection from apoptosis induced by Fas cross-linking. In vivo, cutaneous injection of neutralizing antibodies to endogenous CCL27 blocked growth of CCR10-expressing melanoma cells. We propose that CCR10 engagement by locally produced CCL27 allows melanoma cells to escape host immune antitumor killing mechanisms (possibly through activation of PI3K/Akt), thereby providing a means for tumor progression. PMID:14581607

  20. Two-State Reactivity Mechanism of Benzene C-C Activation by Trinuclear Titanium Hydride.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Guan, Wei; Yan, Li-Kai; Su, Zhong-Min

    2016-09-01

    The cleavage of inert C-C bonds is a central challenge in modern chemistry. Multinuclear transition metal complexes would be a desirable alternative because of the synergetic effect of multiple metal centers. In this work, carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride were investigated using density functional theory. The reaction occurs via a novel "two-state reactivity" mechanism. The important elementary steps consist of hydride transfer, benzene coordination, dehydrogenation, oxidative addition, hydride-proton exchange, and reductive elimination. Most importantly, the ground-state potential energy surface switches from nearly degenerate triplet and antiferromagnetic singlet states to a closed-shell singlet state in the dearomatization of benzene, which effectively decreases the activation barrier. Furthermore, the roles of the transition metal centers and hydrides were clarified. PMID:27549571

  1. Discovery of Black Hole Spindown in Hyper-Energetic Cc-Sne and Long GRBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    We applied matched filtering to the light curves of 1491 long GRBs in the BATSE catalogue to search for evidence of spindown of rapidly rotating black holes and (proto-) neutron stars. On average, the results favor black hole spindown against high density matter at the ISCO. As a natural and common outcome of core-collapse of massive stars and mergers, this model accounts for GRBs in- and outside star forming regions. It also accounts for hyper-energetic GRB-SNe whose energy requirements exceed the maximal spin-energy of rapidly rotating neutron stars. Hyper-energetic CC-SNe hereby provide novel priors to LIGO-Virgo and KAGRA searches for long duration gravitational wave bursts up to tens of seconds with an anticipated negative chirp by expansion of the ISCO.

  2. Matching plasmon resonances to the C=C and C-H bonds in estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbomson, Ifeoma G.; McMeekin, Scott; De La Rue, Richard; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2015-03-01

    We tune nanoantennas to resonate within mid-infrared wavelengths to match the vibrational resonances of C=C and C-H of the hormone estradiol. Modelling and fabrication of the nanoantennas produce plasmon resonances between 2 μm to 7 μm. The hormone estradiol was dissolved in ethanol and evaporated, leaving thickness of a few hundreds of nanometres on top of gold asymmetric split H-like shaped on a fused silica substrate. The reflectance was measured and a red-shift is recorded from the resonators plasmonic peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is use to observe enhanced spectra of the stretching modes for the analyte which belongs to alkenyl biochemical group.

  3. Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate in a 400 cc Prostate: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Matthew K.H.; Pham, Trung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The modality of choice in the surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia for large prostates has traditionally been open prostatectomy. Advances in minimally invasive techniques have begun to challenge this notion with advantages such as lower bleeding and transfusion rates and shorter hospital stay. In this case report, we illustrate the use of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in a gland measuring more than 400 cc. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man with persistent voiding urinary symptoms despite two previous transurethral resections of his prostate. With greater experience in HoLEP and declining experience in open prostatectomy, there may be a shift toward HoLEP as the preferred treatment choice for large prostate glands. PMID:27579406

  4. Iron-Catalyzed C-C Cross-Couplings Using Organometallics.

    PubMed

    Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decades, iron-catalyzed cross-couplings have emerged as an important tool for the formation of C-C bonds. A wide variety of alkenyl, aryl, and alkyl (pseudo)halides have been coupled to organometallic reagents, the most currently used being Grignard reagents. Particular attention has been devoted to the development of iron catalysts for the functionalization of alkyl halides that are generally challenging substrates in classical cross-couplings. The high functional group tolerance of iron-catalyzed cross-couplings has encouraged organic chemists to use them in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Even if some points remain obscure, numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling and several hypotheses have been proposed. PMID:27573401

  5. Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate in a 400 cc Prostate: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gopee, Esha L; Hong, Matthew K H; Pham, Trung

    2016-01-01

    The modality of choice in the surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia for large prostates has traditionally been open prostatectomy. Advances in minimally invasive techniques have begun to challenge this notion with advantages such as lower bleeding and transfusion rates and shorter hospital stay. In this case report, we illustrate the use of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in a gland measuring more than 400 cc. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man with persistent voiding urinary symptoms despite two previous transurethral resections of his prostate. With greater experience in HoLEP and declining experience in open prostatectomy, there may be a shift toward HoLEP as the preferred treatment choice for large prostate glands. PMID:27579406

  6. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  7. Modelling of c-C2H4O Formation on Grain-Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhiogrosso, Angela; Viti, S.; Ward, M. D.; Price, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) is a ring-shaped organic compound that may lead to the synthesis of amino acids and the early metabolic pathways in the interstellar medium (ISM) (Cleaves 2003; Miller & Schlesinger 1993). This molecule has been detected towards several high-mass star forming regions (Ikeda et al. 2001) but to date, its observational abundances cannot be reproduced by chemical models. We include new experimental results in the UCL_CHEM chemical model with the aim of reproducing the abundances of ethylene oxide across high-mass sources. In particular, we focused on the solid state reaction investigated by Ward & Price (2011). By comparing our theoretical column densities with those from the observations we found that the reaction between atomic oxygen and ethylene on grains is a viable route of formation for ethylene oxide (Occhiogrosso et al., accepted by MNRAS).

  8. Equilibrium data for cesium ion exchange of Hanford CC and NCAW tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Hanford alkaline waste storage-tank contents will be processed to remove the soluble salts. A major fraction of these solutions will require cesium recovery to produce a low-level waste (LLW). The technology for decontamination of high-level alkaline waste and sludge wash waters is being developed. At the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied several ion exchange materials for the recovery of cesium from Hanford waste tanks. The WHC program was divided into tow main tasks, (1) to obtain equilibrium data for cesium ion exchange, and (2) to evaluate ion exchange column performance. The subject of this letter report is the measurement of batch distribution coefficients for several ion exchange media for a range of operating conditions for two types of waste; complexant concentrate (CC) and neutralized current acid waste (NCAW).

  9. Skeletal blood flow: implications for bone-scan interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The dispersion of the skeleton throughout the body and its complex vascular anatomy require indirect methods for the measurement of skeletal blood flow. The results of one such method, compartmental analysis of skeletal tracer kinetics, are presented. The assumptions underlying the models were tested in animals and found to be in agreement with experimental observations. Based upon the models and the experimental results, inferences concerning bone-scan interpretation can be drawn: decreased cardiac output produces low-contrast (technically poor) scans; decreased skeletal flow produces photon-deficient lesions; increase of cardiac output or of generalized systemic blood flow is undetectable 1 to 2 h after dose; increased local skeletal blood flow results from disturbance of the bone microvasculature and can occur from neurologic (sympatholytic) disorders or in association with focal abnormalities that also incite the formation of reactive bone (e.g., metastasis, fracture, etc.). Mathematical solutions of tracer kinetic data thus become relevant to bone-scan interpretation.

  10. Expanding roles for AMPK in skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Rémi; Théret, Marine; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity and responds to environmental and physiological challenges by changing its phenotype in terms of size, composition, and metabolic properties. Muscle fibers rapidly adapt to drastic changes in energy demands during exercise through fine-tuning of the balance between catabolic and anabolic processes. One major sensor of energy demand in exercising muscle is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Recent advances have shed new light on the relevance of AMPK both as a multitask gatekeeper and as an energy regulator in skeletal muscle. Here we summarize recent findings on the function of AMPK in skeletal muscle adaptation to contraction and highlight its role in the regulation of energy metabolism and the control of skeletal muscle regeneration post-injury. PMID:25818360

  11. PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bone scintigraphy augmented with radiographs or cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has remained the commonest method to diagnose and follow up skeletal metastases. However, bone scintigraphy is associated with relatively poor spatial resolution, limited diagnostic specificity and reduced sensitivity for bone marrow disease. It also shows limited diagnostic accuracy in assessing response to therapy in a clinically useful time period. With the advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners there has been an increasing interest in using various PET tracers to evaluate skeletal disease including [18F]fluoride (NaF) as a bone-specific tracer and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [18F]choline as tumour-specific tracers. There is also early work exploring the receptor status of skeletal metastases with somatostatin receptor analogues. This review describes the potential utility of these tracers in the assessment of skeletal metastases. PMID:20663736

  12. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in skeletal development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M.; Marie, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways are essential regulators of vertebrate skeletal development. FGF signaling regulates development of the limb bud and formation of the mesenchymal condensation and has key roles in regulating chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and bone and mineral homeostasis. This review updates our review on FGFs in skeletal development published in Genes & Development in 2002, examines progress made on understanding the functions of the FGF signaling pathway during critical stages of skeletogenesis, and explores the mechanisms by which mutations in FGF signaling molecules cause skeletal malformations in humans. Links between FGF signaling pathways and other interacting pathways that are critical for skeletal development and could be exploited to treat genetic diseases and repair bone are also explored. PMID:26220993

  13. Orthodontics-surgical combination therapy for Class III skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, M. S.; Shetty, Nillan K.; Prasad, Rajendra B.

    2012-01-01

    The correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe mandibular prognathism in an adult individual requires surgical and Othodontic combination therapy. The inter disciplinary approach is the treatment of choice in most of the skeletal malocclusions. A case report of an adult individual with Class III malocclusion, having mandibular excess in sagittal and vertical plane and treated with orthodontics,, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and Le – Forte I osteotomy for the correction of skeletal, dental and soft tissue discrepancies is herewith presented. The surgical–orthodontic combination therapy has resulted in near–normal skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship, with marked improvement in the facial esthetics in turn, has helped the patient to improve the self-confidence level. PMID:22557903

  14. Targeted Delivery Systems for Molecular Therapy in Skeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Lei; Liu, Jin; Li, Fangfei; Wang, Luyao; Li, Defang; Guo, Baosheng; He, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Feng; Liang, Chao; Liu, Biao; Badshah, Shaikh Atik; He, Bing; Lu, Jun; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the integral components of bone, including bone matrix, bone mineral and bone cells, give rise to complex disturbances of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis. Non-specific drug delivery using high-dose systemic administration may decrease therapeutic efficacy of drugs and increase the risk of toxic effects in non-skeletal tissues, which remain clinical challenges in the treatment of skeletal disorders. Thus, targeted delivery systems are urgently needed to achieve higher drug delivery efficiency, improve therapeutic efficacy in the targeted cells/tissues, and minimize toxicities in non-targeted cells/tissues. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the application of different targeting moieties and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in skeletal disorders, and also discuss the advantages, challenges and perspectives in their clinical translation. PMID:27011176

  15. Modeling of the Reaction Mechanism of Enzymatic Radical C-C Coupling by Benzylsuccinate Synthase.

    PubMed

    Szaleniec, Maciej; Heider, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling techniques and density functional theory calculations were performed to study the mechanism of enzymatic radical C-C coupling catalyzed by benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS). BSS has been identified as a glycyl radical enzyme that catalyzes the enantiospecific fumarate addition to toluene initiating its anaerobic metabolism in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica, and this reaction represents the general mechanism of toluene degradation in all known anaerobic degraders. In this work docking calculations, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and DFT+D2 cluster modeling was employed to address the following questions: (i) What mechanistic details of the BSS reaction yield the most probable molecular model? (ii) What is the molecular basis of enantiospecificity of BSS? (iii) Is the proposed mechanism consistent with experimental observations, such as an inversion of the stereochemistry of the benzylic protons, syn addition of toluene to fumarate, exclusive production of (R)-benzylsuccinate as a product and a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) ranging between 2 and 4? The quantum mechanics (QM) modeling confirms that the previously proposed hypothetical mechanism is the most probable among several variants considered, although C-H activation and not C-C coupling turns out to be the rate limiting step. The enantiospecificity of the enzyme seems to be enforced by a thermodynamic preference for binding of fumarate in the pro(R) orientation and reverse preference of benzyl radical attack on fumarate in pro(S) pathway which results with prohibitively high energy barrier of the radical quenching. Finally, the proposed mechanism agrees with most of the experimental observations, although the calculated intrinsic KIE from the model (6.5) is still higher than the experimentally observed values (4.0) which suggests that both C-H activation and radical quenching may jointly be involved in the kinetic control of the reaction. PMID:27070573

  16. The Rotational Spectra of the Silicon Isotopic Species of SiCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkin, Damian L.; Gottlieb, Carl A.; McCarthy, Michael. C.; Thaddeus, Patrick; Brünken, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    Until this work, the rotational spectra of the silicon isotopic species of SiCC were based almost entirely on astronomical frequencies, because only the fundamental 1_{0,1} - 0_{0,0} transition ^{29}SiC_2 and ^{30}SiC_2 had been measured in the laboratory. We have now derived precise rotational and centrifugal distortion constants from laboratory measurements of 35 transitions of each isotopic species between 140 and 360 GHz with J ≤ 10 and K_a ≤ 8. The rotational spectra calculated with the laboratory measured constants are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than that of He et al., who determined the spectroscopic constants from about 20 lines of ^{29}SiC_2 and of ^{30}SiC_2 in the wide-line source IRC+10216. The new laboratory measurements should aid assignment of the silicon isotopic species of SiCC in the spectral line survey of IRC+10216 with the SMA, and in future observations with ALMA. R. D. Suenram, F. J. Lovas, and K. Matsumura, Astrophys. Journ. Lett. 342, L103 (1989) J. H. He, Dinh-V-Trung, S. Kwok, H. S. P. Müller, Y. Zhang, T. Hasegawa, T. C. Peng, and Y. C. Huang, Astrophys. Journ. Suppl. Ser., 177, 275 (2008). N. A. Patel, K. H. Young, S. Brünken, R. W. Wilson, P. Thaddeus, K. M. Menten, M. Reid, M. C. McCarthy, Dinh-V-Trung, C. A. Gottlieb, and A. Hedden, Astrophys. Journ., in press (2009).

  17. Plasmid Transduction Using Bacteriophage Φadh for Expression of CC Chemokines by Lactobacillus gasseri ADH▿

    PubMed Central

    Damelin, Leonard H.; Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Tiemessen, Caroline T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal mucosal microfloras are typically dominated by Gram-positive Lactobacillus species, and colonization of vaginal mucosa by exogenous microbicide-secreting Lactobacillus strains has been proposed as a means of enhancing this natural mucosal barrier against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We asked whether an alternative strategy could be utilized whereby anti-HIV molecules are expressed within the cervicovaginal milieu by endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus populations which have been engineered in situ via transduction. In this study, we therefore investigated the feasibility of utilizing transduction for the expression of two HIV coreceptor antagonists, the CC chemokines CCL5 and CCL3, in a predominant vaginal Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus gasseri. Modifying a previously established transduction model, which utilizes L. gasseri ADH and its prophage Φadh, we show that mitomycin C induction of L. gasseri ADH transformants containing pGK12-based plasmids with CCL5 and CCL3 expression and secretion cassettes (under the control of promoters P6 and P59, respectively) and a 232-bp Φadh cos site fragment results in the production of transducing particles which contain 8 to 9 copies of concatemeric plasmid DNA. High-frequency transduction for these particles (almost 6 orders of magnitude greater than that for pGK12 alone) was observed, and transductants were found to contain recircularized expression plasmids upon subsequent culture. Importantly, transductants produced CC chemokines at levels comparable to those produced by electroporation-derived transformants. Our findings therefore lend support to the potential use of transduction in vaginal Lactobacillus species as a novel strategy for the prevention of HIV infection across mucosal membranes. PMID:20418431

  18. Plasmid transduction using bacteriophage Phi(adh) for expression of CC chemokines by Lactobacillus gasseri ADH.

    PubMed

    Damelin, Leonard H; Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2010-06-01

    Vaginal mucosal microfloras are typically dominated by Gram-positive Lactobacillus species, and colonization of vaginal mucosa by exogenous microbicide-secreting Lactobacillus strains has been proposed as a means of enhancing this natural mucosal barrier against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We asked whether an alternative strategy could be utilized whereby anti-HIV molecules are expressed within the cervicovaginal milieu by endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus populations which have been engineered in situ via transduction. In this study, we therefore investigated the feasibility of utilizing transduction for the expression of two HIV coreceptor antagonists, the CC chemokines CCL5 and CCL3, in a predominant vaginal Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus gasseri. Modifying a previously established transduction model, which utilizes L. gasseri ADH and its prophage Phiadh, we show that mitomycin C induction of L. gasseri ADH transformants containing pGK12-based plasmids with CCL5 and CCL3 expression and secretion cassettes (under the control of promoters P6 and P59, respectively) and a 232-bp Phiadh cos site fragment results in the production of transducing particles which contain 8 to 9 copies of concatemeric plasmid DNA. High-frequency transduction for these particles (almost 6 orders of magnitude greater than that for pGK12 alone) was observed, and transductants were found to contain recircularized expression plasmids upon subsequent culture. Importantly, transductants produced CC chemokines at levels comparable to those produced by electroporation-derived transformants. Our findings therefore lend support to the potential use of transduction in vaginal Lactobacillus species as a novel strategy for the prevention of HIV infection across mucosal membranes.

  19. The role of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 genotype and cerebrospinal fluid chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 in neurocognition among HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Briones, Marisa S.; Magpantay, Larry I.; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel; Singer, Elyse J.; Hinkin, Charles H.; Morgello, Susan; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Moore, David J.; Heizerling, Keith; Levine, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined interrelationships between chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) genotype and expression of inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma viral load, CD4+ cell count and neurocognitive functioning among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that HIV-positive carriers of the ‘risk’ CCL2 −2578G allele, caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at rs1024611, would have a higher concentration of CCL2 in CSF, and that CSF CCL2 would be associated with both higher concentrations of other proinflammatory markers in CSF and worse neurocognitive functioning. Design A cross-sectional study of 145 HIV-infected individuals enrolled in the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium cohort for whom genotyping, CSF and neurocognitive data were available. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or frozen tissue specimens. CSF levels of CCL2, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, sIL-6Rα, sIL-2, sCD14 and B-cell activating factor were quantified. Neurocognitive functioning was measured using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Carriers of the CCL2 −2578G allele had a significantly higher concentration of CCL2 in CSF. CSF CCL2 level was positively and significantly associated with other CSF neuroinflammatory markers and worse cognitive functioning. There was a significant association between genotype and plasma viral load, such that carriers of the CCL2 −2578G allele with high viral load expressed greater levels of CCL2 and had higher neurocognitive deficit scores than other genotype/viral load groups. Conclusion Individuals with the CCL2 −2578G allele had higher levels of CCL2 in CSF, which was associated with increased pro-inflammatory markers in CSF and worse neurocognitive functioning. The results highlight the potential role of intermediate phenotypes in studies of

  20. Skeletal effects of carcinoma of the breast and prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Percival, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research has led to improved understanding of the pathology of skeletal metastases in carcinoma of the breast and prostate. Several humoral mechanisms have been identified which have both primary and secondary consequences on skeletal metabolism and probably depend on the complex interplay of a number of factors derived from tumour tissues. An improved understanding of these interactions may lead to new approaches in the management of these common disorders. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3789624

  1. Increased skeletal:renal uptake ratio. [Bone-seekers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, T.H.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with increased skeletal:renal uptake ratios of /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate were studied. Increased uptake was central in metastatic prostate carcinoma, peripheral in hematologic disorders, and heterogeneous in Paget disease and fibrous dysplasia. There was no discernible redistribution of skeletal uptake in patients with renal failure. Absence of both renal and bladder activity was not observed in patients with normal renal function. An increased ratio was always abnormal and frequently indicated diffuse bone disease.

  2. Calprotectin is released from human skeletal muscle tissue during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Andersen, Kasper; Fischer, Christian; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Aastrøm, Maj-brit; Borup, Rehannah; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. We hypothesized that IL-6, a cytokine secreted from skeletal muscle during exercise, could induce production of other secreted factors in skeletal muscle. IL-6 was infused for 3 h into healthy young males (n = 7) and muscle biopsies obtained at time points 0, 3 and 6 h in these individuals and in resting controls. Affymetrix microarray analysis of gene expression changes in skeletal muscle biopsies identified a small set of genes changed by IL-6 infusion. RT-PCR validation confirmed that S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA were up-regulated 3-fold in skeletal muscle following IL-6 infusion compared to controls. Furthermore, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels were up-regulated 5-fold in human skeletal muscle following cycle ergometer exercise for 3 h at ∼60% of in young healthy males (n = 8). S100A8 and S100A9 form calprotectin, which is known as an acute phase reactant. Plasma calprotectin increased 5-fold following acute cycle ergometer exercise in humans, but not following IL-6 infusion. To identify the source of calprotectin, healthy males (n = 7) performed two-legged dynamic knee extensor exercise for 3 h with a work load of ∼50% of peak power output and arterial–femoral venous differences were obtained. Arterial plasma concentrations for calprotectin increased 2-fold compared to rest and there was a net release of calprotectin from the working muscle. In conclusion, IL-6 infusion and muscle contractions induce expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in skeletal muscle. However, IL-6 alone is not a sufficient stimulus to facilitate release of calprotectin from skeletal muscle. PMID:18511485

  3. Mechanistic and therapeutic insights gained from studying rare skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Laura L; Warman, Matthew L

    2015-07-01

    Rare bone diseases account for 5% of all birth defects and can cause significant morbidity throughout patients' lives. Significant progress is being made to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these diseases. This paper summarizes presentation highlights of a workshop on Rare Skeletal Diseases convened to explore how the study of rare diseases has influenced the field's understanding of bone anabolism and catabolism and directed the search for new therapies benefiting patients with rare conditions as well as patients with common skeletal disorders.

  4. Transphyseal ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides I.; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, J. Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining the safety and efficacy of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for skeletally immature patients utilize transtibial drilling. Independent femoral tunnel drilling may impart a different pattern of distal femoral physeal involvement. Purpose: To radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling. We hypothesized that more oblique tunnels associated with independent drilling involve a significantly larger area of physeal disruption compared with vertically oriented tunnels. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We analyzed skeletally immature patients aged between 10 and 15 years who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction utilizing an independent femoral tunnel drilling technique between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Radiographic measurements were recorded from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative radiographs. Results: Ten patients in each group were analyzed. There were significant differences between independent drilling and transtibial drilling cohorts in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 vs 0.74 cm2; P < .001), femoral tunnel angles (32.1° vs 72.8°; P < .001), and medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 vs 36.1 mm from lateral cortex; P = .001), respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of distal femoral physeal disruption (r = –0.8255, P = .003). Conclusion: Femoral tunnels created with an independent tunnel drilling technique disrupt a larger area of the distal femoral physis and create more eccentric tunnels compared with a transtibial technique. Clinical Relevance: As most studies noting the safety of transphyseal ACL reconstruction have utilized a central, vertical femoral tunnel

  5. Similarity transformed coupled cluster response (ST-CCR) theory--a time-dependent similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled cluster (STEOM-CC) approach.

    PubMed

    Landau, Arie

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method for calculating spectroscopic properties in the framework of response theory utilizing a sequence of similarity transformations (STs). The STs are preformed using the coupled cluster (CC) and Fock-space coupled cluster operators. The linear and quadratic response functions of the new similarity transformed CC response (ST-CCR) method are derived. The poles of the linear response yield excitation-energy (EE) expressions identical to the ones in the similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled cluster (STEOM-CC) approach. ST-CCR and STEOM-CC complement each other, in analogy to the complementarity of CC response (CCR) and equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC). ST-CCR/STEOM-CC and CCR/EOM-CC yield size-extensive and size-intensive EEs, respectively. Other electronic-properties, e.g., transition dipole strengths, are also size-extensive within ST-CCR, in contrast to STEOM-CC. Moreover, analysis suggests that in comparison with CCR, the ST-CCR expressions may be confined to a smaller subspace, however, the precise scope of the truncation can only be determined numerically. In addition, reformulation of the time-independent STEOM-CC using the same parameterization as in ST-CCR, as well as an efficient truncation scheme, is presented. The shown convergence of the time-dependent and time-independent expressions displays the completeness of the presented formalism.

  6. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; DuBois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p<0.0002). Four hundred eighty-nine patients had knee films. Six of these patients had AC joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p=0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p=0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition. PMID:23609408

  7. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Parperis, Konstantinos; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; Dubois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M

    2013-09-01

    Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p < 0.0002). Four hundred eighty-nine patients had knee films. Six of these patients had AC joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p = 0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p = 0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition.

  8. Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L; Collins, M; Lambert, M; Sinclair-Smith, C; Derman, W; St, C; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well established that prolonged, exhaustive endurance exercise is capable of inducing skeletal muscle damage and temporary impairment of muscle function. Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for repair and adaptation, this may be limited, ultimately resulting in an accumulation of chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Objective: To systematically compare the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural status of endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI group) with asymptomatic endurance athletes matched for age and years of endurance training (CON group). Methods: Histological and electron microscopic analyses were carried out on a biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis from 18 ATI and 17 CON endurance athletes. The presence of structural and ultrastructural disruptions was compared between the two groups of athletes. Results: Significantly more athletes in the ATI group than in the CON group presented with fibre size variation (15 v 6; p = 0.006), internal nuclei (9 v 2; p = 0.03), and z disc streaming (6 v 0; p = 0.02). Conclusions: There is an association between increased skeletal muscle disruptions and acquired training intolerance in endurance athletes. Further studies are required to determine the nature of this association and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:15562162

  9. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. PMID:23800666

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and skeletal muscle metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Phielix, Esther; Mensink, Marco

    2008-05-23

    Type 2 diabetic patients are characterized by a decreased fat oxidative capacity and high levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). The latter is known to cause insulin resistance, in particularly in skeletal muscle, by reducing insulin stimulated glucose uptake, most likely via accumulation of lipid inside the muscle cell. A reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity can exaggerate this. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired metabolic flexibility, i.e. an impaired switching from fatty acid to glucose oxidation in response to insulin. Thus, a reduced fat oxidative capacity and metabolic inflexibility are important components of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The cause of these derangements in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients remains to be elucidated. An impaired mitochondrial function is a likely candidate. Evidence from both in vivo and ex vivo studies supports the idea that an impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is related to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle was revealed in diabetic patients, using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS). However, quantification of mitochondrial function using ex vivo high-resolution respirometry revealed opposite results. Future (human) studies should challenge this concept of impaired mitochondrial function underlying metabolic defects and prove if mitochondria are truly functional impaired in insulin resistance, or low in number, and whether it represents the primary starting point of pathogenesis of insulin resistance, or is just an other feature of the insulin resistant state. PMID:18342897

  11. Adipokines in Healthy Skeletal Muscle and Metabolic Disease.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue not only functions as a reserve to store energy but has become of major interest as an endocrine organ, releasing signalling molecules termed adipokines which impact on other tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Adipocytes, within skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, secrete adipokines to finely maintain the balance between feed intake and energy expenditure. This book chapter focuses on the three adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6, which have potent effects on skeletal muscle during rest and exercise. Similarly, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6 enhance glucose uptake and increase fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Fatty acid oxidation is increased through activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling) causing phosphorylation and inhibition of ACC (acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase), decreasing availability of malonyl CoA. Leptin and adiponectin also control feed intake via AMPK signalling in the hypothalamus. Adipokines function to maintain energy homeostasis, however, when feed intake exceeds energy expenditure adipokines can become dysregulated causing lipotoxicity in skeletal muscle and metabolic disease can prevail. Cross-talk between adipocytes and skeletal muscle via correct control by adipokines is important in controlling energy homeostasis during rest and exercise and can help prevent metabolic disease. PMID:27003399

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics - an update.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hamid; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zikria; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Islam, Muhammad; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Asif Manzoor

    2016-04-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise to treat not only several congenital and acquired bone degenerative diseases but also to repair and regenerate morbid bone tissues. Utilizing MSCs, several lines of evidences advocate promising clinical outcomes in skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue repair/regeneration. In this context, both, autologous and allogeneic cell transfer options have been utilized. Studies suggest that MSCs are transplanted either alone by mixing with autogenous plasma/serum or by loading onto repair/induction supportive resorb-able scaffolds. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting a wide range of pertinent clinical therapeutic options of MSCs in the treatment of skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue regeneration. Additionally, in skeletal disease and regenerative sections, only the early and more recent preclinical evidences are discussed followed by all the pertinent clinical studies. Moreover, germane post transplant therapeutic mechanisms afforded by MSCs have also been conversed. Nonetheless, assertive use of MSCs in the clinic for skeletal disorders and repair is far from a mature therapeutic option, therefore, posed challenges and future directions are also discussed. Importantly, for uniformity at all instances, term MSCs is used throughout the review.

  13. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-03-05

    After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

  14. Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Skeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are major health problems among children and adults. Major challenges such as the genetic origins or poor diagnostics of severe skeletal disease hinder our understanding of human skeletal diseases. The recent advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (human iPS cells) provides an unparalleled opportunity to create human-specific models of human skeletal diseases. iPS cells have the ability to self-renew, allowing us to obtain large amounts of starting material, and have the potential to differentiate into any cell types in the body. In addition, they can carry one or more mutations responsible for the disease of interest or be genetically corrected to create isogenic controls. Our work has focused on modeling rare musculoskeletal disorders including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP), a congenital disease of increased heterotopic ossification. In this review, we will discuss our experiences and protocols differentiating human iPS cells toward the osteogenic lineage and their application to model skeletal diseases. A number of critical challenges and exciting new approaches are also discussed, which will allow the skeletal biology field to harness the potential of human iPS cells as a critical model system for understanding diseases of abnormal skeletal formation and bone regeneration.

  15. Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

  16. Identification and Specification of the Mouse Skeletal Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charles K.F.; Seo, Eun Young; Chen, James Y.; Lo, David; McArdle, Adrian; Sinha, Rahul; Tevlin, Ruth; Seita, Jun; Vincent-Tompkins, Justin; Wearda, Taylor; Lu, Wan-Jin; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Chung, Michael T.; Marecic, Owen; Tran, Misha; Yan, Kelley S.; Upton, Rosalynd; Walmsley, Graham G.; Lee, Andrew S.; Sahoo, Debashis; Kuo, Calvin; Weissman, Irving L.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How are skeletal tissues derived from skeletal stem cells? Here, we map bone, cartilage and stromal development from a population of highly pure, post-natal skeletal stem cells (mouse Skeletal Stem Cell, mSSC) to its downstream progenitors of bone, cartilage and stromal tissue. We then investigated the transcriptome of the stem/progenitor cells for unique gene expression patterns that would indicate potential regulators of mSSC lineage commitment. We demonstrate that mSSC niche factors can be potent inducers of osteogenesis, and several specific combinations of recombinant mSSC niche factors can activate mSSC genetic programs in situ, even in non-skeletal tissues, resulting in de novo formation of cartilage or bone and bone marrow stroma. Inducing mSSC formation with soluble factors and subsequently regulating the mSSC niche to specify its differentiation towards bone, cartilage, or stromal cells could represent a paradigm shift in the therapeutic regeneration of skeletal tissues. PMID:25594184

  17. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Porporato, Paolo E; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Reano, Simone; Ferrara, Michele; Angelino, Elia; Gnocchi, Viola F; Prodam, Flavia; Ronchi, Giulia; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Fornaro, Michele; Chianale, Federica; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Surico, Nicola; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Perroteau, Isabelle; Smith, Roy G; Sun, Yuxiang; Geuna, Stefano; Graziani, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and several other disease states. It is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with poor patient prognosis, making it an important treatment target. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) release and positive energy balance through binding to the receptor GHSR-1a. Only acylated ghrelin (AG), but not the unacylated form (UnAG), can bind GHSR-1a; however, UnAG and AG share several GHSR-1a-independent biological activities. Here we investigated whether UnAG and AG could protect against skeletal muscle atrophy in a GHSR-1a-independent manner. We found that both AG and UnAG inhibited dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and atrogene expression through PI3Kβ-, mTORC2-, and p38-mediated pathways in myotubes. Upregulation of circulating UnAG in mice impaired skeletal muscle atrophy induced by either fasting or denervation without stimulating muscle hypertrophy and GHSR-1a-mediated activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis. In Ghsr-deficient mice, both AG and UnAG induced phosphorylation of Akt in skeletal muscle and impaired fasting-induced atrophy. These results demonstrate that AG and UnAG act on a common, unidentified receptor to block skeletal muscle atrophy in a GH-independent manner.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of nine CC chemokines in half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lian-xu; Li, Mo-fei

    2015-12-01

    Chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the CC chemokine family, which plays a pivotal role in host defense by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Here we studied 9 CC chemokines from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Phylogenetic analysis divided these chemokines into four groups. The tissue specific expression patterns of the 9 chemokines under normal physiological conditions varied much, with most chemokines highly expressed in immune organs, while some other chemokines showing high expression levels in non-immune organs. In addition, the 9 chemokines exhibited similar or distinctly different expression profiles in response to the challenge of virus and intracellular and extracellular bacterial pathogens. These results indicate that in tongue sole, CC chemokines may be involved in different immune responses as homeostatic or inflammatory chemokines.

  19. Observation of Spontaneous C=C Bond Breaking in the Reaction between Atomic Boron and Ethylene in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jiwen; Lin, Hailu; Luo, Mingbiao; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-07-11

    A ground-state boron atom inserts into the C=C bond of ethylene to spontaneously form the allene-like compound H2 CBCH2 on annealing in solid neon. This compound can further isomerize to the propyne-like HCBCH3 isomer under UV light excitation. The observation of this unique spontaneous C=C bond insertion reaction is consistent with theoretical predictions that the reaction is thermodynamically exothermic and kinetically facile. This work demonstrates that the stronger C=C bond, rather than the less inert C-H bond, can be broken to form organoboron species from the reaction of a boron atom with ethylene even at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:27240114

  20. Role of CC chemokine CCL6/C10 as a monocyte chemoattractant in a murine acute peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    LaFleur, Andrew M; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Kunkel, Steven L; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of CC chemokine CCL6/C10 in acute inflammation. Intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate increased peritoneal CCL6, which peaked at 4 h and remained elevated at 48 h. Neutralization of CCL6 significantly inhibited the macrophage infiltration (34-48% reduction), but not other cell types, without decreasing the other CC chemokines known to attract monocytes/macrophages. CCL6 was expressed in peripheral eosinophils and elicited macrophages, but not in elicited neutrophils. Peritoneal CCL6 level was not decreased in granulocyte-depleted mice where eosinophil influx was significantly impaired. Thus, CCL6 appears to contribute to the macrophage infiltration that is independent of other CC chemokines. Eosinophils pre-store CCL6, but do not release CCL6 in the peritoneum in this model of inflammation. PMID:15770051

  1. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of nine CC chemokines in half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lian-xu; Li, Mo-fei

    2015-12-01

    Chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the CC chemokine family, which plays a pivotal role in host defense by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Here we studied 9 CC chemokines from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Phylogenetic analysis divided these chemokines into four groups. The tissue specific expression patterns of the 9 chemokines under normal physiological conditions varied much, with most chemokines highly expressed in immune organs, while some other chemokines showing high expression levels in non-immune organs. In addition, the 9 chemokines exhibited similar or distinctly different expression profiles in response to the challenge of virus and intracellular and extracellular bacterial pathogens. These results indicate that in tongue sole, CC chemokines may be involved in different immune responses as homeostatic or inflammatory chemokines. PMID:26470888

  2. Observation of Spontaneous C=C Bond Breaking in the Reaction between Atomic Boron and Ethylene in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jiwen; Lin, Hailu; Luo, Mingbiao; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-07-11

    A ground-state boron atom inserts into the C=C bond of ethylene to spontaneously form the allene-like compound H2 CBCH2 on annealing in solid neon. This compound can further isomerize to the propyne-like HCBCH3 isomer under UV light excitation. The observation of this unique spontaneous C=C bond insertion reaction is consistent with theoretical predictions that the reaction is thermodynamically exothermic and kinetically facile. This work demonstrates that the stronger C=C bond, rather than the less inert C-H bond, can be broken to form organoboron species from the reaction of a boron atom with ethylene even at cryogenic temperatures.

  3. CsCCL17, a CC chemokine of Cynoglossus semilaevis, induces leukocyte trafficking and promotes immune defense against viral infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    CC chemokines are the largest subfamily of chemokines, which are important components of the innate immune system. To date, sequences of several CC chemokines have been identified in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis); however, the activities and functions of these putative chemokines remain unknown. Herein, we characterized a CC chemokine, CsCCL17, from tongue sole, and examined its activity. CsCCL17 contains a 303 bp open reading frame, which encodes a polypeptide of 100 amino acids with a molecular mass of 12 kDa CsCCL17 is phylogenetically related to the CCL17/22 group of CC chemokines and possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines and an SCCR motif found in known CC chemokines. Under normal physiological conditions, CsCCL17 expression was detected in spleen, liver, heart, gill, head kidney, muscle, brain, and intestine. When the fish were infected by bacterial and viral pathogens, CsCCL17 expression was significantly up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. Chemotactic analysis showed that recombinant CsCCL17 (rCsCCL17) induced migration of peripheral blood leukocytes. A mutagenesis study showed that when the two cysteine residues in the SCCR motif were replaced by serine, no apparent chemotactic activity was observed in the mutant protein rCsCCL17M. rCsCCL17 enhanced the resistance of tongue sole against viral infection, but rCsCCL17M lacked this antiviral effect. Taken together, these findings indicate that CsCCL17 is a functional CC chemokine with the ability to recruit leukocytes and enhance host immune defense in a manner that requires the conserved SCCR motif.

  4. Cytosolic activation of cell death and stem rust resistance by cereal MLA-family CC-NLR proteins.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Stella; Moore, John; Chen, Chunhong; Webb, Daryl; Periyannan, Sambasivam; Mago, Rohit; Bernoux, Maud; Lagudah, Evans S; Dodds, Peter N

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess intracellular immune receptors designated "nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat" (NLR) proteins that translate pathogen-specific recognition into disease-resistance signaling. The wheat immune receptors Sr33 and Sr50 belong to the class of coiled-coil (CC) NLRs. They confer resistance against a broad spectrum of field isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, including the Ug99 lineage, and are homologs of the barley powdery mildew-resistance protein MLA10. Here, we show that, similarly to MLA10, the Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains are sufficient to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana Autoactive CC domains and full-length Sr33 and Sr50 proteins self-associate in planta In contrast, truncated CC domains equivalent in size to an MLA10 fragment for which a crystal structure was previously determined fail to induce cell death and do not self-associate. Mutations in the truncated region also abolish self-association and cell-death signaling. Analysis of Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains fused to YFP and either nuclear localization or nuclear export signals in N benthamiana showed that cell-death induction occurs in the cytosol. In stable transgenic wheat plants, full-length Sr33 proteins targeted to the cytosol provided rust resistance, whereas nuclear-targeted Sr33 was not functional. These data are consistent with CC-mediated induction of both cell-death signaling and stem rust resistance in the cytosolic compartment, whereas previous research had suggested that MLA10-mediated cell-death and disease resistance signaling occur independently, in the cytosol and nucleus, respectively.

  5. Cytosolic activation of cell death and stem rust resistance by cereal MLA-family CC-NLR proteins.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Stella; Moore, John; Chen, Chunhong; Webb, Daryl; Periyannan, Sambasivam; Mago, Rohit; Bernoux, Maud; Lagudah, Evans S; Dodds, Peter N

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess intracellular immune receptors designated "nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat" (NLR) proteins that translate pathogen-specific recognition into disease-resistance signaling. The wheat immune receptors Sr33 and Sr50 belong to the class of coiled-coil (CC) NLRs. They confer resistance against a broad spectrum of field isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, including the Ug99 lineage, and are homologs of the barley powdery mildew-resistance protein MLA10. Here, we show that, similarly to MLA10, the Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains are sufficient to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana Autoactive CC domains and full-length Sr33 and Sr50 proteins self-associate in planta In contrast, truncated CC domains equivalent in size to an MLA10 fragment for which a crystal structure was previously determined fail to induce cell death and do not self-associate. Mutations in the truncated region also abolish self-association and cell-death signaling. Analysis of Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains fused to YFP and either nuclear localization or nuclear export signals in N benthamiana showed that cell-death induction occurs in the cytosol. In stable transgenic wheat plants, full-length Sr33 proteins targeted to the cytosol provided rust resistance, whereas nuclear-targeted Sr33 was not functional. These data are consistent with CC-mediated induction of both cell-death signaling and stem rust resistance in the cytosolic compartment, whereas previous research had suggested that MLA10-mediated cell-death and disease resistance signaling occur independently, in the cytosol and nucleus, respectively. PMID:27555587

  6. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for vital functions such as movement, postural support, breathing, and thermogenesis. Muscle tissue is largely composed of long, postmitotic multinucleated fibers. The life-long maintenance of muscle tissue is mediated by satellite cells, lying in close proximity to the muscle fibers. Muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous population with a small subset of muscle stem cells, termed satellite stem cells. Under homeostatic conditions all satellite cells are poised for activation by stimuli such as physical trauma or growth signals. After activation, satellite stem cells undergo symmetric divisions to expand their number or asymmetric divisions to give rise to cohorts of committed satellite cells and thus progenitors. Myogenic progenitors proliferate, and eventually differentiate through fusion with each other or to damaged fibers to reconstitute fiber integrity and function. In the recent years, research has begun to unravel the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling satellite cell behavior. Nonetheless, an understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions of satellite cells with their dynamic microenvironment remains a major challenge, especially in pathological conditions. The goal of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on satellite cell characteristics, functions, and behavior in muscle regeneration and in pathological conditions.

  7. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, A Yu; Wood, R A; Penny, A M

    2015-11-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635-541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera-Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550-541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  8. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  9. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  10. [Skeletal changes in the kidney transplant patient].

    PubMed

    Orzincolo, C; Bagni, B; Bedani, P L; Ghedini, M; Scutellari, P N

    1994-06-01

    The skeletal status was investigated with noninvasive diagnostic procedures in 44 renal transplant patients (mean time since intervention: 5 to 195 months) treated with steroid and azathioprine (21 cases) or with steroid, azathioprine and cyclosporine (23 cases). 38.6% of the patients had reduced renal function (creatininemia: 1.6-3.0 mg/dl). Our patients underwent biochemical and hormonal tests of bone metabolism, digital radiographs of the skeleton and bone mineral density measurement with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic QDR 1000). All the patients exhibited moderate to severe osteopenia at both radiographic and densitometric investigations; the risk of fracture was high in 47% of cases. Radiographic signs of vertebral fractures were observed in 4.5% of cases. Other major radiographic patterns were the aseptic necrosis of femoral head (9%), of carpal bone (4.5%) and of humeral head (2.2%). Fibrous osteitis was demonstrated in three patients. Geodes in the wrist were also observed. The correlation of bone densitometry values and time since renal transplantation was statistically significant (r = 0.381; p < 0.01). Moreover, the grade of osteopenia correlated with serum levels of calcitonin and calcitriol--the latter especially in the patients with severe osteopenia.

  11. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES: IMPACT ON SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Ji, Li Li; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that contracting muscles produce both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible for both redox-regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. PMID:23737208

  12. Skeletal Deformity Associated with SHOX Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Atsuhito; Jinno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Erina; Takayama, Shinichiro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. SHOX haploinsufficiency due to mutations in the coding exons or microdeletions involving the coding exons and/or the enhancer regions accounts for approximately 80% and 2–16% of genetic causes of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and idiopathic short stature, respectively. The most characteristic feature in patients with SHOX deficiency is Madelung deformity, a cluster of anatomical changes in the wrist that can be attributed to premature epiphyseal fusion of the distal radius. Computed tomography of SHOX-deficient patients revealed a thin bone cortex and an enlarged total bone area at the diaphysis of the radius, while histopathological analyses showed a disrupted columnar arrangement of chondrocytes and an expanded hypertrophic layer of the growth plate. Recent studies have suggested that perturbed programmed cell death of hypertrophic chondrocytes may underlie the skeletal changes related to SHOX deficiency. Furthermore, the formation of an aberrant ligament tethering the lunate and radius has been implicated in the development of Madelung deformity. Blood estrogen levels and mutation types have been proposed as phenotypic determinants of SHOX deficiency, although other unknown factors may also affect clinical severity of this entity. PMID:25110390

  13. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  14. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravlev, A. Yu.; Wood, R. A.; Penny, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635–541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera–Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550–541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  15. Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

  16. Systematic evaluation of skeletal mechanical function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren; Bigelow, Erin M.R.; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Many genetic and environmental perturbations lead to measurable changes in bone morphology, matrix composition, and matrix organization. The skeletal system is highly adaptive, such that genetic and environmental perturbations affecting one trait are often accompanied by compensatory changes in other traits. This adaptation should be considered when attempting to draw meaningful conclusions about the role of a gene, for example. The challenge is to figure out which alterations can be attributed to the perturbation and which result from adaptive changes associated with establishing mechanical function. The goal of this chapter is to describe straight-forward biomechanical methods that can be used to determine whether a genetic or environmental perturbation affected bone strength. We introduce a systematic method for evaluating how bone strength was altered in the context of morphology and tissue-level mechanical properties, which are determined in large part from matrix composition, matrix organization, and porosity. We present this work as a first step toward screening mice for a phenotypic effect and for establishing the associated biomechanical mechanism by which function was altered. The outcome of these analyses generally provides insight into the next set of experiments required to further connect the cellular perturbation with the functional changes. The protocols were written to enable researchers without a background in engineering to conduct the assays or to enable researchers to better understand the outcomes of similar assays conducted by colleagues knowledgeable in engineering. PMID:24634803

  17. Highly extensible skeletal muscle in snakes.

    PubMed

    Close, Matthew; Perni, Stefano; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Cundall, David

    2014-07-15

    Many snakes swallow large prey whole, and this process requires large displacements of the unfused tips of the mandibles and passive stretching of the soft tissues connecting them. Under these conditions, the intermandibular muscles are highly stretched but subsequently recover normal function. In the highly stretched condition we observed in snakes, sarcomere length (SL) increased 210% its resting value (SL0), and actin and myosin filaments no longer overlapped. Myofibrils fell out of register and triad alignment was disrupted. Following passive recovery, SLs returned to 82% SL0, creating a region of double-overlapping actin filaments. Recovery required recoil of intracellular titin filaments, elastic cytoskeletal components for realigning myofibrils, and muscle activation. Stretch of whole muscles exceeded that of sarcomeres as a result of extension of folded terminal tendon fibrils, stretching of extracellular elastin and independent slippage of muscle fibers. Snake intermandibular muscles thus provide a unique model of how basic components of vertebrate skeletal muscle can be modified to permit extreme extensibility.

  18. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, A Yu; Wood, R A; Penny, A M

    2015-11-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635-541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera-Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550-541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures.

  19. GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  20. Quantitative studies of skeletal muscle lactate metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliassotti, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In Situ, single-pass perfusions were employed on three isolated rabbit skeletal muscle preparations of differing fiber type and oxidative capacity to investigate the influence of fiber type and oxidative capacity per se on net carbon, {sup 14}C-lactate, and {sup 3}H-glucose fluxes. Preparations were exposed to six lactate concentrations ranging from 1-11mM. At basal lactate concentrations all preparations displayed net lactate release, {sup 14}C-lactate removal and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release, all were linearly correlated with lactate concentration. By 4mM all preparations switched to net lactate uptake and {sup 14}C-lactate removal always exceeded net lactate uptake. To quantify the fate of net carbon, {sup 14}C-lactate, and {sup 3}H-glucose removal preparations were perfused at either basal or elevated lactate. Under basal conditions net carbon influx from glucose and glycogen was removed primarily via net lactate release in the glycolytic and mixed preparations and oxidation and net lactate release in the oxidative preparation. At elevated lactate, net carbon influx from lactate, pyruvate and glucose was removed primarily by net glycogen synthesis in the glycolytic preparation and both alanine release and oxidation in the mixed and oxidative preparations.

  1. Application of a C-C Bond-Forming Conjugate Addition Reaction in Asymmetric Dearomatization of β-Naphthols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongxu; Wang, Linqing; Kai, Ming; Li, Dan; Yao, Xiaojun; Wang, Rui

    2015-08-10

    A C-C bond-forming conjugate reaction was successfully applied to the enantioselective dearomatization of β-naphthols. A C(sp2)-C(sp3) bond is formed by using propargylic ketones as reactive partners. Good to excellent Z/E ratios and ee values were obtained by employing an in situ generated magnesium catalyst. Further transformations of the Z-configured C-C double bond in the products were achieved under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the stereocontrolling element of this magnesium-catalyzed dearomatization reaction was explored by computational chemistry. PMID:26173841

  2. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of intravenous Lu-177 CC49 murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasquillo, J.; Mulligan, T.; Chung, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of Lu-177 labeled CG49, a murine monoclonal antibody that is undergoing testing for radioimmunotherapy, was evaluated. CC49 is a second generation murine MAb that recognizes TAG-72, a pan-carcinoma tumor associated antigen. Labeling of CC49 MAb with Lu-177, a beta emitter was performed by first labeling a derivative of 1,4,5,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (PA-DOTA) with Lu-177 and then attaching the Lu-177 labeled PA-DOTA to CC49. CC49 was labeled with Lu-177 at a maximum specific activity of 185 MBq/mg. HPLC showed 96-100% protein bound Lu-177 and <4% aggregate formation. A Phase I dose escalation study was performed. Nine patients with TAG-72 positive, advanced metastatic adenocarcinoma (5- breast, 3- colorectal and 1- lung) were treated with escalating iv doses of Lu-177-(PA-DOTA) CC49: 370 MBq/m2, 555 MBq/m2 and 925 MBq/m2 (range 560-1575 MBq). Pharmacokinetics showed that the plasma cleared with a T1/2 of {approximately}67 hrs which is in the range seen with I-131 CC49. The whole body retention of Lu-177 was prolonged with a biological T1/2 of 223 hr. Urinary excretion ranged from 7 to 26% in the first 96 hrs. Serial images showed early blood pool distribution with prominent uptake in the liver, spleen and marrow. Some intestinal excretion was noted. Tumor imaging was seen in all patients although riot all tumors were visualized. Bone marrow biopsies were obtained in all patients and suggested that the accumulation seen on scan was predominantly in the marrow rather than the bone. MIRDOSE estimates from the first 6 patients suggested doses to the marrow in the range of {approximately}4 cG/37 MBq. This study indicated that while the serum pharmacokinetics of Lu-177-(PA-DOTA)-CC49 are similar to those seen with I-131 CC49, the whole body retention and bone marrow accumulation are different and therefore require further investigation to minimize the bone marrow accumulation.

  3. C/C composites for rocket chamber applications. Part 2: Fabrication and evaluation tests of rocket chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahiro; Tadano, Makoto; Ueda, Shuichi; Kuroda, Yukio; Kusaka, Kazuo; Suemitsu, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kude, Yukinori

    1995-05-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C/C) composites coated with SiC are promising candidates for use in the main structural materials of the body of spaceplanes and combustion chambers of rocket engines, because of their superior properties of high specific strength, specific modulus, and fracture strength at high temperatures. However, C/C composite has poor resistance to oxidation, and protection from the oxidating environment is crucial. Conventional C/C composites for use in the high-temperature components of rocket engines are coated with SiC. However, due to the difference in the thermal expansion rates of the SiC coating layer and the base materials, cracks occur in the SiC coating layer during the coating process, and oxygen diffuses to the base material through the cracks during repeated temperature cycling in the rocket combustion environment. To protect the base materials from oxidation at high temperatures, we have employed SiC C/C-coated composites with a modified matrix and also developed SiC C/C functionally gradient materials (FGM's). In this test series, three kinds of combustion chambers were constructed for the Reaction Control System (RCS) subscale engine of H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE): (1) Conventional C/C composites, (2) SiC C/C-coated composites with a modified matrix, and (3) SiC C/C FGM's. Firing tests were performed at sea level at a temperature around 2000 K using nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)/monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) propellant to evaluate the durability of these chambers. This test series showed that conventional C/C composite developed no microcracks and delamination in the coating layer at 1940 K. Modified matrix C/C composite also did not suffer microcracks and delamination at the boundary between the SiC and the base materials when the inner surface temperature was 1875 K. However, microcracks were observed at injector flange surface after these test cycles. In the test series of FGM's chamber, it was shown that coating with FGM

  4. Candidate Gene Analyses of Skeletal Variation in Malocclusion.

    PubMed

    da Fontoura, C S G; Miller, S F; Wehby, G L; Amendt, B A; Holton, N E; Southard, T E; Allareddy, V; Moreno Uribe, L M

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated associations between craniofacial candidate genes and skeletal variation in patients with malocclusion. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 269 untreated adults with skeletal classes I, II, and III malocclusion were digitized with 14 landmarks. Two-dimensional coordinates were analyzed using Procrustes fit and principal component (PC) analysis to generate continuous malocclusion phenotypes. Skeletal class classifications (I, II, or III) were used as a categorical phenotype. Individuals were genotyped for 198 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 71 craniofacial genes and loci. Phenotype-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression for continuous phenotypes and multinomial logistic regression for skeletal malocclusion class. PC analysis resulted in 4 principal components (PCs) explaining 69% of the total skeletal facial variation. PC1 explained 32.7% of the variation and depicted vertical discrepancies ranging from skeletal deep to open bites. PC1 was associated with a SNP near PAX5 (P = 0.01). PC2 explained 21.7% and captured horizontal maxillomandibular discrepancies. PC2 was associated with SNPs upstream of SNAI3 (P = 0.0002) and MYO1H (P = 0.006). PC3 explained 8.2% and captured variation in ramus height, body length, and anterior cranial base orientation. PC3 was associated with TWIST1 (P = 0.000076). Finally, PC4 explained 6.6% and detected variation in condylar inclination as well as symphysis projection. PC4 was associated with PAX7 (P = 0.007). Furthermore, skeletal class II risk increased relative to class I with the minor alleles of SNPs in FGFR2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, P = 0.004) and declined with SNPs in EDN1 (OR = 0.5, P = 0.007). Conversely, skeletal class III risk increased versus class I with SNPs in FGFR2 (OR 2.2, P = 0.005) and COL1A1 (OR = 2.1, P = 0.008) and declined with SNPs in TBX5 (OR = 0.5, P = 0.014). PAX5, SNAI3, MYO1H, TWIST1, and PAX7 are associated with craniofacial skeletal variation

  5. Candidate Gene Analyses of Skeletal Variation in Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    da Fontoura, C.S.G.; Miller, S.F.; Wehby, G.L.; Amendt, B.A.; Holton, N.E.; Southard, T.E.; Allareddy, V.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated associations between craniofacial candidate genes and skeletal variation in patients with malocclusion. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 269 untreated adults with skeletal classes I, II, and III malocclusion were digitized with 14 landmarks. Two-dimensional coordinates were analyzed using Procrustes fit and principal component (PC) analysis to generate continuous malocclusion phenotypes. Skeletal class classifications (I, II, or III) were used as a categorical phenotype. Individuals were genotyped for 198 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 71 craniofacial genes and loci. Phenotype-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression for continuous phenotypes and multinomial logistic regression for skeletal malocclusion class. PC analysis resulted in 4 principal components (PCs) explaining 69% of the total skeletal facial variation. PC1 explained 32.7% of the variation and depicted vertical discrepancies ranging from skeletal deep to open bites. PC1 was associated with a SNP near PAX5 (P = 0.01). PC2 explained 21.7% and captured horizontal maxillomandibular discrepancies. PC2 was associated with SNPs upstream of SNAI3 (P = 0.0002) and MYO1H (P = 0.006). PC3 explained 8.2% and captured variation in ramus height, body length, and anterior cranial base orientation. PC3 was associated with TWIST1 (P = 0.000076). Finally, PC4 explained 6.6% and detected variation in condylar inclination as well as symphysis projection. PC4 was associated with PAX7 (P = 0.007). Furthermore, skeletal class II risk increased relative to class I with the minor alleles of SNPs in FGFR2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, P = 0.004) and declined with SNPs in EDN1 (OR = 0.5, P = 0.007). Conversely, skeletal class III risk increased versus class I with SNPs in FGFR2 (OR 2.2, P = 0.005) and COL1A1 (OR = 2.1, P = 0.008) and declined with SNPs in TBX5 (OR = 0.5, P = 0.014). PAX5, SNAI3, MYO1H, TWIST1, and PAX7 are associated with craniofacial skeletal variation

  6. Skeletal development in Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Bolter, Debra R; Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-04-01

    Fusion of skeletal elements provides markers for timing of growth and is one component of a chimpanzee's physical development. Epiphyseal closure defines bone growth and signals a mature skeleton. Most of what we know about timing of development in chimpanzees derives from dental studies on Pan troglodytes. Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a wild range restricted to central Africa. Here, we report on the timing of skeletal fusion for female captive P. paniscus (n = 5) whose known ages range from 0.83 to age 11.68 years. Observations on the skeletons were made after the individuals were dissected and bones cleaned. Comparisons with 10 female captive P. troglodytes confirm a generally uniform pattern in the sequence of skeletal fusion in the two captive species. We also compared the P. paniscus to a sample of three unknown-aged female wild P. paniscus, and 10 female wild P. troglodytes of known age from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The sequence of teeth emergence to bone fusion is generally consistent between the two species, with slight variations in late juvenile and subadult stages. The direct-age comparisons show that skeletal growth in captive P. paniscus is accelerated compared with both captive and wild P. troglodytes populations. The skeletal data combined with dental stages have implications for estimating the life stage of immature skeletal materials of wild P. paniscus and for more broadly comparing the skeletal growth rates among captive and wild chimpanzees (Pan), Homo sapiens, and fossil hominins.

  7. Evidence of apoptosis in chronic alcoholic skeletal myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Nicolás, José-María; Fatjó, Francesca; García, Gloria; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Tobías, Esther; Badia, Eva; Urbano-Márquez, Alvaro

    2003-12-01

    Apoptosis is a common mechanism of programmed cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced organ damage. Experimental studies have suggested alcohol-mediated apoptosis in cardiac muscle. The relationship between skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in alcoholism led us to consider the possible role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of skeletal myopathy. We prospectively evaluated apoptosis in skeletal muscle biopsies of 30 consecutively selected male high-dose well-nourished chronic alcohol consumers and 12 nonalcoholic controls. Alcohol consumption, evaluation of muscle strength by myometry, and deltoid muscle biopsy with immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis were performed. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL, BAX, and BCL-2 immunohistochemical assays. Chronic alcoholics compared with controls showed a significantly higher apoptotic index in TUNEL (2.35% +/- 0.25% versus 0.18% +/- 0.03%, P < 0.001), BAX (9.16% +/- 2.00% versus 0.66% +/- 0.22%, P < 0.001), and BCL-2 muscle assays (8.08% +/- 0.20% versus 0.83% +/- 0.20%, P = 0.001), respectively. In addition, these apoptotic indexes were higher in alcoholics with skeletal myopathy compared with in those without skeletal myopathy (3.04% +/- 0.36% versus 1.65% +/- 0.26%, P = 0.004 for TUNEL; 17.00% +/- 2.78% versus 1.33% +/- 0.22%, P < 0.001 for BAX; and 15.13% +/- 3.2% versus 1.03% +/- 0.33%, P < 0.001 for BCL-2 assays, respectively). We conclude that apoptosis is present in the skeletal muscle of high-dose alcohol consumers, mainly in those affected by myopathy. However, the specific pathogenic mechanism of apoptosis in chronic skeletal myopathy in alcoholics remains to be elucidated.

  8. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1−/− and ClockΔ19 mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle. PMID:21621073

  9. Obesity, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Raymond M.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.; Tanner, Charles J.; Pierce, Joseph R.; Choi, Myung Dong

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action have yet to be fully identified. Rodent models demonstrate a strong relationship between insulin resistance and an elevation in skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; the purpose of this investigation was to explore this potential relationship in humans. Sedentary men and women were recruited to participate (means ± SE: nonobese, body mass index = 25.5 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 13; obese, body mass index = 36.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2, n = 14). Insulin sensitivity was measured using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with the subsequent modeling of an insulin sensitivity index (SI). Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis, and iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content were determined by Western blot. SI was significantly lower in the obese compared with the nonobese group (∼43%; P < 0.05), yet skeletal muscle iNOS protein expression was not different between nonobese and obese groups. Skeletal muscle eNOS protein was significantly higher in the nonobese than the obese group, and skeletal muscle nNOS protein tended to be higher (P = 0.054) in the obese compared with the nonobese group. Alternative analysis based on SI (high and low tertile) indicated that the most insulin-resistant group did not have significantly more skeletal muscle iNOS protein than the most insulin-sensitive group. In conclusion, human insulin resistance does not appear to be associated with an elevation in skeletal muscle iNOS protein in middle-aged individuals under fasting conditions. PMID:22797309

  10. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1(-/-) and Clock(Δ19) mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle.

  11. Metal Azolate/Carboxylate Frameworks as Catalysts in Oxidative and C-C Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Tăbăcaru, Aurel; Xhaferaj, Nertil; Martins, Luísa M D R S; Alegria, Elisabete C B A; Chay, Rogério S; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Domasevitch, Konstantin V; Pombeiro, Armando J L; Galli, Simona; Pettinari, Claudio

    2016-06-20

    The five metal azolate/carboxylate (MAC) compounds [Cd(dmpzc)(DMF)(H2O)] (Cd-dmpzc), [Pd(H2dmpzc)2Cl2] (Pd-dmpzc), [Cu(Hdmpzc)2] (Cu-dmpzc), [Zn4O(dmpzc)3]·Solv (Zn-dmpzc·S), and [Co4O(dmpzc)3]·Solv (Co-dmpzc·S) were isolated by coupling 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-carboxylic acid (H2dmpzc) to cadmium(II), palladium(II), copper(II), zinc(II), and cobalt(II) salts. While Cd-dmpzc and Pd-dmpzc had never been prepared in the past, for Cu-dmpzc, Zn-dmpzc·S, and Co-dmpzc·S we optimized alternative synthetic paths that, in the case of the copper(II) and cobalt(II) derivatives, are faster and grant higher yields than the previously reported ones. The crystal structure details were determined ab initio (Cd-dmpzc and Pd-dmpzc) or refined (Cu-dmpzc, Zn-dmpzc·S, and Co-dmpzc·S) by means of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). While Cd-dmpzc is a nonporous 3D MAC framework, Pd-dmpzc shows a 3D hybrid coordination/hydrogen-bonded network, in which Pd(H2dmpzc)2Cl2 monomers are present. The thermal behavior of the five MAC compounds was investigated by coupling thermal analysis to variable-temperature PXRD. Their catalytic activity was assessed in oxidative and C-C coupling reactions, with the copper(II) and cadmium(II) derivatives being the first nonporous MAC frameworks to be tested as catalysts. Cu-dmpzc is the most active catalyst in the partial oxidation of cyclohexane by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in acetonitrile (yields up to 12% after 9 h) and is remarkably active in the solvent-free microwave-assisted oxidation of 1-phenylethanol to acetophenone (yields up to 99% at 120 °C in only 0.5 h). On the other hand, activated Zn-dmpzc·S (Zn-dmpzc) is the most active catalyst in the Henry C-C coupling reaction of aromatic aldehydes with nitroethane, showing appreciable diastereoselectivity toward the syn-nitroalkanol isomer (syn:anti selectivity up to 79:21). PMID:27266480

  12. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    relevant for technical snow production. Using an empirical snow production strategy as applied by practitioners, AMUNDSEN is used to estimate the costs of compensating the effect of climate change on the natural snow cover by tracking the consumption of water and energy to maintain good skiing conditions all over the winter seasen. At both scales we make an attempt to validate the simulations with observed recordings of the snow height and snow coverage. The presented outcomes represent the final results of the CC-Snow project which was funded by ACRP (Austrian Climate Research Programme). These results are used to support the investigation of the effects of the future snow conditions on tourism and economy in the two regions in the follow-up project CC-Snow II.

  13. CC8 MRSA Strains Harboring SCCmec Type IVc are Predominant in Colombian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, J. Natalia; Ocampo, Ana M.; Vanegas, Johanna M.; Rodriguez, Erika A.; Mediavilla, José R.; Chen, Liang; Muskus, Carlos E.; A. Vélez, Lázaro; Rojas, Carlos; Restrepo, Andrea V.; Ospina, Sigifredo; Garcés, Carlos; Franco, Liliana; Bifani, Pablo; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent reports highlight the incursion of community-associated MRSA within healthcare settings. However, knowledge of this phenomenon remains limited in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in three tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008–2010. MRSA infections were classified as either community-associated (CA-MRSA) or healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), with HA-MRSA further classified as hospital-onset (HAHO-MRSA) or community-onset (HACO-MRSA) according to standard epidemiological definitions established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Genotypic analysis included SCCmec typing, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. Results Out of 538 total MRSA isolates, 68 (12.6%) were defined as CA-MRSA, 243 (45.2%) as HACO-MRSA and 227 (42.2%) as HAHO-MRSA. The majority harbored SCCmec type IVc (306, 58.7%), followed by SCCmec type I (174, 33.4%). The prevalence of type IVc among CA-, HACO- and HAHO-MRSA isolates was 92.4%, 65.1% and 43.6%, respectively. From 2008 to 2010, the prevalence of type IVc-bearing strains increased significantly, from 50.0% to 68.2% (p = 0.004). Strains harboring SCCmec IVc were mainly associated with spa types t1610, t008 and t024 (MLST clonal complex 8), while PFGE confirmed that the t008 and t1610 strains were closely related to the USA300-0114 CA-MRSA clone. Notably, strains belonging to these three spa types exhibited high levels of tetracycline resistance (45.9%). Conclusion CC8 MRSA strains harboring SCCmec type IVc are becoming predominant in Medellín hospitals, displacing previously reported CC5 HA-MRSA clones. Based on shared characteristics including SCCmec IVc, absence of the ACME element and tetracycline resistance, the USA300-related isolates in this study are most likely related to USA300-LV, the recently-described ‘Latin American variant’ of USA300. PMID:22745670

  14. Overexpression of pigeonpea stress-induced cold and drought regulatory gene (CcCDR) confers drought, salt, and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-09-01

    A potent cold and drought regulatory protein-encoding gene (CcCDR) was isolated from the subtractive cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. CcCDR was induced by different abiotic stress conditions in pigeonpea. Overexpression of CcCDR in Arabidopsis thaliana imparted enhanced tolerance against major abiotic stresses, namely drought, salinity, and low temperature, as evidenced by increased biomass, root length, and chlorophyll content. Transgenic plants also showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and reducing sugars under stress conditions. Furthermore, CcCDR-transgenic plants showed enhanced relative water content, osmotic potential, and cell membrane stability, as well as hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) as compared with control plants. Localization studies confirmed that CcCDR could enter the nucleus, as revealed by intense fluorescence, indicating its possible interaction with various nuclear proteins. Microarray analysis revealed that 1780 genes were up-regulated in CcCDR-transgenics compared with wild-type plants. Real-time PCR analysis on selected stress-responsive genes, involved in ABA-dependent and -independent signalling networks, revealed higher expression levels in transgenic plants, suggesting that CcCDR acts upstream of these genes. The overall results demonstrate the explicit role of CcCDR in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multifunctional CcCDR seems promising as a prime candidate gene for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in diverse plants. PMID:24868035

  15. Molecular identification and expression analysis of the CC chemokine gene in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and the biological activity of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Won; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shim, Sang Hee; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-03-01

    We identified the CC chemokine cDNA designated as RbCC1 (CC chemokine 1 in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus), which was isolated using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rock bream liver cDNA library. The full-length RbCC1 cDNA (850 bp) contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 366 bp encoding 122 amino acids. Results from our phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the RbCC1 was closest relationship to the orange-spotted grouper and Mi-iyu croaker CC chemokines located within the fish CC chemokine group. RbCC1 was significantly expressed in the intestine, spleen, liver, and PBLs (peripheral blood leukocytes). Rock bream PBLs were stimulated with several mitogens, LPS and Con A/PMA which significantly induced the expression of RbCC1 mRNA in the PBLs. The RbCC1 mRNA expression in several tissues under conditions of bacterial and viral challenge was examined. The experimental challenge revealed that the kidney and spleen of fish infected with Streptococcus iniae showed the most significant increases in RbCC1 expression compared to the control. In the case of RSIV infection, the RbCC1 mRNA expression was markedly up-regulated in the liver. In this study, recombinant RbCC1 (approximately 53 kDa) was produced using an Escherichia coli expression system followed by purification. Subsequently, the addition of purified rRbCC1 was examined to investigate the impact on the proliferative and chemotactic activity on kidney leukocytes from rock bream. The results demonstrated that the rRbCC1 induces significant biological activity on kidney leukocyte proliferation and attraction at concentrations in the range of 10-300 μg/mL and suggests that rRbCC1 could be utilized as an immune-stimulant and/or molecular adjuvant to enhance the immune effects of vaccines.

  16. Overexpression of pigeonpea stress-induced cold and drought regulatory gene (CcCDR) confers drought, salt, and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-09-01

    A potent cold and drought regulatory protein-encoding gene (CcCDR) was isolated from the subtractive cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. CcCDR was induced by different abiotic stress conditions in pigeonpea. Overexpression of CcCDR in Arabidopsis thaliana imparted enhanced tolerance against major abiotic stresses, namely drought, salinity, and low temperature, as evidenced by increased biomass, root length, and chlorophyll content. Transgenic plants also showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and reducing sugars under stress conditions. Furthermore, CcCDR-transgenic plants showed enhanced relative water content, osmotic potential, and cell membrane stability, as well as hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) as compared with control plants. Localization studies confirmed that CcCDR could enter the nucleus, as revealed by intense fluorescence, indicating its possible interaction with various nuclear proteins. Microarray analysis revealed that 1780 genes were up-regulated in CcCDR-transgenics compared with wild-type plants. Real-time PCR analysis on selected stress-responsive genes, involved in ABA-dependent and -independent signalling networks, revealed higher expression levels in transgenic plants, suggesting that CcCDR acts upstream of these genes. The overall results demonstrate the explicit role of CcCDR in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multifunctional CcCDR seems promising as a prime candidate gene for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in diverse plants.

  17. Effect of vitamin D on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Walrand, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    Beyond its traditional biological roles on bone health, extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D are currently under extensive research. The expression of the vitamin D receptor in most tissues has also strengthened the argument for its multiple functions. Among these, the effect of vitamin D on the mass and muscle performance has long been discussed. In ancient Greece, Herodotus recommended the sun as a cure for the "weak and soft muscles" and former Olympians exposed to sunlight to improve their physical performance. In 1952, Dr Spellerberg, a sports physiologist, has conducted an extensive study on the effects of UV irradiation on the performance of elite athletes. Following the significant results of this investigation, the scientist has informed the Olympic Committee that UV irradiation had a "persuasive" effect on physical performance and motor skills. These data are consistent with many subsequent studies reporting an improvement in physical activity, speed and endurance in young subjects treated with UV or with supplements containing vitamin D. Additional observation indicates a significant effect on muscle strength, particularly in the lower limbs. Concerning the mechanisms involved, some recent fundamental studies have shown that vitamin D exerts some molecular effects within the muscle cell. Specifically, a regulatory effect of vitamin D on calcium flux, mineral homeostasis and signaling pathways controlling protein anabolism has been reported in muscle tissue. Several epidemiological studies show that low vitamin D status is always associated with a decrease in muscle mass, strength and contractile capacity in older people. Vitamin D deficiency accelerates muscle loss with age (sarcopenia), and therefore leads to a reduction in physical capacity and to an increased risk of falls and fractures. In contrast, an additional intake of vitamin D in older people significantly improves muscle function and physical performance. PMID:27100224

  18. Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

  19. Coffee intake mitigated inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Egashira, Kenji; Takahashi, Shoko; Aoyama, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic findings offer the promise that coffee or its many constituents may be useful as a dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. We aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the ameliorative effects of caffeinated coffee (CC), decaffeinated coffee (DC) and unroasted caffeinated green coffee (GC) on skeletal muscle gene expression profiles and their relationships in an obesity animal model. Eight-week-old male C57BL6 mice were raised for 9 weeks ad libitum on a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or high-fat diet containing 2 % freeze-dried CC, or DC, or GC. Total RNA and protein were extracted from skeletal muscle and subjected to microarray (Mouse Genome 430 2.0, Affymetrix) and western blotting analyses, respectively. Coffee intake mitigated the insulin resistance by decreasing plasma glucose levels during an insulin tolerance test and by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), p85/IRS-1 complex and pAkt/PKB (protein kinase B). In addition, coffee intake down-regulated the anti-inflammatory genes activating transcription factor 3, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene, heat shock protein 1A, heat shock protein 1B and synuclein, gamma and the inflammation-associated insulin signaling genes stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 and secreted phosphoprotein 1. These results provide scientific insight on the probable positive effects of coffee intake on impaired insulin signaling, inflammation and obesity, thereby providing a new perspective on the prevention of obesity and T2D.

  20. Coffee intake mitigated inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Egashira, Kenji; Takahashi, Shoko; Aoyama, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic findings offer the promise that coffee or its many constituents may be useful as a dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. We aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the ameliorative effects of caffeinated coffee (CC), decaffeinated coffee (DC) and unroasted caffeinated green coffee (GC) on skeletal muscle gene expression profiles and their relationships in an obesity animal model. Eight-week-old male C57BL6 mice were raised for 9 weeks ad libitum on a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or high-fat diet containing 2 % freeze-dried CC, or DC, or GC. Total RNA and protein were extracted from skeletal muscle and subjected to microarray (Mouse Genome 430 2.0, Affymetrix) and western blotting analyses, respectively. Coffee intake mitigated the insulin resistance by decreasing plasma glucose levels during an insulin tolerance test and by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), p85/IRS-1 complex and pAkt/PKB (protein kinase B). In addition, coffee intake down-regulated the anti-inflammatory genes activating transcription factor 3, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene, heat shock protein 1A, heat shock protein 1B and synuclein, gamma and the inflammation-associated insulin signaling genes stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 and secreted phosphoprotein 1. These results provide scientific insight on the probable positive effects of coffee intake on impaired insulin signaling, inflammation and obesity, thereby providing a new perspective on the prevention of obesity and T2D. PMID:24599575