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Sample records for 15-18 years adolescents

  1. Hearty Habits. Don't Eat Your Heart Out. 15-18 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of this illustrated guide is to teach 15-18 year old students that all healthy Americans, 2 years of age or older, should eat in a way that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease. The theme reflected throughout the manual is that changes in eating patterns help lower blood cholesterol levels…

  2. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  3. The role of a sexual health promotion leaflet for 15-18 year olds in catalysing conversations: A constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Karen J; Decker, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Following the summer holidays of 2011, twelve girls returned to school pregnant in one high school in Auckland New Zealand (NZ). A health promotion leaflet that folded into.a small square containing a condom and was dubbed the 'teabag' was distributed to 15-18 year olds prior to the summer holiday of 2012, in order to increase their sexual health knowledge. This paper reports on the evaluation of the teabag from the students' perspective. During the first term of 2013, seventeen students from two high schools who had received the teabag were interviewed. Five were male and twelve female. Most (16) were of Pacific Island or Maori (indigenous New Zealanders) descent. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, coded and categorised concurrently, in accordance with grounded theory methods. Theoretical sampling was employed and students who had perceptions of the teabag, that were consistent with evolving constructions from data, were invited by school nurses to be interviewed by the researchers. Interviews were coded line by line by two researchers and these codes collapsed into seven focussed codes. Further analysis resulted in the codes being subsumed into three main categories. These categories revealed that the teabag was, helpful, appropriate and became a talking point. The grounded theory and basic social process the researchers constructed from data were that the teabag catalysed conversations about sexual health. The teabag was an acceptable and appropriate sexual health promotion tool to disseminate information about sexual health. PMID:27188034

  4. The role of a sexual health promotion leaflet for 15-18 year olds in catalysing conversations: A constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Karen J; Decker, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Following the summer holidays of 2011, twelve girls returned to school pregnant in one high school in Auckland New Zealand (NZ). A health promotion leaflet that folded into.a small square containing a condom and was dubbed the 'teabag' was distributed to 15-18 year olds prior to the summer holiday of 2012, in order to increase their sexual health knowledge. This paper reports on the evaluation of the teabag from the students' perspective. During the first term of 2013, seventeen students from two high schools who had received the teabag were interviewed. Five were male and twelve female. Most (16) were of Pacific Island or Maori (indigenous New Zealanders) descent. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, coded and categorised concurrently, in accordance with grounded theory methods. Theoretical sampling was employed and students who had perceptions of the teabag, that were consistent with evolving constructions from data, were invited by school nurses to be interviewed by the researchers. Interviews were coded line by line by two researchers and these codes collapsed into seven focussed codes. Further analysis resulted in the codes being subsumed into three main categories. These categories revealed that the teabag was, helpful, appropriate and became a talking point. The grounded theory and basic social process the researchers constructed from data were that the teabag catalysed conversations about sexual health. The teabag was an acceptable and appropriate sexual health promotion tool to disseminate information about sexual health.

  5. Families Challenged by and Accommodating to the Adolescent Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, J.; Wedgewood, N.; Llewellyn, G.; McConnell, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Informed by Ecocultural theory, this study explores the challenges that families caring for an adolescent with disability face and strategies they apply to sustain a meaningful family routine during the adolescent years. Methods: In-depth Ecocultural interviews were conducted with 20 families caring for an adolescent (aged 10-21 years)…

  6. Adolescent Religiousness as a Protective Factor against Pornography Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Sam A.; Steelman, Michael A.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Ridge, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mediators of relations between adolescent religiousness and pornography use. The sample consisted of 419 adolescents (ages 15-18 years; M age = 15.68, SD = 0.98; 56% male). It was hypothesized that religiousness (religious internalization and involvement) would protect adolescents from pornography use (accidental and…

  7. Adolescent Literature Revisited after Four Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The articles collected in this bulletin survey a wide range of topics concerning adolescent literature. Some of the titles included are "Seven Myths about Adolescent Literature" (Paul B. Janeczko), "The Book as Enemy" (Thomas Weaver), "Popular Non-Fiction Titles for Adolescents" (Noma Russell), "Values and Paperback Power" (Nel Ward), "An Approach…

  8. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  9. Fifty Years in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John

    2013-01-01

    John Werry completed training in child and adolescent psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, and has been a world renowned leader in children's mental health. Drawing on a half century of work in Canada, the United States, and his native New Zealand, he shares his reflections and vision for the future in the interview given for this…

  10. The Decision-Filled Years of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shirley L.; Martin, Betty B.

    1981-01-01

    After a discussion of the causes and results of adolescent stress, the authors suggest possible topics which home economics teachers could address in their curricula. These include developmental and transitional life stages, stress reactions, recovery from loss and grief, death, divorce, teen pregnancy and abortion, child abuse, rape, and others.…

  11. Adolescents' lifetime experience of selling sex: development over five years.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents from a representative sample of Swedish high school students with a mean age 18.3 years. Of these adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had given sexual services for reimbursement and both male and female buyers existed. The adolescents who had sold sex had a poorer parent-child relationship during childhood and had fewer people to confide in about problems and worries. Changes over time were found especially regarding the Internet as a contact source and also immigrant background.

  12. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  13. Adolescents' and Parents' Evaluations of Helping versus Fulfilling Personal Desires in Family Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Gettman, Denise C.; Villalobos, Myriam; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 118 predominantly European American families with early and middle adolescents (M[subscript ages]=12.32 and 15.18 years) and 1 parent evaluated hypothetical conflicts between adolescents' and parents' requests for assistance versus the other's personal desires. Evaluations differed by level of need, but in low-need situations,…

  14. Four year Evaluation of Proximal Resin Infiltration in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Hysi, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    Aim Resin infiltration of proximal lesions is a new approach to stopping caries progression. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate four-year efficacy of proximal infiltrates in adolescents. Materials and methods In ten adolescents, a total of 21 proximal infiltrates (ICON® (DMG, Germany) were applied to initial proximal lesions of permanent incisors and premolars according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The clinical quality of resin infiltration was assessed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after the treatment and the evaluation of the therapeutic effect was analyzed by radiographs. Results Ten patients were followed up clinically for four years. The majority of the infiltrated lesions were located on permanent incisors. Teeth which were proximally infiltrated did not exhibit dental plaque and gingival bleeding in most cases. At annual recalls, plaque scores remained constant. The gingival status remained steady and no differences in tooth shape and contour were detected. Discoloration was detected in four teeth (19%) in 1st year recall and was constant at annual intervals. The radiographic evaluation of the bitewing radiographs showed no progression in 21 lesions (100%) from baseline to the 4-year recall. Overall oral hygiene of the patients was satisfactory. Conclusion In conclusion, proximal infiltration is an effective prophylactic measure in adolescents.

  15. Four year Evaluation of Proximal Resin Infiltration in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Hysi, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    Aim Resin infiltration of proximal lesions is a new approach to stopping caries progression. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate four-year efficacy of proximal infiltrates in adolescents. Materials and methods In ten adolescents, a total of 21 proximal infiltrates (ICON® (DMG, Germany) were applied to initial proximal lesions of permanent incisors and premolars according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The clinical quality of resin infiltration was assessed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after the treatment and the evaluation of the therapeutic effect was analyzed by radiographs. Results Ten patients were followed up clinically for four years. The majority of the infiltrated lesions were located on permanent incisors. Teeth which were proximally infiltrated did not exhibit dental plaque and gingival bleeding in most cases. At annual recalls, plaque scores remained constant. The gingival status remained steady and no differences in tooth shape and contour were detected. Discoloration was detected in four teeth (19%) in 1st year recall and was constant at annual intervals. The radiographic evaluation of the bitewing radiographs showed no progression in 21 lesions (100%) from baseline to the 4-year recall. Overall oral hygiene of the patients was satisfactory. Conclusion In conclusion, proximal infiltration is an effective prophylactic measure in adolescents. PMID:27688414

  16. Individual-Level Predictors of Nonparticipation and Dropout in a Life-Skills HIV Prevention Program for Adolescents in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.; Alonzo, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify individual-level characteristics of foster care adolescents who are more likely to not participate in, and drop out of, a life-skills HIV prevention program delivered over 8 months. Structured interviews were conducted with 320 foster care adolescents (15-18 years). Logistic regression and survival analyses…

  17. Trends in Psychopathology across the Adolescent Years: What Changes When Children become Adolescents, and When Adolescents become Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders between childhood and adolescence, and adolescence and adulthood. Methods: We reviewed papers reporting prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders separately for childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional papers published in…

  18. Annotated Bibliography of Selected Publications on the Adolescent Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoff, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    An annotated bibliography includes publications on adolescent issues such as school-community collaboration, pregnancy prevention, decision making, health promotion, injury prevention, music, violence prevention, health care, African-American adolescents, sexuality education, futures planning, policy, and health service delivery. (SM)

  19. Stability of Diagnosis: A 20-Year Retrospective Cohort Study of Israeli Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valevski, Avi; Ratzoni, Gideon; Sever, Jonathan; Apter, Alan; Zalsman, Gil; Shiloh, Roni; Weizman, Abraham; Tyano, Sam

    2001-01-01

    Outcome according to diagnosis and stability of diagnosis were investigated in a follow-back study, with a duration of 15-19 years, of 351 adolescents with various psychiatric disorders hospitalized in a closed psychiatric ward. Findings indicated that transient adolescent psychosis is associated with a relatively good prognosis and should…

  20. Adolescent Summer Care Arrangements and Risk for Obesity the Following School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified common summer care arrangements for adolescents and examined whether those arrangements predicted risk for obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile for age and gender) the following school year. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1766 adolescents ages 10-18…

  1. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  2. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  3. Getting Beyond "It Just Happened": Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Sexual Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.

    This document describes research pertaining to adolescent females' perceptions of sexual desire. It analyzes 30 interviews of girls, 15-18 years old, who are juniors in suburban and urban high schools. The key finding was identified as the dilemma of desire. Girls responded to the dilemma in three ways: simply not feeling the desire, resisting…

  4. Factors Associated with Gender Differences in Parent-Adolescent Relationships that Delay First Intercourse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Background: To determine the factors associated with gender differences in parent-adolescent relationships that delay first intercourse in Japan. Methods: Japanese high school students aged 15-18 years (female = 632 and male = 636) completed a questionnaire that evaluated the relationship with their parents. Logistic regression analyses were…

  5. Adolescents and Pornography: A Review of 20 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review was to systematize empirical research that was published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1995 and 2015 on the prevalence, predictors, and implications of adolescents' use of pornography. This research showed that adolescents use pornography, but prevalence rates varied greatly. Adolescents who used pornography more frequently were male, at a more advanced pubertal stage, sensation seekers, and had weak or troubled family relations. Pornography use was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be related to the occurrence of sexual intercourse, greater experience with casual sex behavior, and more sexual aggression, both in terms of perpetration and victimization. The findings of this review need to be seen against the background of various methodological and theoretical shortcomings, as well as several biases in the literature, which currently precludes internally valid causal conclusions about effects of pornography on adolescents. PMID:27105446

  6. Adolescent drug trafficking trends in the United Kingdom--a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE due to the illegal importation of drugs. Highlighted is an increasing trend in UK national male and female adolescents being apprehended for drug trafficking. Of particular note is the observation that more young adolescent females were apprehended importing large consignments of Class A substances than their male counterparts.

  7. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the

  8. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the

  9. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  10. Acutely Suicidal Adolescents Who Engage in Bullying Behavior: 1-Year Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Method Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Results At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Conclusion Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. PMID:23790201

  11. Latent Classes of Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Predict Functioning and Disorder after 1 Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayer, Lynsay; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Ken; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify latent classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a national sample of adolescents, and to test their associations with PTSD and functional impairment 1 year later. Method: A total of 1,119 trauma-exposed youth aged 12 through 17 years (mean = 14.99 years, 51% female and 49% male) participating in the…

  12. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  13. Stepfather–Adolescent Relationship Quality During the First Year of Transitioning to a Stepfamily

    PubMed Central

    King, Valarie; Amato, Paul R.; Lindstrom, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on factors associated with the formation of close relationships between stepfathers and stepchildren. The authors extend prior research by using nationally representative data from Add Health (N = 179) to examine how factors existing prior to stepfamily formation are associated with the quality of stepfather–adolescent ties within the first year after married stepfathers join the household. Results from structural equation models revealed that both the quality of the mother–adolescent relationship and adolescent adjustment prior to stepfamily formation were significantly associated with the perceived quality of adolescents’ relationships with their stepfathers. PMID:26508804

  14. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment. PMID:23509911

  15. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment.

  16. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescentsyear later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  17. Commentary on "Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a brief review of child and adolescent obesity over the past ten years. The starting point for the review is the well-known fact that there has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity among children, adolescents, and adults in the United Sates (Ogden et al., 2002). The rise has occurred across all age and ethnic groups,…

  18. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  19. Mental Health Service Use among 18-Year-Old Adolescent Boys: A Prospective 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Santalahti, Paivi; Parkkola, Kai; Haavisto, Antti; Helenius, Hans; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Aronen, Eeva T.; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Puura, Kaija; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study prevalence and factors associated with mental health service use among 18-year-old adolescent boys. Method: Predictors at age 8 and factors at age 18 associated with mental health service use during the preceding 12 months were studied in a general population sample of 2,316 Finnish boys born in 1981 attending military call-up…

  20. Testing Direct and Indirect Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…

  1. Predictors of Perceived Satisfaction with Parental Control in Chinese Adolescents: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, 2,559 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 12.65 years at Wave 1) responded to instruments assessing their trust of parents, perceived parental trust of the children, readiness to communicate with the parents, and satisfaction with parental control. Results showed that mutual trust between the parents and their adolescent…

  2. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  3. Arm Anthropometry Indices in Turkish Children and Adolescents: Changes Over a Three-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Betül; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mustafa Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period. Methods: The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method. Results: In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls. Conclusions: The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years. PMID:25541892

  4. 8-Year Prospective Study of Depressive Symptoms and Change in Insulin from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. Methods Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001–2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline (adolescence) and eight years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants. Puberty was assessed using a validated protocol measuring sex steroids and physical changes. The primary outcome was change in fasting insulin. Analyses accounted for age, sex, race, parental education, baseline insulin, BMI z, puberty, and time to follow up. Results At baseline, depressive symptoms were correlated with insulin (rho = .13, p = .001). High baseline insulin predicted insulin change (B = −11.50, SE = 2.30, p< .001). Depressive symptoms also predicted insulin change, but only for pubertal adolescents (B = −.23, SE = .11, p = .038). This relationship was moderated by race (p < .047); depressive symptoms predicted insulin change only among pubertal black adolescents ( p= .030), not whites (p = .49), and in the direction opposite that hypothesized (Bblacks = −.51, SE = .23). Post-hoc analyses revealed pubertal black adolescents with high depressive symptoms had the highest baseline insulin, which stayed high across the follow up period. Conclusions Among pubertal black adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for sustained hyperinsulinemia from adolescence into adulthood. These youths may be particularly vulnerable for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26368574

  5. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  6. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  7. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne A; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within the DNBC. Adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old (n 48, 60 % girls) completed the FFQ twice 4 weeks apart. The proportion of adolescents consistently classified into the same tertile according to amount of food intake ranged from 45 % (fish) to 77 % (vegetables), whereas classification into opposite tertiles ranged from 0 % (fruit, oils and dressing) to 15 % (beverages). Overall, no significant differences were observed in intake of food groups or nutrients between the two completions of the FFQ. Mean crude Spearman correlation for all food groups was 0·56 and mean intra-class correlation for all food groups was 0·61. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the FFQ for Danish adolescents was acceptable. The study revealed that adolescents aged 13-15 years seemed capable of recalling consistently overall dietary habits and had some difficulties estimating the frequency of consumption of regularly consumed food items. PMID:26855775

  8. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  9. Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Childhood: 1. Outcome in Late Adolescence and Early Adult Years. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.

    Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…

  10. Skin cancer prevention behaviours during summer holidays in 14 and 18-year-old Belgian adolescents.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Hein; Willems, Karen; Mesters, Ilse; Reubsaet, Astrid

    2006-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 602 Belgian adolescents to analyse their sun protection habits. The results show that Belgian adolescents stay in the sun for a long time, even in periods when ultraviolet radiation is very damaging. Of all respondents, 70% exposed themselves for at least 3 h to the sun on sunny days. Most respondents (49%) exposed themselves between 1200 and 1500 h. Almost two-thirds of the respondents (59.3%) reported at least one sunburn in the past year and 26.5% got sunburnt at least twice; 24% used sunbeds more than 6 times per year. Applying sunscreen every 2 h was the most commonly used method by adolescents to protect themselves, although 70% did not use sunscreen regularly. Female students used sunscreen more regularly than male students, and sunbed use was higher among 18-year-olds than 14-year-olds. Our results clearly suggest that respondents with fair skin types are at increased risk of developing skin cancer, because of various high exposure activities accompanied by relatively few protection behaviours. A second risk group consists of students from the two lower educational levels, again because of high exposure levels and less frequent protection behaviours. The risks of sunbed use should be communicated clearly to older adolescents. Hence, these two groups need to receive high priority for cancer prevention activities in Belgium.

  11. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  12. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  13. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  14. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  15. Cognitive Ability and Health-Related Behaviors during Adolescence: A Prospective Study across Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N = 420; 188 males, 232 females) was 12.30 years (SD =…

  16. Brief Report: Citizenship Concepts among Adolescents. Evidence from a Survey among Belgian 16-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral…

  17. Offending Behaviours of Child and Adolescent Firesetters over a 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Ioane, Julia; Randell, Isabel; Seymour, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the postintervention arson recidivism and other offending rates of a group of 182 firesetting children and adolescents referred to the New Zealand Fire Awareness and Intervention Program (FAIP) over a follow-up period of 10 years. To investigate predictors of offending behaviour as well as variables associated with previous…

  18. A Four-Year Analysis of Adolescent Self-Destructive Behavior and Psychiatric Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan J.

    Data were gathered on a statewide basis in 102 Illinois counties on both the incidence and prevalence of adolescent public psychiatric hospitalizations and the identified self-destructive behaviors: (1) completed suicides; (2) assaultive behaviors; (3) runaway behavior; (4) substance abuse; and (5) teenage births, from fiscal year 1985 through…

  19. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  20. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  1. Self-Report Stability of Adolescent Cigarette Use across Ten Years of Panel Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…

  2. The influence of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication on Bahamian adolescent risk involvement: A three-year longitudinal examination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent—adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent–adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent–adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents’ interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring. PMID:24161101

  3. Six-year longitudinal predictors of posttraumatic growth in parentally bereaved adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn Y; Sandler, Irwin N; Ayers, Tim S

    Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, we examined posttraumatic growth in a sample of 50 adolescents and young adults who had experienced parental death in childhood or adolescence. Longitudinal relations were examined between baseline measures of contextual and intraindividual factors and scores on the posttraumatic growth subscales (i.e., New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strengths, Spiritual Changes, and Appreciation of Life) six years later. Controlling for time since death, threat appraisals, active coping, avoidant coping, seeking support from parents or guardians, seeking support from other adults, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems were significant predictors of posttraumatic growth. The implications of these findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:19227001

  4. 12-year old adolescent with super morbid obesity, treated with laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB/BAGUA): A case report after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carbajo Caballero, Miguel Angel; Vázquez-Pelcastre, Raul; Aparicio-Ponce, Rodolfo; Luque de Leon, Enrique; Jimenez, José María; Ortiz-Solorzano, Javier; Castro, María José

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of morbid obesity among adolescents has being on the increased in the recent decades specifically in developed countries around the world. In Europe, Spain has the highest prevalence of obese adolescents with more than 18% of the population of children and adolescents. There is evidence that the only effective and permanent treatment for morbid obesity and the comorbidities is surgical treatment, however there exists many controversies about which treatment is the best for obese adolescents. We report a case of a 12 year old patient with super obesity (58.5 kg/m(2) of BMI) and metabolic syndrome who underwent LOAGB/BAGUA and monitored during the last 5 year. The patient after five years follow-up maintains a 22.4 kg/m(2) of BMI. We consider that LOAGB/ BAGUA could be an effective and safe procedure as a treatment of obesity and comorbidities as well, for adolescent patients.

  5. One-Year Outcomes and Mediators of a Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Lee, Susanne; Botzet, Andria; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Nicholson, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two manually-guided brief interventions were evaluated with a randomized controlled trial. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) suspected of abusing alcohol and other drugs and their parent were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Adolescents were identified in a school setting and the intervention was delivered by trained counselors. Outcome analyses (N=284; 90% of those enrolled) of relative change (from intake to 12-months) and absolute status (at 12-months) revealed a general pattern of reductions in drug use behaviors, particularly with the cannabis outcome measures, in both active conditions (BI-A and BI-AP). Students in the control condition showed worse outcome compared to the BI-A and BI-AP groups. Among the four mediating variables measured at 6-months, use of additional services, motivation to change and parenting practices had significant influences on 12-month outcome; problem solving skills approached significance as a mediator. The potential value of a brief intervention for drug abusing adolescents is discussed. PMID:24955669

  6. Weight loss strategies for adolescents: a 14-year-old struggling to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David S

    2012-02-01

    With prevalence approaching 20% in the United States, adolescent obesity has become a common problem for patients, parents, and clinicians. Obese adolescents may experience physical and psychosocial complications, as illustrated by the case of Ms K, a 14-year-old girl with a body mass index of 40. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of pediatric obesity treatment is modest in younger children and declines in older children and adolescents, and few interventions involving adolescents have produced significant long-term weight loss. Nevertheless, novel strategies to alter energy balance have shown preliminary evidence of benefit in clinical trials, including a diet focused on food quality rather than fat restriction and a lifestyle approach to encourage enjoyable physical activity throughout the day rather than intermittent exercise. Parents can have an important influence on weight-related behaviors in adolescents despite typically complicated emotional dynamics at this age, especially through the use of noncoercive methods. A key parenting practice applicable to children of all ages is to create a protective environment in the home, substituting nutritious foods for unhealthful ones and facilitating physical activities instead of sedentary pursuits. Other behaviors that may promote successful long-term weight management include good sleep hygiene, stress reduction, and mindfulness. Ultimately, the obesity epidemic can be attributed to changes in the social environment that hinder healthful lifestyle habits, and prevention will require a comprehensive public health strategy.

  7. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated.

  8. National and state vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-30

    At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated. PMID:23985496

  9. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-11-01

    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (<18 years) occurring in the province of Oulu in Finland between 1988 and 2012. The data is based on documents pertaining to establish the cause of death from forensic autopsy investigations. A register linkage to the data from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) was also made. 79% of the suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents.

  10. Predictors of fixed orthodontic treatment in 15-year-old adolescents in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Allister, J H; Brennan, D S

    1995-12-01

    An understanding of the determinants of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment would be beneficial in the planning of any system aimed at rationalising supply. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine those factors which were predictive of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment in adolescents. Baseline data, at age 13 years, on oral health, the history of orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care, a dental appearance score (DAI), socio-demographic characteristics and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and need for fixed orthodontic treatment were obtained from 2793 adolescents under the care of the South Australian School Dental Service who had not undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Data on the orthodontic care provided to these adolescents in the ensuing 2 years were collected. At the end of the 24-month period 433 adolescents (15.5%) had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Significant bivariate associations were found between the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment and the DAI score, sex of the adolescent, familial history of fixed orthodontic treatment, income, private insurance, orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and the need for fixed orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression was used to produce a predictive model of fixed orthodontic treatment. The model explained 30.2% of the variance, with a specificity of 0.94, a sensitivity of 0.49 and a hit rate of 0.84%. Odds ratios greater than one were found for the DAI score, private insurance, females, self and parental perception of need, higher incomes and orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years. PMID:8681517

  11. Sexual initiation among adolescents (10 to 14 years old) and health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Machado, Eduardo Coelho; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Seering, Lenise Menezes; Mesenburg, Marília Arndt; Guttier, Marília Cruz; Barcelos, Raquel Siqueira; Buffarini, Romina; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of sexual initiation until the age of 14 years old, as well as sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods In 2008, 4,325 from the 5,249 adolescents of the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, were interviewed. Sexual initiation was defined as the first intercourse up to the age of 14 years old. The information was obtained by interviewing adolescents in their houses, during the 2008 follow-up. The analyzed variables were: skin color, asset index, maternal and adolescents’ schooling, experimental use of tobacco and alcohol, drunkenness episode, use of any illicit drug, illegal drug use by friends and involvement in fights during the past year. Use of condoms and contraceptive methods, number of partners and the age of sexual initiation were also analyzed. Results The prevalence of sexual initiation by the age of 14 was of 18.6%. Lower schooling, asset index and maternal education were related to higher prevalence of sexual initiation until the age of 14, as well as being male or being born to adolescent mothers. Sexual intercourse was also related to the behavioral variables analyzed. Among adolescent girls who had intercourse up to the age of 14, 30% did not use contraception and 18% did not use condoms in the last sexual intercourse. Boys reported a higher number of sexual partners than girls. Conclusion The results suggest a relationship between sexual intercourse (≤ 14 years) and some health-risk behaviors. The non-use of condoms and contraceptives may make them vulnerable to experiencing unwanted situations. Education and sociocultural strategies for health should be implemented from the beginning of adolescence. PMID:25651009

  12. Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J

    2010-06-01

    Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed.

  13. One-year follow-up of two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Bianca E; Geurts, Hilde M; Prins, Pier J M; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-03-01

    Long-term effects of two CBTs for adolescents with ADHD are explored: One aimed at improving planning skills (Plan My Life; PML), the other a solution-focused therapy (SFT) without focusing on planning skills. In a RCT, adolescents with ADHD (n = 159) were assigned to PML or SFT and improved significantly between pre- and posttest with large effect sizes Boyer et al (Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0661-5 ), with marginal differences in favor of PML. One-year follow-up data were gathered. Initial improvements remained stable or continued to improve from posttest to 1-year follow-up. 25.9 % of adolescents showed normalized functioning. However, no treatment differences were found. These results are consistent with the finding that treatment of ADHD improves long-term outcomes, but not to the point of normalization. Earlier found differences at 3-month follow-up in favor of PML disappeared, indicating that focusing treatment on planning skills is not necessary for improvement or that a more prolonged planning-focused treatment is needed.

  14. One-year follow-up of two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Bianca E; Geurts, Hilde M; Prins, Pier J M; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-03-01

    Long-term effects of two CBTs for adolescents with ADHD are explored: One aimed at improving planning skills (Plan My Life; PML), the other a solution-focused therapy (SFT) without focusing on planning skills. In a RCT, adolescents with ADHD (n = 159) were assigned to PML or SFT and improved significantly between pre- and posttest with large effect sizes Boyer et al (Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0661-5 ), with marginal differences in favor of PML. One-year follow-up data were gathered. Initial improvements remained stable or continued to improve from posttest to 1-year follow-up. 25.9 % of adolescents showed normalized functioning. However, no treatment differences were found. These results are consistent with the finding that treatment of ADHD improves long-term outcomes, but not to the point of normalization. Earlier found differences at 3-month follow-up in favor of PML disappeared, indicating that focusing treatment on planning skills is not necessary for improvement or that a more prolonged planning-focused treatment is needed. PMID:26433369

  15. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  16. Antisocial Behavior Trajectories and Social Victimization Within and Between School Years in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Light, John M.; Rusby, Julie C.; Nies, Kimberley M.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial behavior typically increases during early adolescence, but the possibility of seasonal variation has not been examined. In this study, trajectories of antisocial behavior were estimated for early adolescent boys and girls. Data were obtained from a 3-year longitudinal study of 11 middle schools in the western U.S. (n = 5,742), with assessments completed four times per academic year. Antisocial behavior increased steadily throughout 6th grade, but beginning in 7th grade for boys and 8th grade for girls, it declined during the school year. Significant increases between grades 6–7 and 7–8 were found for both genders. Trajectories varied by contextual and individual-level social victimization and gender. Implications for theoretical development and future studies are discussed. PMID:25346587

  17. Infants of adolescent mothers. Maternal characteristics and developmental status at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W; Burgess, D; Morgan, L; Malpiede, D

    1984-03-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered at 1 year of age to 54 healthy infants of adolescent mothers. Information was obtained regarding maternal cognitive and emotional maturity, child-rearing attitudes, attitudes toward the infant, and psychosocial status at one year. The average Bayley Mental Scale score was 113, and the average Bayley Motor Scale score was 105. There was a negative correlation between the Bayley Mental Scale score and maternal age and education. Bayley Motor Scale scores were predictable from a combination of maternal authoritarian attitudes, abuse potential, and infant's birth weight. Although high authoritarian attitudes in mothers have been associated with poor cognitive development at later ages, they may represent an important strength in adolescent mothers during the first year. PMID:6702768

  18. Effect of ethnicity on weight loss among adolescents 1 year after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L; Reichard, Kirk W; Michalsky, Marc P; Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L; Livingstone, Alan S; de la Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether or not bariatric surgery weight outcomes vary by ethnicity in a large, nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database was used for analysis and contains data on surgeries performed on adolescents from 2004 to 2010 from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities across the United States Adolescents (n = 827) between 11 and 19 years old who underwent either gastric bypass or adjustable gastric banding surgery were included in the analysis. Outcome measures included changes in anthropometric measurements [weight (kg) and body mass index] from baseline to 3 (n = 739), 6 (n = 512), and 12 (n = 247) mo after surgery. RESULTS: A year after patients underwent either gastric bypass (51%) or adjustable gastric banding (49%) surgery, mean estimated weight loss for all ethnic groups differed by a maximum of only 1.5 kg, being 34.3 kg (95%CI: 30.0-38.5 kg) for Hispanics, 33.8 kg (95%CI: 27.3-40.3 kg) for non-Hispanic blacks, and 32.8 kg (95%CI: 30.9-34.7 kg) for non-Hispanic whites. No overall pairwise group comparisons were significant, indicating that no ethnic group had better weight loss outcomes than did another. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery substantially reduces the weight of severely obese adolescents at 1 year post-procedure with little variation by ethnicity and/or gender. These results suggest that bariatric surgery is a safe and reasonable treatment for all severely obese adolescents with the appropriate indications. PMID:24147204

  19. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  20. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  1. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  2. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  3. Brief Report: Excessive Alcohol Use Negatively Affects the Course of Adolescent Depression--One Year Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meririnne, Esa; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2010-01-01

    The impact of alcohol use on the course of adolescent depression over one-year was investigated by following 197 consecutive adolescent outpatients with unipolar depression in a naturalistic treatment setting. Their baseline alcohol consumption was categorized in three groups: excessive use (defined as weekly drunkenness), regular use (monthly…

  4. The influence of representations of attachment, maternal-adolescent relationship quality, and maternal monitoring on adolescent substance use: a 2-year longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Steven A; Furman, Wyndol; Cottrell, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the hypotheses that more secure representations of attachments to parents are associated with less adolescent substance use over time and that this link is mediated through relationship quality and monitoring. A sample of 200 adolescents (M = 14-16 years), their mothers, and close friends were assessed over 2 years. Higher levels of security in attachment styles, but not states of mind, were predictive of higher levels of monitoring and support and lower levels of negative interactions. Higher levels of security in attachment styles had an indirect effect on changes in substance use over time, mediated by maternal monitoring. These findings highlight the roles of representations of attachments, mother-adolescent relationship qualities, and monitoring in the development of adolescent substance use.

  5. [Suicide attempts by young adolescents: epidemiological characteristics of 517 15-year-old or younger adolescents admitted in French emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Fortanier, C; Fabre, G; Ghariani, J; Guillermain, Y; Rouviere, N; Chabrol, B; Jouve, J-L; Simeoni, M-C

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who attempt suicide are a major concern. A growing body of literature seeks to explain this phenomenon and to identify its predictive factors, but relatively little information is available and children and adolescents under 15 years of age who present to general hospitals because of a suicide attempt. This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, medical, and psychological characteristics of a large sample of 517 French adolescents aged not more than 15 years 3 months. A second purpose was to measure observance of psychological care in a 1-year follow-up. Third, we aimed to document the reattempt rate during the follow-up in this population of young adolescents. Following the French official recommendations, a systematic 72-h hospitalization as well as a somatic, social, and psychological assessment was proposed to every suicide attempter after his or her admission to the emergency department. The adolescent was followed for 1 year after the suicide attempt, called the index episode. This follow-up was organized by two physicians, one of whom was not associated with the care of any of the patients. It consisted in seeking regular information as well as organization and/or optimization of the patient's psychological care, which was delivered in dedicated structures for adolescents, in outpatient care by a psychiatrist, or in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient care unit. In case of a repeated suicide attempt or persistence of alarming symptoms, this follow-up was prolonged for 1 more year. Patient data were compiled by experienced clinicians during initial assessment and alongside the 1-year follow-up through patient self-reports, but also through interviews with informants (family members, social professionals) and clinical sources (general practitioner, psychiatrist, etc.). The areas covered were the characteristics of the index episode, those of the population at the time of the index episode, as well as those of the 1-year follow

  6. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  7. Longitudinal associations between key dietary behaviors and weight gain over time: Transitions through the adolescent years

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; Murray, David M.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results in documenting the association between key dietary factors and adolescent weight change over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which changes in adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, breakfast and fast food consumption were associated with changes in BMI and percent body fat (PBF), both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Our sample included 693 Minnesota adolescents followed over two years. Adjusting for physical activity, puberty, race, socio-economic status, age, and total energy intake, cross-sectional findings indicated that for both males and females, diet soda consumption was significantly and positively associated with BMI and PBF, and breakfast intake was significantly and negatively associated with BMI and PBF among girls. In longitudinal analyses, however, there were no significant associations after adjusting for the number of tests performed. This study adds to previous research through its methodological strengths, including adjustment for physical activity and energy intake assessed using state-of-the-art methods (i.e., accelerometers and 24-hour dietary recalls), as well as its evaluation of both BMI and PBF. Additional research is needed to better understand the complex constellation of factors that contribute to adolescent weight gain over time. PMID:21701567

  8. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  9. Psychiatric hospital treatment of children and adolescents in New South Wales, Australia: 12-year trends

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Titia; Sharpe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background It is preferable that children and adolescents requiring in-patient care for mental health problems are managed in age-appropriate facilities. To achieve this, nine specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in-patient units have been commissioned in New South Wales (NSW) since 2002. Aims To examine trends in child and adolescent in-patient admissions since the opening of these CAMHS units. Method Analysis of separation data for under 18-year-olds to CAMHS, adult mental health and paediatric units for the period 2002 to 2013 in NSW, comparing districts with and without specialist CAMHS units. Results Separations from CAMHS, adult and paediatric units rose with time, but there was no interaction between time and health district type (with/without CAMHS unit). Five of eight health districts experienced increased separations of under 18-year-olds from adult units in the year of opening a CAMHS unit. Separations from related paediatric units increased in three of seven health districts. Conclusions Opening CAMHS units may be followed by a temporary increase in separations of young people from adult units, but it does not influence the flow of patients to non-CAMHS facilities in the longer term. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703746

  10. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of the Bidirectional Associations among Perceived Parenting Behaviors, Adolescent Disclosure and Problem Behavior across the High School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…

  12. Ego Identity of Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from…

  13. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent.

  14. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent. PMID:27408452

  15. Two-year predictors of runaway and homeless episodes following shelter services among substance abusing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

  16. [The physical conditions of seventeen-year-old adolescents in Omskaya Oblast].

    PubMed

    Zakorkina, N A

    2006-01-01

    In Omskaya Oblast, among seventeen-year-old adolescents 70.5% of males and 58.5% of females are of sufficient degree of average, above average and higher physical state. Study of integrated impact of various factors on physical state deviations established that 33.9% of these factors belong to the medical category. This fact emphasizes higher significance of quality of applied diagnostic and therapeutic and preventive actions. Marked impact was also provided by living conditions (17.8%), education conditions (17.7%), family life-style (16.1%), natural climatic conditions and degree of anthropogenic pollution of environment (14.5%). Most of these factors are controllable enough to provide reserve for grading of lower degree of adolescents' physical state.

  17. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds.

    PubMed

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-06-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts.

  18. Adolescents' Heightened Risk-Seeking in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Stephanie; Bault, Nadege; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated adolescent males' decision-making under risk, and the emotional response to decision outcomes, using a probabilistic gambling task designed to evoke counterfactually mediated emotions (relief and regret). Participants were 20 adolescents (aged 9-11), 26 young adolescents (aged 12-15), 20 mid-adolescents (aged 15-18) and 17…

  19. Adolescent fertility and religion in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in the year 2000: the role of Protestantism.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Sarah; Potter, Joseph E; Garrard-Burnett, Virginia

    2008-11-01

    Social transformations in Brazil in recent years have included a substantial increase in adolescent fertility, a dramatic rise in membership of Protestant religious denominations, and an accompanying decline in the number of Catholics. We used the 2000 Brazil Census to examine differentials in fertility and family formation among adolescents living in Rio de Janeiro by the following religious denominations: Catholic; Baptist; other mainline Protestant; Assembly of God Church; Universal Church of the Kingdom of God; other Pentecostal Protestant; and no religion. Results from logistic regression models show that the majority of the Protestants are at a lower risk of adolescent fertility than Catholics, and that among adolescents who have had a child, most Protestants are more likely than Catholics to be in a committed union. Our findings offer some support for the hypothesis that Protestant churches are more effective than the Catholic Church in discouraging premarital sexual relations and childbearing among adolescents.

  20. Longitudinal and secular trends in parental encouragement for healthful eating, physical activity, and dieting throughout the adolescent years

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Laska, Melissa N.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Parental encouragement of healthful eating and physical activity has been found to be associated with adolescents’ long-term healthful habits, while parental encouragement to diet has been associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. However, little is known about how parental encouragement changes as adolescents grow older (longitudinal trends), or how parental encouragement has changed over time (secular trends). This study examined 5-year longitudinal and secular trends in adolescents’ report of their parents’ encouragement to eat healthfully, be physically active, and diet. Methods Project EAT surveyed a cohort of Minnesota adolescents (n=2516) in 1999 and 2004. Mixed-model regressions were used to assess changes in adolescents’ report of parental encouragement from early to middle adolescence (middle school to high school) and from middle to late adolescence (high school to post-high school), and secular changes in parental encouragement among middle adolescents between 1999 and 2004. Results There were significant decreases in parental encouragement to eat healthfully, be active, and diet between early and middle adolescence. Between middle and late adolescence, among males parental encouragement for all behaviors decreased while among females parental encouragement to diet increased. Few secular changes in parental encouragement were observed between 1999 and 2004. Conclusions Given the importance of parental support for healthful eating and physical activity, efforts should be made to help parents maintain a high level of encouragement for their children's healthful behavior throughout adolescence. Parents of late-adolescent females should aim to decrease the pressure on their daughters to diet during these critical developmental years. PMID:21856524

  1. Weight Loss and Health Status 3 Years after Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Inge, Thomas H.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Zeller, Meg H.; Chen, Mike K.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, C. Ralph

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bariatric surgery is increasingly considered for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity, but few prospective adolescent-specific studies examining the efficacy and safety of weight-loss surgery are available to support clinical decision making. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery at five U.S. centers. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (161 participants) or sleeve gastrectomy (67) were included in the analysis. Changes in body weight, coexisting conditions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and weight-related quality of life and postoperative complications were evaluated through 3 years after the procedure. RESULTS The mean (±SD) baseline age of the participants was 17±1.6 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 53; 75% of the participants were female, and 72% were white. At 3 years after the procedure, the mean weight had decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 29) in the total cohort, by 28% (95% CI, 25 to 30) among participants who underwent gastric bypass, and by 26% (95% CI, 22 to 30) among those who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. By 3 years after the procedure, remission of type 2 diabetes occurred in 95% (95% CI, 85 to 100) of participants who had had the condition at baseline, remission of abnormal kidney function occurred in 86% (95% CI, 72 to 100), remission of prediabetes in 76% (95% CI, 56 to 97), remission of elevated blood pressure in 74% (95% CI, 64 to 84), and remission of dyslipidemia in 66% (95% CI, 57 to 74). Weight-related quality of life also improved significantly. However, at 3 years after the bariatric procedure, hypoferritinemia was found in 57% (95% CI, 50 to 65) of the participants, and 13% (95% CI, 9 to 18) of the participants had undergone one or more additional intraabdominal procedures. CONCLUSIONS In this multicenter, prospective study of bariatric surgery in adolescents, we

  2. Prevalence of obesity among adolescents (10 to 14 years) in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, Ibrahim; Shady, Ibrahim; Lotfy, Hesham

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to find out the prevalence of obesity and overweight among intermediate school adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The study comprised a multistage stratified random sample that included 5402 children (2657 males and 2745 females). They represent 12.7% of the total number of children between 10 and 14 years during the educational year 2005-2006. The weights and heights of adolescents were measured, from which the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, which is the weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared (kg/m(2)). BMI values higher than 95 percentile were accepted as being obese and those in between 85 and 94 percentile were accepted as overweight. Dietary intake was assessed by the investigators using food exchange lists designed by American Diabetic Association and physical fitness was measured by modified Harvard step test. Data regarding monthly income of the chosen sample were collected from parents of those children. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescent Kuwaiti children aged 10 to 14 years was 30.7% and 14.6%, respectively. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among males was 29.3% and 14.9%, respectively (P < .001) and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among females was 32.1% and 14.2%, respectively (P < .001). High daily caloric intake by the obese and overweight children and physical inactivity was reported among the majority of them. Health education programs should be conducted to control this syndrome in order to prevent future risk of obesity-related disease, and physical activity programs should be incorporated in the schools. Any management plan for overweight and obese children should include 3 major components: diets, exercise, and family-based behavior and they should not be placed on restrictive diets because adequate calories are needed for proper growth.

  3. Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use Among 18 to 19 year old Adolescent Women By Weight Status: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M.; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Ela, Elizabeth J.; Hall, Kelli S.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between weight status and sexual practices among 18-19 year-old women. Study design We analyzed a population-based longitudinal study of 18-19 year-old women residing in a Michigan county at cohort inception. Weekly journal surveys measured sexual practices, including contraceptive behaviors. Outcomes included proportion of weeks with a partner, proportion of weeks with sexual intercourse, number of partners, average length of relationships, proportion of weeks with contraception use, and proportion of weeks where contraception was used consistently. We examined 26,545 journal surveys from 900 women over the first study year. Ordinary least squares regression models for each outcome examined differences by weight status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The mean proportion of weeks in which adolescents reported sexual intercourse was 52%; there was no difference by weight status. Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks where any contraception was used compared with normal-weight adolescents (84% vs 91%, p=0.011). Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity and contraceptive use, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks with consistent contraceptive use (68% vs 78%, p=0.016) and oral contraceptive pill use (27% vs 45%, p=0.001) compared with normal-weight adolescents. All other relationships by weight status were not statistically significant. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, obese adolescent women were less likely to use contraception, and less likely to use it consistently when compared with normal-weight peers. Findings suggest obesity may be an important factor associated with adolescent women’s sexual behavior. PMID:26143383

  4. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  5. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents. PMID:25209042

  6. A seven-year investigation of marital expectations and marriage among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.

  7. Video games use patterns and parenteral supervision in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescents 13-17 years old.

    PubMed

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Nazario, Lelis L; Gutiérrez, Roberto; González, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Video games have become a popular entertainment among adolescents. Although some video games are educational, there are others with high content of violence and the potential for other harmful effects. Lack of appropriate supervision of video games use during adolescence, a crucial stage of development, may lead to serious behavioral consequences in some adolescents. There is also concern about time spent playing video games and the subsequent neglect of more developmentally appropriate activities, such as completing academic tasks. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess video game use patterns and parental supervision among 55 adolescent patients 13-17 years old (mean age 14.4 years; 56.4% males) and their parents. Parental supervision /monitoring of the adolescents video games use was not consistent and gender related differences were found regarding their video game use. Close to one third (32%) of the participants reported video game playing had interfered with their academic performance. Parents who understood video games rating system were more likely to prohibit their use due to rating. These findings underscore the need for clear and consistently enforced rules and monitoring of video games use by adolescents. Parents need to be educated about the relevance of their supervision, video games content and rating system; so they will decrease time playing and exposure to potentially harmful video games. It also supports the relevance of addressing supervision, gender-based parental supervisory styles, and patterns of video games use in the evaluation and treatment of adolescents. PMID:22788074

  8. Video games use patterns and parenteral supervision in a clinical sample of Hispanic adolescents 13-17 years old.

    PubMed

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Nazario, Lelis L; Gutiérrez, Roberto; González, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Video games have become a popular entertainment among adolescents. Although some video games are educational, there are others with high content of violence and the potential for other harmful effects. Lack of appropriate supervision of video games use during adolescence, a crucial stage of development, may lead to serious behavioral consequences in some adolescents. There is also concern about time spent playing video games and the subsequent neglect of more developmentally appropriate activities, such as completing academic tasks. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess video game use patterns and parental supervision among 55 adolescent patients 13-17 years old (mean age 14.4 years; 56.4% males) and their parents. Parental supervision /monitoring of the adolescents video games use was not consistent and gender related differences were found regarding their video game use. Close to one third (32%) of the participants reported video game playing had interfered with their academic performance. Parents who understood video games rating system were more likely to prohibit their use due to rating. These findings underscore the need for clear and consistently enforced rules and monitoring of video games use by adolescents. Parents need to be educated about the relevance of their supervision, video games content and rating system; so they will decrease time playing and exposure to potentially harmful video games. It also supports the relevance of addressing supervision, gender-based parental supervisory styles, and patterns of video games use in the evaluation and treatment of adolescents.

  9. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  10. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders.

  11. Patch testing of Singapore children and adolescents: our experience over 18 years.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony Teik-Jin; Goh, Chee-Leok

    2006-01-01

    This is a retrospective epidemiologic study of allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents in Singapore who had undergone patch testing from January 1, 1986 to December 31, 2003. A total of 2,340 patients below the age of 21 years had undergone patch testing. Of these, 1,063 (583 girls, 480 boys) were positive to one or more allergens. The most common allergens were: nickel (40%), thimerosal (15%), colophony (9%), lanolin (8%), cobalt (8%), fragrance mix (5%), and neomycin (4%). Each of these allergens will be discussed individually. This is the first study with over 1000 patients on this subject from Asia.

  12. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  13. Sprint Performance Changes and Determinants in Afro-Caribbean Adolescents Between 13 and 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Copaver, Karine Babel; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean sprinters often reach high performance levels at an early age. Adolescence is a time of morphological and physiological changes. This study was designed to analyze the evolution in parameters of short sprint performance during adolescence in Afro-Caribbean boys, especially the stride number/body height ratio (SN/BH), which is at the interface of technical and morphological factors. Seventy-one 13-year-old boys performed vertical jumps and short sprint races. The races were filmed with a view to determine stride variables. Anthropometric parameters were also measured. The same tests were performed two years later. Body height and SN/BH were the main predictors of sprint performance. The delta of performance was principally explained by stride length and stride number. Although deterioration in technical parameters was expected, the parameters related to body size and stride length were the main sprint performance predictors rather than explosive force. These results could be useful in developing tests to detect sprint potential in youth. PMID:23487285

  14. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  15. National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Curtis, C Robinette; MacNeil, Jessica; Markowitz, Lauri E; Singleton, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive vaccines to prevent diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, pertussis, and meningococcal disease (1). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data collected regarding 21,875 adolescents through the 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).* During 2014-2015, coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years increased for each HPV vaccine dose among males, including ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 41.7% to 49.8%), and increased modestly for ≥1 HPV vaccine dose among females (from 60.0% to 62.8%) and ≥1 quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) dose (from 79.3% to 81.3%). Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose was higher among adolescents living in households below the poverty level, compared with adolescents in households at or above the poverty level.(†) HPV vaccination coverage (≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses) increased in 28 states/local areas among males and in seven states among females. Despite limited progress, HPV vaccination coverage remained lower than MenACWY and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) coverage, indicating continued missed opportunities for HPV-associated cancer prevention. PMID:27561081

  16. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  17. Individuality and contextual influences on drug dependence: a 15-year Prospective longitudinal study of adolescents from Harlem.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African American, and 45% were Puerto Rican. Self-report data were obtained on externalizing and internalizing problems, substance use, and contextual influences across adolescence and young adulthood. Drug dependence was assessed in adulthood. Multivariate logistic regressions of drug dependence were performed on the whole sample and separately by gender. Each of the domains was associated with adult drug dependence. Although mean gender differences were found, most associations of risk factors with drug dependence did not vary significantly by gender. Treating externalizing and internalizing problems, reducing substance use, and providing coping skills for adverse contextual influences in adolescence and young adulthood may reduce the likelihood of becoming drug dependent in adulthood.

  18. Reciprocal relations between body satisfaction and self-esteem: A large 13-year prospective study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wichstrøm, Lars; von Soest, Tilmann

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that body satisfaction and self-esteem are highly correlated in adolescence, but reasons are poorly understood. We tested three explanations: (i) the two constructs are actually one; (ii) the correlation is explained by a third factor; (iii) there are prospective relationships between body satisfaction and self-esteem. A population based sample of Norwegian adolescents (n = 3251) was examined four times over a 13-year period. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that body satisfaction and self-esteem were separate constructs and the correlation between them was not attenuated when adjusting for 3rd variables. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis showed reciprocal relations between body satisfaction and self-esteem. The prospective relationship between body satisfaction during adolescence and self-esteem in late adolescence and emerging adulthood was stronger than at later stages.

  19. Interpersonal victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, and change in adolescent substance use prevalence over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McCart, Michael R; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Smith, Daniel W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of age) participating in the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (N = 3,906) and the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (N = 3,423). Results revealed significant declines in adolescents' use of cigarettes and alcohol between 1995 and 2005; use of marijuana and hard drugs remained stable. Of importance, declines in nonexperimental cigarette use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of victimization and declines in alcohol use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of PTSD.

  20. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (aged 12 to 17 years) participating in the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (NSA; N = 3,906) and the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R; N = 3,423). Results revealed significant declines in adolescents' use of cigarettes and alcohol between 1995 and 2005; use of marijuana and hard drugs remained stable. Importantly, declines in non-experimental cigarette use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of victimization and declines in alcohol use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of PTSD. PMID:21229450

  1. Latino Adolescents' Experiences of Discrimination across the First 2 Years of High School: Correlates and Influences on Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Changes in perceptions of discrimination were examined with 668 Latino students (62% Mexican American; 56% female; M[subscript age] = 14.6 years). Adolescents' reports of discrimination increased across the first 2 years of high school. Perceptions of discrimination were higher for boys and for primary language brokers, as well as for adolescents…

  2. Bone mineral density in a cohort of adolescent women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for one to two years.

    PubMed

    Busen, Nancy H; Britt, Robin B; Rianon, Nahid

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine estradiol and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of adolescents using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) for one to two years. BMD was significantly decreased in the femoral neck and lumbar spine at year one. Estradiol levels suggested hypoestrogenization among subjects

  3. Trajectories of Adolescent Alcohol Use in the Year Following a Brief Alcohol Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Hernandez, Lynn; Rodríguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Brief interventions have become increasingly popular for youth who engage in problematic drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the alcohol use trajectories of adolescents over a 12-month period following the receipt of a brief intervention. Method: The current sample came from two independent studies and consisted of 206 adolescents (ages 13–19; 52% male) recruited through an emergency department or community institution (e.g., courts, schools). Timeline followback methods were used at four points over 1 year to obtain daily estimates of alcohol use behaviors, with daily data then aggregated at the monthly level to examine trajectories of total drinks consumed and maximum drinks on one occasion. Using latent growth curve analysis, we expected a general pattern of increasing use over time, with lower use during the month immediately following completion of the intervention. Results: Models with random intercepts, random linear slopes, and fixed quadratic trends provided good fit to the data for both total drinks and maximum drinks. For each outcome, there was an immediate decrease and then a gradual increase up to the 3- and 6-month assessments, with decreases seen in the months following assessments. Older age, White race, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and greater prior substance use were associated with greater initial levels of use and growth over time. Conclusions: Interindividual differences were observed in alcohol use trajectories over time for high-risk adolescents following an alcohol use intervention. Subsequent research may demonstrate more uniform and permanent modification of trajectories by incorporating intervention-related materials into follow-up contacts. PMID:26402351

  4. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  5. Development of a Sex Education Programme for 12-Year-Old to 14-Year-Old Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Figen; Gray, Lizbeth Ann

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has documented a need for the development of a sex education programme in Turkish schools in terms of adolescence readiness and the presence of misconceptions regarding critical aspects of sexual issues. Currently no school-based sex education is available for Turkish adolescents. This paper presents the development of a…

  6. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  7. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  8. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  9. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  10. [The combined DAK therapy of obesity for children and adolescents. Evaluation after 1 year].

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Westenhöfer, J; Rudolphi, B; Kraaibeek, H K

    2008-04-10

    In 2003, the program "The combined DAK therapy of obesity for children and adolescents", funded and conducted by the Deutsche Angestellten Krankenkasse (DAK) (A German Health Insurance Company), has started. The whole treatment lasts for 1 year including an initial inpatient therapy for 6 weeks followed by an outpatient treatment at home that adresses the overweight patients and their families. The therapy contents are developed according to the recommendations of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter (AGA)". In a prospective cohort study a sample of 604 subjects was studied in order to examine the achievement of the treatment goals weight reduction, behaviour modification and improvement of quality of life. The development of weight was evaluated using BMI-SDS. 44,1% of children and adolescents had a successful weight reduction, they reduced their weight at least by 0,3 BMI-SDS. Furthermore, significant changes of health behaviour, physical fitness and quality of life were observed. However, during the outpatient treatment an impairment of some behaviour changes were observed. Nevertheless, the study has identified significant, positive effects in weight loss, behaviour modifications, changes in physical fitness and in the development of quality of life as a result of the therapy. It is demonstrated that a relapse in "old behaviour" followed by an increase of weight after the inpatient treatment can be avoided bythe subsequent outpatient therapy.

  11. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation.

  12. Adolescent Self-control Predicts Midlife Hallucinatory Experiences: 40-Year Follow-up of a National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Atsushi; Xu, Kate Man; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Barnett, Jenifer; Richards, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Associations between self-control in adolescence and adult mental health are unclear in the general population; to our knowledge, no study has investigated self-control in relation to psychotic-like symptoms. Aims: To investigate the relationship between adolescent self-control and the midlife mental health outcomes of anxiety and depression symptoms and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), controlling for the effect of adolescent conduct and emotional problems and for parental occupational social class and childhood cognition. Methods: A population-based sample, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was contacted 23 times between ages 6 weeks and 53 years. Teachers completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviors, from which factors measuring self-control, behavioral, and emotional problems were extracted. At age 53 years, PLEs were self-reported by 2918 participants using 4 items from the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire; symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: After adjustment for the above covariates, poor adolescent self-control was associated with the presence of PLEs in adulthood, specifically hallucinatory experiences at age 53 years, even after adjustment for GHQ-28 scores. Conclusions: Lower self-control in adolescence is a risk factor for hallucinatory experiences in adulthood. PMID:24714378

  13. Facial sensibility in adolescents with and without clefts 1 year after undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Posnick, J C; al-Qattan, M M; Pron, G

    1994-09-01

    Static two-point discrimination, pressure, and vibratory threshold values were measured at standard coordinates in the area corresponding to the infraorbital nerve distribution in 59 adolescents 1 year after undergoing LeFort I osteotomy. The patients were divided into three groups: those born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 30; mean age, 18 years; SD = 2); those with bilateral cleft lip and palate (n = 12; mean age, 19 years; SD = 3); and those without a cleft (n = 17; mean age, 19 years; SD = 3). One year after the osteotomy, none of the patients complained of altered sensibility in the maxillary vestibular mucosa, gingiva, or upper lip and cheek regions. No significant differences were found between the mean postoperative sensibility values of patients with and without clefts, indicating that the presence of clefting did not affect sensory recovery. Mean postoperative static two-point discrimination values were higher than preoperative values in all areas tested and in all patient groups. These results suggest that the sensory recovery, although incomplete, was strong enough to mask any subjective feelings of changes in sensory function.

  14. Involvement in bullying as predictor of suicidal ideation among 12- to 15-year-old Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Sund, Anne Mari

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships between bullying and suicidal ideation. A total of 2,464 adolescents in Norway were assessed at two time points, 1 year apart [i.e., at ages 14 (T1) and 15 (T2)], with identical questionnaires. Suicidal ideation was measured by four items including both active and passive suicidal thoughts. ANOVA and standard linear regression methods were applied. Both bullied adolescents and adolescents who were aggressive toward others had significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation (p < 0.001) at age 14 (T1) than noninvolved adolescents. In the group being bullied, girls had higher levels of suicidal ideation than boys did. This was not the case for the group of adolescents who were the aggressors. In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, both being bullied and being aggressive toward others were significant (p < 0.001) predictors of suicidal ideation at age 14 (T1), when gender, age and socioeconomic status, and depressing symptom levels were controlled for. In the controlled longitudinal multivariate analyses, being bullied (p < 0.001) at age 14 (T1) predicted suicidal ideation at age 15 (T2), while aggressiveness toward others did not. Bullied adolescents (both genders) were at risk for suicidal ideation, and having an additional risk if they were depressed. PMID:23361192

  15. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  16. Unsuccessful suicide attempt of a 15 year old adolescent with ingestion of 5000 mg modafinil.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Gal; Shehadeh, Naim; Pillar, Giora

    2009-08-15

    Modafinil (Provigil) is a wake-promoting drug approved for patients with narcolepsy or other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. Each pill is 100 to 200 mg; maximal daily dose of modafinil in adults is 400 mg (the medication is not approved by the FDA for children younger than 16 years of age). We report the case of an adolescent who attempted to commit suicide by ingesting 50 pills of modafinil. The medication was prescribed for her mother to treat symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Approximately 2 hours following ingestion the patient complained of headache, nausea and abdominal pain. Her ECG demonstrated prolonged QTc interval. Observation for 72 hours revealed 24 hours of inability to sleep, tachycardia, and dyskinesia. There was no deterioration of kidney or liver functions, and no change in complete blood count or blood pressure. PMID:19968017

  17. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095

  18. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    PubMed Central

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M.; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. PMID:25054381

  19. Number of Years of Team and Individual Sport Participation During Adolescence and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

  20. Pubertal Development, Personality, and Substance Use: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study From Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age—related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages—related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PMID:24016016

  1. Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning over 10 Years Following Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Cummins, Kevin; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Anderson, Ramo, Cummins, and Brown (2010) described six distinct patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use during the decade following adolescents’ treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (A/SUD). This time period represents a phase of significant neurodevelopment and the influence of substance use on the brain is a concern. In the present study we examined patterns of neuropsychological function over these 10 years in relation to the AOD trajectories identified for youth as they transition into their twenties. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project following adolescents with and without A/SUD who received neuropsychological examinations at baseline and up to 7 times thereafter spanning 10 years (N=213; 46% female at baseline). Neuropsychological trajectories were significantly related to substance involvement patterns over time on measures of verbal learning and memory (ps=.011 to <.0001), visuospatial memory (p=.0002), and verbal attention/working memory (p=.020), with heavier use patterns generally followed by poorer cognition. Heavy use of alcohol alone was independently associated with poorer verbal memory over time. Further, substance withdrawal symptoms during each follow-up time point were related to poorer verbal learning and memory scores (ps<.05), while substance abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were not related to neuropsychological performance levels. These findings suggest that AOD use during adolescence and young adulthood may primarily influence performance that relies on later maturing brain structures, although further research is needed. Higher levels of AOD withdrawal symptoms may signify greater neuropsychological impairment, reflecting potential neurotoxic effects of AOD use. PMID:21443308

  2. Outcome 1 to 3 years after severe traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyer, M G; Edwards, P

    1991-07-01

    This study reports a consecutive series of 220 children and adolescents who sustained traumatic brain injury (BI) and were admitted to a comprehensive paediatric rehabilitation programme. Progress in areas of mobility, activities of daily living, education and cognitive function were documented for up to 3 years after the injury. Physical recovery was most rapid in the first years and cognitive and language gains generally occurred later, even up to 3 years after the injury. Cognitive assessment at the time of admission proved helpful in predicting outcome; of those patients admitted in a conscious state only one remained dependent for any aspect of self care. Even for those admitted unconscious at a median of 62 days after injury there was good potential for recovery with 27-43 per cent achieving independence in the activities of daily living. For those still unconscious at 6 months, 72 per cent remained vegetative and none achieved the highest cognitive level. Overall, 14 per cent returned to regular education while 25 per cent remained incapable of any educational programme. In a well planned and multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme, patients with severe BI have potential for continued recovery and measurable improvement for at least 3 years. The emphasis should be targeted on differing areas of the therapy programme at different phases of recovery. A realistic appraisal of the ultimate potential for recovery can usually be made by 6 months.

  3. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  4. One-Year Follow-Up of Suicidal Adolescents: Parental History of Mental Health Problems and Time to Post-Hospitalization Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; Kerr, David C. R.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Merchant, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of recently hospitalized suicidal youth examined parental mental health history in addition to several indices of adolescent functioning as risk factors for time-to-suicide attempt over a 1-year period. Participants were 352 adolescents (253 girls, 99 boys; ages 13-17 years) who participated in self-report and interview…

  5. Should Parents Allow Their Adolescent Children to Drink at Home? Family Factors as Predictors of Alcohol Involvement Trajectories Over 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Cooper, M. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined familial risk and protective factors as moderators of parents allowing their adolescent children to drink at home on longitudinal alcohol involvement trajectories. Method: A total of 772 community adolescents and their parents provided data beginning in 1989 and at four subsequent time points over 15 years; Black adolescents were intentionally oversampled (50% at baseline). Results: Outcomes related to allowing adolescents to drink at home depended on family structure: Adolescents from intact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the lowest levels of alcohol use and problems over time, whereas those from nonintact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the highest levels of involvement. These results controlled for family history of alcohol problems, consistent parenting styles, and demographic characteristics. Conclusions: Results suggest that allowing adolescents to drink at home is neither inherently protective nor risky but depends on the family context. Implications for the development of adolescent alcohol involvement are discussed. PMID:26402346

  6. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  7. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  8. Factors Associated with Adolescent Physical Activity during Middle School Physical Education: A One-Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senne, Terry; Rowe, David; Boswell, Boni; Decker, James; Douglas, Shaun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive component of a larger, exploratory case study was to examine associations among lesson contexts, teacher behaviors, and adolescent physical activity over a year of physical education (PE) at one school. Middle school students (n = 206) and their PE teachers (n = 4) were observed twice-weekly across one academic…

  9. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  10. Past 15-Year Trends in Adolescent Marijuana Use: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714

  11. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, P<0.001). Similar results were found for all other anthropometric changes and comparisons over one year between surgery types (P<0.001). In general, gastric bypass patients reported more improvement versus adjustable gastric band patients in comorbidities one year after surgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  12. Conduct Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories, Predictors and Outcomes in a Six-Year Follow Up.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Andershed, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Understanding youth conduct problems requires examination from a developmental perspective, analyzing distinctive pathways across childhood and adolescence, and identifying early predictors which will lead to specific adolescent outcomes. Bearing this in mind, developmental trajectories of conduct problems were identified from a person-oriented perspective, and using data collected from three waves over a six-year period, in a sample of Spanish children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study. Conduct problems showed five distinctive trajectories which were grouped into three major pathways in further analyses: Stable low, Stable high, and Decreasing. Associations with early personality and psychopathic traits, as well as with a wide range of adolescent behavioral and psychosocial outcomes were examined, revealing the Stable high group as exhibiting the highest risk profile. These results contribute to improving our knowledge about one of the most relevant problems in youth populations, and will help in refining interventions strategies by recognizing the developmental heterogeneity of the construct. PMID:25354563

  13. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  14. Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users with Co-Occurring Alcohol Use: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Infante, M. Alejandra; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Meruelo, Alejandro D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. Method Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n=59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then re-assessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. Results MJ+ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps<.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps≤.02). Conclusions Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. PMID:25938918

  15. Differential effects on mood of 12-15 (SMR) and 15-18 (beta1) Hz neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    The common assumption in EEG-neurofeedback is one of functional specificity of the trained spectral bands, though it has been posited that only a nonspecific generalised learning process may be engaged. Earlier we reported differential effects on attention in healthy participants measured with continuous performance tests and the P300, following training of the sensory-motor rhythm band (SMR, 12-15 Hz) compared with the adjacent beta1 (15-18 hz) band. Here previously unreported results are presented with phenomenological data from an activation checklist in support of the putative calming effect of SMR neurofeedback. While within sessions both protocols induced tiredness, this was paralleled by an increase in calmness only following SMR training. The differential effect on mood was theoretically consistent and extends evidence of cognitive functional specificity with neurofeedback to affective processes.

  16. Crystal-Packing Trends for a Series of 6,9,12,15,18-Pentaaryl-1-hydro[60]fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Robert D.; Halim, Merissa; Khan, Saeed I.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Rubin, Yves

    2012-06-11

    The relationship between the size of the substituents of aryl groups in a series of fifteen 6,9,12,15,18-pentaaryl-1-hydro[60]fullerenes and the solid-state structures and packing motifs of these compounds has been analyzed. Pentaarylfullerenes have a characteristic “badminton shuttlecock” shape that causes several derivatives to crystallize into columnar stacks. However, many pentaarylfullerenes form non-stacked structures with, for example, dimeric, layered, diamondoid, or feather-in-cavity relationships between molecules. Computational modeling gave a qualitative estimate of the best shape match between the ball and socket surfaces of each pentaarylfullerene. The best match was for pentaarylfullerenes with large, spherically shaped para-substituents on the aryl groups. The series of pentaarylfullerenes was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A total of 34 crystal structures were obtained as various solvates and were categorized by their packing motifs.

  17. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  18. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  19. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2007-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  20. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  1. Assessing and Treating Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities: A 20-Year Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Matson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods of assessing and treating aggression in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities were reviewed. While a number of measures have been developed to assess aggression in the general population, there are relatively few assessment methods for use with children and adolescents with developmental disabilities. In all, 54…

  2. Initiation of Substance Use by Adolescents after One Year in Residential Youth Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monshouwer, Karin; Kepper, Annelies; van den Eijnden, Regina; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that substance use levels among adolescents living in residential youth care are high. However, it is not clear to what extent adolescents initiate (heavy) substance during their stay and to what extent these rates are higher than would be expected based on their risk profile. Objective: The aim of the…

  3. Emotional Dynamics in the Development of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of the level and variability of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness in the development of adolescent-reported anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in 452 adolescents (250 male) followed from age 13 to 14. Level and between-day variability of emotions were assessed through…

  4. Social Connectedness and One-Year Trajectories among Suicidal Adolescents Following Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Liu, Zhuqing; King, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which posthospitalization "change" in connectedness with family, peers, and nonfamily adults predicted suicide attempts, severity of suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms across a 12-month follow-up period among inpatient suicidal adolescents. Participants were 338 inpatient suicidal adolescents, ages 13 to…

  5. Transition Years Count: An Adolescent Profile. KIDS COUNT County Data Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book is the ninth to examine trends in the well-being of Kentucky children, focusing on the transition period of adolescence, based on the view that lessons learned and foundations laid in early adolescence directly impact the transition to adulthood. This statistical portrait is based on trends in indicators of well-being in…

  6. Impact of a youth-friendly HIV clinic: 10 years of adolescent outcomes in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Lindsey K; Bertrand, Rachel; Benedict, Charles; Lamb, Matthew R; Rouzier, Vanessa; Verdier, Rose; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Kuhn, Louise; McNairy, Margaret L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents account for over 40% of new HIV infections in Haiti. This analysis compares outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents before and after implementation of an adolescent HIV clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Methods We conducted a cohort study using programmatic data among HIV-positive adolescents aged 13 to 19. Data from 41,218 adolescents who were HIV tested from January 2003 to December 2012 were included. Outcomes across the HIV care cascade were assessed before and after implementation of an adolescent clinic (2009), including HIV testing, enrolment in care, assessment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility, ART initiation and 12-month retention. Pre-ART outcomes were assessed 12 months after HIV testing. Factors associated with pre-ART and ART attrition were identified through multivariable competing risk and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Results Cumulatively, 1672 (4.1%) adolescents tested HIV positive (80% female, median age 16 years). Retention by cascade step comparing pre- and post-clinic included the following: 86% versus 87% of patients enrolled in care, 61% versus 79% were assessed for ART eligibility, 85% versus 92% initiated ART and 68% versus 66% were retained 12 months after ART initiation. Pre-ART attrition decreased from 61% pre-clinic to 50% post-clinic (p<0.001). Pre-ART attrition was associated with being female (sub-distributional hazard ratio (sHR): 1.59; CI: 1.31–1.93), syphilis diagnosis (sHR: 1.47; CI: 1.16–1.85) and slum residence (sHR: 0.84; CI: 0.72–0.97). ART attrition was associated with syphilis diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; CI: 1.35–3.68) and CD4 <50 cells/µL (HR: 1.88; CI: 1.15–3.06). Conclusions Implementation of a youth-friendly adolescent clinic improved retention in HIV care among adolescents, particularly in the assessment of ART eligibility and ART initiation. Additional interventions are needed to improve retention among pre-ART patients and support long

  7. Three-Year Chemical Dependency and Mental Health Treatment Outcomes Among Adolescents: The Role of Continuing Care

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Stacy; Chi, Felicia; Campbell, Cynthia; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the effects of treatment factors, including the types of services [chemical dependency (CD), psychiatric, or both], on long-term outcomes among adolescents following CD treatment, and whether receiving continuing care may contribute to better outcomes. This study examines the effect of the index CD and ongoing CD and psychiatric treatment episodes, 12-step participation, and individual characteristics such as CD and mental health (MH) severity and gender, age, and ethnicity, on 3-year CD and MH outcomes. Methods Participants were 296 adolescents aged 13 to 18 seeking treatment at 4 CD programs of a nonprofit, managed care, integrated health system. We surveyed participants at intake, 1 year, and 3 years, and examined survey and administrative data, and CD and psychiatric utilization. Results At 3 years, 29.7% of the sample reported total abstinence from both alcohol and drugs (excluding tobacco). Compared with girls, boys had only half the odds of being abstinent (OR = 0.46, p = 0.0204). Gender also predicted Externalizing severity at 3 years (coefficients 18.42 vs. 14.77, p < 0.01). CD treatment readmission in the second and third follow-up years was related to abstinence at 3 years (OR = 0.24, p = 0.0066 and OR = 3.33, p = 0.0207, respectively). Abstinence at 1 year predicted abstinence at 3 years (OR = 4.11, p < 0.0001). Those who were abstinent at 1 year also had better MH outcomes (both lower Internalizing and Externalizing scores) than those who were not (11.75 vs. 15.55, p = 0.0012 and 15.13 vs. 18.06, p = 0.0179, respectively). Conclusions A CD treatment episode resulting in good 1-year CD outcomes may contribute significantly to both CD and MH outcomes 3 years later. The findings also point to the value of providing a continuing care model of treatment for adolescents. PMID:19413644

  8. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  9. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  10. The relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years, and possible mediating effects of availability and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-09-14

    The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.

  11. Adolescent Predictors of Alcohol Use in Adulthood: A 22-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Nezia, Nasrat; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The excessive consumption of alcohol is a major issue in the United States and elsewhere. It is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, as well as difficulty in relationships and employment. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates the direct and indirect adolescent predictors of alcohol use in adulthood. Methods Among the 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans), 60% were females (n=405). Mplus software was used to perform structural equation modeling. Results Parental problems with alcohol use in the participants’ late adolescence were related to low parent-child attachment in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to self delinquency in late adolescence. This was related to peer delinquency in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood and in adulthood. Low parent-child attachment in late adolescence was also related to low satisfaction for school in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to self delinquency in late adolescence. This was associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with alcohol use in adulthood. Conclusions and Scientific Significance One of the key implications of this study is that impaired low parent-child attachment relationship is a determinant of children’s engagement in delinquent behavior and ultimately the use of alcohol in adult life. Implications for social interventions from the findings of the current study were also discussed. PMID:27629987

  12. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  13. [Psychology and nutrition in the ontogenetic development in the infant-adolescence years].

    PubMed

    Fuillerat Alfonso, R

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established. PMID:15315112

  14. Personality Characteristics of Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.

    Four hundred and forty-six poor black urban and rural adolescents ages 15-18 enrolled in a summer poverty-work program are administered Gough's Adjective Checklist (ACL) and Holland's Vocatonal Preference Inventory (VPI) to determine their personality profile, to ascertain differences between this gorup and blacks attending colleges, and to study…

  15. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  16. Who Is Physically Active? Cultural Capital and Sports Participation from Adolescence to Middle Age--A 38-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many studies have found that there is a low-to-moderate association between exercise during adolescence and exercise habits in adulthood. A question that arises from these earlier studies, with a follow-up period of about five to 20 years, is how children's and adolescents' physical activity affects their inclination to exercise later…

  17. A Comparative Analysis Regarding Factors Related to 13- to 18-Year-Old African American Male Adolescents in Special Education and the Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Jonathan Lanier

    2013-01-01

    This study was focused on the identification of selected risk factors seemingly present among African American male adolescents 13 to 18 years old who were participants in special education programs at their schools. Many of these male adolescents were also found to participate in the juvenile justice system under what was characterized as…

  18. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  19. Cubital tunnel syndrome in adolescent baseball players: a report of six cases with 3- to 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Kohei; Aiki, Hikono; Wada, Takuro; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Ogiwara, Naoshi

    2005-06-01

    In this case report, we describe the clinical features and surgical outcome of cubital tunnel syndrome in adolescent baseball players. Two infielders, 2 pitchers, and 2 catchers who suffered cubital tunnel syndrome during adolescence (average age, 14 years) were surgically treated. Symptoms of medial elbow pain first appeared during throwing in competition games in summer or autumn seasons. After the onset, they suffered limitation of elbow extension and weakness on grabbing balls. They could not throw because of recurrent medial elbow pain. Laxity of the medial collateral ligament was not detected by stress radiography. Duration of symptoms from the onset to surgery was less than 6 months for 2 patients, 1 year for 2, and longer than 2 years for 2 patients. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve relieved symptoms up to 3.3 postoperative years. Medial protrusion of the triceps muscle was observed to cause irritation of the ulnar nerve. Fibrosis surrounding the ulnar nerve was observed without pseudoneuroma. Throwing performance returned completely to competitive level in 5 months postoperatively in 5 of 6 patients. Early diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome in adolescent baseball players is very important. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve relieves symptoms and restores throwing function.

  20. A young male adolescent with feminine appearance: diagnosis of 46, XX syndrome neglected for 4 years with gynaecomastia presentation.

    PubMed

    Fu, C-P; Sheu, W H-H; Tseng, J-J; Lin, S-Y

    2014-04-01

    Gynaecomastia is common in infancy and adolescent boys, but other inciting causes should be kept in mind and necessitate further evaluation should be conducted to determine any underlying conditions. A 22-year-old unmarried male adolescent visited our endocrinology clinic for feminine appearance despite operations for bilateral gynaecomastia 4 years ago. Physical examination showed inverted triangular distribution of pubic hair, sparse beard, small-sized testes, flaccid short penis and surgical scar of the chest wall. Serum hormones study revealed primary hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and cytogenetic study disclosed female complement (46, XX). The authors recommend that sexual chromosome abnormality should be considered in patients with hypogonadism to avert androgen deficiency-related complications early and that long-term team care should be provided to improve the patient's health-related quality of life.

  1. 1-year follow-up of neurofeedback treatment in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Ilja L.; Popma, Arne; Janssen, Tieme W.P.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mixed. Aims To investigate the long-term additional effects of neurofeedback (NFB) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with ADHD. Method Using a multicentre parallel-randomised controlled trial design, 60 adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD receiving NFB+TAU (n=41) or TAU (n=19) were followed up. Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Outcome measures included behavioural self-reports and neurocognitive measures. Allocation to the conditions was unmasked. Results At 1-year follow-up, inattention as reported by adolescents was decreased (range ηp2=0.23–0.36, P<0.01) and performance on neurocognitive tasks was faster (range ηp2=0.20–0.67, P<0.005) irrespective of treatment group. Conclusions Overall, NFB+TAU was as effective as TAU. Given the absence of robust additional effects of neurofeedback in the current study, results do not support the use of theta/SMR neurofeedback as a treatment for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703763

  2. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them.

  3. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. PMID:25528975

  4. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  5. Psychiatric disorder in a familial 15;18 translocation and sublocalization of myelin basic protein to 18q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Calzolari, E.; Aiello, V.; Palazzi, P.; Sensi, A.

    1996-04-09

    Two related patients with similar clinical features consisting of a few dysmorphic signs and psychiatric disturbance were reported to have a partial trisomy of chromosomes 15(pter-q13.3) and 18(q23-qter) deriving from a familial translocation t(15;18). One patient is affected by bipolar disorder and the other by schizoaffective disorder. Both cases have a predominantly affective course; nevertheless, a clear diagnosis is difficult in the first patient, who is 15 years of age, and only a longitudinal course will allow us to establish a definite diagnosis. The possibility that these two pathologies belong to a single category is discussed, and the presence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 18 is hypothesized. Cytogenetic data, FISH, and DNA studies indicate that the myelin basic protein (MPB) gene is not involved in the translocation, and localize it centromeric to the breakpoint on chromosome 18(q22.3). Thus, it is unlikely to be involved in the disease. 58 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Relapse From Remission at Two- to Four-Year Follow-Up in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Grange, Daniel Le; Lock, James; Accurso, Erin C.; Agras, W. Stewart; Darcy, Alison; Forsberg, Sarah; Bryson, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Long-term follow-up studies documenting maintenance of treatment effects are few in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This exploratory study reports relapse from full remission and attainment of remission during a four-year open follow-up period using a convenience sample of a subgroup of 65% (n=79) from an original cohort of 121 participants who completed a randomized clinical trial comparing family based therapy (FBT) and adolescent focused individual therapy (AFT). Method Follow-up assessments were completed up to four years posttreatment (average of 3.26 years). Available participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination as well as self-report measures of self-esteem and depression at two to four years posttreatment. Results Two participants (6.1%) relapsed (FBT: n = 1, 4.5%; AFT: n = 1, 9.1%), on average 1.98 years (SD = 0.14) after remission was achieved at one-year follow-up. Ten new participants (22.7%) achieved remission (FBT: n = 1, 5.9%; AFT: n = 9, 33.3%). Mean time to remission for this group was 2.01 years (SD = 0.82) from one-year follow-up. There were no differences based on treatment group assignment in either relapse from full remission or new remission during long-term follow-up. Other psychopathology was stable over time. Conclusion There were few changes in the clinical presentation of participants who were assessed at long-term follow-up. These data suggest that outcomes are generally stable posttreatment regardless of treatment type once remission is achieved. Clinical trial registration information—Effectiveness of Family-Based Versus Individual Psychotherapy in Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00149786. PMID:25440306

  7. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  8. Early Adolescents' Unique Perspectives of Maternal and Paternal Rejection: Examining Their Across-Dyad Generalizability and Relations with Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    PubMed

    Jager, Justin; Mahler, Alissa; An, Danming; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Skinner, Ann T; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-10-01

    Parental rejection is linked to deep and enduring adjustment problems during adolescence. This study aims to further clarify this relation by demonstrating what has long been posited by parental acceptance/rejection theory but never validated empirically-namely that adolescents' unique or subjective experience of parental rejection independently informs their future adjustment. Among a longitudinal, multi-informant sample of 161 families (early adolescents were 47 % female and 40 % European American) this study utilized a multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis to isolate for each early adolescent-parent dyad, the adolescent's distinct view of parental rejection (i.e., the adolescent unique perspective) from the portion of his or her view that overlaps with his or her parent's view. The findings indicated that adolescents' unique perspectives of maternal rejection were not differentiated from their unique perspectives of paternal rejection. Also, consistent with parental acceptance-rejection theory, early adolescents' unique perspectives of parental rejection were associated with worse adjustment (internalizing and externalizing) 1 year later. This study further demonstrates the utility and validity of the multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis approach for identifying and examining adolescent unique perspectives. Both conceptually and analytically, this study also integrates research focused on unique perspectives with a distinct but related line of research focused on discrepancies in perspectives.

  9. Early Adolescents' Unique Perspectives of Maternal and Paternal Rejection: Examining Their Across-Dyad Generalizability and Relations with Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    PubMed

    Jager, Justin; Mahler, Alissa; An, Danming; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Skinner, Ann T; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-10-01

    Parental rejection is linked to deep and enduring adjustment problems during adolescence. This study aims to further clarify this relation by demonstrating what has long been posited by parental acceptance/rejection theory but never validated empirically-namely that adolescents' unique or subjective experience of parental rejection independently informs their future adjustment. Among a longitudinal, multi-informant sample of 161 families (early adolescents were 47 % female and 40 % European American) this study utilized a multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis to isolate for each early adolescent-parent dyad, the adolescent's distinct view of parental rejection (i.e., the adolescent unique perspective) from the portion of his or her view that overlaps with his or her parent's view. The findings indicated that adolescents' unique perspectives of maternal rejection were not differentiated from their unique perspectives of paternal rejection. Also, consistent with parental acceptance-rejection theory, early adolescents' unique perspectives of parental rejection were associated with worse adjustment (internalizing and externalizing) 1 year later. This study further demonstrates the utility and validity of the multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis approach for identifying and examining adolescent unique perspectives. Both conceptually and analytically, this study also integrates research focused on unique perspectives with a distinct but related line of research focused on discrepancies in perspectives. PMID:27262697

  10. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.

  11. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters - infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.

  12. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  13. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cimino, Nina; Di Pietro, Elena; Pollutri, Gabriella; Neviani, Vittoria; Ferri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT), and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18) who had acute hospitalizations (n=140) in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83), from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient −2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic regression). The most frequent reasons for admission were aggressive behavior in males and suicide risk in females (P=0.002). The most frequent psychiatric diagnosis at SPDT discharge was “conduct disorder”, more frequent in males, followed by “adjustment disorder”, more frequent in females (P=0.001). In SPDT, the adolescent hospitalizations progressively increased fivefold at the end of the observation period

  14. Continuous up to 4 Years Entecavir Treatment of HBV-Infected Adolescents – A Longitudinal Study in Real Life

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Smok, Beata; Rajewski, Paweł; Wietlicka-Piszcz, Magdalena; Halota, Waldemar; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term (up to 4 years) efficacy and safety of entecavir ETV treatment and analysed the significance of baseline and on-treatment factors in long-term ETV outcomes in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined the cumulative virological and serological outcomes of 44 adolescents with CHB receiving ETV for up to 4 years. To investigate the dynamics of HBV DNA, ALT activity and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion over time and their associations with the considered factors, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. The cumulative rates of undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/ml) and HBeAg seroconversion after 4 years were 89.7% and 55.4%, respectively. In the study group, we showed that having undetectable HBV DNA at the 6th or 12th month of therapy predicted the achievement of a sustained response rate (SRR, defined as the loss of HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and ALT normalization) at year 3 of ETV therapy (P = 0.048, OR = 5.83; P = 0.012; OR = 14.57, respectively). The GEE analysis indicated that of the different factors, the duration of ETV therapy had a strong impact on the achievement of virological suppression, HBeAg seroconversion and SRR in adolescents. Each month after the initiation of therapy, the odds of loss of HBV DNA increased by approximately 5% (OR = 1.05, P<0.0001), on average. Additionally, the GEE analysis revealed that adolescents with an age at infection of ≥10 years had 3 times higher odds of achieving undetectable HBV DNA than patients with a younger infection age (OR = 3.67, P = 0.028). None of the ETV-treated patients reported significant adverse effects. ETV is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescents with CHB. Undetectable HBV DNA in the 6th and/or 12th month of ETV treatment and older age at infection could predict maintained virological suppression. PMID:27685782

  15. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in adolescents: experiences in 378 adolescent NHL patients treated according to pediatric NHL-BFM protocols.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, B; Oschlies, I; Klapper, W; Zimmermann, M; Woessmann, W; Meinhardt, A; Landmann, E; Attarbaschi, A; Niggli, F; Schrappe, M; Reiter, A

    2011-01-01

    Age-related differences in the distribution, biology and treatment response of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adolescents remain to be elucidated. The current analyses present clinical parameters and outcomes of adolescents treated in pediatric NHL-BFM trials. Patients were stratified by histological subtype: lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL); mature B-NHL, including Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia (BL/B-AL), diffuse B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL-CB) and mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL); and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Between October 1986 and December 2007, 2915 patients were registered, including 378 (13%) adolescents (15-18 years) with BL/B-AL (n=101), ALCL (n=74), DLBCL-CB (n=55), T-LBL (n=45), PMLBL (n=24), pB-LBL (n=13) and rare or not-specified NHL subtypes (n=66). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 79±2% for adolescents compared with 85±1% for patients aged <15 years (P=0.014). EFS was 83±7% for adolescents with T-LBL, 82±4% with BL/B-AL, 85±5% with DLBCL-CB, 57±10% with PMLBL and 70±6% with ALCL. According to sex, the 5-year EFS in females versus males, respectively, was 70±5 versus 83±2% overall (P=0.004), 57±17 versus 92±6% (P=0.0036) for T-LBL patients and 71±9 versus 97±3% (P=0.0067) for DLBCL-CB patients. Adolescents with NHL treated according to pediatric NHL-BFM protocols had an EFS of 79±2%, which is marginally inferior to that of children. In adolescents with T-LBL and DLBCL-CB, female sex was associated with a worse prognosis. PMID:21030984

  16. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  17. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  18. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents.

  19. The stability of self-concept during adolescence and early adulthood: a six-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L

    1990-10-01

    The stability and gender differences of self-concept during adolescence and early adulthood were studied in 894 randomly selected Finnish subjects using the shortened version of the Coopersmith (1967) Self-Esteem Inventory. There were no differences between the men and women in the total score for self-concept. In early adulthood, men scored higher than women on general self-esteem, and women scored higher on the home-parents factor in each developmental period from pre-adolescence to adulthood. The stability of self-concept, as well as its different components, was rather high. General self-esteem showed the highest predictive value for the total score 6 years later.

  20. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  1. Nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescence: Prospective rates and risk factors in a 2 ½ year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about which risk factors longitudinally predict non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) during adolescence, a period when these self-injurious behaviors become alarmingly prevalent. We prospectively studied the rates, course, and longitudinal prediction of NSSI from early through middle adolescence with a community sample of 103 youth (ages 11–14) who were assessed for NSSI at baseline and 2 ½ years later (94% retention; final N=97). Multiple risk factors (temperament, cognitive and interpersonal vulnerabilities, stressors; youths’ and mothers’ depression) were examined as prospective predictors of NSSI over the 2½ year follow-up. Analyses showed that 18% of youth engaged in NSSI over the 2½-year follow-up; 14% for the first time. Distal risks (assessed at baseline) that differentiated youth who engaged in NSSI from those who did not included negative cognitive style and mothers’ prior depression. Proximal factors (assessed 2 years after baseline) that differentiated NSSI from non-NSSI youth included stressors, depressive symptoms, poor relationship quality, excessive reassurance seeking, and mothers’ onset of depression. Several of these factors predicted new engagement of NSSI over 2½ years. PMID:20807667

  2. HPV vaccination coverage among women aged 18–20 years in Germany three years after recommendation of HPV vaccination for adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Deleré, Yvonne; Böhmer, Merle M; Walter, Dietmar; Wichmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Routine immunization of adolescent girls aged 12–17 y against human papillomavirus (HPV) was recommended in Germany in March 2007. We aimed to assess HPV-vaccine uptake and knowledge about post-vaccination cervical cancer screening and condom use in women aged 18–20 years, three years after adoption of HPV-vaccination into the routine vaccination schedule. Results: Overall 2,001 females participated in our study. Of these, 49% reported receipt of a complete three-dose course of HPV-vaccines; 11% received 1 or 2 doses. Living in East Germany, high educational status, and interest in health-related issues were independently associated with HPV-vaccination. Misconceptions among survey-participants were rare: Only 8% believed that HPV-vaccination would obviate the need for cervical screening and 1% that condom use would be dispensible after vaccination. Methods: In 2010, a nationwide cross-sectional telephone-survey was performed among randomly-selected women aged 18–20 years living in Germany. Telephone interviews were conducted by a large professional market research institute as part of a daily omnibus survey. Conclusion: HPV-vaccination coverage is low in Germany. The results indicate that there is an urgent need for the implementation of a coordinated adolescent vaccination program to facilitate access to vaccination, including balanced information tailored to this age group. Otherwise, the HPV-vaccination effort will fall short of reaching its maximum public health benefit. PMID:23732901

  3. Health assets for adolescents: opinions from a neighbourhood in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel

    2015-09-01

    This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.

  4. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.

  5. The Co-Use of Tobacco and Cannabis among Adolescents over a 30-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…

  6. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  7. On Being Aware and Accepting: A One-Year Longitudinal Study into Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Kashdan, Todd B.; Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick; Jordan, Carlie

    2011-01-01

    The nature and potential benefit of awareness and experiential acceptance in adolescence remains neglected and understudied. To address this gap in the literature, 776 students (50% female) in Grade 10 completed measures of mindfulness, emotional awareness, and experiential acceptance, as well as measures of major personality traits. To study…

  8. Associations between Teacher Emotional Support and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G.; Spence, Susan H.; Bjerg, Annie C.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and…

  9. One Hundred Years of Knowing: The Changing Science of Adolescence, 1904 and 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Erickson, Lance D.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    The practice of science as a mode of discovery is subject to change. This paper examines the "sciences" practiced by G. Stanley Hall in his "Adolescence" of 1904 and by contemporary researchers who study youth in 2004. After briefly reviewing the nature of Hall's empiricism, we draw on a representative sample of articles (n=182) published between…

  10. Adolescents' Lifetime Experience of Selling Sex: Development over Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…

  11. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming. PMID:22311146

  12. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.

  13. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis.

  14. Six-year outcomes in first admission adolescent inpatients: clinical and cognitive characteristics at admission as predictors.

    PubMed

    Pogge, David L; Insalaco, Brie; Bertisch, Hilary; Bilginer, Lale; Stokes, John; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Harvey, Philip D

    2008-07-15

    Persistent functional disability is common after even a single psychiatric admission in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but less is known about other conditions and about adolescent onset patients. This study examined clinical symptoms and cognitive performance at the time of the first admission for the prediction of 6-year outcomes. First admission adolescent patients with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with comprehensive clinical ratings of psychopathology, a neuropsychological assessment, and received clinical diagnoses while experiencing their first psychiatric admission. They were contacted 6 years after discharge and examined with a structured assessment of psychiatric symptoms and functioning. Despite the low levels of overall impairment at follow-up, at least 20% of the variance in depression, psychosis, poor peer relationships and poor school attendance 6 years after the hospital admission were predicted by information collected during the hospitalization. Attentional deficits during admission predicted the presence of psychosis at follow-up more substantially than psychotic symptoms during admission, as well as predicting risk for relapse. Attentional deficits during a first psychiatric admission predicted risk for manifesting psychosis at 6-year follow-up to a more substantial degree than either a psychosis diagnosis or psychotic symptoms at admission. In contrast to psychosis, depression at follow-up was predicted by admission symptomatology, but not by cognitive deficits. PMID:18534688

  15. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis. PMID:25771751

  16. Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: a 26–year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence victimization represents a serious risk factor for health related symptoms, for both men and women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of violence exposure in late adolescence and early adulthood on adult health, physical as well as mental, using a long-term prospective population-based study, with a follow up of 9, 19, and 26 years. Methods The primary data source is a longitudinal panel from one of the longest running social science surveys in the world, the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU). We analyzed three cohorts, individuals aged 15–19 in 1974 and 1981, and individuals aged 18–19 in 1991 which were followed up 2000. Structured interviews on childhood, family relationships, life-events, living conditions, health history and status, working conditions, behavioral, psychosocial, and demographic variables were repeatedly used in all cohorts. Results Multivariate models of violence exposures in adolescence in the 1974–91 cohorts as predictors of adult health in 2000 are reported for both men and women. Women exposed to violence had raised odds ratios for ill health, measured as heavy illness burden, and poor self rated health, after controlling for possible confounders. No such associations were found for men. Conclusions This study’s findings provide additional empirical support for the importance of policies and practices to identify and prevent violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood and to supply treatments for adolescence exposed to violence and above all the young women. PMID:22716027

  17. Burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents of Fars province: analysis of Iran’s 20-year trends

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Sarikhani, Yaser; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transportation injuries are among the top ten causes of burden of disease in all age groups worldwide. The burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents in Iran is higher than the world average and that of other developing countries. The aims of this study were to investigate the burden of transportation injuries in children and adolescents in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013, and to report the burden of these kinds of injuries in children and adolescents in Iran from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: The number of deaths due to transportation injuries and the location of fatal injuries in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed using data from the Fars Forensic Medicine Organization. The 20-year trend in the burden of transportation injuries in Iran was analyzed using data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. RESULTS: Similarly to the long-term trend in Iran, the burden of transportation injuries among the male population of Fars province was generally higher than in females. Most fatal accident injuries occurred on roads (males: n=4151, 61.51%; females: n=1182, 65.95%) and in urban areas (males: n=1994, 29.54%; females: n=473, 26.40%). CONCLUSIONS: Considering that children and adolescents are high risk groups for transportation injuries, adopting an effective comprehensive multi-sectoral approach, including enacting and enforcing appropriate laws and regulations, developing general knowledge, and facilitating the availability of Personal protective equipment, could be helpful for reducing the burden of these injuries. PMID:25420953

  18. Curriculum Development for Learning To Live Together: The Caribbean Sub-Region. The Final Report of the Sub-Regional Seminar (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Isabel, Ed.; Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    A sub-regional seminar based on the theme, "Curriculum Development for Learning to Live Together" (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001), brought together 20 member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for Development: Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba, Bahamas,…

  19. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-hep-ta-oxa-te-tra-tri-aocta-noic acid, sodium salt...

  20. Unlocking the Transformational Power of Continuing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (71st, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 15-18, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Jerry, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 proceedings of the Association for Continuing Higher Education represent the professional presentations of the keynote sessions, the concurrent sessions, and the business meeting of the association's 71st annual conference, held at the Sheraton Society Hill Hotel in Philadelphia on November 15-18, 2009. The conference provided an engaging…

  1. Do adolescents' own intentions regarding healthy behaviours affect outcome? A two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-09-01

    Adolescents' own intentions regarding health behaviours, in addition to their context, are believed to be important for the health habits they chose. This was studied prospectively over a 2-y period. A total of 552 students, 391 aged 13 y and 161 aged 15 y, reported their health and problem behaviours, socioeconomic background and intentions regarding health behaviours through questionnaires in 1991 and in 1993. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits; acquisition of adult lifestyles; and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, already having initiated adult lifestyles or problem behaviours were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles, in order to determine what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y span. Key predictors for healthy behaviours were adolescents' own decisions not to engage in adult lifestyles or risky behaviours, family processes consistent with support and school satisfaction. Association with peer groups where smoking and drinking were commonplace predicted less optimal behaviours. Gender or socioeconomic factors were not predictive. The results support a comprehensive approach to health promotion during adolescence.

  2. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  3. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  4. Dietary Intake at 9 Years and Subsequent Body Mass Index in Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Study of Monozygotic Twin Pairs.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Bédard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and' eventually' genetic information.

  5. Dietary Intake at 9 Years and Subsequent Body Mass Index in Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Study of Monozygotic Twin Pairs.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Bédard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and' eventually' genetic information. PMID:26810866

  6. Explaining the effects of a 1-year intervention promoting a low fat diet in adolescent girls: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haerens, Leen; Cerin, Ester; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Background Although it is important to investigate how interventions work, no formal mediation analyses have been conducted to explain behavioral outcomes in school-based fat intake interventions in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine mediation effects of changes in psychosocial determinants of dietary fat intake (attitude, social support, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers) on changes in fat intake in adolescent girls. Methods Data from a 1-year prospective intervention study were used. A random sample of 804 adolescent girls was included in the study. Girls in the intervention group (n = 415) were exposed to a multi-component school-based intervention program, combining environmental changes with a computer tailored fat intake intervention and parental support. Fat intake and psychosocial determinants of fat intake were measured with validated self-administered questionnaires. To assess mediating effects, a product-of-coefficient test, appropriate for cluster randomized controlled trials, was used. Results None of the examined psychosocial factors showed a reliable mediating effect on changes in fat intake. The single-mediator model revealed a statistically significant suppression effect of perceived barriers on changes in fat intake (p = 0.011). In the multiple-mediator model, this effect was no longer significant, which was most likely due to changes in perceived barriers being moderately related to changes in self-efficacy (-0.30) and attitude (-0.25). The overall mediated-suppressed effect of the examined psychosocial factors was virtually zero (total mediated effect = 0.001; SE = 7.22; p = 0.992). Conclusion Given the lack of intervention effects on attitudes, social support, self-efficacy and perceived benefits and barriers, it is suggested that future interventions should focus on the identification of effective strategies for changing these theoretical mediators in the desired direction. Alternatively, it could be argued

  7. Poor diet quality and food habits are related to impaired nutritional status in 13- to 18-year-old adolescents in Jeddah.

    PubMed

    Washi, Sidiga A; Ageib, Maha B

    2010-08-01

    In recent decades, diets have changed rapidly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) because the Western diet is replacing the traditional Arabic diet. This has resulted in an alarming increase in the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents in KSA. It is well documented that lifestyle is strongly associated with the development of obesity. Nevertheless, this remains to be demonstrated in adolescents from a rapidly developing country in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia. This study tested the hypothesis that the new current dietary habits are related to the increase in overweight and obese Saudi Arabian adolescents. In 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 239 adolescents (13-18 years old) who were selected by cluster sampling from schools in Jeddah, KSA. The nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and biochemical parameters at the Saudi German Hospitals Group, Jeddah. Dietary habits were evaluated by a 3-day dietary recall (food diary) and a food frequency questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 15.5 ± 2.5 years. The mean body mass index was 27.43 ± 4.61 kg/m(2). A total of 44.6% of the adolescents were overweight, and 56.6%, 30.5%, and 13.0% of energy was derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Compared with the Dietary Reference Intake, carbohydrate and fat intakes were higher, and calcium, iron, and zinc intakes were lower. Higher cholesterol and lower hemoglobin levels were found in 30.5% and 53.6% of the adolescents, respectively. In summary, increased weight status of 13- to 18-year-old Saudi adolescents was related to their inadequate dietary habits. This indicates the importance of rapidly promoting a healthier lifestyle among Saudi Arabian adolescents.

  8. The effects of out-of-school time on changes in youth risk of obesity across the adolescent years.

    PubMed

    Zarrett, Nicole; Bell, Bethany A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of out-of-school time (OST) activities on youth weight-status through mid-to-late adolescence. First, using pattern-centered methods, we identified the prominent ways in which youth allocate their OST across 12 common active and sedentary activities available to them. Second, through multi-level modeling procedures we examined the relation of OST activity patterns to: 1) BMI-status during the 11th grade, and; 2) within-person change in BMI-status across the adolescent years. After accounting for race, gender, SES, pubertal-status, and gaming, youth who participated in a sports-dominant activity pattern for 2 or more years had significantly lower 11th grade odds of being at-risk for overweight/obesity compared to youth in all other activity patterns. Youth of all other activity patterns had similar odds of being at-risk as Low-Activity youth and each other. Understanding the relations of OST to youth healthy weight is a critical first step in developing healthy OST settings.

  9. Two-year study relating adolescents' self-concept and gender role perceptions to achievement and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Herbert M.; Morse, Linda W.

    To assess the developmental relationship of perceptions of self-concept and gender role identification with adolescents' attitudes and achievement in science, a two-year longitudinal study was conducted. A battery of instruments assessing 16 dimensions of self-concept/gender role identifications was employed to predict students' achievement and attitudes toward science. Specific behaviors studied included self-concept in school and science and mathematics, attitudes toward appropriate gender roles in science activities and careers, and self-perceptions of masculine and feminine traits. One hundred and fifty-five adolescents, enrolled, respectively, in the seventh and eighth grades, participated in the study. Through Fisher z transformations of correlation coefficients, differences in relationships between these two sets of variables were studied for males and females during the two years. Results indicated that students' self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both achievement and attitudes toward science, but more related to attitudes than achievement. These relationships became more pronounced for students as they matured from seventh to eighth graders.

  10. Quality of life in children and adolescents one-year after cure of Cushing syndrome: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Margaret F.; Merke, Deborah P.; Gandhi, Roma; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Obunse, Kathy; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is associated with symptoms that may impair health related quality of life (HRQL). There are no prospective reports of HRQL in children with CS. Methods Prospective study of 40 children (mean age 13 ± 3.2 years) with CS evaluated prior to and one-year post-treatment. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) was used to assess HRQL; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WASI) was used to assess cognitive function, and patient-reported symptoms were assessed with a CS symptom checklist. Results Active CS was associated with low physical and psychosocial summary scores compared to US population data (p< 0.001). Despite improvement from pre- to one-year post-cure, residual impairment remained in physical summary and function and scores, role-physical, global health, and emotional impact (parent). Incomplete recovery of adrenal function at one-year post-treatment was associated with impaired scores. WASI IQ scores declined and a correlation was noted between age at first evaluation and IQ score changes. Most self-reported CS symptoms showed improvement, but forgetfulness, unclear thinking, and decreased attention span did not improve after cure of CS. Conclusion CS in children and adolescents is associated with impaired HRQL, with residual impairment one-year after cure. Our results also suggest that younger children are more likely to experience negative changes in cognitive function. HRQL is an important outcome measure in children and adolescents with CS and identification of factors that contribute to HRQL may help to diminish the physical and psychological burden of disease in this population of patients. PMID:19170709

  11. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  12. [Effect of the media on the drawings of 14-16 years old adolescents].

    PubMed

    Hortoványi, Jidit

    2015-01-01

    Due to the pervasive presence of the Internet, the popularity of social networking sites and the general use of electronic tools in our age, the different idols and celebrities of media, film heroes or fictional characters have become an everyday part of a teenager's communication and cogitation. These themes often appear on adolescent drawings and they are often full of individual content and thus become the forms of self-expression. In my study I draw the attention to this phenomenon by presenting some examples. One characteristic area of it is when teenagers fill the schematic signs, icons and emoticons of the media with individual denotations, which can express anxiety or aggressive feelings hidden into these symbols. Identifying with movie characters or scenes often has a function to accomplish wishes. Similarly to role models, the identification with an idealised character may mean that the adolescent lives through the characteristic he longs for. The fictional characters of a film can be the tool of self-irony or self-taunting too, which can also refer to anxiety or aggressive feelings. In other cases pupils reveal very complex contents about selfknowledge through the scenes or characters of a film, which are difficult to get into shape in a verbal way. Finally, the frequent appearance of some famous trademarks in drawings could be an indication of matter of prestige and these emblems could be interpreted as a way of self-expression in peer groups. PMID:26202622

  13. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  14. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love. PMID:25663237

  15. Three- and five-year follow-up of a combined inpatient-outpatient treatment of obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adam, Sibylle; Westenhoefer, Joachim; Rudolphi, Birgit; Kraaibeek, Hanna-Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Aim. "The combined DAK therapy for obesity in children and adolescents" combines a 6-week inpatient with a 10.5-month outpatient treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the therapeutic achievements are maintained two and four years after intervention. Method. All subjects who had participated in the 12-month program in 2004/2005 were included in the follow-up study. Body weight, height, and physical fitness were assessed through direct measurements, behaviour, and quality of life by self-report questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results. The response rate after three years was 63.4% and 42.2% after five years. Within three years, participants reduced their BMI-SDS significantly by 0.20 (SD 0.49) and by 0.15 (SD 0.51) within five years. Significant positive changes could be observed with respect to the participants eating behaviour. Similarly, the food intake, particularly the consumption of calorie-reduced beverages, increased significantly while that of nonrecommended foods decreased. Improvement was also seen in the subjective quality of life as well as several aspects of self-perception. Conclusion. Compared to baseline data, significant reduction of BMI-SDS and positive changes of health-related behaviours could be observed even three and five years after the start of the initial program.

  16. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  17. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B; Carnero, Elvis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation.

  18. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  19. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B.; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation. PMID:27607063

  20. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B; Carnero, Elvis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation. PMID:27607063

  1. The development of moral emotions and decision-making from adolescence to early adulthood: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Colasante, Tyler; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-04-01

    Adolescents' emotions in the context of moral decision-making repeatedly have been shown to predict actual behaviour. However, little systematic information on developmental change regarding these emotion expectancies has been available thus far. This longitudinal study investigated anticipated moral emotions and decision-making between the ages of 15 and 21 in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1,258; 54 % female; M = 15.30 years). Anticipated moral emotions and decision-making were assessed through a semi-structured interview procedure. Using Bernoulli hierarchical linear modeling, it was found that positive feelings after a moral transgression (i.e., "happy victimizer" responses) decreased over time, whereas positive feelings after a moral decision (i.e., "happy moralist" responses) increased. However, this pattern was contingent upon the moral scenario presented. Systematic relationships between anticipated moral emotions and moral personality characteristics of sympathy, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were found, even when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and cognitive ability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the development of anticipated moral emotions is not limited to childhood. Furthermore, our findings suggest that moral emotions serve as an important link between moral personality development and decision-making processes that are more proximal to everyday moral behavior.

  2. Personal and socio-environmental predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings

    PubMed Central

    Loth, K; MacLehose, R; Bucchianeri, M; Crow, S; Neumark-Stainer, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify personal and socio-environmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood, as well as factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Methods Participants (n= 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1082 females and 820 males). Results Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors ten years later. For example, among both males and females weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared to 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (Prevalence difference: 34.3, 95% CI: 10.5, 58.1; p<0.01). Parental weight concerns, peer dieting and weight teasing at baseline were not found to be predictive of dieting or disordered eating at 10-year follow-up. Conclusions Personal factors identified during adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. PMID:24925491

  3. Effects of reward sensitivity and regional brain volumes on substance use initiation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Schissel, Ann; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines associations between baseline individual differences and developmental changes in reward [i.e. behavioral approach system (BAS)] sensitivity and relevant brain structures' volumes to prospective substance use initiation during adolescence. A community sample of adolescents ages 15-18 with no prior substance use was assessed for substance use initiation (i.e. initiation of regular alcohol use and/or any use of other substances) during a 2-year follow-up period and for alcohol use frequency in the last year of the follow-up. Longitudinal 'increases' in BAS sensitivity were associated with substance use initiation and increased alcohol use frequency during the follow-up. Moreover, adolescents with smaller left nucleus accumbens at baseline were more likely to initiate substance use during the follow-up period. This study provides support for the link between developmental increases in reward sensitivity and substance use initiation in adolescence. The study also emphasizes the potential importance of individual differences in volumes of subcortical regions and their structural development for substance use initiation during adolescence.

  4. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years).

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found. PMID:24439618

  5. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years).

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found.

  6. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes. PMID:23895167

  7. Moral identity as moral ideal self: links to adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sam A; Walker, Lawrence J; Olsen, Joseph A; Woodbury, Ryan D; Hickman, Jacob R

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes. Data came from a local school sample (Data Set 1: N = 510 adolescents; 10-18 years of age) and a national online sample (Data Set 2: N = 383 adolescents; 15-18 years of age) of adolescents and their parents. All outcome measures were parent-report (Data Set 1: altruism, moral personality, aggression, and cheating; Data Set 2: environmentalism, school engagement, internalizing, and externalizing), whereas other variables were adolescent-report. The 20-item Moral Ideal Self Scale showed good reliability, factor structure, and validity. Structural equation models demonstrated that, even after accounting for moral identity internalization, in Data Set 1 moral ideal self positively predicted altruism and moral personality and negatively predicted aggression, whereas in Data Set 2 moral ideal self positively predicted environmentalism and negatively predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Further, purpose and social responsibility mediated most relations between moral ideal self and the outcomes in Data Set 2. Moral ideal self was unrelated to age but differentially predicted some outcomes across age. Girls had higher levels of moral ideal self than boys, although moral identity did not differentially predict outcomes between genders. Thus, moral ideal self is a salient element of moral identity and may play a role in morally relevant adolescent outcomes.

  8. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time.

  9. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  10. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  11. Risk factors for disordered eating during early and middle adolescence: a two year longitudinal study of mainland Chinese boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Even though reliable eating disorder risk factors have been identified among adolescent girls, little is known about predictors of increased vulnerability within specific phases of adolescence or among adolescent boys, particularly in highly populated non-Western contexts. In this study, early and middle adolescent boys (n = 1,271) and girls (n = 1,415) from Chongqing, China completed validated measures of eating disorder pathology and putative risk factors at baseline and 2 years follow-up. Multivariate models for boys of each age group indicated increases in disordered eating at follow-up were predicted by higher initial body mass index, negative affect and body dissatisfaction levels as well as attendant increases in perceived appearance pressure from mass media, body dissatisfaction, negative affect between assessments. High baseline levels of reported appearance pressure from parents and dating partners contributed, respectively, to prediction models of younger and older boys. More distinct constellations of significant predictors emerged in multivariate models of early versus middle adolescent girls. Together, findings indicated body dissatisfaction and negative affect were fairly robust risk factors for exacerbations in disturbances across samples while risk factors such as perceived pressure from desired/prospective dating partners were salient only during particular phases of adolescence. PMID:24221725

  12. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents living in an area affected by the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami for 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kanzo; Suzuki, Koya; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Sasaki, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the change in physical activity levels among children and adolescents living in the area affected by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami for 3 years immediately following the disaster. Children and adolescents graded four to nine and attending school in the Pacific coastal area of northern Japan were included in a total of four serial prevalence investigations: the first at 6 months after the earthquake/tsunami (I, n = 434) and additional surveys at 1 year (II, n = 437), 2 years (III, n = 401), and 3 years (IV, n = 365) after the earthquake. Students were also required to undergo assessment of their accelerometer-determined daily steps and sedentary time using a self-administrated questionnaire. Accelerometer-determined median daily steps of children and adolescents were significantly different (p < 0.05) on both weekdays and weekends over 3 years. The median daily steps of children of both genders on weekdays and those of girls on weekends at period IV were significantly lower than those at period I. In addition, the median daily steps of adolescents on weekdays among girls and weekends among boys at period IV were significantly lower than those at period I. It appears that children and adolescents who survive the earthquake and tsunami experience a decrease in physical activity levels. Future research should elucidate longitudinal demographic and sociocultural factors that contribute to changes in physical activity levels among children and adolescents living in the areas affected by these disasters. PMID:26844143

  13. Short communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-living children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-06-01

    According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-living children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-living dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.

  14. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  15. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  16. Changes in management and outcomes for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes over the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the 50 years from 1964 to 2014, outcomes for children with type 1 diabetes have improved significantly, because of both technological advancements and changes in management philosophy. For the child with type 1 diabetes in 2014, intensive management with multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy and the support of a specialist multidisciplinary team is now standard care. The main treatment goal is no longer the avoidance of hypoglycaemia, but the minimisation of hyperglycaemia and glucose variability, thereby reducing the risk of microvascular complications. However, the inherent burden of care and diligence required by patients and families, if they are to maintain optimal diabetes control, have not changed and may even have increased. While the long sought-after cure for diabetes remains elusive, artificial pancreas or closed-loop systems hold the most promise for improving the burden of care in the near term for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25529223

  17. Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M; Poulton, R

    2006-04-01

    According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.

  18. Safety Profile of PrePex Male Circumcision Device and Client Satisfaction With Adolescent Males Aged 13–17 Years in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Tshimanga, Mafuta; Mugurungi, Owen; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Chatikobo, Pesanai; Gundidza, Patricia; Samkange, Christopher; Dhlamini, Roy; Murwira, Munyaradzi; Gwinji, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated in studies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, leading to the conditional prequalification of the device for use in adults. Because the majority of VMMC clients in the 14 priority countries are adolescents under 18 years, research to establish the safety and efficacy of the device for males <18 years is required. Methods: One-arm, prospective study included 402 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, using PrePex device between August 2013 and January 2014 at a VMMC centre in Harare. Endpoints are number and grade of adverse events associated with device circumcision, time to complete wound healing, client satisfaction with the procedure, and outcome. Results: The rate of medical ineligibility among adolescent males was high; 237/402 (35.9%) of study participants had to be excluded based on medical reasons. The severe/moderate adverse event rate was low at 2/402 (0.5%). No device displacements/self-removals were observed. Time to complete wound healing was shorter than in adults; 367/398 (92.2%) adolescents had completed wound healing by day 35, whereas 90% of adults had completed wound healing by day 56 as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall, adolescents were highly satisfied with the results of their circumcision. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the PrePex device can be safely used in adolescents aged 13–17 years. The significant proportion of males opting for surgical circumcision and the high medical ineligibility suggest that surgical circumcision needs to be provided alongside PrePex services in programs targeting young age groups. PMID:27331588

  19. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  20. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  1. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour?

    PubMed

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  2. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time. PMID:19721903

  3. Prevalence, stability, 1-year incidence and predictors of depressive symptoms among Norwegian adolescents in the general population as measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Bo; Ingul, JoMagne; Jozefiak, Thomas; Leikanger, Einar; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-01-01

    Background In numerous surveys the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents has been examined in single sites and at one time point. Aims We examined depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 10-19 years in four different large school samples including two cohorts over a 10-year period in different locations in the same health region in central Norway including a total of 5804 adolescents. Two cohorts were retested within a 1-year time period to predict high versus low depressive symptom scores. Changes over a 6-year period in depressive symptom levels were examined in two of the samples of 12-14-year olds. Methods Depressive symptoms were estimated by the 13-item Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Covariates were student age, sex, school size and location. Results "Miserable or unhappy", "Tired", "Restlessness" and "Poor concentration" were the most commonly reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptom levels and proportions of high scoring students were consistently higher among girls, in particular in mid and late adolescence. Poisson regression analysis showed that all SMFQ items significantly predicted total scores for the whole sample, while sex (girls having a higher risk) emerged as a consistent 1-year predictor of high depressive symptom levels. Conclusions The SMFQ constitutes a short, practical and feasible measure. We recommend that this standardized measure should be used in the assessment of depressive symptoms among adolescents in school, primary care and clinical settings but also to evaluate treatment outcome. High scorers should be evaluated in subsequent clinical interviews for the presence of a depressive disorder. PMID:26817811

  4. A Randomised Controlled Treatment Trial of Two Forms of Family Therapy in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Five-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Russell, Gerald F. M.; Dare, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that family therapy is an effective treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to ascertain the long-term impact of two forms of outpatient family intervention previously evaluated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Method: A five-year follow-up was conducted on a cohort of 40 patients…

  5. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  6. Early Intervention for High Risk Infants and Their Adolescent Mothers. Progress Report for Second Year, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Judith Nealer

    The second year progress report provides information on a program to provide early intervention for high risk infants and their adolescent mothers at the National Children's Center, Washington, D.C., which provided two infant stimulation classes 5 days per week for 15 handicapped children (6 to 36 months). Program accomplishments are reported in…

  7. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  8. Screen Media Time Usage of 12-16 Year-Old Spanish School Adolescents: Effects of Personal and Socioeconomic Factors, Season and Type of Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used.…

  9. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  10. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers. PMID:25902554

  11. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers.

  12. Attachment as a mediator between community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents with a history of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    London, Melissa J; Lilly, Michelle M; Pittman, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Experiences that are detrimental to the attachment relationship, such as childhood maltreatment, may reduce feelings of safety among survivors and exacerbate the effects of exposure to subsequent violence, such as witnessing community violence. Though attachment style has been examined in regard to posttraumatic stress in adults who have a history of exposure to violence in childhood, less is known about the influence of attachment on the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to explore the role of attachment in the link between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Participants included adolescents (aged 15-18 years) who had a history of maltreatment (N=75) and a matched sample without a childhood abuse history (N=78) from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Salzinger, Feldman, & Ng-Mak, 2008). A conditional process model using bootstrapping to estimate indirect effects showed a significant indirect effect of insecure attachment on the relationship between exposure to community violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms for adolescents with a history of childhood physical abuse, but not for adolescents without this history. Implications for a cumulative risk model for post-trauma pathology starting in adolescence are discussed.

  13. [15 years of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Results and its importance for obesity prevention in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Plachta-Danielzik, S; Landsberg, B; Lange, D; Langnäse, K; Müller, M J

    2011-03-01

    The Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS) has been performed since 1996 and aims to characterize determinants and to prevent overweight. A total of 15,251 children and adolescents aged 5-16 years were recruited, of whom 780 and 92, respectively, underwent school-based and family-based interventions. Long-term evaluation of the school-based intervention was available over 4 and 8 years, while family-based intervention was evaluated over 1 year. The prevalence of overweight was 18.8% for the whole KOPS cohort. Determinants of overweight were parental overweight and obesity, low socioeconomic status (SES), early life factors, and lifestyle factors. School-based intervention ameliorated the weight status of children of high SES and of normal weight mothers over the long-term. The intervention effect was small but within the expectable range as calculated from analysis of determinants. Alternative outcome variables (e.g., fat mass) and new evaluation approaches (e.g., excess gain in fat mass) gave no detailed information of the intervention success. Family-based intervention showed that even with this individual approach children of low SES could not be reached.

  14. Prognosis and psychosocial outcomes of attempted suicide by early adolescence: a 6-year follow-up of school students into early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nrugham, Latha; Holen, Are; Sund, Anne Mari

    2015-04-01

    Adulthood psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes of early adolescence suicidal acts were studied. A representative sample of school adolescents (T1, mean age, 13.7 years; n = 2464; 50.8% female; 88.3% participation) was followed up a year later with the same questionnaire (T2). High scorers of depression were matched with low or moderate scorers and interviewed using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version (mean age, 14.9 years; n = 345; 94% participation). They were reassessed after 5 years (T3, mean age, 20.0 years; n = 242; 73% participation). Those who attempted suicide before the age of 14 years and repeated suicidal acts between ages 14 and 15 years had worser prognostic profiles than incident cases between ages 14 and 15 years. Male attempters had better psychiatric prognosis than female attempters. Attempters were more likely to have contacted child protection services but not mental health services. Clinicians need to be aware of long-term pervasive outcomes of adolescent suicidality. PMID:25768349

  15. Presence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Is Not Associated with Microalbuminuria in 14-to-20-Years Old Slovak Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional, Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Šebek, Jozef; Šebeková, Katarína

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In adults, microalbuminuria indicates generalized endothelial dysfunction, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all cause mortality. Slovak adults present one of the highest cardiovascular mortality rates in Europe. Thus Slovak adolescents are on a high-risk to develop cardiovascular afflictions early, and screening for microalbuminuria might be useful in early assessment of their cardiovascular risk. We aimed to study the prevalence of microalbuminuria in Slovak adolescents, and the association of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) to cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects and methods Anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood count, glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, renal function, inflammatory status, concentrations of homocysteine and uric acid were determined and associated with ACR in 2 666 adolescents (49.4% boys, 51.6% girls) aged 14-to-20 years. Microalbuminuria was classified as ACR 2.5–25.0 mg/mmol in boys and 3.5–35.0 mg/mmol in girls. Results Prevalence of microalbuminuria in both genders reached 3.3%, and did not differ significantly between lean and centrally obese subjects. Girls presented higher ACR than boys (normoalbuminuric: 0.6±0.5 mg/mmol vs. 0.5±0.4 mg/mmol, p>0.001; microalbuminuric: 9.3±7.3 mg/mmol vs. 5.0±3.8 mg/mmol; p>0.001). Microalbuminuric adolescents and those presenting normoalbuminuria within the upper ACR quartile were slimmer than their normoalbuminuric counterparts or adolescents with normoalbuminuria within the lower quartile, respectively. No association between microalbuminuria and cardiovascular risk markers was revealed. Conclusion Results obtained in this study do not support our assumption that ACR associates with cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy adolescents. Follow-up studies until adulthood are needed to estimate the potential cardiometabolic risk of apparently healthy microalbuminuric adolescents. PMID:26046923

  16. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  17. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption among 11- to 17-year-old adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Kuntz, B

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, tobacco and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Germany was analyzed. In addition to the current situation, we report temporal developments and trends. Data were obtained from the first follow-up of the KiGGS study (KiGGS Wave 1) conducted from 2009 to 2012. All girls and boys aged 11-17 years (n = 5,258) were included. The results show that currently 12.0% of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany smoke, 5.4% of them on a daily basis. At-risk drinking (AUDIT-C total score) was prevalent among 15.8% of adolescents, heavy episodic drinking (six or more alcoholic standard drinks on a single occasion at least once a month) among 11.5%. No significant gender differences were found for most indicators. However, among adolescents aged 14-17 years, boys revealed a greater inclination toward heavy episodic drinking than girls did (23.1 vs. 16.5 %, p < 0.01). Regarding smoking, distinct socioeconomic differences were observed. For example, adolescents from families with a low socioeconomic status (SES) smoke significantly more often on a regular or daily basis compared with their peers from high-SES families (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.16-3.27 and OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.05-6.69, respectively). The relationship between SES and alcohol consumption is rather weak. Significant differences emerged only regarding lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption, and indicate lower consumption rates among low-SES compared with high-SES adolescents (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.68). Consideration of the KiGGS baseline study data (2003-2006) shows that smoking prevalence has dropped almost by half from 20.4 to 12.0%. The percentage of adolescents who have ever drunk alcohol has decreased from 62.8 to 54.4%. These results are consistent with the findings of other studies on adolescent tobacco and alcohol consumption and should be considered in the context of preventive efforts that have been strengthened in recent years, especially regarding

  18. The Open Science Grid - Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science - the Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerdick, Lothar; Ernst, Michael; Fraser, Dan; Livny, Miron; Pordes, Ruth; Sehgal, Chander; Würthwein, Frank; Open Science Grid

    2012-12-01

    As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communities with general tools derived from the experience of the parochial tools in HEP (integration of Globus Online, prototyping with IRODS, investigations into Wide Area Lustre). We will also review our activities and experiences as HTC Service Provider to the recently awarded NSF XD XSEDE project, the evolution of the US NSF TeraGrid project, and how we are extending the reach of HTC through this activity to the increasingly broad national cyberinfrastructure. We believe that a coordinated view of the HPC and HTC resources in the US will further expand their impact on scientific discovery.

  19. Gender differences in early adolescence in factors related to outcome of healthy behaviours two years later.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-10-01

    In this study, 390 students comprising 89.7% of the student population answered a questionnaire on health and health behaviours, socioeconomic status (SES), school, family and peer relationships, and intentions regarding behaviours at 13.5 and 15.5 y of age. The aim was to investigate whether there were gender differences in predictors of outcome of behaviours with impact on health at 15.5 y of age. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits, acquisition of adult lifestyles, and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, having already initiated adult lifestyles or exhibiting problem behaviours at 13.5 y were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles to see what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y period and what gender differences existed, if any. Results differed for the genders, with more boys being more concrete and behaviour-oriented, representing a sample of boys with late to normal puberty. Girls more often expressed intentions regarding behaviour, which predicted positive outcomes. Both genders were prudent in most areas studied: they were well adapted at school, had positive self-esteem and were not moving in circles where smoking and drinking were abundant. The conclusion is that young adolescents who do not start risky behaviours between the ages of 13 and 15 y live in a supportive context, which allows for positive interactions. The next step would be to investigate if alternative strategies may be used to implement similar options for those who lack such support in their natural environment.

  20. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix presenting as a cervical polyp in a 16-year-old adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the female genital tract is rare in the cervix. It has been mainly discussed in the context of individual case studies. It tends to occur in children and young women. Treatment ranges from radical surgery to conservative surgery, followed by chemotherapy. Case presentation A 16-year-old Moroccan adolescent girl presented to our center with a protruding mass from her vaginal introitus, as a polyp of 6cm. An examination revealed a polyp within her vagina, thought to be arising from her cervix and a polypectomy was performed. Microscopic findings are consistent with an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (botryoide type). A computed tomography of her thorax, abdomen and pelvis were performed and residual disease was found as a mass located at her cervix, which measured approximately 4.5cm in its widest dimensions, without evidence of metastatic disease. Due to the fact that she is young, after discussions in a multidisciplinary meeting, she was subsequently treated with four cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy. Two cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were administered due to the lack of response, but she presented vaginal bleeding with persistence of the same mass in computed tomography. Hence a total interadnexal hysterectomy was made. A histologic examination found residual embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (botryoide type) located in all her cervix and she is currently under chemotherapy. Conclusions The presence of a cervical polyp in an adolescent is a gynecologic oddity and must necessarily be examined histologically because it might be a rhabdomyosarcoma. This is extremely important because diagnosis at an early stage of the disease is a highly favorable prognostic factor that allows “fertility-sparing surgery” for these young patients. PMID:24986146

  1. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: A multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Levin, K.A.; Dundas, R.; Miller, M.; McCartney, G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose–response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  2. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, K A; Dundas, R; Miller, M; McCartney, G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose-response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  3. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  4. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  5. Room Temperature ppb Level Chlorine Gas Sensor Based on Copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, R. K.; Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman

    2010-12-01

    Spin coating technique has been used to fabricate room temperature chlorine gas sensor based on copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu){sub 8}) films. Gas sensor shows a response of 185% to few parts per billion level of Cl{sub 2} gas with response time of 9.5 minutes at room temperature. The interactions between sensor and analytes followed first order kinetics with rate constant 0.01{<=}k{<=}0.02. The chemiresistive sensor showed very good stability at room temperature over a long period of time.

  6. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a ten-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15–18 years), emerging adulthood (19–23 years), and the mid-to-late twenties (24–28 years), as well as examine 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Subjects Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I, EAT-II, and EAT-III (n=1,321). Results Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73% of males, 80% of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24% males, 41% females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (p<0.01); those who frequently prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (p<0.001), but not adolescents. Emerging adult food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar sweetened beverage and fast food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Conclusions Food preparation behaviors appeared to track over time, and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood. PMID:22124458

  7. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  8. Two-year outcomes of an adjunctive telephone coaching and electronic contact intervention for adolescent weight-loss maintenance: the Loozit randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, B; Shrewsbury, V A; O'Connor, J; Steinbeck, K S; Hill, A J; Shah, S; Kohn, M R; Torvaldsen, S; Baur, L A

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the final 24-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of additional therapeutic contact (ATC) as an adjunct to a community-based weight-management program for overweight and obese 13-16-year-olds. ATC involved telephone coaching or short-message-service and/or email communication once per fortnight. Adolescents were randomized to receive the Loozit group program-a two-phase behavioral lifestyle intervention with (n=73), or without (n=78), ATC in Phase 2. Adolescents/parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions (Phase 1), followed by quarterly adolescent sessions (Phase 2). Assessor-blinded, 24-month changes in anthropometry and metabolic health included primary outcomes body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist:height ratio (WHtR). Secondary outcomes were self-reported psychosocial and lifestyle changes. By 24 months, 17 adolescents had formally withdrawn. Relative to the Loozit program alone, ATC largely had no impact on outcomes. Secondary pre-post assessment of the Loozit group program showed mean (95% CI) reductions in BMI z-score (-0.13 (-0.20, -0.06)) and WHtR (-0.02 (-0.03, -0.01)) in both arms, with several metabolic and psychosocial improvements. Adjunctive ATC did not provide further benefits to the Loozit group program. We recommend that further work is needed to optimize technological support for adolescents in weight-loss maintenance. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRNO12606000175572.

  9. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  10. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  11. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Drinking, Smoking and Drug Taking among Adolescents in England: A Self-Report School-Based Survey of 15 and 16 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodham, Karen; Hawton, Keith; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been mounting about the increasing numbers of adolescents who (ab)use drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence according to gender and ethnicity of drinking, smoking and drug-use in a representative sample of 15 and 16 year olds. The sample consisted of 6020 15- and 16-year-old pupils from 41…

  12. Motor Impulsivity during Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity from childhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motor impulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 time points: ages 9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years.…

  13. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  14. Bullying in Early Adolescence and Antisocial Behavior and Depression Six Years Later: What Are the Protective Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Suzanne; Edwards, Ben; Renda, Jennifer; Olsson, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified factors that protected (a) adolescent bullies from becoming antisocial young adults, and (b) adolescent victims of bullying from subsequent depression. Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project, a population birth cohort study that has followed participants since 1983. Systematic examination of potential risk…

  15. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  16. 10-Year Research Update Review: The Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders--I. Methods and Public Health Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review recent progress in child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology in the area of prevalence and burden. Method: The literature published in the past decade was reviewed under two headings: methods and findings. Results: Methods for assessing the prevalence and community burden of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders have…

  17. The Acculturation of Russian-Speaking Adolescents in Latvia: Language Issues Three Years after the 2004 Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cara, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on acculturation strategies (attitudes and behaviors) in the language domain of Russian-speaking adolescents in Latvia in the context of the education reform. Data comes from a longitudinal study of adolescents from schools with Russian as the language of instruction in Riga; the same schools were invited to…

  18. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms after a One Year Follow-Up during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Baya, Diego; Mendoza, Ramon; Paino, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has identified various risk factors in the emergence of depressive disorders in adolescence. There are very few studies, however, which have analyzed the role of perceived emotional intelligence in depressive symptoms longitudinally during adolescence. This work aimed to analyze longitudinal relationships between perceived…

  19. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  20. Pustular psoriasis in childhood and adolescence: a 20-year single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Popadic, Svetlana; Nikolic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Pustular psoriasis (PP) is rare in children. The small number of reported cases makes deciding on treatment and follow-up challenging. The current study was an evaluation of treatment approaches and courses of PP in 18 children diagnosed and followed over a 20-year period. From 1992 to 2011 we treated 1,447 children with psoriasis, 18 of whom had PP. Follow-up was 2 to 19 years. At the time of initial manifestation of PP, our patients were 1.5 months to 16 years old. Seven patients had a previous history of psoriasis vulgaris. Three children entered long-term remission after one pustular attack, 10 developed psoriasis vulgaris, 2 are currently under treatment, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Treatment with acitretin, cyclosporine, or methotrexate was efficacious and well tolerated. PP is rare, but according to our experience, it has a good prognosis in children.

  1. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.

  2. High proportion of 6 to 18-year-old children and adolescents in the United Arab Emirates are not meeting dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Habiba I; Ng, Shu Wen; Zaghloul, Sahar; Harrison, Gail G; Qazaq, Hussain S; El Sadig, Mohamed; Yeatts, Karin

    2013-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), overweight, obesity, and associated chronic diseases have recently emerged as major public health concerns among all age groups, including children and adolescents. We hypothesized that although energy needs might be met by the majority of Emirati children and adolescents, their diet quality and intakes of certain micronutrients may not meet recommendations. A cross-sectional design was used to assess dietary intakes of 253 children (6-10 years of age) and 276 adolescents (11-18 years of age) in the UAE. Trained dietitians collected a 24-hour food recall in the homes of the participants. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes, and food group consumption was compared with MyPyramid recommendations. Results showed that 9 to 13-year-old females consumed 206 kcal/d from candy and sweets and nearly 264 cal/d from sugar-sweetened beverages. The proportion of participants with percentage energy from saturated fat greater than the recommendation ranged from 27.6% (males 9-13 years) to 45.9% (males 6-8 years). Mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and E were lower than the Estimated Average Requirements for all the subgroups. Mean calcium intake was lower than recommendations for all age and sex subgroups. The proportions of participants whose intakes were less than the recommended number of servings from the food groups were substantial: more than 90% of each of the 6 subgroups for the milk group and 100% among 9 to 18-year-old males for vegetables. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the need for interventions targeting 6 to 18-year-old children and adolescents in the UAE to improve their diet quality. PMID:23746560

  3. Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization?among?US?Adolescent?Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Wang, Min Q.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study provides 10-year trend data on the psychosocial correlates of physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among females who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys of US high school students between 1999 and 2009. Methods: The dependent variable was PDV. Independent variables included 4 dimensions: violence,…

  4. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  5. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  6. Two- to Six-Year Controlled-Trial Stuttering Outcomes for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen; Craig, Ashley; McCready, Chris; McCaul, Annette; Costello, Deborah; Gilmore, Gillian; Campbell, Karen

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of three stuttering treatments (intensive smooth speech, parent-home smooth speech, and intensive electromyography feedback) for 62 students (ages 11 to 18) who stutter after two to six years after treatment. Results indicate treatment gains were maintained and that there were no significant differences among…

  7. Time Keeping and Working Memory Development in Early Adolescence: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Helen; Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined time keeping in relation to working memory (WM) development. School-aged children completed two tasks of WM updating and a time monitoring task in which they indicated the passing of time every 5 min while watching a film. Children completed these tasks first when they were 8 to 12 years old and then 4 years…

  8. Teaching Adolescents about Alcohol and Driving: A Two Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarski, John S.

    1987-01-01

    Data have demonstrated effectiveness of Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) alcohol education program. Examined two-year follow-up effects of TGT by comparing high school students who participated in TGT program to traditional and no instruction control groups. Results revealed that TGT students maintained previous positive changes whereas traditional…

  9. Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the Effects of Adolescent Sleep Loss During the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredriksen, Katia; Rhodes, Jean; Reddy, Ranjini; Way, Niobe

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the sleep patterns of 2,259 students, aged 11 to 14 years, on trajectories of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and grades was longitudinally examined using latent growth cross-domain models. Consistent with previous research, sleep decreased over time. Students who obtained less sleep in sixth grade exhibited lower initial…

  10. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Dennison, Meg; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC), a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC) between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  11. Impact of mother tongue and gender on overweight, obesity and extreme obesity in 24,989 Viennese children/adolescents (2-16 years).

    PubMed

    Segna, Daniel; Widhalm, Harald; Pandey, Maitrayee P; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Dietrich, Sabine; Widhalm, Kurt

    2012-11-01

    The present survey aims at determining the prevalence of extreme obesity (defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 99.5th percentile) for the first time in Austria and at investigating the relationship between weight status and mother tongue in a representative Viennese sample of 24,989 children and adolescents (2-16 years) with a percentage of approximately 46 % of migration background.Directly measured anthropometric data on body weight and height were collected and BMI was calculated. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity was determined for every subgroup according to mother tongue using the German national reference criteria by Kromeyer-Hauschild et al.In this sample, 2.1 % of all children and adolescents had to be classified as being extremely obese. More boys (2.3 %) than girls (1.9 %) suffered from extreme obesity (p = 0.048). Total 1.7 % of children and adolescents with German as their native language, 2.5 % of Turkish native speakers and 2.9 % of children and adolescents with another mother tongue were extremely obese (p ≤ 0.001). The highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was found in Turkish-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001), whereas the lowest one was found in German-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001).This large study clearly shows that extreme obesity is a common disease and largely neglected. Apparently, another native language than German, as an indicator for a migration background, may be associated with a substantially higher probability for the development of extreme obesity in Vienna, Austria. Thus, effective preventive measures to overcome obesity are urgently needed.

  12. Persistence of Th1/Tc1 responses one year after tetravalent dengue vaccination in adults and adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, Anke; Begue, Sarah; Mamessier, Audrey; Gimenez-Fourage, Sophie; Ching Seah, Ching; Wei Liang, Ai; Li Ng, Jun; Yun Toh, Xue; Archuleta, Sophia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shek, Lynette P; Wartel-Tram, Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Lang, Jean; Crevat, Denis; Caillet, Catherine; Guy, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the cell mediated immunity (CMI) induced by the investigational CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV), we developed a whole-blood, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay and a multiplex assay, each requiring 3 mL of blood. We assessed CMI before and 28 d after a first and third injection of CYD-TDV and one year after the third injection in a subset of 80 adolescents and adults enrolled in a phase II trial in Singapore (ClinicalTrial.gov NCT NCT00880893). CD4/IFNγ/TNFα responses specific to dengue NS3 were detected before vaccination. Vaccination induced YF-17D-NS3-specific CD8/IFNγ responses, without significant TNFα, and a CYD-specific Th1/Tc1 cellular response in all participants, which was characterized by predominant IFNγ secretion compared with TNFα, associated with low level IL-13 secretion in multiplex analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) supernatants after restimulation with each the CYD vaccine viruses. Responses were directed mainly against CYD-4 after the first vaccination, and were more balanced against all four serotypes after the third vaccination. The same qualitative profile was observed one year after the third vaccination, with approximately 2-fold lower NS3-specific responses, and 3-fold lower serotype-specific cellular responses. These findings confirm previous observations regarding both the nature and specificity of cellular responses induced by CYD-TDV, and for the first time demonstrate the persistence of cellular responses after one year. We also established the feasibility of analyzing CMI with small blood samples, allowing such analysis to be considered for pediatric trials.

  13. A 10-year longitudinal fMRI study of narrative comprehension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Eaton, Kenneth; Meng, Xiangxiang; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-11-15

    Comprehension of spoken narratives requires coordination of multiple language skills. As such, for normal children narrative skills develop well into the school years and, during this period, are particularly vulnerable in the face of brain injury or developmental disorder. For these reasons, we sought to determine the developmental trajectory of narrative processing using longitudinal fMRI scanning. 30 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 18 enrolled at ages 5, 6, or 7, were examined annually for up to 10 years. At each fMRI session, children were presented with a set of five, 30s-long, stories containing 9, 10, or 11 sentences designed to be understood by a 5 year old child. fMRI data analysis was conducted based on a hierarchical linear model (HLM) that was modified to investigate developmental changes while accounting for missing data and controlling for factors such as age, linguistic performance and IQ. Performance testing conducted after each scan indicated well above the chance (p<0.002) comprehension performance. There was a linear increase with increasing age in bilateral superior temporal cortical activation (BAs 21 and 22) linked to narrative processing. Conversely, age-related decreases in cortical activation were observed in bilateral occipital regions, cingulate and cuneus, possibly reflecting changes in the default mode networks. The dynamic changes observed in this longitudinal fMRI study support the increasing role of bilateral BAs 21 and 22 in narrative comprehension, involving non-domain-specific integration in order to achieve final story interpretation. The presence of a continued linear development of this area throughout childhood and teenage years with no apparent plateau, indicates that full maturation of narrative processing skills has not yet occurred and that it may be delayed to early adulthood.

  14. PROSPER partnership delivery system: Effects on adolescent conduct problem behavior outcomes through 6.5 years past baseline.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard L; Trudeau, Linda S; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Hyun, Gee-Hong

    2015-12-01

    We report long-term effects of the PROSPER delivery system for universal evidence-based preventive interventions on adolescent conduct problem behaviors (CPBs). A cluster randomized trial included 28 school districts assigned to PROSPER or a control condition. Community-based teams in PROSPER condition school districts selected evidence-based interventions-a family-focused intervention in sixth grade and a school-based intervention the next year; follow-up assessments were conducted through 12th grade. CPBs were measured with 12 self-report items derived from the National Youth Survey. Intervention-control differences were tested via a multi-level Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) model. Differences were significant from 9th through 12th grades; Relative Reduction Rates were between 10.1% and 14.5%. The intervention group was delayed in reaching a 10th grade reference level of CPBs by 10.7 months. Moderation analyses indicated stronger effects for early substance initiators. Findings suggest that the PROSPER delivery system has the potential to reduce CPBs in general populations.

  15. Congenital intestinal malrotation in adolescent and adult patients: a 12-year clinical and radiological survey.

    PubMed

    Husberg, Britt; Salehi, Karin; Peters, Trevor; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Michanek, Margareta; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Strigård, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital intestinal malrotation is mainly detected in childhood and caused by incomplete rotation and fixation of the intestines providing the prerequisites for life-threatening volvulus of the midgut. The objective of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of adult patients with intestinal malrotation. Thirty-nine patients, 15-67 years, were diagnosed and admitted to a university setting with congenital intestinal malrotation 2002-2013. The patients were divided into three age groups for stratified evaluation. Medical charts were scrutinized, and clinical outcome of surgery was reviewed. Twelve patients presented as emergency cases, whereas 27 were admitted as elective cases. Diagnosis was established in 33 patients who underwent radiological investigation and in the remaining 6 during surgery. A Ladd's operation was performed in 31 symptomatic patients; a conservative strategy was chosen in eight cases. Volvulus was more common in the younger age group. Twenty-six surgically treated patients were available for telephone interview, 1-12 years after surgery. All patients, except one, regarded their general condition improved to a high degree (n = 18) or with some reservation (n = 7). Twelve patients suffered remaining abdominal pain of a chronic and diffuse character. Due to recurrence of malrotation six patients were reoperated. Symptomatic malrotation occurs in both children and the adult population. Improved awareness and an accurately performed CT scan can reveal the malformation and enable surgical treatment. A Ladd's procedure relieved most patients from their severe complaints even when a history of several years of suffering existed. PMID:27026938

  16. Adolescent mothers four years later: narratives of the self and visions of the future.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, L; Leonard, V W

    1998-03-01

    This study examined patterns, variations, and existential turning points in young mothers' narratives of self and their visions of the future as part of a larger hermeneutic, longitudinal study. The study was philosophically based in the phenomenology of everyday practices as inherently meaningful, situated, and historically derived and drew on dialogical views of the self. The sample consisted of 13 (of the original 16) young mothers and family members who had been interviewed 4 years earlier. For the present study, data consisted of life history accounts of the intervening 4 years, stories of caregiving routines, and recent coping episodes of parenting elicited through in-depth interviews. Findings offer a situated understanding of young mothering and highlight meaningful distinctions in the ways young mothers experience the self and project themselves into the future. The discovery of patterns and variations in the young mother's sense of self and future have implications for guiding clinical practice and are preliminary to designing programs and interventions that are tailored to the practical understanding and situated possibilities of young mothers. PMID:9504207

  17. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-05-24

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  18. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  19. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-01-01

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  20. The development of compulsive internet use and mental health: A four-year study of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Sahdra, Baljinder; Marshall, Sarah; Jackson, Chris; Gloster, Andrew T; Heaven, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Is compulsive Internet use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 used a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N = 1030 males, 1038 females, Mage = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of Internet behaviors most strongly associated with CIU within males and females. Structural equation modeling revealed that CIU predicted the development of poor mental health, whereas poor mental health did not predict CIU development. Latent growth analyses showed that both females and males increased in CIU and mental health problems across the high school years. Females had higher CIU and worse mental health than males, and tended to engage in more social forms of Internet use. We discuss future directions for CIU intervention research. PMID:26595355

  1. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in Chile in 2013.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02).

  2. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in Chile in 2013.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02). PMID:26819097

  3. Learning disability in 10- to 16-year-old adolescents with very low birth weight in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Keiko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Kikuchi, Saya; Murotsuki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, i.e., weight less than 1,500 g) in Japan. However, the effect of VLBW on subsequent behavioral development and mental health remains unknown. Subjects enrolled were 57 individuals (13.4 ± 1.9 years old) with VLBW (VLBW group), including 23 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (i.e., the SGA/VLBW group) and 34 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (the AGA/VLBW group). The control group was 29 individuals born AGA at term. We used the questionnaires, the Pupil Rating Scale Revised (PRS) to screen for learning disabilities and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) to examine the presence of depression. The PRS score in the VLBW group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). Suspected learning disabilities (LD, defined by a score below 65 points on the PRS) were found in 6 out of the 56 subjects in the VLBW group (10.7%), whereas none were found in the 29 control subjects (p = 0.074). The frequency of suspected LD children was higher in the SGA/VLBW group (4 out of 22 evaluated infants, 18.2%) than that in the AGA/VLBW group (2/34, 5.9%). The frequency of suspected LD in the non-verbal field was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the SGA/VLBW group (18.2%) than in the AGA/VLBW group (0%). However, CDI score did not significantly differ between groups. These findings suggest that VLBW and fetal growth restriction may pose a risk for LD among adolescents with VLBW. PMID:24477102

  4. Four-component intergrowth structures of the metal-ion cage complexes fac-(1,5,9,13,20-pentamethyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexaazabicyclo

    PubMed

    Haller; Rae; Bygott; Hockless; Ralph; Geue; Sargeson

    1999-06-01

    The crystal structures of (1,5,9,13,20-pentamethyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexaazabicyclo[7.7.7]tricosane-kappa(6)N,N',N",N"',N",N"')nickel(II) diperchlorate-x(water) (x = 0.530), [Ni(C(22)H(48)N(6))](ClO(4))(2).0.530H(2)O, and (1,5,9,13,20-pentamethyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexaazabicyclo[7.7.7]tricosane-kappa(6)N,N',N",N"',N",N"')zinc(II) diperchlorate-x(water) (x = 0.608), [Zn(C(22)H(48)N(6))](ClO(4))(2).0.608H(2)O, are isomorphic and each is described as an intergrowth of four substructures, consistent with different modulations of an idealized parent structure of space group C2/c. Two substructures correspond to alternative orientations of a C1; structure for which x = 0 in the general formula [M(C(22)H(48)N(6))](ClO(4))(2).xH(2)O, and two substructures correspond to alternative origins of a P2(1)/n structure for which x = 1. Twinning also occurs. An analysis of the pseudosymmetry, a description of the refinement and a description of the refined structures are presented. The MN(6) coordination geometry is essentially octahedral, in contrast to the trigonal-prismatic geometry observed for the Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of the same ligand. PMID:10927381

  5. Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping styles among young adolescents involved in bullying, both as victims or aggressors, and the relationships between coping styles and depressive symptom levels. The possible moderating and mediating roles of coping in the relationships between bullying involvement and depression are also investigated. A representative community sample of 2464 adolescents was assessed. Coping styles were measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Analysis of variance and standard linear regression methods were applied. Adolescents being bullied or being aggressive toward others both showed more emotional coping than did noninvolved adolescents (p < 0.001). Being bullied and high emotional, low task, and high avoidant coping styles were independently related to more depressive symptoms. The association between being bullied and depressive symptoms was both moderated and partially mediated by emotional coping. PMID:26828912

  6. Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping styles among young adolescents involved in bullying, both as victims or aggressors, and the relationships between coping styles and depressive symptom levels. The possible moderating and mediating roles of coping in the relationships between bullying involvement and depression are also investigated. A representative community sample of 2464 adolescents was assessed. Coping styles were measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Analysis of variance and standard linear regression methods were applied. Adolescents being bullied or being aggressive toward others both showed more emotional coping than did noninvolved adolescents (p < 0.001). Being bullied and high emotional, low task, and high avoidant coping styles were independently related to more depressive symptoms. The association between being bullied and depressive symptoms was both moderated and partially mediated by emotional coping.

  7. Lymphocyte measures in treatment-naïve 13-15-year old adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Naude, Celeste E; Bouic, Patrick; Senekal, Marjanne; Kidd, Martin; Ferrett, Helen L; Fein, George; Carey, Paul D

    2011-08-01

    Many adolescents have chronic exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol. This is likely to be a significant predictor of health outcomes, including those related to immunity. We assessed substance use and biochemical immunological parameters in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence) and light/nondrinking control adolescents in Cape Town. Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard units of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in alcohol-dependent (AD) participants than controls. All adolescent AD had a "weekends-only" style of alcohol consumption. The AD group was chosen to represent relatively "pure" AD, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. With these narrow parameters in place, we found that AD adolescents were lymphopenic compared with controls, with significantly lower mean numbers of absolute circulating CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. On conclusion, we found that adolescent AD individuals with excessive alcohol intake, in a weekend binge-drinking style but without comorbid drug or psychiatric disorders, may be at increased risk of lymphopenia. This alcohol misuse may increase infectious disease susceptibility (including TB and HIV) by reducing immune system capabilities. Complex interactions of alcohol with other documented high-risk activities may further compound health risks. PMID:21624786

  8. [Dissertations 25 years after the date 36. Dental development and facial growth during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Schols, J G J H

    2013-11-01

    Dental development does not end with the shedding of the deciduous dentition. Partly as a result of the continuing facial growth up to adulthood, adaptations in the position of the teeth and the occlusion occur after the second phase of eruption. The dissertation Gebissentwicklung und Gesichtswachstum in der Adoleszenz, from 1988, was concerned with research into tooth development, facial growth and their interrelationship during the first decade after the second phase of tooth eruption. Changes in the dental arches go together with changes in the occlusion. These physiological changes in the dentition can largely be attributed to the shift of the mandibular dental arch to a more ventral position, with respect to the maxillary dental arch. Facial growth and changes in the morphology of the craniofacial skeleton up to adulthood are especially a result of adaptations which take place under the floor of the nose and as a result of the enlargement of the mandible. Later research in patients up to the age of approximately 40 years, revealed that these dental and skeletal changes continued to occur.

  9. Systematic review of rugby injuries in children and adolescents under 21 years.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Andreas; Kirkwood, Graham; Scharer, Sebastian; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of rugby union and league injuries among players under the age of 21 years was carried out to calculate probabilities of match injury for a player over a season and a pooled estimate of match injury incidence where studies were sufficiently similar. The probability of a player being injured over a season ranged from 6% to 90% for rugby union and 68% to 96% for rugby league. The pooled injury incidence estimate for rugby union was 26.7/1000 player-hours for injuries irrespective of need for medical attention or time-loss and 10.3/1000 player-hours for injuries requiring at least 7 days absence from games; equivalent to a 28.4% and 12.1% risk of being injured over a season. Study heterogeneity contributed to a wide variation in injury incidence. Public injury surveillance and prevention systems have been successful in reducing injury rates in other countries. No such system exists in the UK.

  10. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  11. Adolescent immunization.

    PubMed

    Handal, G A

    2000-06-01

    The dramatic improvements achieved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in children have only been shared partially by adolescents and young adults, as today several million adolescents are not receiving the full complement of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This article discusses the reasons for this problem and the tools to bridge this gap. In particular, medical societies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a close assessment of the adolescentís immunization status between 11 and 12 years of age, inclusion of school immunization, and providing missing immunizations at any opportunity. The article also addresses other vaccines recommended for groups of adolescents with special needs, reporting information, and provides an update on the vaccines of the future.

  12. Long-term trends and patterns of fatal traumatic brain injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population of austria in 1980-2012: analysis of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Majdan, Marek; Mauritz, Walter; Rusnak, Martin; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rehorcikova, Veronika; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are of special concern in the pediatric and adolescent population because of high incidence, mortality, and potential years of life lost (PYLL). Knowledge on causes and mortality trends is essential for effective prevention. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term trends and causes of TBI-related mortality between 1980 and 2012 in the pediatric and adolescent populations of Austria. Death certificate data on TBI-related deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 years of age and exact population numbers were obtained from the Austrian Statistical Office. Five age groups were created. Mortality trends and causes of TBI were analyzed. PYLL were used to indicate the public health impact. Of 5319 identified TBI-related deaths, 75% were male victims. The annual mortality rates per 100,000 between 1980 and 2012 decreased from 25 to 2.6 in males, from 8.5 to 1.0 in females, and from 16.9 to 1.8 in the total population. Those 15-19 years of age had the highest mortalities, followed by 0-2 years of age. Over 80% of deaths were caused by accidents, inflicted TBIs were most common in those 0-2 years of age, and traffic accidents in those 15-19 years of age. In the studied period, 295,793 PYLL could be attributed to TBIs. Measures to prevent traffic accidents contributed significantly to the decrease of mortality and PYLL, especially in 15- to 19-year-old men. Causes and trends of TBI-related mortality exhibit age-group-specific patterns, and this knowledge could contribute to planning further preventive action to reduce TBI fatalities in the studied population.

  13. Socioeconomic differences in overweight and weight-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mason, Susan M; Loth, Katie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-06-01

    Reducing socioeconomic disparities in weight-related health is a public health priority. The purpose of this paper was to examine 10-year longitudinal patterns in overweight and weight-related behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood as a function of family-level socioeconomic status (SES) and educational attainment. Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) followed a diverse sample of 2287 adolescents from 1999 to 2009. Mixed-effects regression tested longitudinal trends in overweight, fast food, breakfast skipping, physical inactivity, and screen use by family-level SES. The influence of subsequent educational attainment in young adulthood was examined. Results revealed that the prevalence of overweight increased significantly from adolescence to young adulthood with the greatest change seen in those from low SES (mean change=30.7%, 95% CI=25.6%-35.9%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=21.7%, 95% CI=18.2%-25.1%). Behavioral changes from adolescence to young adulthood also differed by SES background; the prevalence of frequent fast food intake (≥3times/week) increased most dramatically in those from low SES (mean change=6%, 95% CI=0.5%-11%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=-1.2%, 95% CI=-5.2%-2.9%). Overall trends suggest that a higher educational attainment mitigates the negative impacts of a low SES background. These findings suggest that continued effort is needed to ensure that public health strategies addressing obesity and related behaviors reach adolescents and young adults from low SES backgrounds and do not contribute to widening socioeconomic gaps in weight-related health.

  14. Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 – 17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Atari, Dominic Odwa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978

  15. Non-suicidal self-injury maintenance and cessation among adolescents: a one-year longitudinal investigation of the role of objectified body consciousness, depression and emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Jamie; Heath, Nancy; Hu, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Using the objectification theory, scholars have theorized the sense of detachment and disregard for the body that results from continued body objectification are believed to put a person at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), due to a lack of emotional investment in the body. The goal of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the association between body objectification and NSSI among an early adolescent sample. The overall sample consisted of 120 participants (56 % female) who ranged in age from 11 to 13 years of age (M = 12.34, SD = .48). Participants were followed over the course of a 12-month period, and classified into three groups of interest; adolescents who reported maintaining NSSI behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Maintain group, n = 20), adolescents who reported stopping the behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Stop group, n = 40), and a comparison group of adolescents who did not report engaging in NSSI (n = 60). Using a 3 (NSSI Maintain, NSSI Stop, and Comparison) X 2 (Gender) X 2 (Time 1 and Time 2) repeated measures multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), results indicated a significant group by time interaction, showing group differences with respect to body shame and body surveillance over time. Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group. Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The influence of body objectification as a core intrapersonal risk factor related to the maintenance and cessation of NSSI behaviour is discussed, as are clinical implications considering body objectification as an important variable in prevention and

  16. Adolescents' health and health behaviour as predictors of injury death. A prospective cohort follow-up of 652,530 person-years

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Koivusilta, Leena; Nummi, Tapio; Kannus, Pekka; Rimpelä, Arja

    2008-01-01

    Background Injuries represent an important cause of mortality among young adults. Longitudinal studies on risk factors are scarce. We studied associations between adolescents' perceived health and health behaviour and injury death. Methods A prospective cohort of 57,407 Finns aged 14 to 18 years was followed for an average of 11.4 years. The end-point of study was injury death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of eight health and health behaviour characteristics with injury death were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model. Results We identified 298 (0.5%) injury deaths, 232 (0.9%) in men and 66 (0.2%) in women. The mean age at death was 23.8 years. In the models adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic background, the strongest risk factors for injury death were recurring drunkenness (HR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4–3.1) and daily smoking (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2.2). Poor health did not predict injury death. Unintentional and intentional injury deaths had similar health and health behavioural risk factors. Conclusion Health compromising behaviour adopted at adolescence has a clear impact on the risk of injury death in adulthood independent from socioeconomic background. On the other hand, poor health as such is not a significant predictor of injury death. Promotion of healthy lifestyle among adolescents as part of public health programmes would seem an appropriate way to contribute to adolescent injury prevention. PMID:18366651

  17. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls.

  18. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  19. Development of an aerobic capacity prediction model from one-mile run/walk performance in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Shultz, Barry B; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    A popular algorithm to predict VO2Peak from the one-mile run/walk test (1MRW) includes body mass index (BMI), which manifests practical issues in school settings. The purpose of this study was to develop an aerobic capacity model from 1MRW in adolescents independent of BMI. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years. The 1MRW was administered on an outside track and a laboratory VO2Peak test was conducted using a maximal treadmill protocol. Multiple linear regression was employed to develop the prediction model. Results yielded the following algorithm: VO2Peak = 7.34 × (1MRW speed in m s(-1)) + 0.23 × (age × sex) + 17.75. The New Model displayed a multiple correlation and prediction error of R = 0.81, standard error of the estimate = 4.78 ml kg(-1) · min(-1), with measured VO2Peak and good criterion-referenced (CR) agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zone (Kappa = 0.62; percentage agreement = 84.4%; Φ = 0.62). The New Model was validated using k-fold cross-validation and showed homoscedastic residuals across the range of predicted scores. The omission of BMI did not compromise accuracy of the model. In conclusion, the New Model displayed good predictive accuracy and good CR agreement with measured VO2Peak in adolescents aged 13-16 years. PMID:25845945

  20. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  1. Development of an aerobic capacity prediction model from one-mile run/walk performance in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Shultz, Barry B; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    A popular algorithm to predict VO2Peak from the one-mile run/walk test (1MRW) includes body mass index (BMI), which manifests practical issues in school settings. The purpose of this study was to develop an aerobic capacity model from 1MRW in adolescents independent of BMI. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years. The 1MRW was administered on an outside track and a laboratory VO2Peak test was conducted using a maximal treadmill protocol. Multiple linear regression was employed to develop the prediction model. Results yielded the following algorithm: VO2Peak = 7.34 × (1MRW speed in m s(-1)) + 0.23 × (age × sex) + 17.75. The New Model displayed a multiple correlation and prediction error of R = 0.81, standard error of the estimate = 4.78 ml kg(-1) · min(-1), with measured VO2Peak and good criterion-referenced (CR) agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zone (Kappa = 0.62; percentage agreement = 84.4%; Φ = 0.62). The New Model was validated using k-fold cross-validation and showed homoscedastic residuals across the range of predicted scores. The omission of BMI did not compromise accuracy of the model. In conclusion, the New Model displayed good predictive accuracy and good CR agreement with measured VO2Peak in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

  2. Deliberate self-harm in 14-year-old adolescents: how frequent is it, and how is it associated with psychopathology, relationship variables, and styles of emotional regulation?

    PubMed

    Bjärehed, Jonas; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm was studied in 14-year-old adolescents from four schools in southern Sweden with a test-retest design, using a nine-item version of the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory. At Time 1, 40.2% of the adolescents indicated deliberate self-harm on at least one occasion compared with 36.5% at Time 2. Test-retest data showed high stability over periods of up to 2 months in duration. Cross-validation of the results from Time 1 to Time 2 showed robust correlations between deliberate self-harm and general psychopathology, a relative absence of positive feelings toward parents, and a ruminative style of emotional regulation. Further, rumination/negative thinking and a relative absence of positive feelings toward parents were predictors of self-harm independently of general psychopathology. In addition, deliberate self-harm correlated with symptoms of eating disorder and negative body esteem in girls.

  3. Provider recommendation mediates the relationship between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation and completion among 13–17 year old US adolescent children

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; McGrath, Christine J.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and HPV vaccine initiation/completion based on 13–17 year old US adolescent children and to explore whether these associations were mediated by provider recommendation. Methods We used publicly available National Immunization Survey-Teen 2011 data (11,236 adolescent girls and 12,328 boys). Results Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that parental HPV awareness and provider recommendation predicted HPV vaccine initiation and completion separately among both girls and boys, after adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization variables. When provider recommendation and parental HPV awareness were entered in the model simultaneously, only provider recommendation independently associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion, demonstrating a mediation effect of provider recommendation. Conclusions Future studies are needed to better understand why physicians may not provide a recommendation for the HPV vaccine as well as to identify strategies to improve the provider’s ability to effectively communicate their recommendation. PMID:25238779

  4. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.

  5. Emotion regulation in first episode adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: what difference does a year make?

    PubMed

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2014-10-01

    We examined the roles of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination in first episode non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, and the impact of age-related differences in emotion regulation use. Adverse life events and psychological distress played a significant role in NSSI onset. Being male and less use of cognitive reappraisal contributed to NSSI risk but only in regard to 12-month incidence; this effect was not observed when predicting 24-month incidence. Neither expressive suppression nor rumination was related to NSSI onset in our sample. Age-related differences in emotion regulation were found, but did not modify the above relationships. Findings hint at the possible impact of developmental changes in adolescents' cognitive-emotional processing and their subsequent risk of NSSI. Results support further investigation into prevention and early intervention initiatives aimed at assisting adolescents cope with acute life stressors to prevent/delay first episode NSSI.

  6. Accumulation of lifestyle and psychosocial problems and persistence of adverse lifestyle over two-year follow-up among Finnish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent’psychosocial problems associate with unhealthy behaviors, but data on co-occurring patterns is sparse. We investigated 1) whether adolescents could be categorized into meaningful subgroups with respect to psychosocial and lifestyle factors, 2) whether the prevalence of physical inactivity, overweight and smoking vary within the subgroups and 3) whether these unhealthy behaviors persist in a two-year follow-up. Methods The study was based on a subgroup of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort, which consisted of adolescents who replied to a postal questionnaire at 16 years (n = 6792) and a subgroup of this sample at 18 years (n = 1552). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to establish clusters at 16 years. Results Smoking co-existed with emotional and behavioral problems in both genders. Boys with the most inactive lifestyle slept poorly, whereas multiple problems co-occurred among girls. Those with a high body mass index (BMI) separated as groups of their own. Different combinations of adverse lifestyle and emotional and behavioral problems were relatively common in both sexes as only 51% of boys and 67% of girls belonged to the reference cluster with low probability for these findings. Physical inactivity, high BMI and smoking tended to persist over the two-year follow-up. Conclusions It seems that lifestyle and psychosocial factors divide adolescents into distinct subgroups in which unhealthy lifestyle patterns remain between the ages of 16 and 18. This may indicate problems in other life areas and expose them to an increased risk of future health problems. PMID:24884444

  7. A Euploid Line of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 Embryo.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Morato-Marques, Mariana; Costa, Silvia; Alegretti, Jose Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; da Motta, Eduardo Leme Alves; Serafini, Paulo C; Pereira, Lygia V

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploid embryos diagnosed by FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) have been shown to yield euploid lines of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with a relatively high frequency. Given that the diagnostic procedure is usually based on the analysis of 1-2 blastomeres of 5 to 10-cell cleavage-stage embryos, mosaicism has been a likely explanation for the phenomena. However, FISH-based PGS can have a significant rate of misdiagnosis, and therefore some of those lines may have been derived from euploid embryos misdiagnosed as aneuploid. More recently, coupling of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy at the blastocyst stage and array-CGH lead to a more informative form of PGS. Here we describe the establishment of a new line of hESCs from an embryo with a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 chromosomal content based on array-CGH of TE biopsy. We show that, despite the complex chromosomal abnormality, the corresponding hESC line BR-6 is euploid (46,XX). Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that the embryo's missing chromosomes were not duplicated in BR-6, suggesting the existence of extensive mosaicism in the TE lineage.

  8. Aneuploidy in 165,330 human sperm; results of two- and three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, 18, X, and Y

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, E.L.; Martin, R.H. |

    1994-09-01

    To understand the mechanisms that affect aneuploidy, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using chromosome-specific centromeric probes, was employed to screen a large population of human sperm for numerical errors. To determine the true rate of disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, 18, two-color FISH was performed, and for the gonosomes, three-color FISH. The use of multiple, differently-colored probes allows one to distingish a true disomic sperm from a diploid cell. For each centromeric probe, a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each of five donors was scored, giving a total count of 165,330 sperm nuclei. The incidence of disomic sperm for the sex chromosomes was significantly increased as compared to the frequency for the autosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=232.3, p<0.001), confirming the results observed in studies of sperm karyotypes and spontaneous abortions. The disomy frequencies for autosomes 1, 12, 15, and 18 were found to be uniform. Inter-donor heterogeneity for disomy frequencies was found to exist for the sex chromosomes and for chromosomes 1 and 15, suggesting significant variation among normal men.

  9. A Euploid Line of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Morato-Marques, Mariana; Costa, Silvia; Alegretti, Jose Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; da Motta, Eduardo Leme Alves; Serafini, Paulo C.; Pereira, Lygia V.

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploid embryos diagnosed by FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) have been shown to yield euploid lines of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with a relatively high frequency. Given that the diagnostic procedure is usually based on the analysis of 1–2 blastomeres of 5 to 10-cell cleavage-stage embryos, mosaicism has been a likely explanation for the phenomena. However, FISH-based PGS can have a significant rate of misdiagnosis, and therefore some of those lines may have been derived from euploid embryos misdiagnosed as aneuploid. More recently, coupling of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy at the blastocyst stage and array-CGH lead to a more informative form of PGS. Here we describe the establishment of a new line of hESCs from an embryo with a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 chromosomal content based on array-CGH of TE biopsy. We show that, despite the complex chromosomal abnormality, the corresponding hESC line BR-6 is euploid (46,XX). Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that the embryo´s missing chromosomes were not duplicated in BR-6, suggesting the existence of extensive mosaicism in the TE lineage. PMID:26540511

  10. Sleep Problems and Hospitalization for Self-Harm: A 15-Year Follow-Up of 9,000 Norwegian Adolescents. The Young-HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Asbjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Gunnell, David; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between sleeping problems in adolescence and subsequent hospital admission for self-harm (SH). Design: Prospective cohort study, linking health survey information on sleep problems to hospital-based patient records. Setting: Residents of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, aged 13-19 years in 1995-97. Patients or Participants: 10,202 adolescents were invited to participate in the Young-HUNT study; 8,983 (88%) completed the health survey. Measurements and Results: 10% of participants reported difficulties initiating sleep, 4% reported early morning wakening. Ninety-eight participants (27% male) were hospitalized following SH over a mean 12 years follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening were associated with increased risk of SH (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.29-3.46, sex- and age-adjusted) compared with no problems, yet coexistent symptoms of combined anxiety/depression explained most of the association with sleep problems (fully adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.66-2.16). The HR of combined difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening differed in those with and without anxiety/depression at baseline (P interaction = 0.03); among those without caseness symptoms of anxiety/depression it was 5.58 (95% CI 2.02-15.40), while in those with caseness symptoms of anxiety/ depression it was 0.82 (95% CI 0.19-3.44). Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Norwegian adolescents. The strong association between sleep problems and subsequent hospitalization for self-harm could mainly be related to coexistent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Prevention of adolescent sleep problems, anxiety and depression should be targeted when seeking to reduce and prevent self-harm. Citation: Junker A; Bjørngaard JH; Gunnell D; Bjerkeset O. Sleep problems and hospitalization for self-harm: a 15-year follow-up of 9,000 Norwegian adolescents. the Young-HUNT study. SLEEP 2014;37(3):579-585. PMID:24587581

  11. Parental Knowledge as a Mediator of the Relation between Adolescent Summer Care Arrangement Configurations and Adjustment the Following School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Maria E.; Sheppard, Adam; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Through secondary data analysis of a nationally representative sample, the study explored the relations between adolescent summer arrangements and associated developmental outcomes (well-being, externalizing behavior, body mass index, and academic performance). The study also examined if these relations were mediated by parental knowledge of youth…

  12. Surviving Your Adolescents: How To Manage and Let Go of Your 13-18 Year Olds. Revised 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Thomas W.

    Noting that parents raising adolescents need to know when to be quiet and when to act, as well as what to do when something needs to be done, this guide for parents offers guidelines for handling the complex situations and dilemmas that teenagers often present. Topics covered include managing teenage risk-taking, the relationship between…

  13. Twenty Years after the Velvet Revolution: Shifts in Czech Adolescents' Perceptions of Family, School, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šerek, Jan; Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Lacinová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Families and schools are traditionally seen as substantial socialization agents forming adolescents' social values and their views of society. Special attention is paid to the question whether the relative importance of these influences remains stable in times of major social changes. In this study, two different generations of Czech middle…

  14. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents ... 2 ). Weight status misperception occurs when the child’s perception of their weight status differs from their actual ...

  15. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  16. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…

  17. The Relation between Civic Education and Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Two-Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that civic education efforts will have a positive effect on the political attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. In the present study, we distinguish among formal civic education, an open classroom climate, and active learning strategies, and we explore their relation with political interest, efficacy,…

  18. The Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Monitoring and Child and Adolescent Conduct Problems: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of…

  19. Measuring Adolescent Personality. Project TALENT Five Year Follow-up Studies. Interim Report One. Project Number 3051.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes, Paul R.

    Project data is organized to provide a valid, simplified description of American adolescents which should be of use to guidance personnel. A chapter on educational achievement traits presents an overview of the factor solution for the abilities domain, and describes the compositions of the three factors that represent core achievement traits:…

  20. Summary of 20 Years of Research on the Effectiveness of Adolescent Literacy Programs and Practices. REL 2016-178

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Sarah; Truckenmiller, Adrea J.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of adolescent literacy is well established, and the topic continues to be of both local and national interest. Practitioners need to know not only which programs and practices appear effective, but which have the scientific evidence to support that claim. To identify effective programs and practices for general education students in…

  1. Psychological treatments for depression in pre-adolescent children (12 years and younger): systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Forti-Buratti, M Azul; Saikia, Rupalim; Wilkinson, Esther L; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression in pre-adolescent children, a disorder affecting 1-2 % of children in this age range. A systematic review of studies of psychological interventions to treat depressive disorder in pre-adolescent children (aged up to 12-years-old) was carried out. The primary outcome was level of depressive symptoms. Studies were found using Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge databases and selected on several criteria. Only randomised controlled trials were included. Where individual studies covered a broader age range (usually including adolescents up to age 18 years), authors of those studies were contacted and requested to provide individual patient level data for those aged 12 years and younger. 2822 abstracts were reviewed, and from these 124 full text articles were reviewed, yielding 7 studies for which we were able to access appropriate data for this review. 5 of these studies evaluated cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Combined results from these studies suggest that there is a lack of evidence that CBT is better than no treatment [standard mean difference -0.342 (95 % confidence interval -0.961, 0.278)], although the number of participants included in the trials was relatively small. The evidence for efficacy of family therapy and psychodynamic therapy is even more limited. The very limited number of participants in randomised controlled trials means that there is inconclusive evidence for the psychological treatment of depression in children aged 12 years and below. Given the prevalence and significant impact of this disorder, there is an urgent need to establish the effectiveness or otherwise of psychological intervention.

  2. Childhood and Adolescent Thyroid Cancer in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: 5 Years On.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, releasing a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Questions were raised regarding the health effects of radiation exposure, which led to increased anxiety among the Fukushima residents about the possible development of thyroid cancer. Thus, thyroid ultrasound examinations began for those who were from the areas where the radiation doses were highest, and will continue for the long term. In total, 300 476 subjects aged 18 years or younger at the time of the disaster were screened from 9 October 2011 to 31 March 2014. The participation rate was 81.7% of the total population of this age and in the affected area. Among them, the proportions of those who fell into the categories A1 (no nodules or cysts present), A2 (nodule ≤ 5 mm or cyst ≤ 20 mm diameter), B (nodule > 5 mm or cyst > 20 mm diameter) and C (immediate need for further investigation) were 51.5, 47.8, 0.8 and 0%, respectively; 2294 subjects in categories B and C were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination; 113 were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The full-scale survey (second round survey) began in April 2014, and was completed by 30 June 2015, and comprised 169 455 subjects (participation rate; 44.7%). The proportions of those who fell into the categories A1, A2, B and C were 41.6, 57.6, 0.8 and 0% (no case), respectively; 1223 subjects in category B were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination, 25 of these were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The thyroid cancers identified in this survey so far are unlikely to be due to radiation exposure, and are more likely to be the result of screening using highly sophisticated ultrasound techniques. However, it would be advisable to continue long

  3. Childhood and Adolescent Thyroid Cancer in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: 5 Years On.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, releasing a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Questions were raised regarding the health effects of radiation exposure, which led to increased anxiety among the Fukushima residents about the possible development of thyroid cancer. Thus, thyroid ultrasound examinations began for those who were from the areas where the radiation doses were highest, and will continue for the long term. In total, 300 476 subjects aged 18 years or younger at the time of the disaster were screened from 9 October 2011 to 31 March 2014. The participation rate was 81.7% of the total population of this age and in the affected area. Among them, the proportions of those who fell into the categories A1 (no nodules or cysts present), A2 (nodule ≤ 5 mm or cyst ≤ 20 mm diameter), B (nodule > 5 mm or cyst > 20 mm diameter) and C (immediate need for further investigation) were 51.5, 47.8, 0.8 and 0%, respectively; 2294 subjects in categories B and C were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination; 113 were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The full-scale survey (second round survey) began in April 2014, and was completed by 30 June 2015, and comprised 169 455 subjects (participation rate; 44.7%). The proportions of those who fell into the categories A1, A2, B and C were 41.6, 57.6, 0.8 and 0% (no case), respectively; 1223 subjects in category B were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination, 25 of these were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The thyroid cancers identified in this survey so far are unlikely to be due to radiation exposure, and are more likely to be the result of screening using highly sophisticated ultrasound techniques. However, it would be advisable to continue long

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Passive Smoking on Lactoferrin and AST on 12 - 15 Years Old Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Pouramir, Mahdi; Motallebnejad, Mina; Bamdadian, Jale; Rahimi-Rad, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Passive smokers are involuntarily exposed to cigarette or tobacco smoke and as known, inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke is a serious threat. There is little information about the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers and periodontal indices. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of passive smoking on lactoferrin and AST in 12 - 15 years old children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: This case-control analytic correlation type study with no-convenience random sampling method was performed on 160 children aged 12 - 15 who had smokers in their families. The eligible children were divided into two equal groups; 80 cot+ children as case group and 80 cot– children as control group, matched according to age, sex and plaque index. Plaque index was obtained from all subjects. 2 cc unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method. The collected specimens were tested by lactoferrin and AST kits in biochemistry were measured on the day of sampling laboratory. Gingival index Loe and Silness (GI) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Results: Mean and Standard Deviation of PPD and GI was 2.01 ± 0.077 and 1.53 ± 0.055 in experimental group and 1.93 ± 0.073 and 1.49 ± 0.046 in control group respectively (P < 0.001). The Mean and Standard Deviation parameters of lactoferrin and AST, in the experimental group was 38.66 ± 25.15 and 13.45 ± 6.33 and in the control group 10.18 ± 6.82 and 6.53 ± 2.65 group, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Passive smoking can be effective on inflammatory process of periodontal and salivary biomarkers related to inflammation. Lactoferrin was 11 - 104 in case group and 0.5 - 38 in control group. Aspartat aminotransferase in case group was 2.64 - 30.43 and in control group it was 2.16 - 12.02. PMID:26495095

  5. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044. PMID:22566517

  6. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents. PMID:27698962

  7. Dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in Korea: a pooled study of 2,599 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents.

  8. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR.

  9. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  10. Parental education level is associated with clustering of metabolic risk factors in adolescents independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have reported associations between clustering metabolic risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) in youth. This study aimed to analyze the association between clustering metabolic risk factors and SES in adolescents. It was hypothesized that SES is inversely related to clustering metabolic risk factors. This 2009 cross-sectional school-based study investigated 517 Portuguese adolescents ages 15-18 years. The study considered the age- and sex-adjusted z-scores for the ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, homeostasis model, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure, and a metabolic risk score was constructed by summing all the z-scores (≥1 standard deviation was considered high risk). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the 20 m shuttle-run test and dietary intake by a food frequency questionnaire. The best of parental education was used as a proxy measure of SES. The results showed that adolescents with low SES were more likely to have a high metabolic risk score (odds ratio [OR], 1.96; p < 0.020) regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage. In conclusion, a lower SES was associated with increased risk for a high metabolic risk score among Azorean adolescents after adjustment for pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Future health-promotion strategies among Azorean adolescents should consider the impact of SES on their health.

  11. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  12. Comparison of long-term (10 years) immunogenicity of two- and three-dose regimens of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beran, Jiri; Kervyn, Diane; Wertzova, Veronika; Hobzova, Lenka; Tichy, Petr; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-08-23

    300 adolescents aged 12-15 years were randomised (1:1) into two groups to compare the long-term (10 years) immunogenicity profile of two doses of an Adult formulation [Group HAB_2D: 150; 0-6 months] vs. three doses of a Paediatric formulation [Group HAB_3D: 150; 0-1-6 months] of a combined hepatitis A and B (HAB) vaccine. At Year 10, anti-HAV seropositivity rate was 100% in both groups, while 85.9% and 85.1% subjects in the HAB_2D and HAB_3D groups, respectively, had anti-HBs antibody concentrations > or =10 mIU/mL. The anti-HAV antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 429.3 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 335.5 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs antibody GMCs (HAB_2D: 50.6 mIU/mL; HAB_3D: 60.1 mIU/mL) were similar in both groups. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Hence, with respect to long-term antibody persistence, the two-dose schedule of the combined HAB vaccine Adult formulation is an effective alternative to the conventional three-dose schedule of the Paediatric formulation in adolescents.

  13. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting

    PubMed Central

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care. PMID:26915921

  14. Specifying the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parental monitoring for younger versus older adolescents: a five year longitudinal test.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Bolland, John M

    2012-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parenting during adolescence. Semi-parametric group based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed: (1) a trajectory of declining parental monitoring for 48% of youth; and (2) four distinct trajectories of exposure to violence. Multivariate findings were largely consistent with the ecological-transactional model of community violence. Youth with stable and/or increasing trajectories of exposure to violence were more likely than youth with stable-low exposure to violence to have declining parental monitoring, but additional analyses revealed a similar pattern of findings for younger adolescents (age 9-11 T1), but no evidence of linkages between trajectories of exposure to violence and parental monitoring for older adolescents (age 12-16 T1). The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  15. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®)-miniMAG(®), bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.

  16. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus in Urine Samples from Unvaccinated Male and Female Adolescents in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS®-miniMAG®, bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively. PMID:24255711

  17. FastStats: Adolescent Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Adolescent Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of adolescents 12-17 years of age who are in ...

  18. Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    Engagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected. PMID:25893152

  19. Obesity and physical fitness of pre-adolescent children during the academic year and the summer period: effects of organized physical activity.

    PubMed

    Christodoulos, Antonios D; Flouris, Andreas D; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2006-09-01

    This study examined obesity and parameters of physical fitness in 178 elementary schoolchildren during an academic year as well as after the summer holidays. Results showed significant physical fitness improvements during the school year, with little or no changes in the summer holidays. Children who reported less than 30 minutes of daily participation in physical activity demonstrated lower prevalence rates for overweight and obesity as well as superior fitness performance. The detrimental effect of the summer break on the progress of physical fitness was less in children who did participate in physical activity than in those who did not. Longitudinal modelling using generalized estimating equations demonstrated that physical activity is a major contributing factor for obesity over time, masking the singular effect of various fitness parameters. It is concluded that pre-adolescent children advance in physical fitness mainly during the school year, with physical activity being a beneficial countermeasure for the development of obesity.

  20. Influences of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the body dissatisfaction and eating behaviour of Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Byrne, Nuala M; Kenardy, Justin A; Hills, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, body dissatisfaction, and eating behaviours of 10- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. The study participants (N = 768) were categorised as Caucasian (74.7%), Chinese or Vietnamese (18.2%), and Italian or Greek (7.0%), and high (82%), middle (8.6%), and low SES (9.4%) according to parents' occupations. The chi(2), Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression model were used to determine the interaction between variables. Females and older participants were more likely to desire a body figure that was thinner than their perceived current figure. Furthermore, the same groups were also more likely to be preoccupied with eating problems (females 7.1% vs. males 1.4%; for participants aged 15-18 years, 7.8% vs. participants aged 10-14 years, 3.9%). The body dissatisfaction gender difference was females 42.8% vs. males 11.8%, and participants aged 15-18 years 41.7% vs. those aged 10-14 years, 28.3%. Participants whose parents were managers/professionals were more likely to desire a body figure that was thinner than their perceived current figure than those from white-collar and blue-collar families. This was also the case for Caucasian Australians compared to those from Chinese or Vietnamese backgrounds. In conclusion, age and gender differences in body image and problems in eating behaviour were evident among children and adolescents. However, there was no significant SES and ethnic difference in the proportion of participants with eating problems and body dissatisfaction.

  1. Adolescents' awareness of HPV infections and attitudes towards HPV vaccination 3 years following the introduction of the HPV vaccine in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Marek, Erika; Dergez, Timea; Rebek-Nagy, Gabor; Kricskovics, Antal; Kovacs, Krisztina; Bozsa, Szabolcs; Kiss, Istvan; Ember, Istvan; Gocze, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Hungary takes the fourth place regarding the incidence and the fifth regarding the mortality of cervical cancer among the member countries of the European Union, with 500 deaths due to this preventable illness and nearly 1200 new cases diagnosed every year. Although the vaccines have been available for 3 years, the estimated rate of the female population vaccinated against HPV is approximately 10% in the 12-26-year-age cohort. The aim of this study was to determine factors and motivations affecting the uptake of HPV vaccination among Hungarian adolescents. Examining the effects of some possible sociodemographic predictors (age and gender) and the exposure to health information on HPV vaccine acceptability were also focused on, as well as assessing the most trusted sources of information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A nationwide anonymous questionnaire survey with a sample of 1769 students attending public primary or secondary schools was organised by the authors in 16 Hungarian cities and towns. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Adolescents' awareness of HPV was relatively low. Only 35% of the participants reported they had heard about HPV prior to the survey. Almost 70% of the potentially affected study population had not heard about the vaccine previously. Every fourth student did not believe that vaccination against HPV can prevent cervical cancer. If the vaccination was available free of charge, almost 80% of respondents would request it, but in case they had to pay for it, this number would significantly decrease. Significantly better knowledge and also more positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination was found in relation to the number of information sources. The majority of respondents (62-83%) were open for further information about STDs. The main trusted mediators were school-health services (61.3%), education on health at school (49.2%), health professionals (42.2%) and electronic media (24

  2. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  3. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  4. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  5. An 8-Year Longitudinal Study of the Natural History of Threshold, Subthreshold, and Partial Eating Disorders from a Community Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Shaw, Heather; Jaconis, Maryanne

    2010-01-01

    We examined the natural history of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders in a community sample of 496 adolescent girls who completed annual diagnostic interviews over an 8-year period. Lifetime prevalence by age 20 was 0.6% and 0.6% for threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN), 1.6% and 6.1% for threshold and subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN), 1.0% and 4.6% for threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder (BED), and 4.4% for purging disorder (PD). Overall, 12% of adolescents experienced some form of eating disorder. Subthreshold BN and BED and threshold PD were associated with elevated treatment, impairment, and distress. Peak age of onset was 17-18 for BN and BED, and 18-20 for PD. Average episode duration in months was 3.9 for BN and BED, and 5.1 for PD. One-year recovery rates ranged from 91% to 96%. Relapse rates were 41% for BN, 33% for BED, and 5% for PD. For BN and BED subthreshold cases often progressed to threshold cases and diagnostic crossover was most likely for these disorders. Results suggest that subthreshold eating disorders are more prevalent than threshold eating disorders and are associated with marked impairment. PMID:19685955

  6. Effects of Verbal Ability and Severity of Autism on Anxiety in Adolescents with ASD: One-year Follow-up after Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Schry, Amie R.; Miyazaki, Yasuo; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treatment of anxiety in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but long-term course of anxiety after treatment and individual predictors of treatment response are unknown. To meet the demands for personalized mental health care, information on the fit between patient and treatment as well as treatment durability is needed. Method We evaluated change in anxiety symptoms during intervention and one year after completion of the treatment, and evaluated predictors of response using an advanced analytical design, with follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 22 adolescents (12–17 yrs) with ASD and one or more anxiety disorders. Results Reduction in anxiety was partially maintained during the year following treatment; greater ASD severity predicted better treatment response. Conclusions Our finding that brief treatment is associated with sustained gains is promising, given the pervasive and chronic nature of ASD. Implications for the treatment of anxiety in higher functioning adolescents with ASD are considered. PMID:24731184

  7. Sports, smoking, and overweight during adolescence as predictors of sciatica in adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study of a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rivinoja, Anni E; Paananen, Markus V; Taimela, Simo P; Solovieva, Svetlana; Okuloff, Annaleena; Zitting, Paavo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro I

    2011-04-15

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, and level of physical activity predict low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. The authors investigated whether participating in sports, smoking, and being overweight or obese at 14 years of age predicted hospitalizations due to LBP or sciatica in adulthood. In 1980, at the age of 14 years, a total of 11,399 members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort returned the postal questionnaire. Patients from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort who were hospitalized because of LBP or sciatica were followed to the end of 2008 through the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards multistate model with the Markov clock forward time scale. During follow-up, 119 females (2.7%) and 254 males (5.6%) had been hospitalized at least once because of LBP or sciatica. Among females, overweight was associated with an increased risk of second-time hospitalization for surgical treatment for sciatica (hazard ratio = 7.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 34.4). Among males, smoking was associated with an increased risk of first-time nonsurgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.7) and second-time surgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 8.2). The authors found potentially modifiable risk factors in adolescence that predicted hospital treatments for low back disorders during adolescence and young adulthood.

  8. Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001) and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001) were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05) and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05). In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001), fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05), sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001) and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05), and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05). These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth. PMID:27783063

  9. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood.

  11. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  12. "Bone-οn-Bone" surgical reconstruction of moderate severity, flexible single curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: continuing improvements of the technique and results in three scoliosis centers after almost twenty years of use.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert W; Min, Kan; Zarzycki, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The "bone-on-bone" reconstruction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is reviewed in this article. Extensive use over the past 18 years has identified it's functional benefits outstanding clinical results, and very limited complications. This is an extensive update of it's application, since it's introduction, 18 years ago. PMID:26000031

  13. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    PubMed

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. PMID:22620274

  14. A Western dietary pattern is associated with overweight and obesity in a national sample of Lebanese adolescents (13-19 years): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Nasreddine, Lara

    2015-12-14

    Adolescent obesity is associated with both immediate and longer-term health implications. This study aims to identify dietary patterns among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years (n 446) and to assess the association of these patterns with overweight and obesity. Through face-to-face interviews, socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables were collected. Dietary intake was assessed using a sixty-one-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: Western and traditional Lebanese. The Western pattern was characterised by high consumption of red meat, eggs and fast-food sandwiches. The traditional Lebanese pattern reflected high intakes of fruits and vegetables, legumes and fish. Female sex and a higher maternal education level were associated with a greater adherence to the traditional Lebanese pattern. As for the Western pattern, the scores were negatively associated with crowding index, physical activity and frequency of breakfast consumption. After adjustment, subjects belonging to the 3rd tertile of the Western pattern scores had significantly higher odds of overweight compared with those belonging to the 1st tertile (OR 2·3; 95% CI 1·12, 4·73). In conclusion, two distinct dietary patterns were identified among adolescents in Lebanon: the traditional Lebanese and the Western, with the latter pattern being associated with an increased risk of overweight. The findings of this study may be used to guide the development of evidence-based preventive nutrition interventions to curb the obesity epidemic in this age group.

  15. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents. PMID:16123146

  16. A Western dietary pattern is associated with overweight and obesity in a national sample of Lebanese adolescents (13-19 years): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Nasreddine, Lara

    2015-12-14

    Adolescent obesity is associated with both immediate and longer-term health implications. This study aims to identify dietary patterns among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years (n 446) and to assess the association of these patterns with overweight and obesity. Through face-to-face interviews, socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables were collected. Dietary intake was assessed using a sixty-one-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: Western and traditional Lebanese. The Western pattern was characterised by high consumption of red meat, eggs and fast-food sandwiches. The traditional Lebanese pattern reflected high intakes of fruits and vegetables, legumes and fish. Female sex and a higher maternal education level were associated with a greater adherence to the traditional Lebanese pattern. As for the Western pattern, the scores were negatively associated with crowding index, physical activity and frequency of breakfast consumption. After adjustment, subjects belonging to the 3rd tertile of the Western pattern scores had significantly higher odds of overweight compared with those belonging to the 1st tertile (OR 2·3; 95% CI 1·12, 4·73). In conclusion, two distinct dietary patterns were identified among adolescents in Lebanon: the traditional Lebanese and the Western, with the latter pattern being associated with an increased risk of overweight. The findings of this study may be used to guide the development of evidence-based preventive nutrition interventions to curb the obesity epidemic in this age group. PMID:26431469

  17. Long-Term Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on CD4+ Cell Evolution among Children and Adolescents Infected with HIV: 5 Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunjal; Hernán, Miguel A.; Williams, Paige L.; Seeger, John D.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower percentages of CD4+ T lymphocytes are associated with adverse clinical outcomes among children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ lymphocyte percentage generally increases with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but long-term follow-up is required to assess whether these increases in CD4+ cell percentage are maintained and whether they lead to normal CD4+ cell percentages in children with severe immunosuppression. Methods The study population included 1236 children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV who were enrolled in a US-based multicenter prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C) and who were not receiving HAART at study initiation. We estimated the effects of HAART, HAART with protease inhibitors, and HAART with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors on CD4+ cell percentage, using marginal structural models to account for confounding by severity. Results Initiation of any type of HAART increased CD4+ cell percentage by 2.34% (95% confidence interval, 1.35%–3.33%) in the first year, relative to noninitiation of HAART. The substantial increases in CD4+ cell percentage observed after the first year of experience with these combination therapies were followed by relatively smaller increases that continued for 5 years after initiation. Although larger increases in CD4+ cell percentage were observed among children with a greater degree of immunosuppression at baseline, the mean CD4+ cell percentage after 5 years of HAART did not reach normal levels. Conclusions Our study supports the initiation of HAART in children before severe immunosuppression occurs for long-term maintenance of normal CD4+ cell percentages. This beneficial result must be weighed against the evidence of potential adverse events associated with the prolonged use of such therapy. PMID:18426371

  18. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

    PubMed Central

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6%) and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate directions of associations

  19. Understanding sleep habits and associated factors can help to improve sleep in high school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Kilinçaslan, Ayşe; Aydin, Neriman; Kul, Seval

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to describe the sleep profiles and associated factors of poor sleep in adolescents. We gave a sleep questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to 3,441 high school adolescents (15-18 years) in Gaziantep, Turkey. Adolescents reported a requirement of 10.4 hours of sleep on average to feel their best during the day. However, total night sleep time (TNST) was 7.42 +/- 1.48 hours on school nights and 9.40 +/- 1.37 on non-school nights. TNST of > or =9 hours on both school nights and non-school nights was detected in 8.2%. Average bedtime and wake-up time were 23:16 and 06:41 on school nights. Bedtime was approximately 30 minutes later on non-school nights. The shift in wake-up time was nearly 2.5 hours. Statistical analysis by logistic regression model showed that TNST was most significantly correlated with school start time (morning versus afternoon) irrespective of school or non-school nights. TNST on school nights was negatively correlated with age, passive smoking at home, drinking tea/coffee, and conduct problem, whereas TNST on non-school nights was negatively correlated with the mother's education, male gender, body mass index, number of household members, and having a television in the bedroom. Daytime napping (21.3%) was associated with morning start time, age, female gender, and mother's education. Sleep-onset insomnia with sleep latency >30 minutes (21%) was not related to age or gender; however, it was associated with abnormal breathing during sleep. The findings revealed that inadequate sleep is quite prevalent among high school adolescents. Given the fact that most of the associated factors are modifiable, inadequate sleep is not inevitable for adolescents.

  20. Social, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity among Bahraini adolescents.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; Bader, Zahra

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore some of the social, dietary and lifestyle factors that could be related to the risk of obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. A multistage stratified method was used to select secondary school students (15-18years old) from governmental schools in Bahrain. The total sample selected was 735 (339 males and 396 females). A pre-validated self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographics, food and the lifestyle habits of adolescents. Weight and height were taken and percentiles of Body Mass Index for age and gender were used to classify the adolescents as non-obese and obese (overweight and obese), using NHANES-1 growth standard. In general, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.5% and 36.8% among males and females, respectively. The risk of obesity was not consistent among male and female adolescents. Mothers' education was found to be a risk factor for obesity among both males and females (p=0.0167 and p=0.007, respectively). Bringing food from home to school (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.81) was protective factor for obesity among females but not among males. Fathers' education (p=0.0167), rank among siblings (p=0.009), place where breakfast is eaten (p=0.0398), eating between lunch and dinner (p=0.0152), fruit intake (p=0.042), sweet intake (p=0.0192), size of burger (p=0.002) and hours of watching television per day (p=0.004) were significantly associated with the risk of obesity among males, but not among females. Various social, dietary and lifestyle factors were found to contribute to obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. These factors should be considered in school health policy in the country.

  1. The Adolescent Years: Social Influences and Educational Challenges. The Ninety-Seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Viewing adolescence as a "dynamic social construction," this volume explores the state of adolescence in the context of rapid social change. The articles in the volume reveal a recurrent theme: no matter how adolescence is defined, the establishment of identity and the search for autonomy remain central developmental tasks of the adolescence…

  2. The effect of socioeconomic indicators and macronutrient intake rate on body composition in adolescents 12 to 16 years old in Merida, Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Andrade Olalde, Ana Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Intake pattern of macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) and socioeconomic status (SES) are major causes of high child and adolescent overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico. An evaluation was done of the relationship between body mass index (BMI)-based nutritional status and body composition (BC), macronutrient intake rates (MIR) and SES indicators in 127 boys and 156 girls aged 12 to 16 years attending schools in Merida, Mexico. Anthropometric variables included height, weight, and BMI. The BC (body fat mass, fat-free mass, dry lean mass) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (Bodystat 1500 MDD). The MIR were estimated following FAO/WHO/UNO standard (1985). Proxy socioeconomic indicators included parents' age (as a maturity indicator) and education, fathers' occupation, school type and monthly household food expenditure per capita. Excess weight (overweight + obesity) assessed by BMI, was higher in boys (40.16 %) than in girls (33.97 %). Boys had higher BMI, less fat mass and higher fat-free mass than girls. The MIR did not vary significantly in response to age, sex, BC or SES. Participants with higher SES were taller and heavier, had higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass. In the studied adolescents, anthropometric and BC values, and overweight and obesity rates were more associated with SES than MIR.

  3. Interpersonal Conflicts and Development of Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Mid-Adulthood. A 26-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kiviruusu, Olli; Berg, Noora; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between interpersonal conflicts and the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood. The directionality of effects between self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts was also studied. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at age 16 (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) using postal questionnaires. Measures covered self-esteem and interpersonal conflicts including, conflicts with parents, friends, colleagues, superiors, partners, break-ups with girl/boyfriends, and divorces. Participants were grouped using latent profile analysis to those having “consistently low”, “decreasing”, or “increasing” number of interpersonal conflicts from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were done using latent growth curve models and autoregressive cross-lagged models. Among both females and males the self-esteem growth trajectory was most favorable in the group with a consistently low number of interpersonal conflicts. Compared to the low group, the group with a decreasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a self-esteem trajectory that started and remained at a lower level throughout the study period. The group with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had a significantly slower self-esteem growth rate compared to the other groups, and also the lowest self-esteem level at the end of the study period. Cross-lagged autoregressive models indicated small, but significant lagged effects from low self-esteem to later interpersonal conflicts, although only among males. There were no effects to the opposite direction among either gender. Our results show that those reporting more and an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts have a lower and more slowly developing self-esteem trajectory from adolescence to mid-adulthood. While the result was expected, it does not seem to imply an effect from interpersonal conflicts to low self-esteem. Rather, if anything

  4. Happiness among Adolescent Students in Thailand: Family and Non-Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…

  5. Is Adolescent-Onset First-Episode Psychosis Different from Adult Onset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballageer, Trevor; Malla, Ashok; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether first-episode psychosis patients with onset during adolescence (ages 15-18) differ significantly from those with young-adult onset (ages 19-30). Method: Consecutive patients presenting with first-episode psychosis (N = 242) were assessed for demographic and illness characteristics such as duration of untreated…

  6. One-year developmental stability and covariance among oddball, novelty, go/no-go, and flanker event-related potentials in adolescence: A monozygotic twin study.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Scott J; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2016-07-01

    ERP measures may index genetic risk for psychopathology before disorder onset in adolescence, but little is known about their developmental rank-order stability during this period of significant brain maturation. We studied ERP stability in 48 pairs of identical twins (age 14-16 years) tested 1 year apart. Trial-averaged voltage waveforms were extracted from electroencephalographic recordings from oddball/novelty, go/no-go, and flanker tasks, and 16 amplitude measures were examined. Members of twin pairs were highly similar, whether based on ERP amplitude measures (intraclass correlation [ICC] median = .64, range = .44-.86) or three factor scores (all ICCs ≥ .69) derived from them. Stability was high overall, with 69% of the 16 individual measures generating stability coefficients exceeding .70 and all factor scores showing stability above .75. Measures from 10 difference waveforms calculated from paired conditions within tasks were also examined, and were associated with lower twin similarity (ICC median = .52, .38-.64) and developmental stability (only 30% exceeding .70). In a supplemental analysis, we found significant developmental stability for error-related negativity (range = .45-.55) and positivity (.56-.70) measures when average waveforms were based on one or more trials, and that these values were equivalent to those derived from averages using the current field recommendation, which requires six or more trials. Overall, we conclude that the studied brain measures are largely stable over 1 year of mid- to late adolescence, likely reflecting familial etiologic influences on brain functions pertaining to cognitive control and salience recognition.

  7. Effectiveness Trial of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Adolescent Depression Prevention Program versus Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the longterm effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) adolescent depression indicated prevention program through 2-year follow-up, relative to CB bibliotherapy and brochure control, when high school personnel recruited students and delivered the program. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms who were randomized to CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control were assessed at pre, post, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results By 2 years post-intervention, CB group participants showed significantly lower major depressive disorder (MDD) onset versus CB bibliotherapy (10% vs. 25%, respectively; HR = 2.48, p = .006), but the incidence difference relative to brochure controls (17%) was nonsignificant; MDD incidence for bibliotherapy and brochure controls did not differ. Although CB group participants showed lower depressive symptoms at post versus brochure controls, there were no effects for this outcome or for social adjustment or substance use over 2-year follow-up. Moderator analyses suggested that participants with higher baseline depressive symptoms showed greater longterm symptom reductions in the CB group intervention versus bibliotherapy. Conclusions The evidence that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset versus CB bibliotherapy is potentially encouraging. However, the lack of MDD prevention effects relative to brochure control and lack of longterm symptom effects (though consistent with results from other depression prevention trials), suggest that the delivery of CB group should be refined to strengthen its effectiveness. PMID:25894666

  8. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  9. Adolescence: A "Risk Factor" for Physical Inactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    This publication examines influences on the present and future physical activity levels of adolescents, noting that the adolescents' physical activity habits, as well as other risk factors, are likely to track into the adult years. Section 1 discusses physical activity in adolescence, noting that adolescence is a time when physical activity tends…

  10. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  11. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  12. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  13. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  14. Motivating Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and It's Predictors Among Tibetan Adolescents 3Years After the High-Altitude Earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongling; Fu, Liyan; Jing, Zhang; Chen, Changying

    2016-10-01

    This study examined post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and it's predictors among 4072 Tibetan adolescents 3years after the highaltitude earthquake. The instruments included The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version, The Internality, Powerful others, and Chance Scale and The Coping Style Scale. The results indicated the prevalence rate of probable PTSD was 17.8%.The predicting factors for PTSD were found to being aged 14 or older, being senior student, being monitor, being buried/injured, have family member died/amputated, have severer property loss, have witnessed death, have negative coping skills, and have power others locus of control. Effective mental health services should be developed to facilitate post-disaster recovery. PMID:27654243

  16. Does parenting shield youth from exposure to violence during adolescence? A 5-year longitudinal test in a high-poverty sample of minority youth.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M

    2011-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group- based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed (a) about 52% of youth had a trajectory of hypervigilant parental monitoring and (b) two out of the five distinct trajectories of exposure to violence were low and/or declining over the 5-year time period. Multivariate findings indicated that (a) youth with a trajectory of hypervigilant parenting were 109% more likely to have middle-declining exposure to violence, but hypervigilant parenting was unrelated to stable and low exposure to violence T1 to T5. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  17. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and It's Predictors Among Tibetan Adolescents 3Years After the High-Altitude Earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongling; Fu, Liyan; Jing, Zhang; Chen, Changying

    2016-10-01

    This study examined post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and it's predictors among 4072 Tibetan adolescents 3years after the highaltitude earthquake. The instruments included The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version, The Internality, Powerful others, and Chance Scale and The Coping Style Scale. The results indicated the prevalence rate of probable PTSD was 17.8%.The predicting factors for PTSD were found to being aged 14 or older, being senior student, being monitor, being buried/injured, have family member died/amputated, have severer property loss, have witnessed death, have negative coping skills, and have power others locus of control. Effective mental health services should be developed to facilitate post-disaster recovery.

  18. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  19. Do deviant peer associations mediate the contributions of self-esteem to problem behavior during early adolescence? A 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    DuBois, David L; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-06-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth curve modeling and covariance structure analysis, an extension of a model proposed by DuBois et al. (2002) was evaluated for each type of problem behavior. Findings revealed that lower general self-esteem and greater peer orientation in self-esteem each predicted deviant associations with peers and that deviant peer associations, in turn, were associated with higher levels and rates of change in problem behavior. Deviant peer associations mediated the associations of general and peer-oriented self-esteem with levels and rates of change in problem behavior such that direct paths from self-esteem to problem behavior generally were nonsignificant.

  20. Health-related quality-of-life scores, spine-related symptoms, and reoperations in young adults 7 to 17 years after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Spanyer, Jonathan M; Crawford, Charles H; Canan, Chelsea E; Burke, Lauren O; Heintzman, Sara E; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    The goal of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to prevent disability associated with curve progression. Few investigators have considered whether the function of patients with AIS becomes adversely affected by major spine fusion surgery. Tertiary referral center patients (age, 10-17 years) who underwent spinal deformity correction a minimum of 5 years earlier were identified. Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) were administered. Data were available for 118 patients. Mean age was 14.1 years at surgery and 26.8 years at follow-up. Mean outcome scores were 50.9 (SF-12 physical composite summary), 49.4 (SF-12 mental composite summary), and 4.0 (SRS-22R total). One hundred patients (85%) were working. Common symptoms included occasional back pain (90, 76%), limited range of motion (52, 44%), activity limitations (54, 46%), waistline imbalance (41, 35%), rib prominence (28, 24%), wound/scar problems (18, 15%), and shortness of breath (18, 15%). Prominent implants were reported by 11 patients (9%). Seven of 14 reoperations were for instrumentation removal. There was a high incidence of occasional back pain and activity complaints after surgery for AIS in our cohort. However, normal SF-12 scores suggested that these symptoms did not lower the patients' general health.

  1. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  2. The role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese adolescents: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-04-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the follow-up period. Results indicate that while Year 1 depressive symptoms and family invalidation were significantly associated with the occurrence of Year 2 NSSI, Year 1 behavioral impulsivity contributed to both the occurrence and repetition of Year 2 NSSI. Findings of this study suggest that adolescents who display multiple impulsive behaviors may be at particular risk for engaging in repetitive NSSI. Clinical implications of these findings and future research directions were discussed.

  3. Metal-catalyzed coupling reactions on an olefin template: the total synthesis of (13E,15E,18Z,20Z)-1-hydroxypentacosa- 13,15,18,20-tetraen-11-yn-4-one 1-acetate.

    PubMed

    Organ, Michael G; Ghasemi, Haleh

    2004-02-01

    The naturally occurring ant venom (13E,15E,18Z,20Z)-1-hydroxypentacosa-13,15,18,20-tetraen-11-yn-4-one 1-acetate was synthesized stereospecifically using a series of metal-mediated cross-coupling reactions. The use of the difunctional olefin template (E)-1-chloro-2-iodoethylene as the central, pseudosymmetrical building block facilitated a fully convergent and, thus, efficient strategy to prepare this polyunsaturated natural product.

  4. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  5. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  6. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  7. Fatness but Not Fitness Relative to the Fat-Free Mass Is Related to C-Reactive Protein in 18 Year-Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hinriksdóttir, Gunnhildur; Tryggvadóttir, Ágústa; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Arngrímsson, Sigurbjörn Árni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The interaction between fatness, fitness, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents is not well characterized but may be important to prevent low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between adiposity, different expressions of fitness, and CRP in late adolescence using direct measures of fitness and fatness. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken on 245 eighteen-year-old participants (116 girls). Fasting CRP, glucose, and insulin were measured and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) calculated. Body composition was estimated via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fitness was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a treadmill test and also expressed relative to the fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM). Results Prevalence of overweight/obesity based on body mass index (BMI) was 20.7% and 25.6% among girls and boys, respectively (p = 0.407), but 42.5% and 58.1% when based on body fat percentage (%fat, p = 0.015). Higher proportion of boys (81.3%) than girls (54.5%) were highly fit (p<0.001), but the percentage of girls with high levels of CRP was greater (12.1% vs 6.2%, p = 0.028). Adiposity, indicated with BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, android fat mass (aFM), or %fat, was positively associated with CRP independent of VO2max (r = 0.13-0.18, p<0.05) and VO2maxFFM (r = 0.24-0.32, p<0.001). VO2max, was negatively associated with CRP independent only of BMI and waist circumference (r = -0.21, p = 0.001), but not %fat, fat mass or aFM (r = -0.08 to -0.12, p>0.05). VO2maxFFM was unrelated to CRP with (r = -0.07 to -0.11, p>0.05) or without (r = -0.10, p = 0.142) adjustment for adiposity. Additional adjustment for HOMA did not change any of the relationships, although the coefficients were attenuated. Conclusions Fatness has a greater association with CRP than fitness in late adolescence. However, VO2maxFFM, which is truly independent of adiposity, is unrelated to CRP, indicating that the effects of

  8. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of stunting, underweight, and overweight among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years) in two major governorates in the West Bank

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little information about height and weight status of Palestinian adolescents. The objective of this paper was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight/obesity among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years) and associated sociodemographic factors in 2 major governorates in the West Bank. Methods A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 comprising 1942 students in 65 schools in Ramallah and Hebron governorates. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from students and parents. Weights and heights were measured. Overweight and obesity were assessed using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Stunting and underweight were assessed using the 2000 CDC reference. Results Overweight/obesity was more prevalent in Ramallah than in Hebron and affected more girls than boys. Using the 2000 CDC reference, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Ramallah among boys was 9.6% and 8.2%, respectively versus 15.6% and 6.0% among girls (P < 0.01). In Hebron, the corresponding figures were 8.5% and 4.9% for boys and 13.5% and 3.4% for girls (P < 0.01). Using the IOTF criteria, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys in Ramallah was 13.3% and 5.2%, respectively versus 18.9% and 3.3% for girls. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys in Hebron was 10.9% and 2.2%, respectively versus 14.9% and 2.0% for girls. Overweight/obesity was associated with high standard of living (STL) among boys and with the onset of puberty among girls. More boys were underweight than girls, and the prevalence was higher in Hebron (12.9% and 6.0% in boys and girls, respectively (P < 0.01)) than in Ramallah (9.7% and 3.1% in boys and girls, respectively (p < 0.01)). The prevalence of stunting was similar in both governorates, and was higher among boys (9.2% and 9.4% in Ramallah and Hebron, respectively) than among girls (5

  9. Respecting the circle of life: one year outcomes from a randomized controlled comparison of an HIV risk reduction intervention for American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Chambers, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Lee, Angelita; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Potential for widespread transmission of HIV/AIDS among American Indian (AI) adolescents exists, yet no evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been adapted and evaluated with this population. Intensive psychoeducation may improve knowledge and decision-making which could potentially translate to reductions in HIV risk behaviors. A peer group randomized controlled comparison of an adapted EBI vs. control was delivered over an eight-day summer basketball camp in one reservation-based tribal community to adolescents ages 13-19. Outcome data were gathered immediately post-camp and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Self-selected peer groups were randomized to intervention (n = 138) or control (n = 129) conditions for a total sample of 267 participants (56.2% female), mean age 15.1 years (SD = 1.7). Intervention participants had better condom use self-efficacy post-camp (Adjusted Mean Difference [AMD] = -0.75, p < 0.005) and at 6 (AMD = -0.44, p < 0.005) and 12 months (AMD = -0.23, p < 0.05) follow-up. Intervention participants also had higher HIV prevention and transmission knowledge (post-camp: AMD = 0.07, p < 0.01; 6 months: AMD = 0.06, p < 0.01) were more likely to believe condoms prevent sexually transmitted infections (post-camp: RR = 1.41, p < 0.005; 6 months: RR = 1.34, p < 0.05), to talk with an adult about HIV/AIDS (post-camp: RR=1.78, p < 0.005; 6 months: RR = 1.14, p < 0.005), had higher partner negotiation efficacy related to substance use during sex (post-camp: AMD = 0.37, p < 0.01), and were more likely to intend to use a condom (post-camp: RR = 1.39, p < 0.01). The adapted intervention had short- and medium-term impacts on AI adolescent risk for HIV/AIDS, but attenuated at 12 months. Intervention delivery through a community-based camp is feasible and acceptable with strong retention. Additional study is needed to evaluate the adapted intervention's impact on sexual risk behaviors and if booster sessions and parent involvement translate to long-term impacts.

  10. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich’s Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich’s ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich’s ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich’s ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich’s ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs. PMID:27598307

  11. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich's Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Gessica; Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich's ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs. PMID:27598307

  12. Functional and Gait Assessment in Children and Adolescents Affected by Friedreich's Ataxia: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Gessica; Gazzellini, Simone; Petrarca, Maurizio; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Pisano, Alessandra; Zazza, Marco; Della Bella, Gessica; Castelli, Enrico; Bertini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive form of neurodegenerative ataxia. We present a longitudinal study on the gait pattern of children and adolescents affected by Friedreich's ataxia using Gait Analysis and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). We assessed the spectrum of changes over 12 months of the gait characteristics and the relationship between clinical and instrumental evaluations. We enrolled 11 genetically confirmed patients affected by Friedreich's ataxia in this study together with 13 normally developing age-matched subjects. Eight patients completed a 12-month follow-up under the same protocol. By comparing the gait parameters of Friedreich's ataxia with the control group, we found significant differences for some relevant indexes. In particular, the increased knee and ankle extension in stance revealed a peculiar biomechanical pattern, which correlated reliably with SARA Total, Gait and Sitting scores. The knee pattern showed its consistency also at the follow-up: Knee extension increased from 6.8±3.5° to -0.5±3.7° and was significantly correlated with the SARA total score. This feature anticipated the loss of the locomotor function in two patients. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the selective and segmental analysis of kinetic/kinematic features of ataxic gait, in particular the behavior of the knee, provides sensitive measures to detect specific longitudinal and functional alterations, more than the SARA scale, which however has proved to be a reliable and practical assessment tool. Functional outcomes measures integrated by instrumental evaluation increase their sensitivity, reliability and suitability for the follow-up of the disease progression and for the application in clinical trials and in rehabilitative programs.

  13. Outcomes of a 1-year randomized controlled trial to evaluate a behavioral ‘stepped-down’ weight loss intervention for adolescent patients with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Norman, G.; Huang, J.; Davila, E. P.; Kolodziejczyk, J. K.; Carlson, J.; Covin, J. R.; Gootschalk, M.; Patrick, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Stepped-care approaches to weight loss have shown some success among adults. A ‘stepped-down’ version of the stepped-care approach to adolescent weight loss has never been evaluated. Objectives We conducted a one-year randomized controlled trial to compare a stepped-down weight loss intervention versus enhanced usual care (EUC). Methods Study participants were obese adolescents age 11–13 (N = 106, 51% girls, and 82% Hispanic) recruited from primary care clinics in San Diego, California. The stepped-down intervention was delivered through clinician and health educator counseling (in-person and by phone) and mailed content. The intervention consisted of four-month ‘steps’ beginning with the most intensive contact followed by reduced contact if treatment goals were met. The EUC group received an initial physician visit, one session with a health counselor, and monthly mailed materials. Body mass index (BMI kg/m2) was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Mixed-model regression analyses were stratified by sex. Results Results indicated a clinically significant treatment effect for boys on BMI (p < 0.001) but not girls. No between group differences were found for adiposity and biometric outcomes. Only 13% of intervention participants succeeded in stepping down from step 1 to step 2 or step 3. Conclusions A stepped-down approach to weight loss showed some evidence of efficacy for weight loss in boys but not girls. The findings suggest the program as designed was not intensive enough to result in weight loss in this population segment. PMID:25702630

  14. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  15. Association between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and persisting patterns of anxiety and alcohol use: results from a 10-year longitudinal study of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Lotfi-Miri, M; Collins, V; Williamson, R; Patton, C; Anney, R J L

    2005-09-01

    The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) encodes a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in regulating serotonergic neurotransmission and related aspects of mood and behaviour. The short allele of a 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (S-allele) within the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) confers lower transcriptional activity relative to the long allele (L-allele) and may act to modify the risk of serotonin-mediated outcomes such as anxiety and substance use behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (or not) 5-HTTLPR genotypes moderate known associations between attachment style and adolescent anxiety and alcohol use outcomes. Participants were drawn from an eight-wave study of the mental and behavioural health of a cohort of young Australians followed from 14 to 24 years of age (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, 1992 - present). No association was observed within low-risk attachment settings. However, within risk settings for heightened anxiety (ie, insecurely attached young people), the odds of persisting ruminative anxiety (worry) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 30% per allele: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.97, P=0.029). Within risk settings for binge drinking (ie, securely attached young people), the odds of reporting persisting high-dose alcohol consumption (bingeing) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 35% per allele: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86, P<0.001). Our data suggest that the S-allele is likely to be important in psychosocial development, particularly in those settings that increase risk of anxiety and alcohol use problems.

  16. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder.

  17. Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Enhancing Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults 13–24 Years of Age: A Review of the Evidence Base

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Youth living with HIV are highly under-represented in the evidence base for adherence interventions, despite their diverse and unique needs and barriers. Objective: This systematic review aimed to identify antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions specifically targeting adolescents and young adults (defined as ages 13–24) with the goal of characterizing the evidence base. Methods: Articles were identified using the PubMed database and cover work published through September 14, 2015. Inclusion criteria: (1) average age 13 to 24, (2) HIV positive, (3) on or beginning ART, (4) intervention targeted ART adherence in full or in part, (5) reported adherence, viral load, and/or CD4 count outcomes. Strength of evidence was defined as level 1 [randomized controlled trial (RCT) with significance testing on outcomes], 2 (within group studies with statistical testing on outcomes), 3 (RCTs with descriptive results), or 4 (within group studies with descriptive results). Results: Of 151 articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Published between 2003 and 2014, these studies evaluated diverse intervention approaches. Most were conducted in the US and were small pilots that have yet to be replicated despite promising results. Only 3 studies met criteria for highest level strength of evidence; 2 supported a phone-based counseling approach with adherence monitors and 1 for weekly individual and family counseling. Conclusions: Despite nearly 20 years passing since the wide-scale availability of ART, and clear recognition that adolescents and youth adults fair worse on the cascade of HIV care, the evidence base remains sparse and underdeveloped. Promising approaches need replication and more rigorous studies are desperately needed. PMID:26959190

  18. Beneficial effects of a multifaceted 1-year lifestyle intervention on metabolic abnormalities in obese adolescents with and without sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; de Piano, Aline; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Silva, Patrícia Leão; Carnier, June; Tock, Lian; Andersen, Monica Levy; Moreira, Gustavo Antônio; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic subinflammatory disease and is a risk factor for many diseases such as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Although the interaction between obesity and sleep has been explored, not much is known about SDB in the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study were, first, to verify the effect of 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy on inflammatory markers in SDB and without SDB and, second, to investigate the influence of SDB on the result of the therapy by comparing these groups. A total of 36 obese adolescents were enrolled; however, only 24 completed the therapy (SDB group, n=12; non-SDB obese group, n=12). Sleep, anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles were evaluated at baseline and after the treatment. In both groups, the therapy was able to improve all anthropometric variables. Metabolic parameters such as insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were significantly improved only in non-SDB group. In both groups, the inflammatory state was significantly improved by the reduction in the leptin/adiponectin ratio. After the intervention, both groups no longer presented the hyperleptinemic state, favoring not only the inflammatory state, but also neuroendocrine regulation. Regarding the sleep parameter, the SDB group improved significantly in all respiratory events, and after therapy only four patients remained with SDB. Furthermore, there was an increase in sleep time. The lifestyle intervention was able to improve anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters in both groups; however, the presence of SDB impaired better results. The data supported that the inclusion of SDB in the metabolic syndrome because of the link shown between them.

  19. The Philosophy of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibleman, James K.

    1969-01-01

    The adolescent goes through various stages of physical and psychological development in the years between puberty and maturity. Finding his rightful place in society and refining his ideas about life are two experiences he undergoes during this period. (CK)

  20. The Fears of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamber, James H.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the self-reported fears and some personality characteristics of a sample of 1112 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (attending grammar and secondary schools in Northern Ireland). (CS)

  1. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined.

  2. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  3. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  4. Family and Peer Risk Factors as Predictors of Lifetime Tobacco Use among Iranian Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Soltani, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family and peer risk factors are considered as important predictors of tobacco use in adolescents. Furthermore, information regarding gender differences in lifetime tobacco use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific tobacco prevention policies. Methods: In a cross-sectional population-based study, 870 Iranian adolescents (430 boys and 436 girls) aged 15-18 years old, filled out the adopted form of “Communities That Care Youth Survey”. Four family and two peer risk factors were entered in adjusted logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime tobacco use (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) in boys and girls, separately. Results: Boys reported higher prevalence of lifetime cigarettes use compared to girls (22.8% vs. 17.8%, p = 0.04). However, the prevalence of lifetime smokeless tobacco use in girls was the same as boys, even slightly higher (7.9% vs. 7.1%, P=0.5). “Family history of drug use” and “Friends use of drugs” were common risk factors predicting cigarettes and smokeless tobacco use between both genders. On the other hand, other family risk factors included “Poor family management”, “Parental attitude favorable toward drug use” and “Family conflict” were the predictors of lifetime tobacco use only in girls, but not in boys. Conclusion: Design and implementation of preventative programs for adolescents tobacco use should be conducted with emphasis on the role of smoker parents at home, and friendship with substance user peers with antisocial behaviors. It seems that family risk factors may have more value in prevention of tobacco use in female adolescents. PMID:24999129

  5. Three- and Five-Year Follow-Up of a Combined Inpatient-Outpatient Treatment of Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Sibylle; Rudolphi, Birgit; Kraaibeek, Hanna-Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Aim. “The combined DAK therapy for obesity in children and adolescents” combines a 6-week inpatient with a 10.5-month outpatient treatment. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the therapeutic achievements are maintained two and four years after intervention. Method. All subjects who had participated in the 12-month program in 2004/2005 were included in the follow-up study. Body weight, height, and physical fitness were assessed through direct measurements, behaviour, and quality of life by self-report questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Results. The response rate after three years was 63.4% and 42.2% after five years. Within three years, participants reduced their BMI-SDS significantly by 0.20 (SD 0.49) and by 0.15 (SD 0.51) within five years. Significant positive changes could be observed with respect to the participants eating behaviour. Similarly, the food intake, particularly the consumption of calorie-reduced beverages, increased significantly while that of nonrecommended foods decreased. Improvement was also seen in the subjective quality of life as well as several aspects of self-perception. Conclusion. Compared to baseline data, significant reduction of BMI-SDS and positive changes of health-related behaviours could be observed even three and five years after the start of the initial program. PMID:23690795

  6. An acute in-patient psychiatric service for 16- to 17-year-old adolescents in the UK: a descriptive evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Venu; Rhouma, Abdulhakim; Qureshi, Masood; Chaudhry, Imran Bashir; Drake, Terry; Sumra, Altaf; Husain, Nusrat

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983). The average length of stay was 3–4 weeks. The most common presenting complaints were self-harm and low mood, usually in the context of life events and childhood adversity. Nearly half had substance misuse and other risk-taking behaviours. A third presented with psychotic symptoms. Adjustment and anxiety disorders were most common, followed by alcohol/substance use disorders, depressive illnesses and psychotic illnesses. Comorbidity was the rule rather than the exception. Most patients improved by the time of discharge. Clinical implications The unit provides an accessible and effective age-appropriate service and is likely to constitute an important component of the comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service strategy in the county. PMID:27752345

  7. Socio-Occupational and Physical Outcomes More than 20 Years after Diagnosis for Osteosarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Limb Salvage versus Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Robert, Rhonda S.; Huh, Winston W.; Palla, Shana; Jaffe, Norman

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To date, there has been relatively little research on very-long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma. We sought to compare the very-long-term outcomes of osteosarcoma patients treated with either limb salvage procedures or amputation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-eight long-term osteosarcoma patients surviving 20 or more years from diagnosis were divided into two groups according to whether they underwent amputation or limb salvage. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about education, employment, annual income, marital status, health insurance, lifestyle, siblings, and all current and past health issues. RESULTS Education, employment, marital status, and health insurance did not differ significantly between the two groups of survivors, and they described themselves as similar to their siblings. Eight percent of survivors underwent secondary amputation due to complications with an endoprosthesis. The cumulative incidence of second primary neoplasms was 13%, and this was significantly higher in females and in survivors who underwent radiotherapy and had genetic predisposition. The second primary malignancies were breast cancer (ductal invasive carcinoma, ductal in situ carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma), mediastinal leiomyosarcoma, squamocellular carcinoma of the oral cavity and of the uterine cervix. Amputees required more assistive walking support than survivors who received limb salvage treatments (χ2 test, p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS Despite the many challenges that osteosarcoma survivors face, patients who survived over 20 years after their initial diagnosis reported having overall adjusted well to their physical limitations and were productive individuals. PMID:23907996

  8. Characteristics of Children and Adolescents in the Dutch National in- and Outpatient Mental Health Service for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth over a Period of 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study socio-demographic, deafness-related and diagnostic characteristics of hearing impaired children and adolescents referred to a national mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents were examined. Socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics were compared to corresponding characteristics of hearing…

  9. Tomorrow I Could Be in Trouble...but the Sun Will Come out Next Year: The Effect of Temporal Distance on Adolescents' Judgments of Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; Siddiqui, Anver

    2011-01-01

    In a series of three studies, we examined adolescents' judgments of temporal life satisfaction (LS). We based our predictions in the notion of temporal distance influence in the level of construal of near- and distant-future events. In Study 1 we found that adolescents enhance future and present LS while devaluating past LS. Manipulating temporal…

  10. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  11. Physical Self-Perceptions of Adolescents in Years 8, 9 and 10 in Independent Schools, State Comprehensive Schools and Specialist Sport Colleges in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ruan J. A.; Polman, Remco C. J.; Peters, Derek M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It is widely reported that adolescence is a critical period in the development of the self. Indeed many studies identify that physical self-perceptions formed at this period are able to determine engagement in and levels of physical activity. Although the investigation of physical self-perceptions in British adolescents has been…

  12. Ten Years of Longitudinal Research on U.S. Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Developmental Correlates of Sexual Intercourse, and the Importance of Age, Gender and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…

  13. List of Films Recommended for Children and Adolescents up to 16 Years Following Selections Made in Twenty-Two Countries. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrot, Jean-Pierre; Billard, Ginette

    This is a list of films suitable for children and adolescents up to the age of 16, compiled from 37 lists sent in by 22 countries and in accordance with the recommendations of the conference on the exhibition and distribution of films for children and adolescents, under the patronage of UNESCO. Approximately 1000 films which run for over 40…

  14. Adolescent survey non-response and later risk of death. A prospective cohort study of 78 609 persons with 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Rimpelä, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-response in survey studies is a growing problem and, being usually selective, it leads to under- or overestimation of health outcomes in the follow-up. We followed both respondents and non-respondents by registry linkage to determine whether there is a risk of death, related to non-response at baseline. Methods Sample data of biennial surveys to 12-18-year-old Finns in 1979–1997 were linked with national death registry up to 2001. The number of respondents was 62 528 (79.6%) and non-respondents 16 081 (20.4%). The average follow-up was 11.1 years, totalling 876 400 person-years. The risk of death between non-respondents and respondents was estimated by hazard ratios (HR). Results The number of deaths per 100 000 person-years were 229 in non-respondents and 447 in respondents (HR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.6). The hazard ratios of death were for intoxication 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9–5.4), for disease 3.1 (95% CI: 2.2–4.1), for violence-related injury 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5–2.6) and for unintentional injury 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3–2.4) in non-respondents vs. respondents. The association between non-response and death increased with age at baseline, and the increase persisted after the age of 25. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly increased rates of death among adolescent non-respondents in a follow-up. The highest hazard ratios were seen in disease- and violence-related deaths. The death rate varied between respondents and non-respondents by death type. Increased rates of death persisted beyond the age of 25. PMID:17519009

  15. Suicidal thoughts among adolescents: an intercultural approach.

    PubMed

    Choquet, M; Kovess, V; Poutignat, N

    1993-01-01

    Two epidemiological surveys of suicidal ideation were conducted among adolescents, aged 15-18, in France and the Canadian province of Quebec. The results suggest that, in both countries, suicidal ideation was linked to drug use (especially tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychotropic medicine), nonspecific somatic complaints (especially tiredness, sleep difficulties, depression, and feeling tense), a lack of self-esteem (pessimism, instability, boredom), and dissatisfaction with family relationships. There was no relationship between suicidal ideation and sports activities in either country. The implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:8237550

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    , Pausova Z. 2015. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and DNA methylation: epigenome-wide association in a discovery sample of adolescents and replication in an independent cohort at birth through 17 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 123:193–199; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408614 PMID:25325234

  17. Ego identity of adolescent children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Teichman, Meir

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the issue of ego identity among adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers. Forty-four adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers, age of 15-18, constituted the sample. They were drawn from public alcohol treatment center in Israel. The control group included 60 adolescents none of their parents is known as an alcoholic, sampled from integrative schools in the same neighborhood and matched by age. Ego identity was measured by Tzuriel's "Adolescent Ego Identity Scale" (AEIS). It was hypothesized that adolescent children of alcoholics will show lower scores of ego identity and of its dimensions. The hypothesis was not confirmed. To the contrary, adolescent children of alcoholics reported higher scores of "ego identity-total" and of four of the seven ego identity dimensions. One possible explanation is that children of alcoholics are maturing early in age compared to their controls. They have developed different coping strategies that facilitate creating a more "stable" ego identity compared to their peers. Another explanation is that children of alcoholics apply defense mechanisms that enhance the development of an "adaptive self."

  18. Comparison of the applicability of four odontological methods for age estimation of the 14 years legal threshold in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Norelli, Gian-Aristide; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele

    2012-12-01

    The 14-years age threshold is especially important in Italy for criminal, civil and administrative laws. Several methods relying on dental calcification of the teeth, up to the second molar, are used for the evaluation of age in childhood. The objective of the research was to compare the inter-rater agreement and accuracy of four common methods for the dental age estimation - Demirjian (D), Willems (W), Cameriere (C) and Haavikko (H) - in a sample of Italian adolescents between 11 and 16 years. The sensitivity and specificity, and the different level of probability, according to the peculiarities of Italian criminal and civil law, were compared for the methods examined, considering the threshold of 14 years. The sample was composed of 501 digital OPGs of Italian children (257 females and 244 males), aged from 11 years and 0 days to 15 years and 364 days. The maturation stage of the teeth was evaluated according to D, W, H and C methods by three independent examiners. Mixed statistical models were applied to compare the accuracy and the errors of each method. The inter-rater agreement was high for the four methods and the intraclass correlation coefficients were all ≥ 0.81. Methods H and C showed a general tendency to underestimate the age in the considered sample while the methods D and W tended to overestimate the child's age. In females, D and W were more accurate than C, which is more accurate than H. In the males, W is the most accurate method even though it over-estimated age. Considering the 14-years threshold, the sensitivity of D and W methods is quite high (range 0.80; 0.95) and specificity is low (range 0.61; 0.86). The principal findings of the research are: the W and D methods are much more accurate than C and H, but they tend to overestimate the age. The C method largely underestimates the age (by ~1 year) for both genders and for all operators. H is unsuitable for dental age estimation in the Italian population, while W and D yielded high

  19. Oropharyngeal Carriage of Meningococcus in Portugal by Group and Clonal Complex 6 Years After Adolescent Vaccine Campaign.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernanda; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Christensen, Hannah; Giles, Jessica; Ferreira, Muriel; Sikora, Paulina; Madanelo, Ines; Lucidarme, Jay; Januário, Luis; Finn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Portugal introduced (2+1) conjugate Meningococcal group C vaccine in 2006 with high coverage catch up to 18 years and has given only 1 dose at 1 year since 2012. Among 601 student oropharyngeal swabs, meningococcal carriage rate was 13.3% (A-0%, B-5.3%, C-0.3%, W-0.2%, X-0.2% and Y-1.7%). C and W strains were of potentially disease-causing clonal complexes (cc) but not the hyperinvasive cc11. PMID:26222062

  20. Reexamining the Surfaces of Bone in Boys and Girls During Adolescent Growth: A 12-Year Mixed Longitudinal pQCT Study.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Leigh; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Brasher, Penelope M; Moore, Sarah A; Ahamed, Yasmin; Macdonald, Heather M; McKay, Heather A

    2015-12-01

    We revisit Stanley Garn's theory related to sex differences in endocortical and periosteal apposition during adolescence using a 12-year mixed longitudinal study design. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to examine bone parameters in 230 participants (110 boys, 120 girls; aged 11.0 years at baseline). We assessed total (Tt.Ar, mm(2)), cortical (Ct.Ar, mm(2)), and medullary canal area (Me.Ar, mm(2)), Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar, cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD, mg/cm(3)), and polar strength-strain index (SSIp , mm(3)) at the tibial midshaft (50% site). We used annual measures of height and chronological age to identify age at peak height velocity (APHV) for each participant. We compared annual accrual rates of bone parameters between boys and girls, aligned on APHV using a linear mixed effects model. At APHV, boys demonstrated greater Tt.Ar (ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21, 1.32), Ct.Ar (1.24 [1.18, 1.30]), Me.Ar (1.31 [1.22, 1.40]), and SSIp (1.36 [1.28, 1.45]) and less Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (0.98 [0.96, 1.00]) and Ct.BMD (0.97 [0.96, 0.97]) compared with girls. Boys and girls demonstrated periosteal bone formation and net bone loss at the endocortical surface. Compared with girls, boys demonstrated greater annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Tt.Ar (1.18 [1.02, 1.34]) and Me.Ar (1.34 [1.11, 1.57]), lower annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (0.56 [0.29, 0.83]) and Ct.BMD (-0.07 [-0.17, 0.04]), and similar annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Ct.Ar (1.10 [0.94, 1.26]) and SSIp (1.14 [0.98, 1.30]). Post-APHV, boys demonstrated similar annual accrual rates for Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (1.01 [0.71, 1.31]) and greater annual accrual rates for all other bone parameters compared with girls (ratio = 1.23 to 2.63; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.45). Our findings support those of Garn and others of accelerated periosteal apposition during adolescence, more evident in boys than girls. However, our findings challenge the notion of greater endocortical apposition in girls, suggesting

  1. Utility of Toca-R Scores during the Elementary School Years in Identifying Later Violence among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petras, Hanno; Chilcoat, Howard D.; Leaf, Philip J.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of a teacher-rating instrument (TOCA-R) of aggressive behavior during elementary school years in identifying boys at risk for later violence. Method: A community epidemiological sample of 415 public school boys was rated at six time points during elementary school regarding their level of aggressive/disruptive…

  2. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse through a Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Results of a 3-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students (N=4,466) in 56 schools participated in 3-year study on effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Students who received at least 60 percent of prevention program (N=3,684) were included in analyses of program effectiveness. Significant prevention effects were found for cigarette smoking, marijuana use,…

  3. Brief Screening Instrument of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents 7-15 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, AiZhong; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Jia; Li, Shuoqi; Yang, Tubao; Sun, Zhenqiu; Wen, Shi Wu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a brief screening instrument of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for young victims of natural disasters. Data were derived from flood victims in 1998 and 1999 in Hunan, China. A representative population sample of 6,852 subjects 7-15 years of age was selected. Among them, 6,073 (88.6%) were…

  4. The Normative Development of Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in Children and Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; King, Neville J.; Tonge, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion regulation involves intrinsic and extrinsic processes responsible for managing one's emotions toward goal accomplishment. Research on emotion regulation has predominantly focused on early developmental periods and the majority of emotion regulation research examining the pre-adult years has lacked a comprehensive theoretical…

  5. A Fourteen Year Case Study To Rear Bilingual Children in Monolingual America: The Effect of Adolescence on Language Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne

    This study tracked the language preference of three French/English bilingual children, twin girls aged 12.8 and a boy 14.8, over a five year period. Their parents, who are also the authors, actively worked to raise them bilingual. The girls were enrolled in a school French immersion program throughout the study. Their brother had only one semester…

  6. Thirty-Year Trends in U.S. Adolescents' Civic Engagement: A Story of Changing Participation and Educational Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syvertsen, Amy K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Flanagan, Constance A.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Briddell, Laine

    2011-01-01

    Using annual cross-sectional data from Monitoring the Future, the present study examined trends in high school seniors' current and anticipated civic participation and beliefs over a 30-year period. We examined overall trends and patterns based on youths' post-high school educational plans. Findings point to declines in recent cohorts' involvement…

  7. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  8. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  9. A prevention program for disturbed eating and body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls: a 1 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J

    1993-03-01

    This study evaluated an intervention program to reduce moderate and extreme weight loss behaviors, disordered eating and low body image. The Body Image and Eating Behavior Intervention Program consisted of five specialized classes addressing media images of women, determinants of body size, healthy and unhealthy weight control methods, and emotional eating. The program was conducted in year 9 in Schools 1 (n = 80) and 2 (n = 27), while students from the same year in School 3 (n = 29) were control subjects. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating behavior and body image attitudes prior to the program, 1 months after the program and at 12 months follow-up, while control subjects completed the questionnaires at the same time but did not receive the program. Data were analyzed using groups (Schools 1, 2 and 3) by testing occasion (pre, post and follow-up) analyses of variance with repeated measures on testing occasion. Measures of disordered eating and frequency of use of extreme weight loss behaviors were constant over testing occasion and showed no effect of the intervention program. Body dissatisfaction was consistently lower in School 1 but increased across all subjects over the year. The implications of these data for school-based intervention programs in this area are examined. PMID:11067184

  10. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  11. Influence of Mandarin tone exposure on the processing of intonation by 14-year-old American adolescents: An fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia; Wang, Yue

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated, for American adolescents, whether the learning of non-native speech contrasts in one prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese tones) would influence the processing of non-native contrasts in another prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese intonation). Two groups of 14-year-old American teenagers were tested using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, including eight who had received a two-week Mandarin tone training program and eight with no exposure to Mandarin. Subjects were scanned during identification tasks. Despite their similar behavioral performance on identification of Mandarin intonation, preliminary results showed different cortical activation patterns for the two groups. Teenagers exposed to Mandarin showed similar activation patterns for the Mandarin intonation and Mandarin tone task, with more right-hemisphere activation for intonation, which differed from activation for English intonation. Teenagers without exposure activated similar areas for Mandarin and English intonation. Familiarity with Mandarin tonal contrasts affects brain activation, not only for Mandarin tones but also for Mandarin intonation, suggesting that training effects may transcend levels. [Work supported by NIH (HD 37954) and the Talaris Research Institute.

  12. Self-induced carving and scarification of the forearms as a manifestation of sexual abuse in a 14-YEAR-old adolescent girl

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh

    2000-05-01

    Background: Numerous cutaneous abnormalities have been described in adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. These include bruising, bite marks, cuts, scratches, abrasions, edema, hematomas or other evidence of struggle. Victims frequently shower or bathe excessively in an effort to cleanse their skin following such an unwanted encounter. However, there is a paucity of information in the literature regarding the association of sexual abuse and removal of the superficial layers of the skin as a more desperate attempt by teenagers to rid themselves of the perpetrator. The purpose of this paper is to heighten awareness among practitioners that self-induced cutting and carving of the forearms with scarification may occur as a manifestation of sexual abuse in young women.Methods: A 14-year-old girl was seen in an adolescent medicine consultation setting during the spring of 1999 for evaluation of an anxiety disorder. During the interview the girl related that she had been under considerable stress and that she was having difficulty sleeping. She also had worsening of facial tics that had been previously noted in association with obsessive compulsive behaviors. She had been receiving psychotherapy and was being treated with fluoxetine, but the symptoms were becoming more severe. On examination she appeared very anxious and demonstrated numerous involuntary, repetitive facial grimaces. Similar twitching movements of the neck were also noted. In addition, she had several well healed scars over both forearms. The lesions were linear with a range of one half to one inch in width and three to four inches in length. The remainder of the general physical examination was entirely unremarkable.Results: The etiology of the scars was initially unknown. Upon further questioning the patient was asked directly about what had caused these marks. At that point she broke down and cried as she related that had been sexually assaulted several months earlier. She stated that she

  13. Endovascular stents in the management of coarctation of the aorta in the adolescent and adult: one year follow up

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D; McLaughlin, P; Lazzam, C; Connelly, M; Benson, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the hypothesis that endovascular stents used with dilation of coarctation of the aorta (CoA) improve late outcomes. Balloon dilation for CoA has been limited by concerns over the risk for acute dissection, late restenosis, or aneurysm formation.
DESIGN—All patients seen with CoA between November 1994 and September 1997 underwent attempted stent implantation. Follow up was obtained for all patients and a subgroup (n = 18) had repeat catheterisation at a mean (SD) of 1.3 (0.5) years to assess residual gradient and stent-CoA morphology.
RESULTS—Stents were placed in 27 patients (15 male and 12 female patients, mean age 30.1 (13.1) years), of whom seven had prior surgical coarctectomy and one had a prior balloon dilation. Hypertension was present in 26 patients (mean pressure 164 (26)/86 (13) mm Hg), of whom 16 were on antihypertension drugs. CoA gradients were 46 (20) mm Hg (range 18-106 mm Hg) at baseline and 3 (5) mm Hg after the procedure. One patient had a stroke following the procedure; another patient had incomplete dilation and underwent a second procedure. At 1.8 (1) years after the procedure the mean pressure was 130 (14)/74 (11) mm Hg with seven patients on antihypertension treatment. The clinical gradient was 4 (8) mm Hg (range 0-32 mm Hg). At follow up angiography, the mean gradient was 4(6) mm Hg, and two patients had a gradient over 10 mm Hg. Aneurysms formed in three patients at the dilation site; one patient was referred for surgery.
CONCLUSION—In this age group stent management for CoA appears to be an effective technique and results in sustained reduction in CoA gradients at early term follow up, but aortic aneurysm was detected in 17% of patients who had repeat angiography.


Keywords: angioplasty; coarctation of the aorta; congenital heart defects; stents PMID:11303011

  14. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples. PMID:24641987

  15. Adolescent vaccines: Need special focus in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    WHO defines adolescence age between 10 to 19 years. In India, there are 243 million adolescents which constitute 21 per cent of the total population. The global burden of disease in adolescents (2011) reports that the total number of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide among adolescents were 230 million which constitutes 15.5% of total DALYs. The immunization is one of the most important, most beneficial and cost-effective disease prevention measures that can be provided for adolescents. The adolescent vaccination protects most of the world's adolescents from a number of infectious diseases that previously claimed millions of lives each year. In India, thousands of adolescents die and thousands are hospitalized every year due to communicable diseases that could have been prevented by vaccination. Main aims of adolescent vaccinations are: to boost immunity status that is waning after completion of primary immunization or absence of “natural” boosting due exposure to the particular disease. The recommendations for the immunization of adolescents are to improve vaccination coverage among them. The adolescent vaccinations also help in accelerate disease control or elimination effort. Improvement in adolescent immunization coverage in India, will require strengthening of health care delivery system and also require significant improvements in the health care functionaries ability and willingness to provide and deliver vaccines to adolescents. PMID:25483670

  16. Adolescent vaccines: Need special focus in India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    WHO defines adolescence age between 10 to 19 years. In India, there are 243 million adolescents which constitute 21 per cent of the total population. The global burden of disease in adolescents (2011) reports that the total number of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide among adolescents were 230 million which constitutes 15.5% of total DALYs. The immunization is one of the most important, most beneficial and cost-effective disease prevention measures that can be provided for adolescents. The adolescent vaccination protects most of the world's adolescents from a number of infectious diseases that previously claimed millions of lives each year. In India, thousands of adolescents die and thousands are hospitalized every year due to communicable diseases that could have been prevented by vaccination. Main aims of adolescent vaccinations are: to boost immunity status that is waning after completion of primary immunization or absence of "natural" boosting due exposure to the particular disease. The recommendations for the immunization of adolescents are to improve vaccination coverage among them. The adolescent vaccinations also help in accelerate disease control or elimination effort. Improvement in adolescent immunization coverage in India, will require strengthening of health care delivery system and also require significant improvements in the health care functionaries ability and willingness to provide and deliver vaccines to adolescents.

  17. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development. PMID:868627

  18. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.

  19. [Adolescents' physical activity].

    PubMed

    Pagaeva, E K; Misho, P -A; Zhanin, A; Chanturishvili, T P; Pagaeva, K I

    2006-01-01

    The paper defines the parameters reflecting the physical activity of adolescents and their correlation with health and a risk of behavioral disorders, bad habits, and cravings. A total of 9499 Georgian adolescents aged 14-18 years, the senior (9th-llth-form) pupils, selected through two-step cluster sampling were surveyed. The pupils anonymously filled in special questionnaires. This yielded the parameters reflecting the intensity of physical activity of the adolescents and the latter's going in for sports. The parameters were shown to have a beneficial effect on health, including mental health, and on the magnitude of unhealthy behavior.

  20. Sexual victimization in adolescent girls (age 15-20 years) enrolled in post-mandatory schools or professional training programmes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tschumper, A; Narring, F; Meier, C; Michaud, P A

    1998-02-01

    An analysis of data from the Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health was conducted to assess the prevalence of a history of sexual victimization among a national sample of adolescent girls enrolled in schools or professional training, to estimate the number of associated psychosocial health problems, and to gain information on the effects of disclosure of the experience. A representative sample of 9268 adolescents answered a written questionnaire on health and lifestyle. Of the 3993 participating girls, 18.6% reported an experience of sexual victimization. The burden of associated psychosocial health problems was considerable, notably as regards depression, suicidal behaviour and substance misuse. Preliminary findings on the relation of disclosure and mechanisms of learned helplessness stress the need for more research on this issue. The results stress the importance of prevention programmes for adolescents and preadolescents, of physicians' awareness and training for screening and appropriate counselling, and of easy access to professional support. PMID:9512211

  1. Suicidal Expression in Adolescents in Nicaragua in Relation to Youth Self-Report (YSR) Syndromes and Exposure to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Obando Medina, Claudia María; Herrera, Andres; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal expressions among young people represent a major public health problem worldwide. Most studies are from high-income countries, and it remains unclear whether prevalence and risk factors show a similar pattern in other settings. This study aims to assess the prevalence of suicidal expressions and serious suicidal expressions (ideation, plans and attempts) among adolescents in Nicaragua, in relation to previously reported risk factors, such as exposure to suicide in significant others (parents, siblings, partners or friends) and mental health problems. Methods: 368 adolescents aged 15-18 years were randomly selected from public secondary schools in León, Nicaragua. Data was collected using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and Youth Self-Report questionnaires (YSR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Suicide ideation prevalence in the past year was 22.6%, suicide plans 10.3%, and suicide attempts 6.5%. Girls were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multivariate analyses showed that anxious/depressed, somatic complaints and exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others were significantly associated with own serious suicidal expressions. Conclusions: The prevalence of serious suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua is within the range reported from Western high-income countries. An attempted or completed suicide in someone close, is associated with own suicidal expressions even in the absence of increased mental distress. Furthermore, somatic complaints should alert health care professionals of the possibility of increased suicide risk. PMID:21559237

  2. Testing the Personal Wellbeing Index on 12-16-Year-Old Adolescents in 3 Different Countries with 2 New Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Alfaro, Jaime; Gonzalez, Monica; Malo, Sara; Bertran, Irma; Figuer, Cristina; da Cruz, Daniel Abs; Bedin, Livia; Paradiso, Angela; Weinreich, Karin; Valdenegro, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The 7-item adult version of the Personal Wellbeing scale (Cummins et al. Social Indic Res 64:159-190, 2003) was administered to two samples of adolescents aged 12-16 in Brazil (N = 1,588) and Spain (N = 2,900), and to a sample of adolescents aged 14-16 in Chile (N = 843). The results obtained were analyzed to determine its psychometric…

  3. Do total smoking bans affect the recruitment and retention of adolescents in inpatient substance abuse treatment programs? A 5-year medical chart review, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Brewster, Joan M; Johnson, Joy; Taylor, Lawren; Beach, Glenn; Lentz, Tim

    2007-10-01

    Adolescents engaged in substance abuse treatment manifest a rate of cigarette smoking approximately four times higher than that of youth in the general population ( approximately 80% vs. 20%) and a high rate of smoking persistence into adulthood. Although there has been a shift toward the implementation of no-smoking policies in substance abuse treatment programs, few studies have examined the relation between cigarette-smoking bans and key clinical outcomes. The current study examined the medical charts of all adolescents (N = 520) admitted to the only adolescent hospital-based substance abuse treatment program in the northern two thirds of the province of British Columbia, Canada. During the span of the study period (March 2001-December 2005), the treatment site moved from a partial smoking ban to a total smoking ban, and then retreated to partial smoking ban. The total smoking ban was not associated with a lower proportion of adolescent smokers seeking treatment at the facility or a lower treatment completion rate among smokers. Total smoking bans do not appear to be an obstacle for adolescent smokers seeking residential substance abuse treatment, nor do total smoking bans appear to compromise the treatment completion rates of smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. Despite these null findings, the effective implementation of smoke-free policies in adolescent substance abuse treatment programs requires not only large-scale organizational change but also the transformation of current commonly held beliefs about tobacco dependence in addictions treatment and recovery communities.

  4. Safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in children and adolescents with sickle/beta-thalassemia: two-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, E; Teli, A; Theodoridou, S; Gompakis, N; Economou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea is a cytotoxic and myelosuppressive drug that has been used during recent years in the treatment of children with severe sickle cell disease. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding its role in young patients with no severe course, like sickle/beta-thalassemia (S/b-thal) patients often present. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in young patients with S/b-thal, which is the commonest form of the disease in Greece. Patients-Methods Hydroxyurea was given in thirteen children with S/b-thal for 24 months and for that period clinical and laboratory evaluation of the children was performed. Results A reduction in pain crises and rate of hospitalization was noted. None of the patients presented with a severe clinical event, related to the disease during the study period. A significant increase in hemoglobin, hemoglobin F, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin and a decrease in reticulocyte count, white blood cell and platelet count, and total bilirubin level was noted. With regards to adverse events, these were transient, short-term and dose-dependable. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically assess the effect of hydroxyurea therapy in young patients with S/b-thal and the results indicate is safe and efficacious in this patient cohort. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):172-175. PMID:27418768

  5. [Eczematous disorders in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R

    2016-04-01

    Eczematous disorders in adolescence (definition WHO: the period between 10 and 20 years) are common and include mainly atopic dermatitis, contact eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis. They all share the similarity of inflammatory reactions which mainly affect the epidermis and can take a chronic course, depending on the underlying dermatosis. In the following article, the particularities of eczematous diseases in adolescents are discussed. PMID:26857132

  6. Belladonna Alkaloid Intoxication: The 10-Year Experience of a Large Tertiary Care Pediatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel; Alabdulrazzaq, Fatoumah; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The belladonna alkaloids can be isolated from a number of plants, which contain hallucinogens that represent a serious danger to infants, children, and adolescents. Roots, leaves, and fruits of the plant contain the alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can lead to an anticholinergic toxidrome; however, not all characteristics of the toxidrome are necessarily present in each case of poisoning. A retrospective chart review of all children seen following anticholinergic ingestions, between April 2001 and November 2010, at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. Ten children, with a mean age of 15.5 years (range, 15-18 years), were identified; 5 had used jimsonweed and the others had a variety of tablets containing atropine. All 10 presented with severe anticholinergic symptoms and 2 with suicide attempts. Treatments included charcoal, benzodiazepines, haloperidol, and physostigmine, and 2 patients were intubated. Ingestion and subsequent severe anticholinergic toxidrome occurred exclusively in adolescents. It is important to educate this age group regarding the toxicity and potential risks associated with the recreational use of these plants and substances. Physostigmine can help in both the diagnosis and management of patients intoxicated with these substances. PMID:24263161

  7. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents.

    PubMed

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  8. Health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents are the future adults of the world. While adolescence is typically regarded as a period of life relatively free from health problems, adolescents are actually in need of the attention of health professionals and health services, especially with regard to sexual health. A trend of decreasing age at menarche and increasing age at marriage presents adolescents with a substantial number of years in which they will experiment with their developing reproductive organs and sexuality. Substantial psychological and physical change takes place during this period. Inconsistent and suboptimal users of contraception, youths are at high risk for reproductive health problems and sexually transmitted diseases. Substance abuse, unintentional and intentional injuries and their sequelae, academic underachievement and illiteracy, and obesity may also be problematic for adolescents. Adolescents are, however, most damaged by internalized and externalized homophobia. The authors point out that adolescents may be persuaded to learn and change their behaviors more readily than adults. Appropriate messages could be conveyed through targeted information, education, and communication strategies to complement medical and health care services which are available, accessible, and acceptable. PMID:12318653

  9. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory integration (S-I) and neuro-developmental treatment (NDT)/Bobath approaches affects development of visual perception later in life. Material and methods The study involved 44 participants aged 15-16 years, including 19 diagnosed with moderate or severe CCD in the neonatal period, i.e. during the first 2-3 months of life, with diagnosed mild degree neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal anoxia, and 25 healthy people without a history of developmental psychomotor disturbances in the neonatal period. The study tool was a visual perception IQ test comprising 96 graphic tasks. Results The study revealed equal proportions of participants (p < 0.05) defined as very skilled (94-96), skilled (91-94), aerage (71-91), poor (67-71), and very poor (0-67) in both groups. These results mean that adolescents with a history of CCD in the neonatal period did not differ with regard to the level of visual perception from their peers who had not demonstrated psychomotor development disorders in the neonatal period. Conclusions Early treatment of children with CCD affords a possibility of normalising their psychomotor development early enough to prevent consequences in the form of cognitive impairments in later life. PMID:23185199

  10. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  11. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member Home Resources & Services Parenting Resource 15–18 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 ... Spotlight on Problem-Solving Between 15 and 18 Months The ability to solve problems is very important ...

  12. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  13. Text-Bullying among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    Increased availability of cell-phones has provided new avenues through which adolescents can bully their peers. Text-bullying is an emerging form of bullying which may threaten the emotional well-being of early adolescents. In this study 565 early adolescents (10-13 years old) completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with bullying…

  14. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  15. [Adolescent Fertility]. Facts-at-a-Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.

    This fact sheet reports the most recent information available on adolescent fertility in the United States. The following information is included: (1) the number of births to all adolescents, except those 14 years old and younger, has declined between 1980 and 1986; (2) the smaller number of births is due to a smaller number of adolescents and a…

  16. Providing a Structure for Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1989-01-01

    As teenagers mature, they seek to move away from the adult community's normative pressures. A 10-year survey of adolescents in 10 communities found more congruence than conflict between parent and adolescent world views. Seattle, Washington's innovative youth charter offers an ideal way to map out adult and adolescent roles. Includes nine…

  17. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  18. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  19. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  20. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…